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S o lv e d P a p e r

A I I M S - 2012
Tim e : 3’/2 Hours Max. Marks : 200
PHYSICS 7. In the given circuit, the voltage across the
load is maintained at 12 V. The current in the
Which of the following current must be zero in
zener diode varies from 0-50 mA. What is the
an unbiased PN junction diode?
maximum wattage of the diode?
(a) Current due to majority charge carriers (both
electrons and holes). ------VMM------ 1----------
(b) Current due to minority charge carriers (both 2 0 V^ 'K '
electrons and holes).
(c) Current due to majority and minority charge
carriers. (a) 12 W (b) 6 W (c) 0.6 W (d) 1.2 W
(d) Current due to majority and minority charge
carriers (only holes). 8. A photon is incidenthaving frequency
1 x 10 1 4 sec-1. Threshold frequency of metal is
In an AC circuit, voltage V = Vosintof and 5 x 101 3 sec"1. Find the kinetic energy of the
inductor L is connected across the circuit. Then ejected electron.
the instantaneous power will be

(a) 3.3 x 10 “ 21 J (b) 6 . 6 x 10 - 2 1 J
~Vq . (c) 3.3 x 10 ~ 2 0 J (d) 6 . 6 x lO -20]
(a) -sinu)/ (b) — -s m (O f
2(oL 2m l

9. In a given series LCR circuit R ~ 4 £2, XL = 5 £2 and
^ = 8 Q., the current
(c) — sin2d)f —^-sin 2 o)f (a) Leads the voltage by tan_5 (3/4).
2(t)L <d) (0 L
(b) Leads the voltage by tan_1 (5/8).
3. Two sinusoidal waves of intensity I having (c) Lags the voltage by tan - 1 (3/4).
same frequency and same amplitude interferes (d) Lags the voltage by tan_1 (5/8).
constructively at a point. The resultant intensity
10. A wire of mass 100 g, length 1 m and current 5 A
at a point will be
is balanced in mid air by a magnetic field B, then
(a) J (b) 21 (c) 4/ (d) 8 /
find the value of B.
4. In a convex lens of focal length F, the minimum (a) 0.2 T (b) 0.1 T (c) 0.5 T (d) 0.6 T
distance between an object and its real image
must be
11 . Dimensional formula of AQ, heat supplied to the
system is given by
(a) 3 F (b) 4 F (c) |F (d) 2 F (a) {M’L2 - r 23 (b) (M 5 L1 T-2)
(c) [ M V r 1] (d) iML1^ 1]
5. In Young's double slit experiment fringe order is
represented by m, then fringe width is 12 . A toroid with mean radius diameter 2a have
(a) Independent of m. N turns carrying current 1. What is the magnetic
(b) Directly proportional to m. field B inside the toroid?
(c) Directly proportional to (2m + 1). NI N1
(a) — (b)
(d) Inversely proportional to (2m + 1). 2nrn 27i(r0 + a)

6. Half life of a radio-active element is 8 years, how NI

(c) (d ) zero

much amount will be present after 32 years? 7 i(r0 + a)
I . 1 1 1 13. Identify incorrect for electric charge q
(a) 4 0>) (C) 16 (d> 32 (a) quantised (b) conserved
(c) additive (d) non-transferable.
* 6aserf on memory. Courtesy; Allen Career Iristitule, Kola (Rajasthan)
14 . Which of the following parameter in the series 22. A spherical body of diameter D isfalling
LCR circuit is analogous to driving force F(f) in in viscous medium. Its terminalvelocity is
mechanics? proportional to
Vn (a) V, - D m (b) VJoc D 3/2
(a) (b) inductance L (c) V ,~ D 2 (d) V ,~ D 5/2

(c) capacitance C (d) voltage VQ 23. Electric field outside a long wire carrying charge
15. The minimum magnetic dipole moment of <7 is proportional to
electron in hydrogen atom is 1 1
(a) ; (b) -
eh eh
(a) — (b) 1 1 o
2n m 4 nm -3/5 „3/2
(c) nm (d) 0 24. If 2 kg mass is rotating on a circular path of radius
0.8 m with angular velocity of 44 rad/sec. If
16. A 4 kg roller is attached to a massless spring
radius of the path becom es'l m, then what will
of spring constant A: = 100 N/m. It rolls without
be the value of angular velocity?
slipping along a frictionless horizontal road. The
(a) 28.16 rad/sec (b) 19.28 rad/sec
roller is displaced from its equilibrium position
(c) 8.12 rad/sec (d) 35.26 rad/sec
by 10 cm and then released. Its maximum speed
will be 25. A light ray is incident on a glass slab, it is partially
(a) 0.5 m s-J (b) 0.6 m s- 1 reflected and partially transmitted. Then the
(c) 0.4 m s_ 1 (d) 0.8 m s_ 1 reflected ray is
(a) completely polarised and highly intense.
17. Total energy of the electron in hydrogen atom
(b) partially polarised and poorly intense.
above 0 eV leads to
(c) partially polarised and highly intense.
(a) continuation of energy states.
{d) completely polarised and poorly intense.
(b) large number of discrete ionised states.
(c) balmar series. (d) paschen series. An electron projected with velocity v = z>0 i in the
18. Two wires carrying electric field E = EQj. Trace the path followed by
(a) Parallel current repel each other. the electron H0.
(b) Antiparallel current attract each other. (a) Parabola (b) Circle
(c) Antiparallel current repel each other. (c) Straight line in + y direction.
(d) Equal magnitudes of antiparallel current (d) Straight line in - y direction.
attract each other. 27. Find out the correct relation for the dependance
19. A particle is thrown vertically upwards with of change in acceleration due to gravity on the
velocity 1 1 . 2 km s_ 1 from the surface of earth. angle at the latitude, due to rotation of earth
Calculate its velocity at height 3 R. Where R is (a) dg « costft (b) dg <* cos 2 0
the radius of earth. 1

(a) - 9.25 km s" 5 (b) - - 5.6 km s- 1 (c) dg COS3 /2 (j> (d) dg °e-------7
(c) ~11.2 km s" 1 (d) - 4.3 km s- 1
28. Two conductors having same width and length,
2 0 . Gamma decay takes place thickness rf, and d-y, thermal conductivity and
(a) Prior to alpha decay. k2 are placed one above the another. Find the
(b) Prior to beta decay. equivalent thermal conductivity.
(c) Prior to positron decay. (£?j +rf2 )(K ] ^ 2 + /Cjrfj)
(d) Due to de-excitment of nuclear levels. 2 (K ,+ K 2)
2 1 . Calculate the kinetic energy of the electron (^1 * ^ 2 ^l)
having wavelength 1 nm. 2 (JC1 +JC2)
(a) 2.1 eV (b) 3.1 eV
KA + K 2d2 Kt + K2
(c) 1.5 eV (d) 4.2 eV (C) (d)
Solved Paper -2012
29. Calculate / for the given circuit diagram. (a) 2J (b) 3 J (c) 4 ] (d) 5J
36. What is the slope for an isothermal process?

(a) ^ <t>) (c) Zero (d) ~

37. The frequency order for X-rays (/l), y-rays (B),
UV rays (C) is
(a) B > A > C (b) A > B > C
(c) C > B > A (d) A > C > B
38. For a common-emitter transistor, input current is
(a) 10 A (b) 5 A (c) 2.5 A (d) 20 A 5 |iA, (3 = 100 circuit is operated at load resistance
30. A solid cylinder, a circular disc, a solid sphere and of 1 0 k£2 , then voltage across collector emitter will
a hollow cylinder of the same radius are placed be
on an inclined plane. Which of the following will (a) 5 V (b) 10 V (c) 12.5 V (d) 7.5 V
have maximum acceleration at the bottom of the
39. Find the voltage drop across a capacitor connected
with a resistance and a battery of 60 V in series
(a) Circular disc. (b) Solid cylinder.
after a long time.
(c) Solid sphere. (d) Hollow cylinder.
(a) 0 Y (b) 60 V (c) 30 V (d) 38 V
31. Calculate the heat emitted by a bulb of 100 W in
40. The nucleus ’"X e m its. one a particle and
1 min.
(a) 1 0 0 ] (b) 1 0 0 0 J 2fS-particles. The resulting nucleus is
(c) 600 J (d) 6000] (a) ;;l-24 v <b)
32. Degree of freedom for polyatomic gas (c) w,-(fZ (d) m- * x
(a) > 4 (b) > 5 (c) > 6 (d) > 7
Directions : In the following questions (41-60), a
33. A particle moving about its equilibrium position statement of assertion (A) is followed by a statement
with equation y = -ax - bt. Interpret the condition of reason (R). Mark the correct choice as :
(a) It will always perform the SHM. (a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason
(b) It can never perform the SHM. is the correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason
(c) It can perform SHM only when t >
a is not tlie correct explanation of assertion.
(d)It can perform SHM only when f < ~ . (c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(J (d) If both assertion and reason are false.
34. Conversion of water to steam is accompanied by 41. Assertion : Maximum air flow due to
which process? convection does not occur at
(a) Adiabatic. (b) Isothermal, the north pole but it occurs at
(c) Isochoric. (d) Cyclic.
30° N.
35. An ideal gas is taken through the cycle
Reason : There is maximum temperature
A B —» C —> A, as shown in figure. If the net
difference between equator and 30° N
heat supplied to the gas in the cycle is 5 J the
work done by the gas in the process A B is 42. Assertion : A thick lens shows more chromatic
Reason : Thick lens behave as many thin
43. Assertion : Surface energy of an oil drop is
same whether placed on glass or
water surface.
Reason : Surface energy is dependent only
on the properties of oil.
44. Assertion : Magnetic force is always 54. Assertion : Achargedparticlecanbeaccelerated
perpendicular to the rrtagnetic field. in a cyclotron by the alternate
Reason : Electric force is along the direction distribution of the field.
of electric field. Reason : Energy of charged particle is
45. Assertion : Animate object can accelerate in the increased by the field applied.
absence of external force. 55. Assertion : At rest, radium is decayed into
Reason : Newton's second law is not Radon and an a-particle. They both
applicable on animate object. moves back to back of each other.

46. Assertion : A planar circular loop of area A and Reason : Splitting of radioactive particle is
carrying current / is equivalent to based on conservation of linear
magnetic dipole of dipoie moment momentum.
M = IA. 56. Assertion : In electromagnetic waves electric
Reason : At large distances, magnetic field of field and magnetic field lines are
circular loop and magnetic dipole is perpendicular to each other.
same. Reason : Electric field and magnetic field are
47. Assertion : In elastic collision, kinetic energy is self sustaining.
conserved. 57. Assertion : Gauss's law shows diversion when
Reason : Energy is always conserved. inverse square law is not obeyed.

48. A ssertion: Bohr's atomic model cannot be used Reason : Gauss's law is a consequence of
to explain multiple electron species. conservation of charges.

Reason : It does not take inter-electronic 58. Assertion ; More energy is released in fusion
interactions in account. than fission.

49. Assertion : The focal length of objective lens in Reason : More number of nucleons take part
telescope is much more than that of in fission.
eye piece. 59. Assertion : y_radiation emission occurs after
Reason : Telescope has high resolving power a and (5 decay.
due to large focal length. Reason : Energy levels occur in nucleus.
50. Assertion : Total energy of electron in an 60. Assertion : Turbulence is always dissipative.
hydrogen atom is negative.
Reason : High reynold number promotes
Reason : It is bounded to the nucleus.
51. Assertion : Vibrational energy of diatomic
molecule corresponding to each
degree of freedom is kpT. 61. Threshold frequency of a metal is 5 * 1013s-t upon
which 1 x 1014 s"1 frequency light is focused. Then
Reason : For every molecule, vibrational the maximum kinetic energy of emitted electron
degree of freedom is 2.
52. Assertion : A superconductor is a perfect (a) 3.3 x 10"25 (b) 3.3 x io -20
diamagnetic substance. (c) 6 .6 x 1 0 - 2 1 (d) 6 .6 x 1 0 - 2 0
Reason : A superconductor is a perfect 62. Which is the major product formed when
conductor. C6H5CONHC6H3 undergoes nitration?
53. A ssertion: An electrostatic field line never form
closed loop.
Reason : Electrostatic field is a conservative
Solved Paper 2012 -

69. For silicon which is not correct?

(a) It is a type of silicate.
(b) It is thermally unstable.
(c) It is hydrophilic.
(d) Repeating unit is i^SiO.

70. In Bohr's orbit, ~~ indicates

(a) Momentum (b) Kinetic energy
(c) Potential energy (d) Angular momentum
71. Which is not stable under ambient condition?
(a) T i0 2 , T r 4 (b) V Q V * 4
<« (6 ) (c) V 0 2 ,V + 5 (d) Cu 2 0 , Cu + 2
72. For a reaction, r = A'(CH3 COCH 3 ) 3 /2 then unit of
no2 rate of reaction and rate constant respectively is
(a) mol L” 5 s"1, mol“ 1/2 L 1/2 s" 1
63. How many P — O bond present in (HP 0 3 ) 3 ?
(b) mol- 1 L* 1 s_1, mol' , / 2 L~ 1/2 s_ 1
(a) 0 (b) 3 (c) 6 (d) 9
(c) mol L~] s~l, mol+,fi L1/2 s ' 5
64. At equilibrium which is correct? (d) mol L s, mol+1/2 L 1/2 s
(a) AG - 0 (b) AS = 0
73. Which of the following is the correct statement
(c) AH - 0 (d) AG° = 0 for PH3?
65. If phthalic acid is treated with NH 3 and then (a) It is less poisonous than NH3.
it is first heated weakly then strongly, thefinal (b) It is less basic than NH3.
product formed is (c) Electronegativity of PH 3 > NH3,
(d) It does not show reducing properties.
;NH 74. If Si is doped with B,
CO (a) ?z-type semiconductor is formed
<«) c g r c 0 N H 2 t o r (b) p -type semiconductor is formed
COOH O (c) insulator is formed
(d) polymer is formed.

(c) ( q ] - c o n h = (d) ;n h 75. Which has the highest pH?

(a) CH 3 COOK (b) N a ,C 0 3
(c) NH 4 C1 (d) N aN 0 3
6 6 . In bcc structure contribution of corner and central 76. Living in the atmosphere of CO is dangerous,
atom is because it
(a) combines with 0 2 present inside to form
1 1 1 1 1 1
(a) ~ , 1 (b) 1 1 (c) 1 1 (d) 1 , 1 co2
8 4 8 8 2 2 (b) reduces organic matter of tissues
67. Arrange the following gases in order of their (c) combines with haemoglobin and makes it
critical temperature. incapable to absorb oxygen
NH* H ,0 , CO,, 0 2 (d) dries up the blood.
(a) NH 3 > H20 > c o 2 > o 2 77. In a set of reactions, acetic add yielded a product S.
(b) 0 2 > C 0 2 >H 2 0 > N H 3
socu Benzene HCN HOH
(c) H 2 0 > N H 3 > C 0 2 > 0 2 CH 3 COOH -— V P
Anhy. A1C !3
(d) c o 2 > o 2 > h 2o > n h 3
The structure of S would be
6 8 . Bond dissociation energy of CH 4 is 360 kj/mol
and C 2 H6 is 620 kj/mol. Then bond dissociation
energy of C — C bond is C - COOH
(a) 170 kj/mol (b) 50 kj/mol (a)
(c) 80 kj/moi (d) 2 2 0 kj/mol CH 3
COOH 85. Magnetic moment of Cr2+ is nearest to
I (a) Fe2+ (b) Mn2+ (c) Co2* (d) Ni2+
C H j- C — CH3
(b) I 8 6 . Which of the following compounds are optically
OH active?
CH2— c — c h 3 (1) (2)
(c) 2 I
c -c h 3
(d) (3) (4)
78. Which of the following is a chiral compound? and 2 (b) 2 and 3
(a) 1
(a) Hexane (b) n-Butane
(c) 3 and 4 (d) 1 and 4
(c) Methane
(d) 2,3,4-Tr im e thy 1hex ane. 87. Which will not form precipitation after addition
of (NH 4 )2 C 0 3 in presence of NH<CI?
79. For Zn2+ IZn, E° = ~ 0.76 V then EMF of the cell
(a) Mg (b) Ba (c) Sn (d) Sr
Zn/Zn2+ (1M)I2H+(1M)I H 2 (1 atm) will be
(a) -0 .7 6 V (b) 0.76 V 8 8 . Difference in atomic radius is maximum for
(c) 0.38 V (d) -0 .3 8 V (a) Rb-Cs (b) K-Rb
(c) Na-K (d) Li-Na
80. — for following reaction will be 89. The dipole moment is minimum in
c (a) NH 3 (b) NF3 (c) S 0 2 (d) BF 3
CO*, + —O^.pi —>CO?
90. Number of isomers of C 5 H6
1 1 RT
(a) RT (b) (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5
RT (C) -IRT (d) 2
91. At 60° and 1 atm, N2 0 4 is 50% dissociated into
81. If f^ v s ~ is a straight linegraph then determine
2 N 0 2 then Kp is
a (a) 1.33 atm (b) 2 atm
the order of reaction.
(c) 2.67 atm (d) 3 atm
(a) Zero order (b) First order
(c) Second order (d) Third order 92. pXfl increases in benzoic acid when substituent

82. CsCl has bcc arrangement. Its unit cell edge "x" is bonded at para-position, then "x" is
length is 400 pm. Its inter-ionic distance is (a) -COOH (b) -N O ,
(a) 400 pm (b) 800 pm (c) -CN (d) -OCH 3
93. S 2 Og2~have
(c) V3 x 100 pm (d) — x 400 pm
(a) S-Sbond (b) S-O bridge
83. A colloidal solution is kept in dark and is (c) 0 - 0 bridge
illuminated by a beam of light then brightness (d) All S-O bond lengths are same.
appears at the right angle of direction of light.
94. N —N bond length is minimum in
This effect is called
(a) N20 (b) N2 0 3
(a) Tyndall effect (b) Brownian effect
(c) N2 0 4 (d) N 2 Os
(c) Hardy-Schulze effect
(d) None of these 95. Which is correct example of condensation
84. M n 0 3 in an acidic medium dissociates into polymer?
(a) Nylon, Buna-S (b) Teflon, Buna-N
(a) M n 0 2 and MnO^ (b) MnO and MnO^
(c) Nylon 6 , 6 , Dacron (d) Neoprene, Buna-S
(c) M n 0 2 and MnO (d) M n 0 2 and M n 0 3
Solved Paper -2012
nr „ L, (CH,COO),Hg (a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason
96. B u t-l-en e--------------------►?
HsO+ is the correct explanation of assertion
The product in the above reaction is (b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason
(a) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH2OH is not the correct explanation o f assertion
(b) CH3 CH 2 C H -C H 3 (c) If assertion is true but reason is false
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.
101. A ssertio n : Rate of reaction doubles when
(c) C H ,= :C H - C H - C H , concentration of reactant is doubled
i if it is a first order reaction.
Reason : Rate constant also doubles.
(d) CH, - C H = C —CH3
I 1 0 2 . A ssertio n : Sodium acetate on Kolbe's
OH electrolysis gives methane.

97. Nitrobenzene (PhN 02) ——— -■■■——►P Reason : Methyl free radical is formed at
P will be cathode,
(a) C 6 H 5 NH, (b) QH.NHOH 103. Assertion : H3 P 0 2 has strong reducing property
(c) C 6 H5 - N = 0 (d) c 6 h 6 but H 3 PO 4 does not.
98. Which is correct order of solubility in water? Reason : P-OH bond present in H3 PO4 .
(a) Ba(OH)2 <M g(OH ) 2
104. Assertion : Diamond and graphite do not have
(b) B aC 0 3 > C aC 0 3
the same crystal structure.
(c) C aS0 4 < M gS0 4
(d) Ca(OH), ~ Mg(OH ) 2 Reason : Diamond is crystalline while
graphite is amorphous.
phCH;c i ^ -N^CN > ? (U) 105. Assertion : Bohr model fails in case of multi­
The final product (U) is : electron species.
(a) C 6 H 5 CH 2 CH2 NH 2
Reason : It does not mention electron-electron
(b) C6 H5 CH 2 CONH 2
(c) C 6 H 5 CH 2 NH 2
(d) C 6 H5 CH 2 NHCH 3 106. Assertion : 1 ,2-dichloroethane is optically active.
100. AnaromaticcompoundC 7 H 6 Cl2 (/4), givesAgClon Reason : Meso compound is optically active.
boiling with alcoholic A g N 0 2 solution and yields 107. Assertion : CIF 3 has T-shape structure.
C 7 H7 OCI on treatment with sodium hydroxide.
(/\) on oxidation gives mono chi orobenzoic add. Reason : It has two lone pairs arranged at
The compound (/I) is: 180° angle.

CH2CI 108. Assertion : 0 2 is paramagnetic.

Reason : It has one unpaired electron.
109. Assertion : Phenol is more reactive than benzene
towards electrophilic substitution
Reason : In the case of phenol, the
Cl intermediate carbocation is more
resonance stabilised.
1 1 0 . Assertion : H2Se is less acidic than H 2 S.
Directions : In the following questions (101-120), a Reason : S is less electronegative than Se.
statement of assertion (A) is followed by a statement
111. Assertion : Fluorine is a stronger oxidizing
of reason (R). Mark the correct choice as :
agent than iodine.
Reason : Fluorine has greater electronega­ BIOLOGY
tivity than iodine.
121. Which of the following is correct regarding
112. Assertion : Ce4+ is used as an oxidising agent in respiration in adult frog?
volumetric analysis. (a) In water- Skin, gills
(b) On land - Skin, buccal cavity
Reason : Ce4" has the tendency of attaining
(c) In water- Skin, buccal cavity
+ 3 oxidation state.
(d) On land- Skin, lungs, gills.
113. Assertion : The spectrum of He+ is expected to
122. Which of the following is correctly matched?
be similar to that of hydrogen.
(a) Monstera- Fibrous root
Reason : He* is also one electron system. (b) Dahlia- Fasciculated root
(c) Azadirachtn - Adventitious root
114. A ssertio n : Cl2 gas bleaches the articles
(d) Basil- Prop roots
123. The'cells of Rauber'are
Reason : Cl2 is a strong reducing agent.
(a) secretory cells of endometrium in uterus
115. A ssertio n : La(OH ) 3 is more basic than (b) inner cell mass of blastocoel
L u ( O H ) 5. (c) outer cells of trophoblast in contact with”
uterine wall
Reason : Size of Lu3* increases and shows
(d) cells of trophoblast, in contact with inner cell
more covalent character.
mass of blastocyst.
116. Assertion : F“ ion is a weak ligand and forms
outer orbital complex.
Reason : F" ion cannot force the electrons
of d? and dx2 - y2 orbitals of the
inner shell to occupy dxyt dtJZand d^
orbitals of the same shell.
117. Assertion : [Fe(H 2 0 )5 N 0 ]S0 4 is paramagnetic.
Reason : The Fe in [Fe(H2 0 ) 5 N 0 ]S 0 4 has
three unpaired electrons. Tim e (/)------ ►
118. Assertion : The solubility of a gas in a liquid Which is correctly labelled with respect to the
increases with increase of pressure. given diagram?
(a) B : Logistic curve
Reason : The solubility of a gas in a liquid is
(b) C : Carrying capacity
directly proportional to the pressure
(c) C : Exponential curve
of the gas.
(d) A : Carrying capacity
119. Assertion *. H C = C“ is more stable than
125. Deuteromycetes are known as fungi imperfecti
H 2 C = CH“
Reason : H C ^ C- has more s-character than (a) their zygote undergoes meroblastic and
H 2 C = CH“ holoblastic cleavage
(b) only asexual stages are known
120. Assertion : In a pressure cooker, the water is
(c) they have aseptate mycelium
brought to boil. The cooker is then
(d) they are autotrophic.
removed from the stove. Now on
removing the lid of pressure cooker, 126. Abscisic acid is known as the stress hormone
the water starts boiling again. because it
(a) breaks seed dormancy
Reason : The impurities in water bring down (b) induces flowering
its boiling point. (c) promotes leaf fall
(d) promotes closure of stomata.
Solved Paper 2012-

127. Choose the correct statement. (d) D : Tectorial membrane.

(a) hPL plays a major role in parturition. 134. In aerobic respiration, total number of ATP
(b) Foetus shows movements first time in the 7,h molecules formed from 1 glucose molecule is
month of pregnancy. (a) 28 (b) 32
(c) Signal for parturition comes from fully (c) 36 (d) 30.
developed foetus and placenta.
(d) Embryo's heart is formed by the 2nd month of 135. Which of the following cartoon characters does
pregnancy. not share its name with that of a gene?
(a) Tintin (b) Popeye
128. One of the world's most poisonous fish toxins is (c) Asterix (d) Obelix
released by
(a) clown fish (b) sword fish 136. Apiculture is associated with which of the
following groups of plants?
(c) eel fish (d) puffer fish.
(a) Grapes, maize, potato
129. NaVK+pump is associated with (b) Sugarcane, paddy, banana
(a) passive transport (b) active transport (c) Guava, sunflower, strawberry
(c) osmosis (d) imbibition. (d) Pineapple, sugarcane, strawberry.
130. Which one has the largest species variety in
India? 137.
(a) Wheat (b) Maize
(c) Rice (d) Potato.
131. Photorespiration shows formation of
(a) sugar but not ATP
(b) ATP but not sugar
(c) both ATP and sugar
(d) neither ATP nor sugar.

132. The microscope usually used for seeing living

cells or tissues is [O]
(a) compound microscope Which of the following is correctly labelled for
(b) electron micrscope the given figure?
(c) phase contrast microscope (a) A : PS I I ; B : PS I ; C : e~ acceptor; D: LHC
(d) light microscope. (b) A : LHC; B : e~ acceptor; C : PS 3; D : PS II
(c) A : PS 1; B : PS I I ; C : e~ acceptor; D : LHC
(d) A : e-acceptor; B : LHC; C : PS II; D : PS I
138. During muscular contraction, which of the
following events occur?
(i) H-zone disappears
(ii) A band widens
(iii) I band reduces in width
(iv) Width of A band is unaffected
(v) M line and Z line come closer.
(a) (i), (iii), (iv) and (v)
(b) (i), (ii) and (v)
(c) (ii), (iv) and (v)
(d) (i), (ii) and (iii).
Which of the following is correctly labelled? 139. The release of chemical messenger from synaptic
(a) A : Reissner's membrane vesicles is under the influence of these ion(s).
(b) B : Scala vestibuli (a) Cl“ (b) F e~ an d S~
(c) C : Basilar membrane (c) Ca~ (d) M g~ an d Sr~
140. Cattle ranches are known to causes acute green (d) independent of the concentration of CO in
house effect. This is due to the medium.
(a) mechanized milking practices
147. Leghaemoglobin is produced in response to
(b) methanogenic bacteria in rumen
(a) respiration (b) photosynthesis
(c) decomposition of left over fodder (c) fatty acid synthesis(d) N2 fixation.
(d) decomposition of organic remains in faeces.
148. The extinct human ancestor, who ate only fruits
141. Kranz anatomy is usually associated with
and hunted with stone weapons was
(a) C 3 plants
(a) Ramapithecus (b) Australopithecus
(b) C 4 plants
(c) Dryopithecus (d) Homoerectus.
(c) CAM plants
(d) C 3 -C, intermediate plants. 149. What is common between earthworm and
142. Microtubule • depolymerizing drug such as-
(a) Both have red coloured blood
colchicine is expected to
(b) Both possess anal styles
(a) inhibit spindle formation during mitosis
(c). Both have malpighian tubules
(b) inhibit cytokinesis
(d) Both have segmented body.
(c) allow mitosis beyond metaphase
(d) induce formation of multiple contractile 150. In a normal adult, ascending order of
rings. concentration of following molecules is
(a) K > Na > Fe > Cu (b) Na > K > Cu > Fe
143. Catecholamine in a normal person induces
(c) F e > Na > K > Cu (d) N a > F e > K > C u
(a) intense salivation
151. Which of the following statements is incorrect
(b) alertness
about G0 phase?
(c) decrease in heart beat
(a) Mitosis occurs after G 0 phase.
(d) excessive urination.
(b) Biocatalysts can be used to exit G 0 phase.
144. Selcct the option having all the correct
(c) Cell volume keeps on increasing during this
Structure Percentage Function phase.
(d) Cell metabolism occurs continuously in G 0
0.3 - 0.5 Phagocytic
152. Beads on string like structures of A are seen in B,
Secrete histamine
0 .5 - 1 .0 which further condense to form chromosomes in
and serotonin C stage of cell division.
3 0 -4 0 Defence against (a) Chromonema Chromatin Metaphase
parasites (b) Chromatin Chromatid Metaphase
(c) Chromonema Chromosome Anaphase
30 - 40 Allergic reactions (d) Chromonema Chromatid Anaphase.
153. RNA interference is essential for the
145. Plants with inferior ovary usually bear (a) cell proliferation (b) cell defence
(a) pseudocarps (b) berries (c) cell differentiation (d) micropropagation.
(c) aggregate fruits (d) seedless fruits. 154. Select the option having all correctly matched
146. Oxygen binding to haemoglobin in blood is pairs.
(a) directly proportional to the concentration of A. Alkaloids (1 ) Carotenoid; Anthocyanin
C 0 2 in the medium B. Pigments (ii) Vinblastin; curcumin
(b) inversely proportional to the concentration C. Drugs (iii) Morphine; Codeine
(a) A-i; B-ii;C-iii (b) A-ii; B-iii; C-i
of C 0 2 in the medium
(c) directly proportional to the concentration of (c) A-iii; B-i; C-ii (d) A-i; B-iii; C-ii.
CO in the medium
Solved Paper 2012

155. Dust, oolong and brick are varieties of 161. Assertion : There are 34 biodiversity hotspots
(a) coffee (b) pepper in the world.
(c) tea (d) lavang. Reason : High level of specics richness is a
156. Ventricular diastole occurs due to a/an criteria for selection of a biodiversity
(a) organ system (b) cell organelle hotspot.
(c) tissue (d) organ. 162. A ssertion : Inbreeding increases homo­
157. zygosity, thus exposes harmful
recessive genes, which are
eliminated by selection.
Reason : Continued inbreeding reduces
fertility and productivity.
163. Assertion : Some marine animals find it difficult
to live in fresh water and vice versa.
Reason : Some animals can tolerate a narrow
salinity range, while others can
tolerate a wide salinity range.
164. Assertion : Mylein sheath insulates the
Plants having the above given floral diagram are
nerve fibre and prevents its
(a) leguminous
(b) dicots
(c) medicinal and perennial Reason : Nerve impulses are conducted more
(d) having pinnately compound leaves. rapidly in non - myelinated nerve
fibres than in myelinated ones.
158. Select the correct statement.
(a) Particulate matter of size 10 jam can create 165. A ssertion: Frog can change its colour, according
severe damage to the lungs. to its surroundings.
(b) Particulate matter of size greater than 2.5 Reason : It is a way of mimicry to capture
jam can get trapped in lungs and cause preys.
166. Assertion : Less iodine intake causes goitre.
(c) Particulate matter of size less than 2.5 pm
penetrate deep into lungs. Reason : Less iodine in body decreases
(d) None of the above. thyroxine secretion.
159. Pebrine in silkworms is caused by 167. Assertion : Hbs Hbs denotes the homozygous
(a) Dugesin (b) Monocystis condition for sickle-cell anaemia.
(c) Nosemn (d) Plasmodium. Reason : It occurs due to substitution of glutamic
160. Which of the following is a acid by valine at the 6 “‘ position of
homopolysaccharide? P*chain of Hb.
(a) Heparin (b) Inulin 168. Assertion : Excess Mn in soil, can adversely
(c) Pectin (d) Hyaluronic acid. decrease Mg, Fe and Cu
Direction : In the following questions (161-180), a concentrations in the soil.
statement of assertion (A) is followed by a statement
Reason : Mn increases rate of photosynthesis,
of reason (R). Mark the correct choice as :
thereby increasing absorption of
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason Mg, Fe and Ca from soil.
is the correct explanation of assertion
169. A ssertion: A middle aged woman is reported to
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason
have small breasts and undersized
is not the correct explanation of assertion
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false
(d) If both assertion and reason are false. Reason : Her genotypic analysis shows XO
condition of allosomes.
170. Assertion : In proximal convoluted tubule 179. Assertion : No taste sensation is evoked when
glomerular filtrate becomes drop of distilled water is put on
hypertonic to blood plasma. human tongue.
Reason : H C 03~ is absorbed only in the Reason : Man docs not possess taste buds for
proximal convoluted tubule. tasting water.
171. Assertion : Complexity of classification 180. Assertion : Oxytocin is also known as Anti­
increases from kingdom to species. diuretic hormone (ADH).
Reason : Common characters increase from Reason : Oxytocin can cause an increase in
kingdom to species. the renal reabsorption of water.
172. Assertion : In a terrestrial ecosystem, detritus GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
food chain is the major conduit for
181. The birth place of philosopher Ramanuja is the
energy flow.
death place of which Prime Minister?
Reason : Solar energy is the direct source for (a) Indira Gandhi (b) Rajiv Gandhi
energy supply in a detritus food (c) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Morarji Desai.
182. Which breed of dog does not bark?
173. Assertion : Filarial worm is transmitted to (a) Doberman (b) Basenji
humans by Culex mosquito. (c) German Shepherd
Reason : Culex prefers to breed in fresh (d) Dalmatian.
water. 183. Which author of Indian origin was bom in the
174. Assertion : AIDS is caused by the HIV, a retro­ Caribbean Nation of Trinidad and Tobago?
virus. (a) Salman Rushdie (b) V.S. Naipaul
(c) Shashi Tharoor (d) Nirad C. Chaudhuri.
Reason : Retroviruses have RNA genome.
184. Tezpur in north-east is famous for
175. Assertion : A male is found to be lacking facial (a) hottest chilli in the world
hair and pubic hair. (b) sweetest apple
Reason : It is a case of hyposecretion of (c) largest producer of gold
testosterone from Leydig's cells of (d) largest producer of coal
testes. 185. Belt and Jacket, Catch-hold and loose styles are
176. Assertion : Extra oxygen consumption in the basic types of which sport?
human body is known as oxygen (a) Boxing (b) Wrestling
debt. (c) Kho-Kho (d) Kabaddi.
Reason : The extra oxygen is required by the 186. Kashmiri stag is also known as
body to oxidise the accumulated (a) Hangul (b) Nilgai
lactic acid produced during (c) Sambhar (d) Chital.
strenuous exercise. 187. Who was the first Indian Prime Minister to lose
177. Assertion : Emulsification is necessary for the an election?
digestion of fats. (a) Lai Bahadur Shastri
(b) V.P. Singh
Reason : After fats are emulsified,, the action
(c) Morarji Desai (d) Indira Gandhi.
of enzyme amylase gets signi­
ficantly increased. 188. The city of Mysore has derived its name from the
sanskrit word, for which of these?
178. Assertion : In jaundice, the skin and mucous
membranes assume a yellowish (a) Beautiful town (b) Buffalo town
hue. (c) Great town (d) Golden town.
189. Which of the following persons founded Indian
Reason : Yellow pigment bilirubin imparts
National Orchestra?
pale yellow colour to blood plasma.
Solved Paper -2012
(a) Zubin Mehta (b) Shankar Mahadevan 195. In tricolour flag of India, saffron colour is a
(c) A.R. Rehman (d) Ravi Shankar. symbol of
(a) unit) 7 (b) sacrifice
190. Which is the second highest civilian award in
(c) peace (d) prosperity.
(a) Bharat Ratna (b) Padma Vibhushan 196. Which of the following languages is not based on
(c) Padma Bhushan (d) Padma Shri. Devanagari script?
(a) Hindi (b) Sanskrit
191. Surface of which gemstone is called orient?
(c) Nepali (d) Urdu.
(a) Emerald (b) Emethyst
(c) Pearl , (d) Diamond. 197. Which one of the following is a military
192. Which of the following states is the highest
producer of soyabean in India?
(c) NATO (d) NAFTA.
(a) Uttar Pradesh (b) Andhra Pradesh
(c) Rajasthan (d) Madhya Pradesh. 198. 'Fanning and Dust', these terms are associated
193. Who captained India in woman cricket world
(a) tea (b) coffee
cup 2 0 0 0 ?
(c) soup (d) cold drink.
(a) Anju Jain (b) Neetu David
(c) Shantha Rangaswami 199. Which one of the following footballers is awarded
(d) Poomima Rao. Arjuna Award 2011?
(a) Sunil Chhetri (b) Baichung Bhutia
194. Which Union Territory has its name of the basis
(c) Bruno Coutinho (d) I.M.Vijayan.
of a temple in the village Manimajra?
(a) Chandigarh (b) Lakshdweep 200. 'Cix's B azar'is situated in
(c) Pondicherry (d) Daman and Diu. (a) Pakistan (b) Sri Lanka
(c) Bangladesh (d) Indonesia.
[s o l u t i o n s ]
PHYSICS f.i\, I( ~ V
1. ( b ) : In an unbiased PN junction diode current Putting, u - -u and v = +u in iens
flow due to minority charge carriers (electron in formula,
the P-region and holes in the N-region). I_I-i
dl v u~ F
2. (c) : If — is the rate of change of current through
inductor L of any instant, then induced emf in the If —H F
inductor of the same instant is k =2 F
(L)mm ~ 2 V 2 F X 2F = 4F (Using (i))
5. (a) : The fringe width is given by
To maintain the flow of current in the circuit
applied voltage must be equal and opposite to
the induced voltage. d
Here D is the separation between screen and slits
V = -I - L — and d is the separation between slits.
6. (c) : Here, Tm = S years
Given, V = l/0 sin(jof — ( 0 t = 32 years
17 . , Ldl
Vy sincof =
dt Using, N = iVfl|^ T ,/ 2
sin wf
dt L 32
-Vn cosiof N_
L a) \Y
Instantaneous power, l vi
Y P^VI ?
■ Ml
= (VpSUKOf) VjnCOSlij/ N_
Lo) (Using (i) & (ii))
Nn 16
-l/n“ sin 2 u/
2 Lco 7. (c) : In the circuit, the zener diode is used as
power regular therefore,
3. (c) : The resultant intensity is given by P ^ VI
Ir = + h + 2 yjl]l2 c o s 0 = 12 x 0.05 = 0.6 W.
For constructive interference, cosij)« 1 8. (c) : The relation between kinetic energy,
IR = /, + I2 + 2 ^1^2 threshold frequency and frequency of photon is
given as
or IR - 4/ (Given 1, = A = /)
4. ( b ) : Let L is the distance between areal object —my2 =(/m~/m0)
and its real image formed by a convexlens, then = /; ( 1 x 10 11 —5 x 10n )
k = h (5 x 10,?)
L = ( I it [ + i y I)
= 6 .6 7 x 1 0 ^ * 5 xlO 1 3
~ (sju - \!v)2 + 2\fiw ,..(i) = 3.3 x 10” 2 0 J.
L will be minimum, when 9. (a) : The phase angle
-l x c - x
0 = tan
Solutions -2012

= tan -i
i-5 1 n GMm 1 ,? GMm
—m v"---------- = —m v ---------------
4 2 R 2 (R + 3R)
? 2GM ,2 2GM
© = tan -l ( | v --------- -- v ---------
R 4R
2 , 2 -2GM 2GM 6 GM
Therefore, the current leads the voltage by v - v = ---- -— + •
4R 4 R
,2 2 6 GA4
tan-' ( f
y ~ 4 ~ jT
10, (a) : Here, m = 100 g = 10 " 1 kg,J = 1 m, /= 5 A CM
vg =-
For a wire balanced midway air by a magnetic R2
field is :
3 9.8x6400
tug = JIB. = J ( 1 1 .2 r - - x
V 2 1000
or S 3
Jl = A/(11.2)2 - (94.08)
= 1 0 ~1 xlQ = 5.6 km s_ 1
5x1 2 0 . (d ) : The Gamma decay due to instability of
B - 0.2 T. nucleus is excess energy of nucleus.
11. (a) : Heat supplied to a system is in the form of 2 1 . (c) : debroglie wavelength,
energy. h
/. Dimensional formula is = [M L 2 T~2]. X=
12. <d): The magnetic field at any point inside the
toroid is zero. or Jt =
2m V
13. (d)
(6 .6 7 x l0 ~ 34)2
14. (a) = 1.5 eV.
2 x 9.1 x 10- 3 1 x ( 1 x 10 ~ 9 ) 2
15. ( b ) : Magnetic dipole moment of electron in an 2 2 . (c) : Terminal velocity
atom is given as Vt ~ D 2.
MAX= -nCh
— = »nB 23. (a) : Electric field due to a long charged wire is
where, n = number of orbit given as
|iB = Bohr Magneton JE~ — ~—
For minimum dipole moment, n = 1 2 7t e 0 r

where, X = linear charge density.

M =— r - distance from the wire.
16. (a) /. £o cI
17. (a) : Total energy of an electron in hydrogen r
24. (a) : Mass (m) - 2 kg; initial radius of the path
atom above 0 eV leads to continuation of energy
(/■5) = 0 . 8 m; initial angular velocity
(Mj) = 44 rad/sec and final radius of the path
18. (c) : Two parallel current carrying wires in the
(/■2) = 1 m.
same direction attract each other whereas two
Moment of inertia, / 5 ~ tttiy ~ 2 x (0.8 ) 2
parallel current carrying wires in the opposite
direction repel each other. = 1.28 kg m 2 and I2 ~ mr2 2 = 2 * ( l ) 2 - 2 kg m 2
Therefore from the law of conservation of angular
19. ( b ) : Let a particle of mass in is thrown vertically momentum /5 o), = /2 (o2 ,1
upwards with velocity v. Let its yelocity be v' at a
_ xo), _ 1 .2 8 x 4 4
height 3R from the surface of the; earth. or Wi - — —
According to the conservation o f energy, 12
(o2 = 28.16 rad/sec
25. (b)
26. (a) : Since, v ~ v Qi R ^ = i3 + i5 o rR * : = 5Q
E -E 0j Now the equivalent circuit becomes
The electron is moving in.r-direction The equivalent resistance of the circuit
perpendicular to the electric field which is in 1 ^ 1 „ _ ^ 5 Si
r/-direclion. ~ = —+ — or R = 2.5 Q -W W
R 5 5
Thus, the path of electron moving perpendicular “WW-
Current in the circuit,
to field will be a parabola. sn
„ V 25
, - - . s . i 0A
27. ( b ) : Effective acceleration due to gravity due to
25 V
rotation earth is given as
g '= g ~ Ra)2 cos2Q 30. (c) : Let the inclination of the inclined plane be 0.
Acceleration of a rolling body is given as
Change in acceleration, dg ~ Ru)2 cos2<{>
*'■ dg “ COS2 (j) a=■
(1 + K 2 /R2)
28. (c) : Let t be the width and L be the length of
Here, K is radius of gyration.
each conductor.
For circular disc
.R K
Effective thermal resistance, R = — —2—
P R 1 + R2 j= 4 m r2 ^r =-
2 R 2
v R=—
KA 2 ■ „
fl = g g sin e
where k - thermal conductivity
For solid cylinder

y— -
I = jM R 2 g - i
L K1 i4 1 K2A2
AK eq L d2 2
•'* a = j g s m Q
. „

K2A 2 ±
For solid sphere

eq 5 R2 5
y _ ^ 1^ 1 + ^ 2^ 2 a = —g sin 0 ...(iii)
For hollow cylinder
+ K-yd-yt -^1 ^] "t" ^2^2
+ d'yt K2
/ -M R 2 /. - r * l
29. (a) : It is a balanced Wheatstone bridge. Hence R2
a = ~ g s inO ...<iv)
no current flows through resistance of arm BD
and the resistance of arm BD is ineffective. Hence, from (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) we conclude
R AR _ &AD B that the solid sphere will reach the bottom with
'BC 1Rr
maximum acceleration.
5 Q _ 5 Si 31. ( d ) : Here, P = 100 W, t » 1 0 min - 60 s
5 fi 5 Q Heat developed in time t
Resistance of arm H » P x t = (100 W)(60 s) = 6000 J
/lBC = 5 £ i + 5 Q = 10£2 32. (c) : A polyatomic gas has 3 translational. 3
Resistance of arm rotational degrees of. freedom and a certain
ADC = 5 a + 5 a = 1 0 a number (f) of vibrational modes. Hence, the
The effective resistance degree of freedom for polyatomic gas is > 6 .
between A and C is
Solutions - 2012
33. (b) Decreases in mass number = 4 - 0 = 4
34. (b) Decreases in atomic number = 2 - 2 = 0
The resulting the nucleus is rn~4 %
i.e. the isotope of the given nucleus.
41. (a) : Maximum air flow due to convection does
not occur at the north pole but it occurs at 30°
N pole because there is a maximum temperature
difference between equator and 30°N at poles.
42. (c) : Lenses have different refractive index for
different wavelengths of light. The refractive
Process B —>C occurs at constant volume index decreases with increasing wavelength. So
Hence, WBC- 0 red light will bend least and violet the most. This
Process C —>A occurs at constant process. will result is slight dispersion which will be seen
Hence the work done in the process is as chromatic aberration.
Wc a = P&V~(1)(Va - V c ) = ( 1 ) {4 - 2) = 2 J 43. ( d ) : If a material is in contact with another
material, the surface energy depends on the
For a cyclic process, AU = 0
interaction of molecules of the materials. If the
According to the first law of thermodynamics
molecules of the materials attract each other,
AQ = AW + AU
surface energy is reduced and when they repel
each other, the surface energy is increased. Thus
= WAB + WBC+ WC/t
the surface energy depends on both the materials,
5 ~ + 0 + 2 or WAB = 3 J so both the assertion and reason are false.
36. ( b ) : For an isothermal process, the slope is
44. (b)
_ P
45. (a) : Animate object do not obey Newton's second
law, so it can accelerate in the absence of external
37. (a) : The frequency order for given force.
electromagnetic waves is as follows. 46. (a) : Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying
Uf-rays > ‘UX-Ra>-s> UUV current 1 is given as
P 2llIr2
38. (a) : Here, JB = 5 ^A = 5 * 10- 6 A 4 71 (r2 + x 2)V2
p-1 0 0 where, r = radius of loop
R l = 10 k£2 - 1 0 x 103 £2 x - distance from centre of loop
As 3 = ^ For large distances, (.r > > r),
= Ho 2JA = 2 M
or Jc = (100)(5 * lO^ 5 A) = 5 * 1(H A 4n x$ An
The voltage across collector emitter is where M - IA = magnetic dipole moment of
Vce = R J c = (10 x 10 3 £2){5 * 10" 4 A) = 5 V current loop which is equal to the magnetic field
39. ( b ) : After a long time the capacitor has become due to magnetic dipole.
fully charged, the entire battery voltage 60 V Thus, the current loop can be considered as a
appears across the capacitor. magnetic dipole.
40. ( d ) : Emission of a-particle decreases the mass 47. (b)
number and the atomic number by 4 and 2 48. (b)
respectively. Emission of 3-particle increases
49. ( b ) : In telescope to have a large magnifying
the atomic number by 1 while the mass number
power, focal length of objective lens is kept large.
remains unchanged.
To increase the magnifying power and resolving
After the emission of the one a-particle and two
power, aperture of the objective lens is made
3 -particles
' large.
50. (a) : We know that E ~ — eV Kinetic energy j - M u - u 0)
It shows that total energy of electron in a = (6.626 x 1 0 -^ J s) ( 1 x 1 0 ” s ’ 1 - 5 x1 0 13 s’ 1)
stationary orbit in a hydrogen atom is negative, = (6.626 x I f f 3 4 J s ) (5 x 1 O' 3 s-1)
which means the electron is bound to the nuclear = 3.313 x IO-20 J
and is not free to leave it. 62. ( b ) : The ring attached to the nitrogen atom
51. (c) : According to la%v of equipartition of energy, in benzanilide is strongly activated towards
in thermal equilibrium, at temperature T, each electrophilic substitution reaction.
degree of freedom of translational, rotational and .’. Nitration occurs at p-position to the ring
vibrational motion contributes an average energy attached to 'N ' atom.

equal to v^ ra^ona^ motion has two CO-NH

types of energy associated with the vibrations HNO,
along the length of the molecule-kinetic energy HjS0 4

and potential energy. Thus, it contributes two

degrees of freedom. Thus vibrational energy CO-NH <o> NO,
= 2 x 1 1:nT = kBT.

52. ( b ) : Superconductorisbothaperfectdiamagnetic
substance as well as a perfect conductor. 63. (b)
53. ( b ) : Electrostatic field is a conservative field ° A
which means work done by an electrostatic field
in moving a charge from one point to another
depends only on the initial and the final positions
HO o
and is independent at the path taken to go from O. .O
one point to the another.
54. (a) : Cyclotron is used to accelerate charged
particles to high energies. It uses both electric and O OH
magnetic fields together to increase the energy of (H P 0 3 ) 3
the charged particle. 64. (a)
55. (a) 65. (d)
56. ( b ) : Electromagnetic waves are those waves in O o
which there are sinusoidal variation of electric II II
C — OH nh3 C — ONH 4
and magnetic field vectors at right angles to each
other as well as at right angles to the direction C — OH C — ONH,
of wave propagation. They are self-sustaining
II '
O o
oscillations of electric and magnetic fields in free Phthalic acid o
space or vacuum. Weakly
heated C — NH 2
57. ( b ) : Gauss's theorem is based on inverse square
dependence of electric field on distance. C — NH,
II 2
58. (b) o
59. (a)
A strongly,
60. (b) NH
573 K
61. ( b ) : Following the conservation of energy
Solutions 2012 -

6 6 . (a) : bcc has eight atoms at corners and each is Under the electric field, e~ holes moves toward
shared by 8 unit cells so that the contribution of the negatively charged plate, which implies that
- 1 (T holes are positively charged, thus it is a p-type
each atom at corner is —. semiconductor.
67. (c) : Greater are the intermolecular forces of 75. ( b ) : NH.C1 solution is acidic, its pH < 7. N aN 0 3
attraction, higher is the critical temperature. solution is neutral, its pH = 7. CH3COOK and
Na2 C 0 3 solutions are basic their pH > 7. But
6 8 . (c) : Dissociation energy of methane =
Na2 C 0 3 solution is more basic, its pH > pH of
360 k j m o l'1
CH3COOK solution.
/. Bond energy of C — H bond — = 90k] 76. (c) : Carbon monoxide combines with
Bond energy of ethane, haemoglobin of blood to form a complex called
1(C — C) + 6 (C — H) = 620 kj/mol carboxy-haemoglobin. Formation of this complex
(C — C )+ 6 *90 = 620 makes the haemoglobin incapable of oxygen
,(C — C) + 540 - 620 transport. Due to which there will be oxygen
C — C - 6 2 0 -5 4 0 deficiency in the blood.
C — C = 80kJ mol"1. 77. (a ):
SOCI, Benzene
Bond dissociation of C — C bond = 80 kj mol-1. C H 3 C O O H -------- > C H 3C O C l
Anhyd. A1C13
69. (c) : Silicon is hydrophobic.
nh OH
70. (d) : mvr =
2n HCN
71. ( d ) : Copper (I) compounds are unstable in
aqueous solution and undergo disproportion (Q)
2Cu* Cu2* + Cu
The greater stability of Cu2+(C[^ than Cu+(ni;} is due
to much more -ve A;:y.yH of Cu2t(Af) than Cu\a!}l
which more than compensates for the second
ionisation enthalpy of Cu, 78. (d ) : Chiral compound contains one or more
'chiral' carbon atom(s). Chiral carbon atoms are
concentration mol L■-l usually bonded to four different atoms or group
72. (a) : Rate =
time s of atoms.
= mol L' 1 s _1 CH 3 - CH 2 - CHi - CH 2 - CH, - CH 3 (Hexane)
The units of rate constant for the reaction of the (Achiral)
order = (mol L"1)1"" s~ 5 CH 3 - CH2 - CH 2 - CH 3 (n-Butane)
here, n = — (Achiral)
2 H
Unit of rate constant = (mol L-n 5 -3 /2 c-i 1

= (mol L"*1 ) 1/2 s 1 /C- (Methane)

H 1 H
= mol~ 5/3 L ,/2 s'1 H
73. ( b ) : Nitrogen is more electronegative and (Achiral)
smaller in size than phosphorus. Therefore, the CH, CH,CH 3
) i . i .
lone pair is concentrated on a small region and CH. — CI — CI — C! — C R ,--C H ,
has maximum electron density. So, NH3 is more
basic than PH3.
74. ( b ) : Silicon belongs to group 14, it is doped with (2, 3, 4-Trimethylhexane.)
a group 13 element like B which contains only
three valence electrons. The place where the 79. : £ cell “ £ right
fourth valence e~ is missing is called electron hole. £„), = 0 - ( 0 - 0 .7 6 ) = 0.76V
87. (c)
80. (c) :A„ = n , - n r = l - ;
8 8 . (c) : The difference in atomic radius is maximum
between Na and K.
A,1J = y .H e n c e K ,,.K t(RT) - 1' 2
89. (d) : BF 3 has zero dipole moment.
£ t-. i 90. ( b ) : Isomers of C5 H6 :
•c(R T )y 2 T ftf
81. (d ) : For a ;tth order reaction,
CH, CH = CH.,

1/2 H-l 91. (b): N2 0 + 2N 02

where n = order of reaction Initially 1 0

1 At equilibrium 1- a 2a
/. oc ---------- n *3]
1/2 , ,3-1 1
i«r N2 0 4 is 50% dissociated, so a = —
f, /2
j« ) 3
K =-
m 2
~ L — ? J - = 2 atm
82. (c) : In the body-centred cubic unit cell, V _ ( ]
P n 2o 4 1 -

nyfs 4r
rm !£ =m S m l o a S pm 92. (d ) : Larger the value of pfC„, smaller will be its
acidity. Out of the four groups, -COOH, - N 0 2
and ~CN are <r withdrawing which makes
83. (a)
benzoic acid more acidic whereas -O C H 3 is
84. (a) : In acidic solution, manganese (VI) becomes e~ donating which reduces the acidity (makes
unstable and undergo disproportionation to H* less easily available). pK(1 value increases if
form manganese (VII) and manganese (IV) ~OCH3 is present at /wra-position of benzoic
5M n 0 3 1 - 2 H+ — ► 3M n 0 2 + 2M n04" + H20
93. (c) : The structure of peroxodisulfate anion is:
85. (a) : Cr2+ = 3d‘\ No. of unpaired electrons (h) = 4
Magnetic moment = Jn(?j + 2) BM
■v ‘
- 74(4 + 2) = V24 - 4.89 BM
Fe2+ - 3d6, No. of unpaired electrons (n) = 4
Magnetic moment = 74(4 + 2)B M
■ A o 'V ^ o

= 724 ~ 4.89 BM
Mn2* - 3d5, No. of unpaired electrons (h) = 5 It has a 0 - 0 bridge.
Magnetic moment =^5(5 + 2 ) BM 94. (a) : N~~N bond length is minimum in N2 0 .
= ^ 3 5 = 5.91 BM
Compound Structure
Co2+ = 3d~, No. of unpaired electrons (n) = 3
Magnetic moment = 73(3 + 2) BM N ,0 N — ----- N ---------- O
113 pm 119 pm
s=7l5 = 3.87BM
Ni2+ = 3d5, No. of unpaired electrons (n) = 2
Magnetic moment = 72(2 + 2) BM n 2o 3
0 . y P
= 78 “ 2.82 BM lOSVV^
„ „ .X 186pm/'"^vv
8 6 . (b) : (1) and (4) compounds are wfso-compounds, QNj ^ -^ N
they possesses a plane of symmetry and is / 1173
consequently optically inactive and superimposes ^ Planar
on its mirror image (i.e., they are identical).
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n 2o 4
°< *
17 c -y Zn/NH4C1
iW )N 175 pm n ( ^ 97. (b ): [ 0 ] + 4 [H ]

Nitrobenzene Phenyl hydroxylamine

® Planar In neutral medium, nitrobenzene reduces to
phenyl hydroxylamine.
n 2o 5

98. (c) : MgSO., is readily soluble in water. The

solubility of the sulphates of alkaline earth metals
y / N ^ ’ decrease with increase in size of the central metal
ion. The greater hydration enthalpies of Mg2+
^ Planar ^ ions overcome the lattice enthalpy factor and
therefore MgSO., is more soluble in water.
95. (c) : Nylon 6 , 6 and dacron are the examples of , . aq. NaCN
condensation polymers. 99. (a) : phCH2Cl — ---------- ►PhCH,CN
Condensation polymers are formed by H,, Pd
condensation of two or more bifunctional * PhCH 2 CH 2 NH 2
Cat. hydrogenation
monomers with the elimination of simple (U)
molecules like H2 0 , NH^ alcohol, etc.
Dacron is formed from ethylene glycol and
terephthalic acid with the removal of HiO.
Nylon 6 , 6 is formed from hexamethylenediamine
and adipic acid with the removal of H 2 0 .
[» HOCH 2 CH 2 OH] + ji[H O O C ^ O > - COOH]
Ethylene glycol j Terephthalic acid

▼ o
^ 11
4 0 C H CH - O - C - ( 0 > - C-h + n h 2o
2 2

Dacron ^ CH 2 C1 COOH
n H2N (CH2 ) 6 — n h 2 +
o O
n HO - C - (CH 2 ) 4 - C - OH (A) MonochlaroberLZoic acid
Adipic acid 101. (c) : For first order reaction,
R a te,« k[Ai)
According to question,
I I ' II
4-N - (CH 2 ) 6 - N - C - (CH2 ) 4 - C ^ Rate2 = k[2Ax\
=> Rate2 = 2 Rate 5
Nylon - 6 ,6 q
For a given reaction, rate constant is constant and
independent of the concentration of reactant.
96. (b ):
Hg(OAc)2 1 0 2 . ( d ) : Sodium acetate on Kolbe's electrolysis gives
CH 3 CH2CH = CH, — -------- —* ethane. It is formed at anode.
»Bu H,-ene HP*
103. ( b ) : O O
H3C - CH, - CH - CH,
' i P.
OH / \ -H /\^O H
Butan-2-ol HO H HO . OH
(H3 P 0 2) (H3 P 0 4)
Oxoadds of phosphorus which contain P — H 116. (a)
bond act as reducing agents and reduce metal 117. (a) : Fe+: (Ar] 3d6,4s1
salts to free metals. Thus, H3 P 0 2 act as reducing
When the weak field ligand H20 and strong field
agent while H3 P 0 4 does not.
ligand NO attack, the configuration changes as
104. (c) : In diamond, C-atoms are sp3 hybridized follows:
while in graphite, they are sp2 hybridized. Fe+: [Ar] 3d7 4s°
105. (b) : Bohr model does not explain the spectra of
multi-electron atoms. 1L 1L 1 1 1
106. (d ) : CH 2 — CH: Fe+has 3 unpaired electrons.
118. (a) : This is according to Henry's law which
Cl Cl
states that the solubility of a gas in given volume
Since it has no chiral carbon, it is optically
of a liquid at a particular temperature is directly
inactive. Meso compounds are optically inactive.
proportional to the pressure of gas above the
F liquid, m p, m = kp where k = Henry's constant.
107. (0 :Q i-k 119. (a) : H C = C~ has 50% s-character and
• ,C 1 -^
H o C ^ C H - has 33% s-character.. Stability of
carbanions increases with an increase in the
s-character at the carbanion. So H C ^ C- is more
C1F3 (T-shape)
stable than H2C — CH- .
The lone pairs are at equatorial position (120° 120. (c) : In pressure cooker, water boils above 100°C.
angle). When the lid of cooker is opened, pressure is
108. (c) : Oxygen has two unpaired electrons. So it is lowered so that boiling point decreases and
paramagnetic. water boils again.
109. (b) : -OH group shows +M effect and is an BIOLOGY
activating group, moreover the arenium ion of
121. ( b ) : In frog three types of respiration occurs
phenolic substitution is more stable.
to suit its amphibious mode of life. These are
OH /:OH .OH cutaneous, buccopharyngeal and pulmonary
,E respiration. Cutaneous respiration occurs
H through the thin, moist, highly vascular and
naked skin. It takes place in water as well as

110 (c) : S is more electronegative than Se.
on land. Buccopharyngeal respiration occurs
on land via thin, vascular, moist lining of
111. ( b ) : Fluorine has higher standard electrode buccopharyngeal cavity. Pulmonary respiration
potential (reduction potential) than iodine. takes place when the frog is outside the water. It
112. (a) : The element which can reduce itself acts as occurs by lungs of adult frog.
an oxidising agent. 122. ( b ) : Fasciculated root is a type of adventitious
113. (a) : All species like He+, Li2+, Be3+ having one root. In this case, roots are swollen which occur
electron are expected to have similar spectrum as in clusters from lower nodes of stems, e.g.,
that of hydrogen. Asparagus, Dahlia, etc.
114. (c) : CU is an oxidising agent. It bleaches the 123. ( d ) : The blastomeres in the blastocyst are
articles permanently by oxidation in presence of arranged into an outer layer called trophoblast
moisture. and an inner group of cells attached to trophoblast
115. (a) : Due to lanthanide contraction, the size of called the inner cell mass. Inner cell mass looks
Lu3+ is increased and therefore Lu(OH ) 3 shows like a small knob at one pole which gives rise to
more covalent character (Large cation, more is the embryo and is called the embryonal knob. The
covalent character - Fajan's rule). Thus La(OH ) 3 trophoblast does not take part in the formation
is more ionic and thus more basic. of the embryo proper. It remains external to the
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embryo and gives rise to the extraembryonic 131. ( d ) : Photorespiration is the light dependent
membranes, namely chorion and amnion, for the process of oxygenation of ribulose biphosphate
protection and nourishment of the embryo. The (RuBP) and release of carbon dioxide by the
trophoblast cells in contact with the embryonal photosynthetic organs of a plant. Normally
knob are known as cells of Rauber. photosynthetic organs do the reverse in the light,
124. (d) : The given figure shows population i.e., uptake of C 0 2 and release of O?. At high
growth curve, in which A is carrying capacity, temperature, RuBP carboxylase functions as
B is exponential growth curve and C is logistic oxygenase and instead of fixing carbon dioxide
growth curve. (C 3 cycle), oxidises ribulose 1, 5-biphosphate to
produce a 3-carbon phosphoglyceric acid and a
125. (b) : Deuteromycetes are commonly known 2 -carbon phosphoglycolate.
as imperfect fungi because only the asexual
Photorespiration does not produce energy or
or vegetative stages of these fungi are known. reducing power. Rather, it consumes energy.
The deuteromycetes reproduce only by asexual Further, it undoes the work of photosynthesis.
spores known as conidia. The mycelium is septate There is 25% loss of fixed C 0 2. Therefore,
and ^ranched. Some members are saprophytes photorespiration is a highly wasteful process.
or parasites while a large number of them are This happens only in case of C3 plants. C4 plants
decomposers of litter and help in mineral cycling. have overcome the problem of photorespiration.
Some examples are Altcrnarin, Colletotrichum and
132. (c) : Phase contrast microscope was developed
by Zernicke (1935, Nobel Prize 1953) to observe
126. ( d ) : Abscisic acid acts as a general plant growth living cells and the events occurring in them (e.g.,
inhibitor and an inhibitor of plant metabolism. Spindle formation, movement of chromosomes,
ABA inhibits seed germination. ABA stimulates endocytosis, exocytosis). It is similar to optical
the closure of stomata in the epidermis and microscope except that it has an annular
increases the tolerance of plants to various kinds diaphragm in the condenser and a transparent
of stresses. Therefore, it is also called the stress phase plate at the back focal plane of objective.
hormone. The microscope converts differences in refractive
127. (c) : Parturition is induced from the fully indices into differences in brightness.
developed foetus and the placenta. Parturition 133. ( d ) : A - Basilar membrane
involves foetal ejection reflex which are mild B - Scala media
contractions of the placenta. This reflex triggers C - Reissner's membrane
release of oxytocin from the maternal pituitary D - Tectorial membrane
which acts on the uterine muscles and causes
134. (c) : The net gain from complete oxidation
stronger uterine contractions and that further
of a glucose molecule in aerobic respiration
stimulates secretion of oxytocin. This stimulatory
is 36 ATP molecules. 10 molecules of NADH 2
reflex between uterine muscle contraction
(2 from Glycolysis + 8 from Krebs' cycle) yield
and oxytocin secretion continues resulting in
= 10 x 3 = 30 ATP, 2 molecules of FADH2 yield
stronger contractions and eventually leading
= 2 x 2 = 4 ATP and glycolysis also yields 2 ATP.
into expulsion of the baby out of the uterus.
Therefore, total release of ATP per hexose will be
128. (d) = 30 + 4 + 2 = 36 ATP.
129. (b) : Sodium-potassium pump (Na*-K+) is a 135. (a)
membrane transport protein that exchanges 136. (c)
sodium ions (Na+) for potassium ions (K+). It
137. (c) : A - Photosystem I (PS I)
transports 3 Na+ outwards for 2K+ into the cell,
B - Photosystem II (PS II)
thus maintaining the differential concentrations
of each ion across the plasma membrane. The C - e - acceptor
process requires energy in the form of ATP, being D - LHC(Light Harvesting Complex).
a form of active transport. • 138. (a) : Muscle contraction is brought about by
130. (c) sliding of the actin filaments over myosin
filaments. When a muscle fibril contracts, its A rapidly secreted in response to stress of any kind
band remains constant and I band shortens. H and during emergency situations and are called
zone also disappears as the actin filaments of emergency hormones or hormones of fight or
both sides in each sarcomere may overlap each flight. These hormones increase alertness,
other at M line. pupillary dilation, piloerection (raising of hairs),
139. (c) : When an impulse arrives at the synaptic sweating, etc. Both the hormones increase the
knob of the axon, it depolarizes the presynaptic heart beat, the strength of heart contraction
membrane and increases its permeability to and the rate of respiration. Catecholamines also
calcium ions (Ca2+). Ca2+ ions from the synaptic stimulate the breakdown of glycogen, lipids and
cleft pass into the synaptic knob via voltage- proteins.
gated channels. Sudden rise in the cytosolic 144. (b) : The structure in option (b) is of a basophil.
concentration of Ca2+, causes the release of a Basophils are granular WBCs and are the least
chemical, called neurotransmitter substance, (0.5- 1 per cent) of the total WBCs. They secrete
from small synaptic vesicles present there into histamine, serotonin, heparin, etc. and are
the synaptic cleft by exocytosis through the involved in inflammatory reactions.
presynaptic membrane.
145. (a)
140. (b) : Cattle ranching refers to practice of raising
146. ( b ) : Bohr's effect is the phenomenon whereby
grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for
the affinity of the respiratory pigment i.e.,
meat and wool, etc. The area of landscape meant
haemoglobin in the blood for oxygen is reduced
primarily for cattle ranching is called a ranch.
when the level of carbon dioxide is increased. An
The practice has lead to accelerated deforestation
increase in carbon dioxide concentration makes
and contributed to increased methane gas
concentration in atmosphere. Whatever cattle the blood more acidic which results in decrease
in the efficiency of the uptake of oxygen by
eat; is subjected to the action of methanogens
(bacteria) harbouring the stomach (rumen) haemoglobin molecules. This facilitates gaseous
of cattle. The action of these bacteria on food exchange, because more oxygen is released in
material produces methane gas which is released the tissues w'here the amount of carbon dioxide
through cattle fart into the earth's atmosphere is rising due to metabolic activity. In its reverse,
where it absorbs heat just like carbon dioxide, more oxygen is taken up at the lungs where the
contributing to global warming. amount of carbon dioxide is low.

141. ( b ) : The C4 plants are adapted to dry tropical 147. ( d ) : Bacteria like Rhizobium and Frankia live
regions and have greater productivity of biomass. free as aerobes in the soil but are unable to
They have special type of leaf anatomy known fix nitrogen. They develop the ability to fix
as Kranz anatomy. In this type of anatomy the nitrogen only as a symbiont when they become
bundle sheath cells form several layers around anaerobic. They are unable to fix nitrogen by
the vascular bundles; they are characterized by themselves. Roots of a legume secrete chemical
having a large number of chloroplasts, thick attractants. Bacteria collect over the root hairs
walls impervious to gaseous exchange and no and form an infection thread enclosing the
intercellular spaces. bacteria. Infection thread grows alongwith
multiplication of bacteria. Bacteria stop dividing
142. (a) : Colchicine is an alkaloid derived from the
autumn crocus, Colchicum autum m k. It inhibits and form irregular polyhedral structures called
spindle formation in cells during mitosis so that bacteroids. In an infected cell bacteriods occur
chromosomes cannot separate during anaphase, in groups surrounded by host membrane. The
thus inducing multiple sets of chromosomes. It host cell develops a pinkish pigment called
does not affect cytokinesis. leghaemoglobin (Lb). It is oxygen scavenger
and is related to blood pigment haemoglobin.
143. ( b ) : The adrenal medulla secretes two
It protects nitrogen fixing enzyme nitrogenase
hormones called adrenaline or epinephrine and
from oxygen.
noradrenaline or norepinephrine. These are
commonly called as catecholamines. These are 148. (b)
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149. ( d ) : Segmentation occurs in three highly japan and Taiwan), oolong tea (Taiwan) and
organized phyla-annelida (earthworm), brick tea (China). Dust or fannings are left over
arthropoda (Pcriplaneta) and chordates. The body small part of tea leaves, which are also widely
is often divided both externally and internally used.
into a number of segments (metameres) e.g., 156. (c) : The cardiac cycle consists of one heart beat
annelids. Segmentation is mostly external in or one cycle of contraction and relaxation of the
arthropods and mainly internal in man and other cardiac muscle. The contraction phase is called
chordates. the systole while the relaxation phase is called
150. (a) the diastole.
151. (a) : G 0 phase is the stage of inactivation of 157. (c) : Thegiven floral diagram is of liliaceae family.
cell cycle due to non-availability of mitogens This family is a characteristic representative of
and energy rich compounds. The cells in this monocot plants. Most plants of this family are
phase remain metabolically active and usually good ornamentals, source of medicine, vegetables
grow in size assuming particular shape (cell and colchicine.
differentiation). Cell enters G0 phase from a
158. (c) : Particulate matter mainly includes dust, soot
cell cycle checkpoint in the G] phase. Gj phase
particles, volatile hydrocarbons, some sulphate
checkpoint (restriction point) takes the key
and metallic residues emitted into the air by
decision whether the cell should divide, delay
sources such as factories, power plants, vehicles,
division or enter resting stage. Cells then remain
etc. PM is usually divided into different classes
in G 0 phase until there is a reason for them to
based on size ranging from total suspended
divide. Several biocatalysts can help a cell in Ga
matter (TSP) to PM-10 (particles with diameter
phase to proceed through cell division when
of 10 p or less) to PM-2.5 (particles with diameter
of 2.5 p or less). Smallest particles pose highest
152. (a) : The "beads-on-a-string" structure is seen human health risk. Larger particles (<10 p) can
in electron microscope of isolated metaphase
easily be expelled from lungs through mucus but
chromosomes. The chromonema form the gene
finer particles (< 2.5 p) penetrate deep in lungs
bearing portions of the chromosome. Basically
and can cause severe lung damage including
chromonema is made up of nucleosome
lung cancer.
chains. Nucleosome chain gives a beads on
string appearance under electron microscope. 159. (c) : Pebrine or pepper disease is caused by
Nucleosome is the fundamental packaging unit protozoan Nosema bombycis. The parasite infects
in eukaryotic chromosomes. eggs and is therefore, transmitted to next
generation. It kills caterpillars.
153. (b) : RNAi is a regulatory mechanism for an
estimated 30% of all protein-coding genes(in 160. ( b ) : Homopolysaccharides or homoglycans
mammals). It helps to protect cells against certain are those complex carbohydrates which are
viruses by targeting viral RN A for destruction. It formed by polymerization of only one type of
helps to silence potentially disruptive transposons monosaccharide monomers. For example, starch,
in the genome by destroying RN A copies arising glycogen, inulin, cellulose, chitin, etc.
from transposon replication. RNAi is a precise Agar, pectin, hyaluronic acid, heparin, etc., are
and efficient tool for knockout of specific genes heteropolysaccharides.
when studying gene function in experimental 161. ( b ) : Hot spots are areas with high density of
organisms. It also has potential for new forms of biodiversity or megadiversity which are also the
targeted gene therapy. most threatened ones. Ecologically hot spots are
154. (c) : Alkaloids - Morphine, Codeine determined by four factors.
Pigments- Carotenoids, Anthocyanin ... (i) Number of species/species diversity.
Drugs- Vinblastin, Curcumin. (ii) Degree of endemism
155. (c) : Four main types of commercial tea are (iii) Degree of threat to habitat due to its
generally recognized in the trade. These are black degradation and fragmentation.
tea (China, India, Sri Lanka), green tea (China, (iv) Degree of exploitation.
Myers (1988) initially identified 12 hot spots. depolarisation can take place only at the nodes
Today the number of hotspots identified by of Ranvier free from myelin sheath, because
ecologists is 34 covering an area less than 2% the myelin sheath between the nodes insulates
of land surface with about 2 0 % of human the fibre and prevents its depolarisation. So, the
population living there. action potential in effect jumps from one node
162. ( b ) : When the offsprings are produced by self to the next.This is called saltatory conduction of
fertilization or breeding between closely related nerve impulses. Because of this, nerve impulses
parents it is called inbreeding. Inbreeding results do not have to run all along the myelinated nerve
in increase in homozygosity. The most revealing fibre. This is why nerve impulses are conducted
impact of inbreeding is the loss of vigour far more rapidly in myelinated fibres than in the
and physiological efficiency of the organisms non - myelinated ones.
characterized by reduction in size. A number 165. (c) : Frogs are able to change the colour of their
of lethal and defective characters appear in the skins to match with that of the surroundings.
population which has undergone inbreeding It makes them hard to be noticed by enemies.
(selfing). This loss of fitness in the progenies or This is a type of protective colouration known
decline in character expression with decreased as camouflage not mimicry. Changes in colour
heterozygosity arising from self mating is are possible by dispersion or concentration of
known as inbreeding depression or inbreeding special amoeboid pigment cells in their skin.
decline. Continued inbreeding reduces fertility 166. (a) : Simple goitre or endemic goitre is the
and even productivity. But the inbreeding enlargement of thyroid gland accompanied with
progeny with lethal and harmful recessive cretinism or myxoedema. It occurs in case of
genes being homozygous express these traits hyposecretion of thyroxine. To compensate for
which otherwise remain hidden in heterozygous lower secretion of thyroxine from cells, thyroid
individuals. Natural selection works upon these gland enlarges to accommodate more secretory
individuals and eliminate them. Gradually, such cells. It is caused due to dietary deficiency of
...... genes get eliminated from the population. iodine. To form normal quantities of thyroxine
163. (a) : For aquatic organism salt concentration about 1 mg/week of ingested iodine is required
(measured as salinity in parts per thousand) in the form of iodides.
is a major factor for their survival. Salinity of 167. ( b ) : Sickle cell anaemia is an autosomal
different aquatic habitats varies greatly. It is less hereditary disorder in which the erythrocytes
than 5 per thousand parts, in inland waters, 30-35 become sickle shaped. The disorder or disease
per thousand parts in the sea and more than 1 0 0 is caused by the formation of an abnormal
per thousand parts in some hypersaline lagoons. haemoglobin called haemoglobin-s denoted
Many fresh water animals cannot live for long in as Hbs. Thus, the genotype of an individual
sea water and vice versa because of the osmotic homozygous for sickle cell anaemia is written as
problems they would face due to the change HbsHbs,
in relative tonicity of the surrounding water
168. ( d ) : Manganese (Mn) is a micronutrient.
with cytoplasm. It may result into endosmosis
Excess of it in soil can caus6 mangarjese toxicity
or exosmosis according to the conditions. The
characterized by brown spots surrounded by
tolerance of organisms to the salinity range
chlorotic veins. It occurs due to (i) reduction in
varies. Some organisms are tolerant of a wide
uptake of iron and magnesium (ii) inhibition of
range of salinities and are called euryhaline e.g.
binding of magnesium to specific enzymes (iii)
salmon, while some can tolerate only a narrow
inhibition of calcium translocation into shoot
range of salinity i.e., stenohaline e.g., shark,
apex. Therefore excess of manganese (Mn)
164. (c) : In non-myelinated nerve fibres, the ionic causes deficiency of iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg)
changes are repeated over the membrane all and calcium (Ca).
along the length of the fibre. So, the action Hence the toxicity symptoms of Mn are actually
potential flows all along the membrane over combined deficiency symptoms of Fe, Mg and
the entire length of the fibre. But in myelinated Ca.
fibres, the ionic changes and the consequent
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169. (a) : Females having 45 chromosomes (2A + XO) mesentery. It is manifestated by lymphoedema
are affected with Turner's syndrome. Individuals accompanied by thickening of subcutaneous
having Turner's syndrome have female sexual tissues and skin so that there is permanent
differentiation but ovaries are rudimentary. swelling mostly of feet, legs, thighs, scrotal sacs,
Other associated phenotypes of this condition breast etc. In Culex and other mosquitoes females
are short stature, webbed-neck, broad chest, are blood sucking while males suck juices of
lack of secondary sexual characteristics and flowers and fruits. Female Culex carries filarial
sterility- Thus, any imbalance in the copies of worm from one person to another. It prefers to
the sex chromosomes may disrupt the genetic breed in dirty water near human habitation.
information necessary for normal sexual 174. ( b ) : Retrovirus is an RNA-containing virus that
development. converts its RiNA into DNA by means of the
170. (d) : In proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) about enzyme reverse transcriptase. This enables it to
65% of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed become integrated into its host's DNA. Some
normally. Here most of the solutes are reabsorbed retroviruses can cause cancer in animals they
making the filtrate isotonic to blood plasma. contain oncogenes (cancer-causing genes), which
HCO-3 is not absorbed in PCT. are activated when the virus enters its host cell
171. (b) : Classification involves hierarchy of steps, and starts to replicate. The special properties
in which each step represents a rank or category, of retroviruses make them useful as vectors for
calle;d taxonomic category or taxon. All taxa inserting genetic material into eukaryotic cells.
together constitute a taxonomic hierarchy as The best-know'n retrovirus is HIV, responsible
follows: for AIDS in humans.
SpeciesGenus —> Family —» Order —>Class 175. (a) : Leydig's cells or interstitial cells of testes are
Phylum or division —>Kingdom. large, polygonal cells that lie in the connective
Most common characters among individual tissue present between the seminiferous tubules.
members are found in taxon species. Common They secrete androgens, the male sex hormones
characters decrease from species to kingdom e.g., testosterone into the blood. Androgens
and members of a kingdom have least number control male sexual characteristics including
of common characters. Similarly, complexity facial and pubic hairs.
of classification decreases from species to 176. (a) : During strenuous exercise, the muscle does
kingdom. not get sufficient oxygen to meet its energy
172. (c) : There are two types of food chains: grazing needs immediately. So, it contracts anaerobically
food chain and detritus food chain. Detritus and accumulates lactic acid. During recovery, the
food chains are those which start from the oxygen consumption of the muscle far exceeds
dead bodies of animals or fallen leaves etc. In than that in the resting state. The extra oxygen
terrestrial ecosystems, detritus food chain is the consumed during recovery is called oxygen debt
major conduit of energy flow, while in aquatic of the muscle.
ecosystems, grazing food chain is the major 177. (c) : Being insoluble in water, fats and oils form
conduit of energy flow. As the detritus food large immiscible droplets in aqueous media but
chains depend upon the dead organic matter the enzymes which hydrolyse fats and oils (called
hence, these are not directly dependent upon lipases) are insoluble in fats and soluble in water.
solar energy. Therefore, lipases can act only on the water
173. (c) : Wuchereria (W.bancrofti & W.rmlayi), the adjoining surfaces of fat droplets. Evidently, the
filarial worms cause a slowly developing chronic larger the surface area of fat droplets, the greater
inflammation of the organs in which they live for is the action of the lipase on them. We know that
many years, usually the lymphatic vessels of the the smaller the size of a droplet, the larger is its
lower limbs, and the disease is called filariasis. surface area relative to its mass. Thus lipases
The pathogen spread from one human being to can digest fat in significant amounts only when
another through mosquitoes like Culex and to a large fat droplets are broken into tiny droplets
less extent by Anopheles and Aedes. The parasite to form a fine emulsion. This is the reason why
resides in lymph vessels, connective tissues and emulsification is so necessary for the digestion
of fats. Enzyme amylase, on the other hand, is a ADH) because it reduces the volume of urine by
starch - hydrolysing enzyme which has no role increasing the reabsorption of water from the
in fat digestion. urine in the distal convoluted tubules, collecting
178. ( b ) : Bilirubin is a yellow pigment which arises tubules and collecting ducts in the kidney. It
from the catabolism of red pigment haemoglobin does so by rendering the walls of those tubules
of old and worn out RBCs. The pale yellow colour permeable to water. Failure of secretion of
of blood plasma is largely due to the presence of vasopressin leads to a reduced renal reabsorption
bilirubin. It has to be excreted into the bile and of water and a consequent elimination of a large
from there it is excreted out of the body along volume of very dilute (hypotonic) urine.
with the faecal matter. If, all of the bilirubin can Oxytocin is another hormone released by the
not be excreted from the body then the skin and posterior lobe of pituitary gland. Oxytocin
mucous membranes assume a yellowish hue, contracts the mammary glands, smooth muscles
giving rise to the condition called jaundice. of uterus. Uterine contractions, stimulated by
179. (a) : No taste sensation is evoked when distilled oxytocin at the end of pregnancy, help in the
water is put on human tongue because man does child-birth or parturition, hence also called birth
not possess taste buds for tasting water. The taste hormone. The oxytocin - induced contractions
buds present on the tongue send nerve impulses of the mammary gland muscles help in the flow
to the brain which actually preceives the taste of stored milk from the mammary glands, hence
sensation. Some mammals such as rhesus also called milk ejection hormone.
monkeys, pigs, cats and dogs possess some taste
buds which send nerve impulses to the brain
when distilled water is applied on them. Itseems, 181. (b) 182. (b) 183. (b) 184. (a) 185. (b)
therefore, that water may stimulate these taste 189. (d) 190. (b)
186. (a) 187. <d) 188. (b)
buds to evoke taste sensation in these animals.
191. (c) 192. (d) 193. (a) 194. (a) 195. (b)
180. ( d ) : It is not oxytocin, but the hormone
196. <d) 197. (c) 198. (a) 199. (a) 2 0 0 . (c)
vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone,