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Jun 11, 2018

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electrudynameter

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64 visualizzazioni9 pagineelectrudynameter

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one or two fixed coils which carry the current to be measured ( or a current

proportional to the voltage to be measured) , and which are connected either in

series or in parallel with the moving coil . Thus in construction this instrument

consists of two coils i) fixed coil ii) moving coil . The torque is produced by the

interaction of the magnetic field produced by the coils and depends on the

strength of the magnetic field by both fixed and moving coils.

Construction:

The fixed coil is divided into two sections to give a more uniform field near the

centre . The fixed coils are usually wound with heavy wire carrying the main

current . the wire is stranded where necessary to reduce eddy current losses in

conductors. The coils are usually varnished and backed to form a solid assembly .

The fixed coil is air cored and is supported on a former made of preferably

ceramic as metallic former would weaken the field of the fixed coil due to eddy

currents when use with a.c. A single element instrument has one moving coil .

the moving coil is wound either as a self-sustaining coil or else on a non-metallic

former . The moving coil is mounted on a aluminum spindle carrying pointer ,

which can move over the graduated scale. The controlling torque is provided by

the two hair springs , acting also as leads to the moving coil . Light and rigid

construction is used for the moving coil .Fixed and moving coils are connected in

series and the ends are connected to the instrument terminals. Damping is often

employed by air friction type mechanism consisting of air piston moving in

enclosed chamber or by pair of aluminum vanes , attached to the spindle at the

bottom. These vanes move in sector shaped chambers . eddy current damping

can not be used in these instruments as the operating field is very weak due to

use of air core coils and any introduction of a permanent magnet required for

eddy current damping would distort the operating magnetic field . The field

produced by the fixed coils is somewhat weaker than in other type of

instruments . It is nearly 0.0005 to 0.006 Wb/m . It is necessary to shield the

electrodynamometer type instrument from the effect of stray magnetic fields .

Thus the coil assembly is shielded by enclosing them in a casing of high

permeability alloy to protect the instrument from the external magnetic field .

1

Torque equation:

= insanities value of current in moving coil

= self-inductance of the fixed coil

=self-inductance of the moving coil

M= mutual inductance between fixed and moving coils

Flux linked with coil 1:

Flux linked with coil 2:

=

=

[ and ]

2

=

Therefore total electrical energy input=change in energy stored+ mechanical

energy produced

Mechanical energy=

Since the self-inductances of the coils are constant and therefore and are

both equal to zero.

Mechanical energy=

Suppose instantaneous torque= and is the change in deflection , then

Mechanical energy=work done=

Thus or

Shape of scale :

square of the current and change of mutual inductance between the coils w.r.t.

the deflection ., The instrument scale is not uniform but follows the square law

response if remains constant at all position the moving coil. The value of is

constant for a radial field but for a parallel field , it is not constant. For a parallel

field as shown in fig:

, the mutual inductance M between fixed coil and moving coil depends upon the

position of the moving coil . The maximum value of the mutual inductance

occurs when , as this position gives the maximum flux linkage . when

, . If the flux density of the magnetic field is uniform , the flux

linkage and hence the change in mutual inductance w.r.t. deflection follows sine

of the deflection as given by :

And

It is clear from the above expression that instrument does not have pure square

law response . In electrodynamometer instruments , as usually constructed ,

varies from about to 135 , i.e. from to from the position of zero

mutual inductance and as changes in value of M over this range are not large i.e.

is practically constant over this range , the instrument shows almost a square

law response .

3

Operation with D.C:

Then deflecting torque:

Let and be the instantaneous values of currents carried by the coils .

difference angle between them , then average torque is :

At steady condition , or

Thus for sinusoidal currents flowing through the coils , the deflecting torque and

the deflection is proportional to the product of the r.m.s. value of coil currents

and cosine of the phase angle between them .

In Ammeter , the fixed and moving coils are series so that they can carry the

4

same current

i.e. and

The current through the moving coil should not exceed 100mA .

For ammeter of higher capacity , A low resistance shunt should be connected

with the moving coil , while this parallel combination is connected in series with

the fixed coil. The shunt will limit the current through moving coil to 100mA .

5

Electrodynameter type Voltmeter:

In voltmeter configuration , the two coils are connected in series along with a

high value non-inductive resistance . The deflecting torque But

, where

impedance of the series combination of two coils., V= unknown voltage to be

measured. The deflection

The main source of error in dynamometer type instruments are due to a) low

torque/weight ratio b) frequency c) eddy current external magnetic field d)

temperature change.

The magnetic field produced by air core coil is essentially small and therefore ,

the flux linkage per amp in the moving coil are also small;( Only 3 to 4 % of

flux linkage per A in the PMMC instrument) . Therefore the deflecting torque

is low . Thus to produce a reasonable deflecting torque , the m.m.f of the

moving coil must be increased . The m.m.f of the moving coil can be

increased by increasing the current through the coil or by increasing the no. of

6

turns . The current through the moving coil can not be increased beyond

200mA as otherwise the spring would be heated too much . On the other

hand an increase the no. of turns of the moving coil, will give rise a heavy

moving system and , therefore , the friction losses in electrodynamometer

type instrument are larger than in other type .

b) Frequency

result of variation of self reactance of coils with frequency . In case of

voltmeter , deflection : , where is the impedance of the fixed

and moving coils in series .

Since and , therefore , the value Z increases with frequency

and hence the voltmeter tend to read low as the frequency is increased .

Therefore , in order to reduce frequency error in voltmeter , the coil winding is

made a very small part of the circuit . This makes the inductive reactance , a

small fraction of total impedance and therefore , . This means that the

frequency does not effect the calibration of the instrument . In fact ,

electrodynamometer voltmeters may be used , in general , within their

guaranteed accuracy from D.C. to 125 Hz.

In order to reduce frequency error , the ratio of currents in fixed and moving

coils should be independent of frequency . This requires the time constants

of two circuits should be the same .

Let = resistance , inductance and impedance of fixed coil circuit.

=resistance , inductance and impedance of the moving coil circuit.

Then

Thus the ratio of currents with A.C. is the same as with D.C. , if the time

constants ( ratio ) of fixed and moving coil circuits are same . Therefore ,

the frequency error in shunted ammeters can be eliminated by having equal

time constants for both fixed and moving coil circuits . Also the phase

difference between the two currents is zero.

7

c) Eddy current

interaction between moving coil and adjacent metal parts. Hence , metal parts

in the coil support is kept to minimum possible . If any metal parts are to be

used , then it must be of high receptivity so as to reduce eddy currents

induced in it . The metal present in coil support , in the shield etc. produces a

frequency error in the instrument .

therefore , these instruments must be protected from the external magnetic

fields . portable instruments use metal shields which serve to isolate the coils

from external influence. Precision type of instruments are unshielded as eddy

currents are induced in metal shields which introduces error . In precision

instruments the influence of external magnetic field can be minimized by

using “Astatic system”. Astatic electrodynamometer instruments are

constructed with two similar sets of fixed and moving coils mounted on the

same shaft . the two pairs of fixed coils are so connected that their magnetic

fields are in opposition . The current in the moving coils are also opposed and ,

in consequence , the deflecting torque produced by the moving coil act in the

same direction . Since the two fields are in opposition and therefore , any

uniform external field reduces the filed of one coil and increases by an equal

amount , the field of the other coil. Therefore the deflecting torque produced

by one coil is increased while that produced by the other coil is reduced by an

equal amount , and thus , the net torque on account of the external magnetic

field is zero.

8

e) Temperature changes

coils produces error . High accuracy instruments contain temperature

compensating resistors which tend to neutralize the effects of

temperature changes.

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