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Electrodynamometer type Instrument:

In dynamometer type instruments the permanent magnet is replaced by either


one or two fixed coils which carry the current to be measured ( or a current
proportional to the voltage to be measured) , and which are connected either in
series or in parallel with the moving coil . Thus in construction this instrument
consists of two coils i) fixed coil ii) moving coil . The torque is produced by the
interaction of the magnetic field produced by the coils and depends on the
strength of the magnetic field by both fixed and moving coils.

Construction:

The fixed coil is divided into two sections to give a more uniform field near the
centre . The fixed coils are usually wound with heavy wire carrying the main
current . the wire is stranded where necessary to reduce eddy current losses in
conductors. The coils are usually varnished and backed to form a solid assembly .
The fixed coil is air cored and is supported on a former made of preferably
ceramic as metallic former would weaken the field of the fixed coil due to eddy
currents when use with a.c. A single element instrument has one moving coil .
the moving coil is wound either as a self-sustaining coil or else on a non-metallic
former . The moving coil is mounted on a aluminum spindle carrying pointer ,
which can move over the graduated scale. The controlling torque is provided by
the two hair springs , acting also as leads to the moving coil . Light and rigid
construction is used for the moving coil .Fixed and moving coils are connected in
series and the ends are connected to the instrument terminals. Damping is often
employed by air friction type mechanism consisting of air piston moving in
enclosed chamber or by pair of aluminum vanes , attached to the spindle at the
bottom. These vanes move in sector shaped chambers . eddy current damping
can not be used in these instruments as the operating field is very weak due to
use of air core coils and any introduction of a permanent magnet required for
eddy current damping would distort the operating magnetic field . The field
produced by the fixed coils is somewhat weaker than in other type of
instruments . It is nearly 0.0005 to 0.006 Wb/m . It is necessary to shield the
electrodynamometer type instrument from the effect of stray magnetic fields .
Thus the coil assembly is shielded by enclosing them in a casing of high
permeability alloy to protect the instrument from the external magnetic field .

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Torque equation:

Let = instantaneous value of current in the fixed coils


= insanities value of current in moving coil
= self-inductance of the fixed coil
=self-inductance of the moving coil
M= mutual inductance between fixed and moving coils
Flux linked with coil 1:
Flux linked with coil 2:

Electrical energy input :


=
=

[ and ]

Energy stored in magnetic field:

Change in stored energy:

2
=
Therefore total electrical energy input=change in energy stored+ mechanical
energy produced
Mechanical energy=

Since the self-inductances of the coils are constant and therefore and are
both equal to zero.
Mechanical energy=
Suppose instantaneous torque= and is the change in deflection , then
Mechanical energy=work done=

Thus or

Shape of scale :

Since the deflection of the dynamometer type instrument is proportional to the


square of the current and change of mutual inductance between the coils w.r.t.
the deflection ., The instrument scale is not uniform but follows the square law
response if remains constant at all position the moving coil. The value of is
constant for a radial field but for a parallel field , it is not constant. For a parallel
field as shown in fig:
, the mutual inductance M between fixed coil and moving coil depends upon the
position of the moving coil . The maximum value of the mutual inductance
occurs when , as this position gives the maximum flux linkage . when
, . If the flux density of the magnetic field is uniform , the flux
linkage and hence the change in mutual inductance w.r.t. deflection follows sine
of the deflection as given by :

Thus the deflecting torque is given by:

And
It is clear from the above expression that instrument does not have pure square
law response . In electrodynamometer instruments , as usually constructed ,
varies from about to 135 , i.e. from to from the position of zero
mutual inductance and as changes in value of M over this range are not large i.e.
is practically constant over this range , the instrument shows almost a square
law response .

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Operation with D.C:

Let = current in fixed coil , = current in moving coil


Then deflecting torque:

At steady deflection : or , , where spring constant

Operation with A.C.:


Let and be the instantaneous values of currents carried by the coils .

Therefore , the instantaneous torque is :

The average deflection torque over a complete a.c. cycle is :

For sinusoidal current , and , where is phase


difference angle between them , then average torque is :

, where are r.m.s. values of currents


At steady condition , or
Thus for sinusoidal currents flowing through the coils , the deflecting torque and
the deflection is proportional to the product of the r.m.s. value of coil currents
and cosine of the phase angle between them .

Electrodynameter type Ammeter:

In Ammeter , the fixed and moving coils are series so that they can carry the

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same current
i.e. and

Deflecting torque and deflection


The current through the moving coil should not exceed 100mA .
For ammeter of higher capacity , A low resistance shunt should be connected
with the moving coil , while this parallel combination is connected in series with
the fixed coil. The shunt will limit the current through moving coil to 100mA .

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Electrodynameter type Voltmeter:

In voltmeter configuration , the two coils are connected in series along with a
high value non-inductive resistance . The deflecting torque But

, where
impedance of the series combination of two coils., V= unknown voltage to be
measured. The deflection

Errors in Electrodynamometer Instrument:

The main source of error in dynamometer type instruments are due to a) low
torque/weight ratio b) frequency c) eddy current external magnetic field d)
temperature change.

a) Torque /weight ratio

The magnetic field produced by air core coil is essentially small and therefore ,
the flux linkage per amp in the moving coil are also small;( Only 3 to 4 % of
flux linkage per A in the PMMC instrument) . Therefore the deflecting torque
is low . Thus to produce a reasonable deflecting torque , the m.m.f of the
moving coil must be increased . The m.m.f of the moving coil can be
increased by increasing the current through the coil or by increasing the no. of

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turns . The current through the moving coil can not be increased beyond
200mA as otherwise the spring would be heated too much . On the other
hand an increase the no. of turns of the moving coil, will give rise a heavy
moving system and , therefore , the friction losses in electrodynamometer
type instrument are larger than in other type .

b) Frequency

The frequency error of dynamometer type instrument is due to largely as a


result of variation of self reactance of coils with frequency . In case of
voltmeter , deflection : , where is the impedance of the fixed
and moving coils in series .
Since and , therefore , the value Z increases with frequency
and hence the voltmeter tend to read low as the frequency is increased .
Therefore , in order to reduce frequency error in voltmeter , the coil winding is
made a very small part of the circuit . This makes the inductive reactance , a
small fraction of total impedance and therefore , . This means that the
frequency does not effect the calibration of the instrument . In fact ,
electrodynamometer voltmeters may be used , in general , within their
guaranteed accuracy from D.C. to 125 Hz.

In order to reduce frequency error , the ratio of currents in fixed and moving
coils should be independent of frequency . This requires the time constants
of two circuits should be the same .
Let = resistance , inductance and impedance of fixed coil circuit.
=resistance , inductance and impedance of the moving coil circuit.

Then

Now , if , ratio of currents with A.C. becomes and the ratio

of currents with D.C. is

Thus the ratio of currents with A.C. is the same as with D.C. , if the time
constants ( ratio ) of fixed and moving coil circuits are same . Therefore ,
the frequency error in shunted ammeters can be eliminated by having equal
time constants for both fixed and moving coil circuits . Also the phase
difference between the two currents is zero.

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c) Eddy current

The effect of eddy currents is to produce a torque as a result of magnetic


interaction between moving coil and adjacent metal parts. Hence , metal parts
in the coil support is kept to minimum possible . If any metal parts are to be
used , then it must be of high receptivity so as to reduce eddy currents
induced in it . The metal present in coil support , in the shield etc. produces a
frequency error in the instrument .

d) External magnetic field

Since the operating field in electrodynamometer instruments is weak ,


therefore , these instruments must be protected from the external magnetic
fields . portable instruments use metal shields which serve to isolate the coils
from external influence. Precision type of instruments are unshielded as eddy
currents are induced in metal shields which introduces error . In precision
instruments the influence of external magnetic field can be minimized by
using “Astatic system”. Astatic electrodynamometer instruments are
constructed with two similar sets of fixed and moving coils mounted on the
same shaft . the two pairs of fixed coils are so connected that their magnetic
fields are in opposition . The current in the moving coils are also opposed and ,
in consequence , the deflecting torque produced by the moving coil act in the
same direction . Since the two fields are in opposition and therefore , any
uniform external field reduces the filed of one coil and increases by an equal
amount , the field of the other coil. Therefore the deflecting torque produced
by one coil is increased while that produced by the other coil is reduced by an
equal amount , and thus , the net torque on account of the external magnetic
field is zero.

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e) Temperature changes

High currents are carried by coils which produce heat . Self-heating of


coils produces error . High accuracy instruments contain temperature
compensating resistors which tend to neutralize the effects of
temperature changes.