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Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112

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Composite Structures
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

Nonlinear static/dynamic analysis for elasto-plastic laminated plates with


interfacial damage evolution
Yanping Tian *, Yiming Fu, Yiqi Mao
Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Simulation Techniques for Special Equipment, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China
College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A new analysis model, which includes the effects of interfacial damage, geometrical nonlinearity and
Available online 18 June 2010 material nonlinearity, is presented for elasto-plastic laminated plates. Based on the model, the nonlinear
equilibrium differential equations for elasto-plastic laminated plates with interfacial damage are estab-
Keywords: lished. The finite difference method and iteration method are adopted to solve these equations. The non-
Laminated plates linear static and dynamic behaviors for the elasto-plastic laminated plates under the action of transverse
Interfacial damage loads are analyzed. Effects of interfacial damage on the stress and displacement distribution and nonlin-
Elasto-plastic
ear dynamic response are discussed in the numerical examples together with the comparison of nonlin-
Static/dynamic analysis
ear mechanical behaviors between the elastic and elasto-plastic laminated plates. Numerical results
show that both the interfacial damage and plastic deformation put obvious influence on the mechanical
properties of structures.
Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction point in each interface is treated equally in the model. To some ex-
tent, it is not accurate due to the complicated stress conditions at
The advantages of higher strength-to-weight and stiffness-to- interface. Also this model cannot describe the interfacial damage
weight ratios, better corrosion resistance, longer fatigue life and evolution with the changes of external loads. An interfacial consti-
directionality properties, have greatly attributed to increasing de- tutive model based on the Cohesive Zone theory is getting more
mands of composite laminated structures in many challenging attentions recently [6–13]. This model relates traction to the rela-
fields. As a result of manufacturing processes and operating condi- tive displacement at an interface where a micro-defect may occur,
tions, interfacial damage can occur between the constituent lami- and the interfacial damage initiation is related to the interfacial
nae of the laminated structures, and result in debonding of strength. Through introducing a single scalar damage parameter
imperfect interfaces. The interfacial damage could possibly lead associating with the area of micro-defects in a representative unit,
to stiffness degradation and has evident influence on mechanical the effective stiffness of the interface is obtained, and the interfa-
properties of structures. It should be noted that structures are still cial damage constitutive equations is subsequently established.
able to bear certain loads even after exceeding the yield limits. The interfacial damage evolution equation is also achieved with
Considering the limitations of elastic theory, it is quite necessary the coupling of the conventional stress-based and fracture-
to use the elasto-plastic theory for the mechanical properties anal- mechanics-based failure criteria. The model can also be easily
ysis from the perspectives of safety and economy. implemented into an existing FE code via an ‘‘interface element”
Appropriate interfacial constitutive relations are one of the [11].
essential issues in the analysis for mechanical properties of lami- Determination of the displacements distribution field is also a
nated structures. Weakly bonded model has been generally substantial subject in the analysis of interfacial problems. Since
adopted [1–5], in which the imperfect interface conditions are de- analysis of interfacial stresses rxz, ryz, rz is involved, the high-order
scribed in terms of linear relations between the interface traction shear deformation model, even the exact three-dimension model
in the normal and tangential directions, and the displacement are preferentially adopted. A generalized six-freedom displace-
jumps, respectively. And the stiffness degradation of an arbitrary ment field for laminated plates with interfacial damage has been
established [14–16]. However, the solutions of the shape functions
are relatively complex and the method is also confined to sinusoi-
* Corresponding author at: College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, dal loads. Another new Von-Karman type displacement model is
Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China. Tel.: +86 731 8882 2421; fax: +86
731 8882 2366.
developed [17–20], in which the shape functions are easy to
E-mail address: tianyanp@gmail.com (Y. Tian). be solved, and the method sets no limitations on load, but the

0263-8223/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2010.06.010
104 Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112

transverse normal deformation is not taken into consideration. A fracture mode I in fracture mechanics, and 2 and 3 are the other
displacement field model with interfacial damage considering two orthogonal directions in the interface plane, which correspond
ðkÞ
transverse shear and normal deformation has been built [21,22]. to the fracture modes II and III. di are the relative displacement
0ðkÞ
The solutions of the shape functions in the model are relatively components across the kth interface and ki are interfacial con-
simple while the conditions of bounding surfaces are not consid- straints or penalty stiffnesses of the interface.
ered. Thus, the deviations of calculated results in the upper and The interfacial stiffness can be regarded as penalty parameters
lower surfaces caused by the adopted model cannot be ignored. to simulate the real connection between two neighboring layers
A refined third-order Hermitian Zig-zag theory with transverse before delaminations initiate. They should be large enough to pro-
normal deformation described has been presented [23–26], but vide real connections but small enough to avoid numerical prob-
the geometrical nonlinearity is not counted. Basically, the shape lems. The interfacial constraint stiffnesses are suggest choose as
functions are needed to be determined in all the models mentioned [10]
above, and the complexity of the solutions matter even for the 0ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
elastic laminated structures. For elasto-plastic laminated struc- ki ¼ ki Sic ð2Þ
tures, solutions of the shape functions are even more complex. Also where
ðkÞ
ki
are reciprocal value of relative displacements, and
attention shall be paid that a simple Shear-lag analysis model [27] ðkÞ
ki ¼ 10 —1010 m1 . Sic are the interlaminar strengths. The relative
8 ðkÞ

in the interfacial analysis. The interfacial damage is not taken into ðkÞ
displacements di should be zero to represent the displacement
consideration while the shape function is avoided in the model. continuity across the interface for perfect interface but tiny non-
Using the interfacial damage constitutive model based on the vanishing values may result from such a penalty approach in Eq.
Cohesive Zone model and Shear-lag model, a new analysis model (1). However, this will not affect the accuracy if the magnitudes
for elasto-plastic laminated plates with interfacial damage evolu- ðkÞ ðkÞ
of ki are selected properly. The maximum value of di across the
tion is presented in the paper. By adopting the model, the nonlinear interface before interfacial damage occurs is tiny enough, and can
static and dynamic analysis for elasto-plastic cross-ply laminated be served as a numerical error in calculation and will not influence
plates with interfacial damage evolution under the action of trans- the global mechanical properties of structures.
verse load is subsequently analyzed. The presented model and As the loading increase, micro-defects such as micro-cracks and
method could also be applied to the interfacial damage analysis micro-voids initiate at the interfaces, and macro-cracks and delam-
of general ply laminated plates under the action of arbitrary loads. inations form with these micro-defects grow and coalesce. Based
on the damage mechanics theory, a dimensionless variable x is
2. Fundamental equations introduced to represent the fractional area of micro-defects in a
representative unit of the interface before macro-cracks and del-
Consider a composite laminated rectangular plate with thick- aminations form, as illustrated in Fig. 2. It is clear that x = 0 repre-
ness h, length a, width b and layers N as shown in Fig. 1. The mass sents the undamaged state for perfect interface, and x = 1
density of each layer is q(k). The global coordinate system oxyz is represents the macro-crack or delaminations occur. As the micro-
located on the mid-surface of the undeformed plate (z = 0). The defects will not be cured at interface, the incremental damage
kth interface (k = 0, 1, . . . , N) is located between the kth and dx P 0. Using x(k) represents the damage variable of the kth inter-
k + 1th layers (k = 1, 2, . . . , N). Let h(k) (k = 1, 2, . . . , N) denote the face, the effective constraint stiffnesses can be described as
0ðkÞ ðkÞ
thickness of the kth layer. The transverse distributed load q(x, y, t) ð1  xðkÞ Þki . When the relative normal displacement d1 < 0,
is applied on the upper surface of the laminated plate. the micro-cracks will not open, i.e. the mode I crack is restrained.
To prevent penetration of the interfaces, the stiffness of the inter-
face in this direction will regain its initial value and not degrade. By
2.1. Interfacial damage constitutive equations ðkÞ
introducing a parameter a1 , the interfacial damage constitutive
equations can be written as
The interfacial tractions, i.e. interlaminar normal and shear
(
stresses, before damage occurs can be expressed as   ðkÞ
1; d1 P 0
ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
r ¼ z k1 1a x
1 d1 ; a ¼
1 ðkÞ
rðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ
rxzðkÞ ¼ k20ðkÞ d2ðkÞ ; ryz
ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ 0; d1 < 0
z ¼ k1 d1 ; ¼ k3 d3 ð1Þ ð3Þ
0ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
rðkÞ
xz ¼ k2 ð1  x Þd2
the subscript 1 indicates the through thickness direction in 0ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
interface, which corresponds to the conventional definition of the
rðkÞ
yz ¼ k3 ð1  x Þd3

a
o x Layer 1
0
1
h 2
.. 2
y
o
k
k
b k+1

Layer N
N

y z z
o
θk x
2 1

y z
Fig. 1. Geometry of laminated plates.
Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112 105

Interface and from Eq. (8), we have


Composite layers
ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
dGI ¼ a1 rðkÞ
z dd1 ; dGII ¼ rðkÞ
xz dd2 ; dGIII ¼ rðkÞ
yz dd3 ð11Þ

Using the consistency condition dF(k) = 0, i.e.

@F ðkÞ ðkÞ @F ðkÞ ðkÞ


dF ðkÞ ¼ ðkÞ
drij þ ðkÞ
dGi ¼ 0 ð12Þ
Interfacial damage zone 1 @r ij @Gi
By substituting Eqs. (10) and (11) into Eq. (12), the incremental
Representative unit damage evolution equation can be described in terms of incremen-
tal relative displacements as
ω @F ðkÞ 0ðkÞ

ðkÞ

ðkÞ @F ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ
dxðkÞ ¼ ðkÞ
k1 1  a1 xðkÞ dd1 þ ðkÞ k2 ð1  xðkÞ Þdd2
Fig. 2. Scheme of interfacial damage. @r z @ rxz
@F ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ @F ðkÞ
The damage initiation can be predicted by the conventional stress- þ ðkÞ
k3 ð1  xðkÞ Þdd3 þ ðkÞ
a1ðkÞ rzðkÞ ddðkÞ
1
based failure criterion, i.e. @r yz @GI
!
  @F ðkÞ @F ðkÞ
fsðkÞ r ðkÞ
ij 1¼0 ð4Þ þ rðkÞ dd2ðkÞ þ
ðkÞ xz
rðkÞ ddðkÞ
ðkÞ yz 3
@G @GIII
ðkÞ , II !
where fs is a failure function and often adopted as @F ðkÞ ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ @F ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ @F ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ
0  12 ðkÞ
a1 k1 d1 þ k d2
ðkÞ 2
þ k d3
ðkÞ 3
ð13Þ
!2 !2 @ rz @r @r
max rzðkÞ ; 0 rxzðkÞ rðkÞ
yz
xz yz

fsðkÞ ¼ @ ðkÞ
A þ
ðkÞ
þ ðkÞ
ð5Þ ðkÞ
It can be seen that when d1 < 0, i.e. a1 ¼ 0, the transverse normal
ðkÞ
S1c S2c S3c ðkÞ ðkÞ
stress rz and energy release rate GI have no contribution on dam-
For the interface with existing delaminations, a fracture mechanics age evolution.
approach has proved successful in dealing with its evolution. The
failure criterion for delaminations evolution can be expressed by 2.2. Constitutive relationship of layers
the energy release rates law of fracture mechanics:
  Define the local coordinate system o12z in the kth layer of the
ðkÞ
fgðkÞ Gi 1¼0 ð6Þ laminated plate along the material principal direction. The axes 1
ðkÞ
is along with the fibre direction, and the hk counterclockwise ro-
where Gi ði ¼ I; II; IIIÞ are the components of energy release rate tates from axes 1 to axes x is positive, axes 2 is normal to the fibre
ðkÞ
correspond to fracture modes I, II, and III. The form of fg is often direction as seen in Fig. 1. The incremental elasto-plastic constitu-
adopted as follows: tive equations in the local coordinate system can be derived as Tian
!a !b !c et al. [28].
ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
GI GII GIII The mixed hardening yield criterion of the kth layer is
fgðkÞ ¼ þ þ ð7Þ
ðkÞ
GIc
ðkÞ
GIIc
ðkÞ
GIIIc  
F ðkÞ
p ¼ f rij  b^ijðkÞ  ½r~ ðkÞ ðepðkÞ Þ2
ðkÞ ^ ðkÞ
ð14Þ
ðrÞ
where Gic ði ¼ I; II; IIIÞ are the components of critical energy release  
rate. The linear failure criterion (a = b = c = 1) or quadratic failure where f ðkÞ r^ ðkÞ ^ðkÞ is the yield function, r
^ ðkÞ ^ðkÞ
ij  bij ij and bij are Cauchy
criterion (a = b = c = 2) are most frequently chosen. The energy re-
stress and back stress in the local coordinate system. r ~ ðkÞ is the
lease rates for the three modes of delaminations can be expressed as
equivalent active stress, which is the function of equivalent plastic
Z d1
ðkÞ Z ðkÞ
d2 strain ep .
ðkÞ
GI ¼ a1ðkÞ rðkÞ ðkÞ
z dd1 ;
ðkÞ
GII ¼ rðkÞ ðkÞ
xz dd2 ; The yield function of the kth layer is defined as
0 0 
Z ðkÞ K ðkÞ2  ðkÞ 2  2  2  2 
d3 ðkÞ
ðkÞ ðkÞ f ðkÞ ¼ r~ 11  r~ 22 þ r~ ðkÞ þ  r
~ ðkÞ
þ 2 r~ ðkÞ
ð15Þ
GIII ¼ rðkÞ
yz dd3 ð8Þ 2 22 11 12
0
ðkÞ And the equivalent active stress as
where the parameter a1 in Eq. (8) has the same physical signifi- rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
cance as in Eq. (3). K ðkÞ  2  2  2  2
ðkÞ
~ ðkÞ
r ¼ pffiffiffi r~ 11 r ~ ðkÞ
22 þ r
ðkÞ
~ 22 þ r ~ ðkÞ
11 þ2 r
ðkÞ
~ 12 ð16Þ
Treating delamination as a damage process in the continuum 2
damage mechanics involve two aspects, the initiation and the evo-
where the constant K(k) has the stress dimension and can be deter-
lution of the damage, so the damage surface at interfaces can be de-
fined in the stress space rij and energy release rate space Gi as [11] ~ ijðkÞ is the dimen-
mined by the tension test in simple stress states. r
    h  i r^ ðkÞ ^ðkÞ
b
F ðkÞ rijðkÞ ; GiðkÞ ¼ fsðkÞ rijðkÞ  1  uðkÞ fgðkÞ ¼0 ð9Þ ~ ðkÞ
sionless active stress, and r ij ¼
ij ij
ði; j ¼ 1; 2Þ, no summation
RijðkÞ
ðkÞ ðkÞ
in which u(k) is a monotonically increasing function of fg satisfying
ðkÞ with respect to i,j. R 11 and R 22 are yield stresses in the directions
ðkÞ
u(k)(0) = 0 and u(k)(1) = 1. When F(k) < 0, the interfacial damage will of 1 and 2, R is the yield pure shear stresses in plane of 1–2.
12
not develop and dx(k) = 0 ; when F(k) = 0, the damage develops. The equivalent plastic strain of the kth layer is
pffiffiffi  2  2  2
The incremental interfacial damage constitutive equations can 2
be derived from Eq. (3) as epðkÞ ¼ RðkÞ ^pðkÞ ðkÞ pðkÞ
11 e11  R22 e22
^ ðkÞ pðkÞ
þ R22 ^e22
ðkÞ pðkÞ
þ R11 ^e11
ðkÞ
  3K
12
9  ðkÞ pðkÞ 2
0ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ
drzðkÞ ¼ k1 1  a1 xðkÞ dd1  a1 k1 d1 dxðkÞ
þ R ^e ð17Þ
ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ ð10Þ 2 12 12
drxz ¼ k2 ð1  xðkÞ Þdd2  k2 d2 dxðkÞ
pðkÞ
ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ where ^eij are the plastic strain components in the local coordinate
dryz ¼ k3 ð1  xðkÞ Þdd3  k3 d3 dxðkÞ
system.
106 Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112

ðkÞ ðkÞ
Choose the plastic potential function is identical as the yield X ij d^eij
function, and by using the associated flow rule, the plastic strain kpðkÞ ¼ ð28Þ
SðkÞ
increment in local coordinate can be obtained as
where
pðkÞ @F pðkÞ @f ðkÞ
d^eij ¼ kðkÞ
p ðkÞ
¼ kðkÞ
p ði; j ¼ 1; 2Þ ð18Þ ðkÞ ðkÞ
X ij ¼ akl Q klij
eðkÞ
@r
^ ij ^ ijðkÞ
@r
ðkÞ eðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
SðkÞ ¼ aij Q ijkl akl þ cðkÞ ð1  aðkÞ Þaij aij þ 4r
~ ðkÞ2 HðkÞ0 ð29Þ
in which kp is a non-negative scalar named plastic multiplier or con-
sistency parameter. Substituting Eq. (15) into Eq. (18), we have the subscripts i,j,k,l in above equation obey the sum convention,
ðkÞ ðkÞ
where aij ¼ 1ðkÞ @f~ ðkÞ , and no summation with respect to i,j.
pðkÞ K ðkÞ2  ðkÞ ðkÞ
 Rij @ rij
d^e11 ¼ kpðkÞ ðkÞ 2r ~ 11  r
~ 22
R11 Substituting Eq. (28) into Eq. (26), the incremental elasto-plas-
tic damage constitutive equations of the kth layer in the local coor-
pðkÞ K ðkÞ2  ðkÞ ðkÞ

d^e22 ¼ kpðkÞ ðkÞ
2r
~ 22  r
~ 11 ð19Þ dinate system can be written as
R22  
^ ijðkÞ ¼ Q
dr b eðkÞ  Q
b pðkÞ d^eðkÞ ð30Þ
pðkÞ K ðkÞ2 ðkÞ ijkl ijkl kl
d^e12 ¼ 2kpðkÞ ðkÞ r~ 12
ðkÞ ðkÞ
R12 where Q b pðkÞ
¼ S
X ij X
kl
is the plastic stiffness coefficient. Therefore, the
ijkl ðkÞ

Then substituting Eq. (19) into Eq. (16), the relationship between incremental elasto-plastic constitutive equations of damaged mate-
the equivalent active stress and plastic strain increments can be ob- rials in the local coordinate system are
tained as  
^ ijðkÞ ¼ Q
dr b pðkÞ d^eðkÞ ¼ Q
b ðkÞ  aðkÞ Q b ðkÞ d^eðkÞ ð31Þ
 2  2 ijkl 2 ijkl kl ijkl kl
1 ðkÞ pðkÞ ðkÞ pðkÞ ðkÞ pðkÞ
r~ ðkÞ ¼ pffiffiffi R11 d^e11  R22 d^e22 þ R22 d^e22
3 2K ðkÞ kðkÞ
p
ðkÞ b ðkÞ
where a2 is called the elasto-plastic condition multiplier, and Q ijkl
 2 9  2  1
2 @f ðkÞ
ðkÞ pðkÞ
þ R11 d^e11 þ
ðkÞ
R12 pðkÞ
d^e12 ð20Þ is the elasto-plastic stiffness coefficient. When F ðkÞ
p ¼ 0 and ðkÞ
@r
^
2 ij

ðkÞ ðkÞ @f ðkÞ ðkÞ


^ ij > 0, then a2 ¼ 1. When F ðkÞ
dr ðkÞ
p < 0, or F p ¼ 0 and dr
^ ij 6
Define the equivalent plastic strain as @r
^
ij
ðkÞ

pffiffiffi  2  2 ðkÞ
2 ðkÞ pðkÞ ðkÞ pðkÞ ðkÞ pðkÞ 0, then a2 ¼ 0.
depðkÞ ¼ R11 d^e11  R22 d^e22 þ R22 d^e22
3K ðkÞ The incremental elasto-plastic constitutive equations in the glo-
 2 9  2 12 bal coordinate systems can be derived as follows. Rewritten Eq.
ðkÞ pðkÞ pðkÞ
þ R11 d^e11 þ RðkÞ de
^ ð21Þ (31) as
2 12 12
dr b ðkÞ  d^eðkÞ
^ ðkÞ ¼ Q ð32Þ
Comparing Eqs. (20) and (21), the following relationship can be
obtained: The relationship between the incremental stress dr in local coor- ^ ðkÞ
~ ðkÞ kpðkÞ
depðkÞ ¼ 2r ð22Þ dinate system and the incremental stress dr(k) in global coordinate
system is
The incremental back stress tensor of the kth layer can be defined as
a linear function of the incremental plastic strain tensor, that is ^ ðkÞ ¼ T ðkÞ
dr r  dr
ðkÞ
ð33Þ

@f ðkÞ And the transform relationship of the incremental strain de in lo- ^ðkÞ
^ ¼ cðkÞ ð1  aðkÞ ÞkðkÞ
db
ðkÞ
ð23Þ
ij p
^ ijðkÞ cal coordinate system and the incremental stress de(k) in global
@r
coordinate system is
where c(k) is a ratio constant, and a(k) is the mixed hardening
d^eðkÞ ¼ T ðkÞ
e  de
ðkÞ
ð34Þ
parameter.
The total incremental strain is composed of elastic strain incre-  T
ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
ment and plastic strain increment In plane stress state, drðkÞ ¼ drx ; dry ; drxy , deðkÞ ¼
 T
ðkÞ eðkÞ pðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
d^eij ¼ d^eij þ d^eij ð24Þ dex ; dey ; dexy . T ðkÞ ðkÞ
r and T e are stress transform matrix and
strain transform matrix of the kth layer, respectively. They can be
The increment elastic constitutive relations of the kth layer are
expressed as
^ ðkÞ
dr b eðkÞ ^eðkÞ
ij ¼ Q ijkl dekl ði; j; k; l ¼ 1; 2Þ ð25Þ
T ðkÞð1Þ
r ¼ T ðkÞT
e
in which Qb eðkÞ is the elastic stiffness coefficient. Substituting Eqs. 2 2
3
ijkl cos2 hk sin hk sin hk cos hk
(18) and (24) into Eq. (25), we have ðkÞ 6 2 7 ð35Þ
Te ¼ 4 sin hk cos2 hk  sin hk cos hk 5
ðkÞ
!
^ ðkÞ
dr b eðkÞ d^eðkÞ  kðkÞ @F p 2 sin hk cos hk 2 sin hk cos hk cos 2hk
ij ¼ Q ijkl kl p ð26Þ
^ ðkÞ
@r kl Then the incremental elasto-plastic constitutive equations of the
Using the consistency condition, and set HðkÞ0 ¼ dder~pðkÞ , then from Eq.
ðkÞ
kth layer in the global coordinate system can be obtained as
(14) we have  
drðkÞ ¼ T ðkÞT b dðkÞ  T ðkÞ  deðkÞ ¼ Q ðkÞ  deðkÞ
Q ð36Þ
e e
@f ðkÞ
~ ðkÞ
dr ~ ðkÞ ðkÞ0 depðkÞ ¼ 0
ij  2r H ð27Þ b ðkÞ  T ðkÞ represents the elasto-plastic stiffness
~ ðkÞ
@r where Q ðkÞ ¼ T ðkÞT
e Q e
ij
coefficient in the global coordinate system. In the following analy-
Substituting Eqs. (18), (22), (23) and (26) into the above equation, sis, the subscripts 11, 22, 12 are replaced by 1, 2, 6 for simplify,
the following can be obtained respectively.
Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112 107

2.3. Nonlinear equilibrium equations h i Z hðkÞ =2 h i


dNxðkÞ dNðkÞ
y dNðkÞ
xy ¼ drðkÞ
x dryðkÞ ðkÞ
drxy dz
ðkÞ
h =2
Based on the Shear-lag interface model [27], a new simple mod- Z ð43Þ
h i hðkÞ =2 h i
el for laminated plates with interfacial damage evolution can be dM xðkÞ dMyðkÞ dM ðkÞ ¼ dr ðkÞ
dr ðkÞ
dr ðkÞ
z dz
xy x y xy
established. The constitutive equation of the adhesive layer in hðkÞ =2
the Shear-lag model can be replaced by the interfacial damage con-
Substituting Eqs. (36) and (32) into Eq. (43), we have
stitutive equations in Eq. (10), and then the equilibrium equations ( ) " #( )
ðkÞ
of each layer can be established. The relationship of adjacent layers dNðkÞ AðkÞ BðkÞ de0
¼ ð44Þ
can be obtained from the constitutive equation of the adhesive dM ðkÞ BðkÞ DðkÞ djðkÞ
layers.
Set the local coordinate system o(k)x(k)y(k)z(k) in the kth layer of where
the laminated plate, the axes x(k), y(k), z(k) are paralleled with x, y, Z hðkÞ =2 Z hðkÞ =2
z of the global coordinate system, and the reference plane z(k) = 0 ðkÞ
Aij ¼
ðkÞ
Q ij dz;
ðkÞ
Bij ¼
ðkÞ
Q ij z dz;
ðkÞ
Dij
is located on the mid-surface of the kth layer. Let u(k), v(k), w(k) as hðkÞ =2 hðkÞ =2

the displacement of the mid-surface along the direction of x(k), Z hðkÞ =2


ðkÞ
y(k), z(k) in the local coordinate system, respectively. The displace- ¼ Q ij z2 dz ð45Þ
hðkÞ =2
ment components of an arbitrary point of each layer can denoted
ðk1Þ
as The loads in the upper and lower surfaces of the kth layer are rxz ,
ðk1Þ ðk1Þ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
ðkÞ
ryz , rz and rxz , ryz , rz ðk ¼ 0; 1; . . . ; NÞ, and
u1 ðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ uðkÞ ðx; y; tÞ  zðkÞ w;xðkÞ
ðkÞ
rð0Þ ðNÞ
xz ¼ rxz ¼ 0; rð0Þ ðNÞ
yz ¼ ryz ¼ 0; rzð0Þ ¼ q; rzðNÞ ¼ 0 ð46Þ
u2 ðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ v ðkÞ ðx; y; tÞ  zðkÞ wðkÞ
;y
ð37Þ
ðkÞ Using the classical nonlinear plate theory, the nonlinear equilibrium
u3 ðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ wðkÞ ðx; y; tÞ
equations of the kth layer can be expressed as
where z(k) is the distance of an arbitrary point of the kth layer to its ðkÞ
Nx;x þ N ðkÞ ðkÞ ðk1Þ
xy;y þ rxz  rxz ¼0
mid-surface through thickness direction, and the subscript (,) repre- ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
Nxy;x þ Ny;y þ ryz  rðk1Þ
yz ¼0
sents the partial derivative of the variable. The relative displace-    
ments of the kth interface are M x;xx þ 2Mxy;xy þ M y;yy þ NðkÞ
ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
x w;x þ N xy w;y þ NyðkÞ w;y
ðkÞ
þ NðkÞ ðkÞ
xy w;x
;x ;y

h  ðkÞ 
ðkÞ
d1 ¼ wðkþ1Þ  wðkÞ ðkÞ
ðk1Þ
þ rxz;x þ rxz;x þ rðkÞ ðk1Þ
yz;y þ ryz;y
1  ðkþ1Þ ðkþ1Þ  2
 ðkÞ  ðkÞ 
ðkÞ ðkÞ
d2 ¼ uðkþ1Þ  uðkÞ þ h w;x þ h w;xðkÞ ð38Þ 
2 þ rðkÞ ðk1Þ
xz  rxz w;x þ ryz  ryz ðk1Þ ðkÞ
w;y
ðkÞ 1  ðkþ1Þ ðkþ1Þ ðkÞ ðkÞ

d3 ¼v ðkþ1Þ
v þ
ðkÞ
h w;y þ h w;y þ rðkÞ ðk1Þ
¼ IðkÞ
ðkÞ
2 z  rz q w;tt

And the corresponding incremental displacements are ð47Þ


=ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
ðkÞ where Iq ¼ q h .
dd1 ¼ dwðkþ1Þ  dwðkÞ
The corresponding incremental nonlinear equilibrium equa-
ðkÞ 1  ðkþ1Þ ðkþ1Þ ðkÞ

tions are
dd2 ¼ duðkþ1Þ  duðkÞ þ h dw;x þ h dwðkÞ
;x ð39Þ
2 ðkÞ
dNx;x þ dN ðkÞ ðkÞ ðk1Þ
xy;y þ drxz  drxz ¼0
ðkÞ 1  ðkþ1Þ ðkþ1Þ ðkÞ

dd3 ¼ dv ðkþ1Þ
 dv þ
ðkÞ
h dw;y þ h dw;y ðkÞ
ðkÞ
þ dNðkÞ ðkÞ ðk1Þ
2 dNxy;x y;y þ dryz  dryz ¼0

where du(k), dv(k), dw(k) represent the incremental displacements of dMðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
x;xx þ 2dM xy;xy þ dM y;yy þ dN x w;xx þ 2dN xy w;xy þ dN y w;yy þ N x dw;xx
ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
the mid-surface of the kth layer. The incremental strains in the mid- þ 2Nxy dwðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
;xy þ N y dw;yy þ dN x dw;xx þ 2dN xy dw;xy þ dN y dw;yy
ðkÞ

surface of the kth layer can be defined as


h  ðkÞ  
ðkÞ
ðk1Þ ðkÞ ðk1Þ
 ðkÞ
þ drxz;x þ drxz;x þ dryz;y þ dryz;y þ drðkÞ ðk1Þ
xz  drxz w;x
1 2  
de0ðkÞ
x ¼ du;xðkÞ þ w;xðkÞ dw;xðkÞ þ dw;xðkÞ2  ðkÞ ðk1Þ

2 þ rxz  rxz dwðkÞ ðkÞ
;x þ dryz  dryz
ðk1Þ ðkÞ
w;y
1 ð40Þ  
de0ðkÞ
y ¼ dv ðkÞ ðkÞ
;y þ w;y dw;y þ
ðkÞ
dw;y ðkÞ2
þ rðkÞyz  ryz
ðk1Þ
dw;y ðkÞ
þ drðkÞ
z  dr z
ðk1Þ
¼ IðkÞ
q dw;tt
ðkÞ
2
de0ðkÞ
xy
ðkÞ
¼ du;y þ dv ;xðkÞ þ wðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
;x dw;y þ w;y dw;x þ dw;x dw;y
ð48Þ

The variates of the curvature increments in the mid-surface of the Substituting Eqs. (10), (39)–(41), (44) and (46) into Eq. (48), the 3N
plate are nonlinear equilibrium equations of elasto-plastic laminated plates
with interfacial damage expressed in terms of du(k), dv(k), dw(k)
djxðkÞ ¼ dwðkÞ djðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
djxy ¼ 2dwðkÞ can be obtained.
;xx ; y ¼ dw;yy ; ;xy ð41Þ
Suppose all the boundaries of the plates are clamped, the
The incremental strains at an arbitrary point of each layer can be boundary conditions can be expressed as
expressed as
x ¼ 0; a : uðkÞ ¼ v ðkÞ ¼ wðkÞ ¼ wðkÞ
;x ¼ 0
ð49Þ
dexðkÞ ¼ de0ðkÞ
x þ zðkÞ djxðkÞ ; deðkÞ 0ðkÞ
y ¼ dey þ zðkÞ djðkÞ
y ; y ¼ 0; b : uðkÞ ¼ v ðkÞ ¼ wðkÞ ¼ w;y
ðkÞ
¼0
ðkÞ
dexy ¼ de0ðkÞ
xy þ z
ðkÞ ðkÞ
djxy ð42Þ

Denote N xðkÞ , NðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ 3. Solution methodology


y , N xy as the membrane stress resultants and M x ,
ðkÞ ðkÞ
My , Mxy as the stress couples of the kth layer, then the correspond-
ing incremental resultants dN xðkÞ , dNðkÞ ðkÞ The damage increment of an arbitrary point at interfaces depends
y , dN xy and incremental cou-
ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
ples dMx , dM y , dMxy can be defined as mainly on the current stress value, current damage degree and the
108 Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112

relative displacement increments, and the damage of each point is ðkÞ


then a2 ¼ 0, denote the elastic loading or unloading, and
different even at the same load step. Meanwhile, the relationship the incremental equivalent plastic strain ðdep ÞN ¼ 0. The
of elasto-plastic stress and strain relates to the current stress and current equivalent plastic strain is ðepðkÞ Þn ¼ ðepðkÞ Þn1 þ
deformation history. Thus, it is impossible to obtain the analytic
ðdepðkÞ Þn .
solutions with satisfying the boundary condition Eq. (49). The finite
(4) Determining the damage evolution. Calculate the current
difference method and iteration method are adopted here to solve
value of (F(k))n in Eq. (9). If (F(k))n < 0, the damage will not
the equations. The variables du(k), dv(k), dw(k) are separated in the
develop, and the damage increment is (dx(k))n = 0. If
whole space by the finite difference method, and the partial deriva-
F(k) = 0, the damage will develop, and the current damage
tives with respect to the space coordinate variables are replaced by
increment (dx(k))n can be calculated from Eq. (13). It should
the differential forms. Due to the elasto-plastic stiffness coefficient
ðkÞ ðkÞ be noted that when the relative normal displacement
Q ij relates to the current stresses and strains, the values of Aij ,  
ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
Bij , Dij cannot be obtained by direct integration along the thickness d1 < 0, the interface is extruded in the normal direction,
n  
of plate, so the compound trapezoid formula is used here to calculate ðkÞ
then a1 ¼ 0 ; while d1
ðkÞ
> 0, the interface is stretched in
n
the integration through the thickness direction. ðkÞ
the normal direction, then a1 ¼ 1. The current value of
In order to obtain the interfacial damage value under the action
damage is (x(k))n = (x(k))n1 + (dx(k))n.
of an arbitrary load, the load is supposed to be applied by step, i.e.
(5) Taking n = n + 1, and turn to step (1).
q0 = n  Dq, where Dq is the load increment. At each loading step J,
the nonlinear items in equations and boundaries are linearized and
transformed as
4. Numerical examples and discussions
ðx  yÞJ ¼ ðxÞJ  ðyÞJp ð50Þ
For verifying the validity and reliability of the method, a test
where ðyÞJp is the average value of those obtained in the preceding example is calculated for the static problems of (0°/90°/0°) lami-
two iterations. For the initial step of the iteration, it can be deter- nated plates when the interfacial damage is not taken into consid-
mined by using the quadratic extrapolation, i.e. eration, i.e. x(k) = 0. The plate is under the action of a transverse
ðyÞJp ¼ AðyÞJ1 þ BðyÞJ2 þ CðyÞJ3 ð51Þ distributed static load q, and with identical layer thickness and
material. The material parameters and geometric parameters are
and for the different step of the iteration, the values of A, B and C can taken as [29]
be taken as follows
EL ¼ 250 GPa; ET ¼ 10 GPa; GLT ¼ 5 GPa; mLT ¼ 0:25;
J ¼ 1 : A ¼ 1; B ¼ 0; C ¼ 0 R11 ¼ 200 MPa; R22 ¼ 200 MPa; R66 ¼ 115:47 MPa;
J ¼ 2 : A ¼ 2; B ¼ 1; C ¼ 0 ð52Þ a ¼ 0:2 m; b ¼ 0:2 m; h ¼ 0:01 m
J P 3 : A ¼ 3; B ¼ 3; C ¼ 1
where the subscripts L and T refer to the directions parallel and nor-
In each step, the iteration lasts until the difference of the present mal to the fibers, respectively. Fig. 3 presents the relation of central
value and the former is smaller than 0.1%, and then continue the deflection and load, and Fig. 4 shows the stress distribution of the
calculation of the next step. central point along the thickness of plate, and the applied load is
The detailed process of solution is q = 1500 kN/m2. It can be clearly observed that the present solu-
tions agree well with the reference, which proves the reliability of
(1) Solving equations. Adopting the values of stress and damage the present results.
of the step n  1 as the current value of step n, the values of
4.1. Nonlinear static analysis of elasto-plastic laminated plates with
incremental displacements (du(k))n, (dv(k))n, (dw(k))n can be
(k) (k)
interfacial damage evolution
solved, and the corresponding displacements (u )n, (v )n,
(w(k))n of the step n can be obtained. Then the interfacial rel- In this part, the mechanical properties of the laminated plates
ative displacements (d(k))n and its corresponding incremen- with interfacial damage under the action of static transverse dis-
tal forms (dd(k))n can be calculated from Eqs. (38) and (39). tributed load are discussed. In the numerical examples, the
(2) Calculating the current stresses. Substituting the displace- ðkÞ
quadratic failure criteria is adopted and a = b = c = 2, uðkÞ ¼ fg .
ments and incremental displacements of the step n into
Eq. (36), the incremental stress components
  of the kth layer
ðkÞ
at the global coordinate system drij can be calculated, 2000
n
and the stress components of the step are obtained as
     
rðkÞ
ij
ðkÞ
¼ rij
ðkÞ
þ drij . The incremental stress com-
1500
n n1 n
ponents of the kth layer at the local coordinate system
 
q kN/m2)

dr^ ijðkÞ can be calculated from Eq. (31), and the correspond-
n      
ing stress components are r ^ ðkÞ
ij ¼ r^ ðkÞ
ij þ dr^ ðkÞ
ij . 1000
n n1 n
(3) Determining the material property. Substituting the stress
values of the local coordinate system into Eq. (14), then
500
the value of F ðkÞ
p can be calculated. If F pðkÞ ¼ 0 and
Present
@f ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ Belinha and Dinis[29]
^ ðkÞ
dr
^ ij > 0, then a2 ¼ 1, denotes the plastic loading, and
@r ij
0
the incremental equivalent plastic strain ðdepðkÞ Þn can be cal- 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
w/h
@f ðkÞ ðkÞ
culated by Eq. (21). If F pðkÞ < 0, or F pðkÞ ¼ 0 and ðkÞ dr
^ ij 6 s0,
@r
^
ij Fig. 3. Relation of central deflection and load.
Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112 109

0.004
0.4 Elastic no damage
0.003 Elastic damage
Elasto-plastic no damage
Elasto-plastic damage
0.2 0.002

0.001
z/h

0.0

u/a
0.000
-0.2
-0.001

Present -0.002
-0.4
Belinha and Dinis[29]

-200 -100 0 100 200 -0.003


-0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4
σx(MPa) z/h
Fig. 4. Stress distribution of the central point along the thickness of plate. Fig. 6. Effect of interfacial damage on distribution of displacement in axes x along
the thickness of plate.

A (0°/90°/0°) laminated plate with identical layer thickness and


material is studied, and the material parameters and geometrical Fig. 6 shows the effect of interfacial damage on the distribution
parameters are taken as [11] of displacement in axes x along the thickness of the plate. The hor-
izontal coordinate represents the thickness of plate, and the longi-
EL ¼ 140 GPa; ET ¼ 8:5 GPa; GLT ¼ 4:5 GPa; mLT ¼ 0:35; tudinal coordinate represents the displacement u(a/6, b/2, z) at the
S1c ¼ 85 MPa; S2c ¼ 70 MPa; GIc ¼ 188 J=m2 ; GIIc ¼ 416 J=m2 ; global coordinate system. No matter elastic plate or elasto-plastic
R11 ¼ 70 MPa; R22 ¼ 6 MPa; R66 ¼ 2 MPa; a ¼ 0:6; a ¼ 1 m; plate, the displacements at interfaces are discontinuous when the
b ¼ 1 m; h ¼ 0:1 m interfacial damage is not considered, which is due to the value of
ðrÞ
ki in calculation. However, the global structure analysis is not af-
The constant K(k) can be determined by the simple tension test, and fected. The discontinuity and jumps are obvious when the interfa-
ðkÞ
then K ðkÞ ¼ R11 can be determined. Select r  ðkÞ ðepðkÞ Þ ¼ RðkÞ
11 þ cial damage is considered, and the relative displacements at
pðkÞ 0:51
RðkÞ
11 ðe Þ in the numerical examples, and the initial damage of interfaces increase.
each layer is zero. The transverse uniform load is taken as Fig. 7 shows the effect of interfacial damage on the distribution
q ¼ q0 sin pax sin pby, where q0 is the amplitude of the load. of displacement in axes z along the thickness of the plate. The lon-
In the following analysis, the plate calculated by using the elas- gitudinal coordinate represents the displacement w(a/2, b/2, z) at
tic constitutive relationship is named as the elastic plate, and the the global coordinate system. We can see that the interfacial dam-
plate calculated from the elasto-plastic constitutive relationship age leads to the increase of deformation of the plate, but the jumps
is named as the elasto-plastic plate. at interfaces are not obvious due to the transverse compressive
Fig. 5 presents the relationship of the transverse deformation load. The deformation of the elasto-plastic plate is still larger than
and transverse load of the elasto-plastic laminated plates with that of the elastic plate.
interfacial damage. The horizontal coordinate represents the trans- Fig. 8 displays the effect of interfacial damage on the distribu-
verse load, and the longitudinal coordinate represents the deflec- tion of normal stress along the thickness of the plate. The longitu-
tion w(1)(a/2, b/2) of the central point of layer 1. It can be dinal coordinate represents the stress rx(a/2, b/2, z) at the global
observed that the interfacial damage develops and the plate defor- coordinate system. Fig. 9 displays the effect of interfacial damage
mation increases with the increasing load. The deformation of the on the distribution of shear stress along the thickness of the plate.
elasto-plastic plate is larger than that of the elastic plate. The longitudinal coordinate represents the stress rxy(a/3, b/3, z) at
the global coordinate system. It is clear that the interfacial damage

0.6 0.23
Elastic no damage Elastic no damage
Elastic damage Elastic damage
0.5 Elasto-plastic no damage Elasto-plastic no damage
Elasto-plastic damage 0.22
Elasto-plastic damage

0.4
0.21
w /h

w/h

0.3
(1)

0.20
0.2

0.1 0.19

0.0 0.18
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4
q0 / ET z/h

Fig. 5. Relationship of transverse deformation and transverse load of the elasto- Fig. 7. Effect of interfacial damage on distribution of displacement in axes z along
plastic laminated plates with interfacial damage. the thickness of plate.
110 Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112

16 3
Elasto-plastic no damage
Elastic no damage
Elasto-plastic damage
Elastic damage
2
8
1
σx /q0

σx /q0
0 0

-1
-8
-2

-16 -3
-0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4
z/h z/h
(a) Elastic plate (b) Elasto-plastic plate
Fig. 8. Effect of interfacial damage on normal stress rx(a/2, b/2, z) along the thickness of plate.

0.4
Elastic no damage Elasto-plastic no damage
Elastic damage 0.2 Elasto-plastic damage

0.2
0.1
σxy /q0

σxy /q0

0.0
0.0

-0.2
-0.1

-0.4 -0.2
-0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4
z/h z/h
(a) Elastic plate (b) Elasto-plastic plate
Fig. 9. Effect of interfacial damage on shear stress rxy(a/3, b/3, z) along the thickness of plate.

arouses the stress level degrade, the stress of the elasto-plastic


plate is smaller than that of the elastic plate, and the nonlinearity Elastic
0.2 Elasto-plastic
of stress distribution occurs due to the plastic deformation.

4.2. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of elasto-plastic laminated plates with 0.1


interfacial damage evolution
w /h

Here, the mechanical properties of the laminated plates with 0.0


(1)

interfacial damage under the action of dynamic transverse distrib-


uted load are discussed. In the numerical examples, the quadratic
ðkÞ -0.1
failure criteria is adopted and a = b = c = 2, uðkÞ ¼ fg . A (0°/90°/
0°) laminated plate with identical layer thickness and material is
studied, and the material parameters are taken as Section 4.1. -0.2
The geometrical parameters are a = 1 m, b = 1 m, h/a = 16. The con-
ðkÞ ðkÞ
stant K(k) is also set as K ðkÞ ¼ R11 . Select r  ðkÞ ðepðkÞ Þ ¼ R11 þ 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030
pðkÞ 0:51
RðkÞ
11 ðe Þ in the numerical examples, and the initial damage of t
each layer is zero. The transverse uniform load is taken as
q ¼ q0 sin pax sin pby sin ht, where q0 and h are amplitude and fre- Fig. 10. Comparison of nonlinear dynamic response between elastic and elasto-
plastic laminated plate.
quency of the load, respectively. In the following examples,
q0 = 0.0046ET, h = 1000, and both the initial velocity and accelera-
tion are zero. plastic laminated plates. The horizontal coordinate represents the
Fig. 10 shows comparison of nonlinear dynamic response be- time, and the longitudinal coordinate represents the displacement
tween elastic laminated plates and elasto-plastic laminated plates w(1)(a/6, b/2) of layer 1. We can see that the amplitude of the elas-
without considering interfacial damage. Fig. 11 shows the effect of to-plastic is larger than that of the elastic plate, which is because
interfacial damage on the nonlinear dynamic response of elasto- the unloading and plastic loading lead to the stiffness variation.
Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112 111

No damage
nated plates. Fig. 13 illustrates the comparison of degree of
0.2 Damage damage between elastic laminated plates and elasto-plastic lami-
nated plates; the longitudinal coordinate represents the degree of
damage at point (a/6, b/2) of layer 1. It can be seen from the figures
0.1
that the vibration amplitude of the elasto-plastic plate is only a lit-
tle larger than that of the elastic plate due to the clamped bound-
w(1)/h

0.0 ary. The damage evolution of the elasto-plastic plate is different


from that of the elastic plate. The damage develops fast in the elas-
tic plate firstly, but develops faster in the elasto-plastic plate later.
-0.1 It is because the stress of the elastic plate is lager than the elasto-
plastic plate at the beginning, and the damage develops faster. But
with the plastic deformation increase, and the coupling of the plas-
-0.2
tic deformation and interfacial damage degrade the stiffness of
plate, the damage of the elasto-plastic plate develops faster.
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030
t
5. Conclusions
Fig. 11. Effect of interfacial damage on nonlinear dynamic response of elasto-
plastic laminated plate.
Geometrical nonlinearity, material nonlinearity and interfacial
damage are involved in the new model for laminated plates with
The interfacial damage increases the vibration amplitude of the interfacial damage. And the nonlinear static and dynamic analysis
plate, as is because the interfacial damage degrades the stiffness for elasto-plastic laminated plates with interfacial damage evolu-
of structure, but the clamped boundary may restrain the damage tion under the action of transverse load is also presented. In the
evolution and decreases plate deformation. numerical examples, the effect of interfacial damage on nonlinear
Fig. 12 illustrates the comparison of nonlinear dynamic re- static and dynamic mechanical behavior for elasto-plastic lami-
sponse between elastic laminated plates and elasto-plastic lami- nated plates is subsequently discussed. Conclusions can be drawn
as follows.
The interfacial damage leads to the degradation of stiffness, and
Elastic arouses the larger deformation of plate. With the initiation and
0.2 Elasto-plastic evolution of the interfacial damage, the discontinuity and jumps
of the displacements occur at interfaces. Both the interfacial dam-
0.1 age and plastic deformation degrade the stress level of the plate.
Comparing to elastic plate, the stress of elasto-plastic plate
through thickness direction displays the phenomenon of nonlin-
w(1)/h

0.0 earity. The vibration amplitude of elasto-plastic plates is larger


than that of the elastic plate, and the damage evolution of the elas-
tic plate and elasto-plastic plate is different due to the coupling of
-0.1
plastic deformation and interfacial damage.

-0.2
Acknowledgement

0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030


This study is supported by the National Natural Science Founda-
t tion of China under Grant No. 10872066.
Fig. 12. Comparison of nonlinear dynamic response between elastic and elasto-
plastic laminated plate with interfacial damage. References

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