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Composite Structures

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Composite Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

interfacial damage evolution

Yanping Tian *, Yiming Fu, Yiqi Mao

Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Simulation Techniques for Special Equipment, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China

College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A new analysis model, which includes the effects of interfacial damage, geometrical nonlinearity and

Available online 18 June 2010 material nonlinearity, is presented for elasto-plastic laminated plates. Based on the model, the nonlinear

equilibrium differential equations for elasto-plastic laminated plates with interfacial damage are estab-

Keywords: lished. The ﬁnite difference method and iteration method are adopted to solve these equations. The non-

Laminated plates linear static and dynamic behaviors for the elasto-plastic laminated plates under the action of transverse

Interfacial damage loads are analyzed. Effects of interfacial damage on the stress and displacement distribution and nonlin-

Elasto-plastic

ear dynamic response are discussed in the numerical examples together with the comparison of nonlin-

Static/dynamic analysis

ear mechanical behaviors between the elastic and elasto-plastic laminated plates. Numerical results

show that both the interfacial damage and plastic deformation put obvious inﬂuence on the mechanical

properties of structures.

Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction point in each interface is treated equally in the model. To some ex-

tent, it is not accurate due to the complicated stress conditions at

The advantages of higher strength-to-weight and stiffness-to- interface. Also this model cannot describe the interfacial damage

weight ratios, better corrosion resistance, longer fatigue life and evolution with the changes of external loads. An interfacial consti-

directionality properties, have greatly attributed to increasing de- tutive model based on the Cohesive Zone theory is getting more

mands of composite laminated structures in many challenging attentions recently [6–13]. This model relates traction to the rela-

ﬁelds. As a result of manufacturing processes and operating condi- tive displacement at an interface where a micro-defect may occur,

tions, interfacial damage can occur between the constituent lami- and the interfacial damage initiation is related to the interfacial

nae of the laminated structures, and result in debonding of strength. Through introducing a single scalar damage parameter

imperfect interfaces. The interfacial damage could possibly lead associating with the area of micro-defects in a representative unit,

to stiffness degradation and has evident inﬂuence on mechanical the effective stiffness of the interface is obtained, and the interfa-

properties of structures. It should be noted that structures are still cial damage constitutive equations is subsequently established.

able to bear certain loads even after exceeding the yield limits. The interfacial damage evolution equation is also achieved with

Considering the limitations of elastic theory, it is quite necessary the coupling of the conventional stress-based and fracture-

to use the elasto-plastic theory for the mechanical properties anal- mechanics-based failure criteria. The model can also be easily

ysis from the perspectives of safety and economy. implemented into an existing FE code via an ‘‘interface element”

Appropriate interfacial constitutive relations are one of the [11].

essential issues in the analysis for mechanical properties of lami- Determination of the displacements distribution ﬁeld is also a

nated structures. Weakly bonded model has been generally substantial subject in the analysis of interfacial problems. Since

adopted [1–5], in which the imperfect interface conditions are de- analysis of interfacial stresses rxz, ryz, rz is involved, the high-order

scribed in terms of linear relations between the interface traction shear deformation model, even the exact three-dimension model

in the normal and tangential directions, and the displacement are preferentially adopted. A generalized six-freedom displace-

jumps, respectively. And the stiffness degradation of an arbitrary ment ﬁeld for laminated plates with interfacial damage has been

established [14–16]. However, the solutions of the shape functions

are relatively complex and the method is also conﬁned to sinusoi-

* Corresponding author at: College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, dal loads. Another new Von-Karman type displacement model is

Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China. Tel.: +86 731 8882 2421; fax: +86

731 8882 2366.

developed [17–20], in which the shape functions are easy to

E-mail address: tianyanp@gmail.com (Y. Tian). be solved, and the method sets no limitations on load, but the

0263-8223/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2010.06.010

104 Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112

transverse normal deformation is not taken into consideration. A fracture mode I in fracture mechanics, and 2 and 3 are the other

displacement ﬁeld model with interfacial damage considering two orthogonal directions in the interface plane, which correspond

ðkÞ

transverse shear and normal deformation has been built [21,22]. to the fracture modes II and III. di are the relative displacement

0ðkÞ

The solutions of the shape functions in the model are relatively components across the kth interface and ki are interfacial con-

simple while the conditions of bounding surfaces are not consid- straints or penalty stiffnesses of the interface.

ered. Thus, the deviations of calculated results in the upper and The interfacial stiffness can be regarded as penalty parameters

lower surfaces caused by the adopted model cannot be ignored. to simulate the real connection between two neighboring layers

A reﬁned third-order Hermitian Zig-zag theory with transverse before delaminations initiate. They should be large enough to pro-

normal deformation described has been presented [23–26], but vide real connections but small enough to avoid numerical prob-

the geometrical nonlinearity is not counted. Basically, the shape lems. The interfacial constraint stiffnesses are suggest choose as

functions are needed to be determined in all the models mentioned [10]

above, and the complexity of the solutions matter even for the 0ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

elastic laminated structures. For elasto-plastic laminated struc- ki ¼ ki Sic ð2Þ

tures, solutions of the shape functions are even more complex. Also where

ðkÞ

ki

are reciprocal value of relative displacements, and

attention shall be paid that a simple Shear-lag analysis model [27] ðkÞ

ki ¼ 10 —1010 m1 . Sic are the interlaminar strengths. The relative

8 ðkÞ

in the interfacial analysis. The interfacial damage is not taken into ðkÞ

displacements di should be zero to represent the displacement

consideration while the shape function is avoided in the model. continuity across the interface for perfect interface but tiny non-

Using the interfacial damage constitutive model based on the vanishing values may result from such a penalty approach in Eq.

Cohesive Zone model and Shear-lag model, a new analysis model (1). However, this will not affect the accuracy if the magnitudes

for elasto-plastic laminated plates with interfacial damage evolu- ðkÞ ðkÞ

of ki are selected properly. The maximum value of di across the

tion is presented in the paper. By adopting the model, the nonlinear interface before interfacial damage occurs is tiny enough, and can

static and dynamic analysis for elasto-plastic cross-ply laminated be served as a numerical error in calculation and will not inﬂuence

plates with interfacial damage evolution under the action of trans- the global mechanical properties of structures.

verse load is subsequently analyzed. The presented model and As the loading increase, micro-defects such as micro-cracks and

method could also be applied to the interfacial damage analysis micro-voids initiate at the interfaces, and macro-cracks and delam-

of general ply laminated plates under the action of arbitrary loads. inations form with these micro-defects grow and coalesce. Based

on the damage mechanics theory, a dimensionless variable x is

2. Fundamental equations introduced to represent the fractional area of micro-defects in a

representative unit of the interface before macro-cracks and del-

Consider a composite laminated rectangular plate with thick- aminations form, as illustrated in Fig. 2. It is clear that x = 0 repre-

ness h, length a, width b and layers N as shown in Fig. 1. The mass sents the undamaged state for perfect interface, and x = 1

density of each layer is q(k). The global coordinate system oxyz is represents the macro-crack or delaminations occur. As the micro-

located on the mid-surface of the undeformed plate (z = 0). The defects will not be cured at interface, the incremental damage

kth interface (k = 0, 1, . . . , N) is located between the kth and dx P 0. Using x(k) represents the damage variable of the kth inter-

k + 1th layers (k = 1, 2, . . . , N). Let h(k) (k = 1, 2, . . . , N) denote the face, the effective constraint stiffnesses can be described as

0ðkÞ ðkÞ

thickness of the kth layer. The transverse distributed load q(x, y, t) ð1 xðkÞ Þki . When the relative normal displacement d1 < 0,

is applied on the upper surface of the laminated plate. the micro-cracks will not open, i.e. the mode I crack is restrained.

To prevent penetration of the interfaces, the stiffness of the inter-

face in this direction will regain its initial value and not degrade. By

2.1. Interfacial damage constitutive equations ðkÞ

introducing a parameter a1 , the interfacial damage constitutive

equations can be written as

The interfacial tractions, i.e. interlaminar normal and shear

(

stresses, before damage occurs can be expressed as ðkÞ

1; d1 P 0

ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

r ¼ z k1 1a x

1 d1 ; a ¼

1 ðkÞ

rðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ

rxzðkÞ ¼ k20ðkÞ d2ðkÞ ; ryz

ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ 0; d1 < 0

z ¼ k1 d1 ; ¼ k3 d3 ð1Þ ð3Þ

0ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

rðkÞ

xz ¼ k2 ð1 x Þd2

the subscript 1 indicates the through thickness direction in 0ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

interface, which corresponds to the conventional deﬁnition of the

rðkÞ

yz ¼ k3 ð1 x Þd3

a

o x Layer 1

0

1

h 2

.. 2

y

o

k

k

b k+1

Layer N

N

y z z

o

θk x

2 1

y z

Fig. 1. Geometry of laminated plates.

Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112 105

Composite layers

ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

dGI ¼ a1 rðkÞ

z dd1 ; dGII ¼ rðkÞ

xz dd2 ; dGIII ¼ rðkÞ

yz dd3 ð11Þ

dF ðkÞ ¼ ðkÞ

drij þ ðkÞ

dGi ¼ 0 ð12Þ

Interfacial damage zone 1 @r ij @Gi

By substituting Eqs. (10) and (11) into Eq. (12), the incremental

Representative unit damage evolution equation can be described in terms of incremen-

tal relative displacements as

ω @F ðkÞ 0ðkÞ

ðkÞ

ðkÞ @F ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ

dxðkÞ ¼ ðkÞ

k1 1 a1 xðkÞ dd1 þ ðkÞ k2 ð1 xðkÞ Þdd2

Fig. 2. Scheme of interfacial damage. @r z @ rxz

@F ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ @F ðkÞ

The damage initiation can be predicted by the conventional stress- þ ðkÞ

k3 ð1 xðkÞ Þdd3 þ ðkÞ

a1ðkÞ rzðkÞ ddðkÞ

1

based failure criterion, i.e. @r yz @GI

!

@F ðkÞ @F ðkÞ

fsðkÞ r ðkÞ

ij 1¼0 ð4Þ þ rðkÞ dd2ðkÞ þ

ðkÞ xz

rðkÞ ddðkÞ

ðkÞ yz 3

@G @GIII

ðkÞ , II !

where fs is a failure function and often adopted as @F ðkÞ ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ @F ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ @F ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ

0 12 ðkÞ

a1 k1 d1 þ k d2

ðkÞ 2

þ k d3

ðkÞ 3

ð13Þ

!2 !2 @ rz @r @r

max rzðkÞ ; 0 rxzðkÞ rðkÞ

yz

xz yz

fsðkÞ ¼ @ ðkÞ

A þ

ðkÞ

þ ðkÞ

ð5Þ ðkÞ

It can be seen that when d1 < 0, i.e. a1 ¼ 0, the transverse normal

ðkÞ

S1c S2c S3c ðkÞ ðkÞ

stress rz and energy release rate GI have no contribution on dam-

For the interface with existing delaminations, a fracture mechanics age evolution.

approach has proved successful in dealing with its evolution. The

failure criterion for delaminations evolution can be expressed by 2.2. Constitutive relationship of layers

the energy release rates law of fracture mechanics:

Deﬁne the local coordinate system o12z in the kth layer of the

ðkÞ

fgðkÞ Gi 1¼0 ð6Þ laminated plate along the material principal direction. The axes 1

ðkÞ

is along with the ﬁbre direction, and the hk counterclockwise ro-

where Gi ði ¼ I; II; IIIÞ are the components of energy release rate tates from axes 1 to axes x is positive, axes 2 is normal to the ﬁbre

ðkÞ

correspond to fracture modes I, II, and III. The form of fg is often direction as seen in Fig. 1. The incremental elasto-plastic constitu-

adopted as follows: tive equations in the local coordinate system can be derived as Tian

!a !b !c et al. [28].

ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

GI GII GIII The mixed hardening yield criterion of the kth layer is

fgðkÞ ¼ þ þ ð7Þ

ðkÞ

GIc

ðkÞ

GIIc

ðkÞ

GIIIc

F ðkÞ

p ¼ f rij b^ijðkÞ ½r~ ðkÞ ðepðkÞ Þ2

ðkÞ ^ ðkÞ

ð14Þ

ðrÞ

where Gic ði ¼ I; II; IIIÞ are the components of critical energy release

rate. The linear failure criterion (a = b = c = 1) or quadratic failure where f ðkÞ r^ ðkÞ ^ðkÞ is the yield function, r

^ ðkÞ ^ðkÞ

ij bij ij and bij are Cauchy

criterion (a = b = c = 2) are most frequently chosen. The energy re-

stress and back stress in the local coordinate system. r ~ ðkÞ is the

lease rates for the three modes of delaminations can be expressed as

equivalent active stress, which is the function of equivalent plastic

Z d1

ðkÞ Z ðkÞ

d2 strain ep .

ðkÞ

GI ¼ a1ðkÞ rðkÞ ðkÞ

z dd1 ;

ðkÞ

GII ¼ rðkÞ ðkÞ

xz dd2 ; The yield function of the kth layer is deﬁned as

0 0

Z ðkÞ K ðkÞ2 ðkÞ 2 2 2 2

d3 ðkÞ

ðkÞ ðkÞ f ðkÞ ¼ r~ 11 r~ 22 þ r~ ðkÞ þ r

~ ðkÞ

þ 2 r~ ðkÞ

ð15Þ

GIII ¼ rðkÞ

yz dd3 ð8Þ 2 22 11 12

0

ðkÞ And the equivalent active stress as

where the parameter a1 in Eq. (8) has the same physical signiﬁ- rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

cance as in Eq. (3). K ðkÞ 2 2 2 2

ðkÞ

~ ðkÞ

r ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ r~ 11 r ~ ðkÞ

22 þ r

ðkÞ

~ 22 þ r ~ ðkÞ

11 þ2 r

ðkÞ

~ 12 ð16Þ

Treating delamination as a damage process in the continuum 2

damage mechanics involve two aspects, the initiation and the evo-

where the constant K(k) has the stress dimension and can be deter-

lution of the damage, so the damage surface at interfaces can be de-

ﬁned in the stress space rij and energy release rate space Gi as [11] ~ ijðkÞ is the dimen-

mined by the tension test in simple stress states. r

h i r^ ðkÞ ^ðkÞ

b

F ðkÞ rijðkÞ ; GiðkÞ ¼ fsðkÞ rijðkÞ 1 uðkÞ fgðkÞ ¼0 ð9Þ ~ ðkÞ

sionless active stress, and r ij ¼

ij ij

ði; j ¼ 1; 2Þ, no summation

RijðkÞ

ðkÞ ðkÞ

in which u(k) is a monotonically increasing function of fg satisfying

ðkÞ with respect to i,j. R 11 and R 22 are yield stresses in the directions

ðkÞ

u(k)(0) = 0 and u(k)(1) = 1. When F(k) < 0, the interfacial damage will of 1 and 2, R is the yield pure shear stresses in plane of 1–2.

12

not develop and dx(k) = 0 ; when F(k) = 0, the damage develops. The equivalent plastic strain of the kth layer is

pﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 2

The incremental interfacial damage constitutive equations can 2

be derived from Eq. (3) as epðkÞ ¼ RðkÞ ^pðkÞ ðkÞ pðkÞ

11 e11 R22 e22

^ ðkÞ pðkÞ

þ R22 ^e22

ðkÞ pðkÞ

þ R11 ^e11

ðkÞ

3K

12

9 ðkÞ pðkÞ 2

0ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ

drzðkÞ ¼ k1 1 a1 xðkÞ dd1 a1 k1 d1 dxðkÞ

þ R ^e ð17Þ

ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ ð10Þ 2 12 12

drxz ¼ k2 ð1 xðkÞ Þdd2 k2 d2 dxðkÞ

pðkÞ

ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ 0ðkÞ ðkÞ where ^eij are the plastic strain components in the local coordinate

dryz ¼ k3 ð1 xðkÞ Þdd3 k3 d3 dxðkÞ

system.

106 Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112

ðkÞ ðkÞ

Choose the plastic potential function is identical as the yield X ij d^eij

function, and by using the associated ﬂow rule, the plastic strain kpðkÞ ¼ ð28Þ

SðkÞ

increment in local coordinate can be obtained as

where

pðkÞ @F pðkÞ @f ðkÞ

d^eij ¼ kðkÞ

p ðkÞ

¼ kðkÞ

p ði; j ¼ 1; 2Þ ð18Þ ðkÞ ðkÞ

X ij ¼ akl Q klij

eðkÞ

@r

^ ij ^ ijðkÞ

@r

ðkÞ eðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

SðkÞ ¼ aij Q ijkl akl þ cðkÞ ð1 aðkÞ Þaij aij þ 4r

~ ðkÞ2 HðkÞ0 ð29Þ

in which kp is a non-negative scalar named plastic multiplier or con-

sistency parameter. Substituting Eq. (15) into Eq. (18), we have the subscripts i,j,k,l in above equation obey the sum convention,

ðkÞ ðkÞ

where aij ¼ 1ðkÞ @f~ ðkÞ , and no summation with respect to i,j.

pðkÞ K ðkÞ2 ðkÞ ðkÞ

Rij @ rij

d^e11 ¼ kpðkÞ ðkÞ 2r ~ 11 r

~ 22

R11 Substituting Eq. (28) into Eq. (26), the incremental elasto-plas-

tic damage constitutive equations of the kth layer in the local coor-

pðkÞ K ðkÞ2 ðkÞ ðkÞ

d^e22 ¼ kpðkÞ ðkÞ

2r

~ 22 r

~ 11 ð19Þ dinate system can be written as

R22

^ ijðkÞ ¼ Q

dr b eðkÞ Q

b pðkÞ d^eðkÞ ð30Þ

pðkÞ K ðkÞ2 ðkÞ ijkl ijkl kl

d^e12 ¼ 2kpðkÞ ðkÞ r~ 12

ðkÞ ðkÞ

R12 where Q b pðkÞ

¼ S

X ij X

kl

is the plastic stiffness coefﬁcient. Therefore, the

ijkl ðkÞ

Then substituting Eq. (19) into Eq. (16), the relationship between incremental elasto-plastic constitutive equations of damaged mate-

the equivalent active stress and plastic strain increments can be ob- rials in the local coordinate system are

tained as

^ ijðkÞ ¼ Q

dr b pðkÞ d^eðkÞ ¼ Q

b ðkÞ aðkÞ Q b ðkÞ d^eðkÞ ð31Þ

2 2 ijkl 2 ijkl kl ijkl kl

1 ðkÞ pðkÞ ðkÞ pðkÞ ðkÞ pðkÞ

r~ ðkÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ R11 d^e11 R22 d^e22 þ R22 d^e22

3 2K ðkÞ kðkÞ

p

ðkÞ b ðkÞ

where a2 is called the elasto-plastic condition multiplier, and Q ijkl

2 9 2 1

2 @f ðkÞ

ðkÞ pðkÞ

þ R11 d^e11 þ

ðkÞ

R12 pðkÞ

d^e12 ð20Þ is the elasto-plastic stiffness coefﬁcient. When F ðkÞ

p ¼ 0 and ðkÞ

@r

^

2 ij

^ ij > 0, then a2 ¼ 1. When F ðkÞ

dr ðkÞ

p < 0, or F p ¼ 0 and dr

^ ij 6

Deﬁne the equivalent plastic strain as @r

^

ij

ðkÞ

pﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 ðkÞ

2 ðkÞ pðkÞ ðkÞ pðkÞ ðkÞ pðkÞ 0, then a2 ¼ 0.

depðkÞ ¼ R11 d^e11 R22 d^e22 þ R22 d^e22

3K ðkÞ The incremental elasto-plastic constitutive equations in the glo-

2 9 2 12 bal coordinate systems can be derived as follows. Rewritten Eq.

ðkÞ pðkÞ pðkÞ

þ R11 d^e11 þ RðkÞ de

^ ð21Þ (31) as

2 12 12

dr b ðkÞ d^eðkÞ

^ ðkÞ ¼ Q ð32Þ

Comparing Eqs. (20) and (21), the following relationship can be

obtained: The relationship between the incremental stress dr in local coor- ^ ðkÞ

~ ðkÞ kpðkÞ

depðkÞ ¼ 2r ð22Þ dinate system and the incremental stress dr(k) in global coordinate

system is

The incremental back stress tensor of the kth layer can be deﬁned as

a linear function of the incremental plastic strain tensor, that is ^ ðkÞ ¼ T ðkÞ

dr r dr

ðkÞ

ð33Þ

@f ðkÞ And the transform relationship of the incremental strain de in lo- ^ðkÞ

^ ¼ cðkÞ ð1 aðkÞ ÞkðkÞ

db

ðkÞ

ð23Þ

ij p

^ ijðkÞ cal coordinate system and the incremental stress de(k) in global

@r

coordinate system is

where c(k) is a ratio constant, and a(k) is the mixed hardening

d^eðkÞ ¼ T ðkÞ

e de

ðkÞ

ð34Þ

parameter.

The total incremental strain is composed of elastic strain incre- T

ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

ment and plastic strain increment In plane stress state, drðkÞ ¼ drx ; dry ; drxy , deðkÞ ¼

T

ðkÞ eðkÞ pðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

d^eij ¼ d^eij þ d^eij ð24Þ dex ; dey ; dexy . T ðkÞ ðkÞ

r and T e are stress transform matrix and

strain transform matrix of the kth layer, respectively. They can be

The increment elastic constitutive relations of the kth layer are

expressed as

^ ðkÞ

dr b eðkÞ ^eðkÞ

ij ¼ Q ijkl dekl ði; j; k; l ¼ 1; 2Þ ð25Þ

T ðkÞð1Þ

r ¼ T ðkÞT

e

in which Qb eðkÞ is the elastic stiffness coefﬁcient. Substituting Eqs. 2 2

3

ijkl cos2 hk sin hk sin hk cos hk

(18) and (24) into Eq. (25), we have ðkÞ 6 2 7 ð35Þ

Te ¼ 4 sin hk cos2 hk sin hk cos hk 5

ðkÞ

!

^ ðkÞ

dr b eðkÞ d^eðkÞ kðkÞ @F p 2 sin hk cos hk 2 sin hk cos hk cos 2hk

ij ¼ Q ijkl kl p ð26Þ

^ ðkÞ

@r kl Then the incremental elasto-plastic constitutive equations of the

Using the consistency condition, and set HðkÞ0 ¼ dder~pðkÞ , then from Eq.

ðkÞ

kth layer in the global coordinate system can be obtained as

(14) we have

drðkÞ ¼ T ðkÞT b dðkÞ T ðkÞ deðkÞ ¼ Q ðkÞ deðkÞ

Q ð36Þ

e e

@f ðkÞ

~ ðkÞ

dr ~ ðkÞ ðkÞ0 depðkÞ ¼ 0

ij 2r H ð27Þ b ðkÞ T ðkÞ represents the elasto-plastic stiffness

~ ðkÞ

@r where Q ðkÞ ¼ T ðkÞT

e Q e

ij

coefﬁcient in the global coordinate system. In the following analy-

Substituting Eqs. (18), (22), (23) and (26) into the above equation, sis, the subscripts 11, 22, 12 are replaced by 1, 2, 6 for simplify,

the following can be obtained respectively.

Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112 107

dNxðkÞ dNðkÞ

y dNðkÞ

xy ¼ drðkÞ

x dryðkÞ ðkÞ

drxy dz

ðkÞ

h =2

Based on the Shear-lag interface model [27], a new simple mod- Z ð43Þ

h i hðkÞ =2 h i

el for laminated plates with interfacial damage evolution can be dM xðkÞ dMyðkÞ dM ðkÞ ¼ dr ðkÞ

dr ðkÞ

dr ðkÞ

z dz

xy x y xy

established. The constitutive equation of the adhesive layer in hðkÞ =2

the Shear-lag model can be replaced by the interfacial damage con-

Substituting Eqs. (36) and (32) into Eq. (43), we have

stitutive equations in Eq. (10), and then the equilibrium equations ( ) " #( )

ðkÞ

of each layer can be established. The relationship of adjacent layers dNðkÞ AðkÞ BðkÞ de0

¼ ð44Þ

can be obtained from the constitutive equation of the adhesive dM ðkÞ BðkÞ DðkÞ djðkÞ

layers.

Set the local coordinate system o(k)x(k)y(k)z(k) in the kth layer of where

the laminated plate, the axes x(k), y(k), z(k) are paralleled with x, y, Z hðkÞ =2 Z hðkÞ =2

z of the global coordinate system, and the reference plane z(k) = 0 ðkÞ

Aij ¼

ðkÞ

Q ij dz;

ðkÞ

Bij ¼

ðkÞ

Q ij z dz;

ðkÞ

Dij

is located on the mid-surface of the kth layer. Let u(k), v(k), w(k) as hðkÞ =2 hðkÞ =2

ðkÞ

y(k), z(k) in the local coordinate system, respectively. The displace- ¼ Q ij z2 dz ð45Þ

hðkÞ =2

ment components of an arbitrary point of each layer can denoted

ðk1Þ

as The loads in the upper and lower surfaces of the kth layer are rxz ,

ðk1Þ ðk1Þ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

ðkÞ

ryz , rz and rxz , ryz , rz ðk ¼ 0; 1; . . . ; NÞ, and

u1 ðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ uðkÞ ðx; y; tÞ zðkÞ w;xðkÞ

ðkÞ

rð0Þ ðNÞ

xz ¼ rxz ¼ 0; rð0Þ ðNÞ

yz ¼ ryz ¼ 0; rzð0Þ ¼ q; rzðNÞ ¼ 0 ð46Þ

u2 ðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ v ðkÞ ðx; y; tÞ zðkÞ wðkÞ

;y

ð37Þ

ðkÞ Using the classical nonlinear plate theory, the nonlinear equilibrium

u3 ðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ wðkÞ ðx; y; tÞ

equations of the kth layer can be expressed as

where z(k) is the distance of an arbitrary point of the kth layer to its ðkÞ

Nx;x þ N ðkÞ ðkÞ ðk1Þ

xy;y þ rxz rxz ¼0

mid-surface through thickness direction, and the subscript (,) repre- ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

Nxy;x þ Ny;y þ ryz rðk1Þ

yz ¼0

sents the partial derivative of the variable. The relative displace-

ments of the kth interface are M x;xx þ 2Mxy;xy þ M y;yy þ NðkÞ

ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

x w;x þ N xy w;y þ NyðkÞ w;y

ðkÞ

þ NðkÞ ðkÞ

xy w;x

;x ;y

h ðkÞ

ðkÞ

d1 ¼ wðkþ1Þ wðkÞ ðkÞ

ðk1Þ

þ rxz;x þ rxz;x þ rðkÞ ðk1Þ

yz;y þ ryz;y

1 ðkþ1Þ ðkþ1Þ 2

ðkÞ ðkÞ

ðkÞ ðkÞ

d2 ¼ uðkþ1Þ uðkÞ þ h w;x þ h w;xðkÞ ð38Þ

2 þ rðkÞ ðk1Þ

xz rxz w;x þ ryz ryz ðk1Þ ðkÞ

w;y

ðkÞ 1 ðkþ1Þ ðkþ1Þ ðkÞ ðkÞ

d3 ¼v ðkþ1Þ

v þ

ðkÞ

h w;y þ h w;y þ rðkÞ ðk1Þ

¼ IðkÞ

ðkÞ

2 z rz q w;tt

=ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

ðkÞ where Iq ¼ q h .

dd1 ¼ dwðkþ1Þ dwðkÞ

The corresponding incremental nonlinear equilibrium equa-

ðkÞ 1 ðkþ1Þ ðkþ1Þ ðkÞ

tions are

dd2 ¼ duðkþ1Þ duðkÞ þ h dw;x þ h dwðkÞ

;x ð39Þ

2 ðkÞ

dNx;x þ dN ðkÞ ðkÞ ðk1Þ

xy;y þ drxz drxz ¼0

ðkÞ 1 ðkþ1Þ ðkþ1Þ ðkÞ

dd3 ¼ dv ðkþ1Þ

dv þ

ðkÞ

h dw;y þ h dw;y ðkÞ

ðkÞ

þ dNðkÞ ðkÞ ðk1Þ

2 dNxy;x y;y þ dryz dryz ¼0

where du(k), dv(k), dw(k) represent the incremental displacements of dMðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

x;xx þ 2dM xy;xy þ dM y;yy þ dN x w;xx þ 2dN xy w;xy þ dN y w;yy þ N x dw;xx

ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

the mid-surface of the kth layer. The incremental strains in the mid- þ 2Nxy dwðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

;xy þ N y dw;yy þ dN x dw;xx þ 2dN xy dw;xy þ dN y dw;yy

ðkÞ

h ðkÞ

ðkÞ

ðk1Þ ðkÞ ðk1Þ

ðkÞ

þ drxz;x þ drxz;x þ dryz;y þ dryz;y þ drðkÞ ðk1Þ

xz drxz w;x

1 2

de0ðkÞ

x ¼ du;xðkÞ þ w;xðkÞ dw;xðkÞ þ dw;xðkÞ2 ðkÞ ðk1Þ

2 þ rxz rxz dwðkÞ ðkÞ

;x þ dryz dryz

ðk1Þ ðkÞ

w;y

1 ð40Þ

de0ðkÞ

y ¼ dv ðkÞ ðkÞ

;y þ w;y dw;y þ

ðkÞ

dw;y ðkÞ2

þ rðkÞyz ryz

ðk1Þ

dw;y ðkÞ

þ drðkÞ

z dr z

ðk1Þ

¼ IðkÞ

q dw;tt

ðkÞ

2

de0ðkÞ

xy

ðkÞ

¼ du;y þ dv ;xðkÞ þ wðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

;x dw;y þ w;y dw;x þ dw;x dw;y

ð48Þ

The variates of the curvature increments in the mid-surface of the Substituting Eqs. (10), (39)–(41), (44) and (46) into Eq. (48), the 3N

plate are nonlinear equilibrium equations of elasto-plastic laminated plates

with interfacial damage expressed in terms of du(k), dv(k), dw(k)

djxðkÞ ¼ dwðkÞ djðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

djxy ¼ 2dwðkÞ can be obtained.

;xx ; y ¼ dw;yy ; ;xy ð41Þ

Suppose all the boundaries of the plates are clamped, the

The incremental strains at an arbitrary point of each layer can be boundary conditions can be expressed as

expressed as

x ¼ 0; a : uðkÞ ¼ v ðkÞ ¼ wðkÞ ¼ wðkÞ

;x ¼ 0

ð49Þ

dexðkÞ ¼ de0ðkÞ

x þ zðkÞ djxðkÞ ; deðkÞ 0ðkÞ

y ¼ dey þ zðkÞ djðkÞ

y ; y ¼ 0; b : uðkÞ ¼ v ðkÞ ¼ wðkÞ ¼ w;y

ðkÞ

¼0

ðkÞ

dexy ¼ de0ðkÞ

xy þ z

ðkÞ ðkÞ

djxy ð42Þ

y , N xy as the membrane stress resultants and M x ,

ðkÞ ðkÞ

My , Mxy as the stress couples of the kth layer, then the correspond-

ing incremental resultants dN xðkÞ , dNðkÞ ðkÞ The damage increment of an arbitrary point at interfaces depends

y , dN xy and incremental cou-

ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

ples dMx , dM y , dMxy can be deﬁned as mainly on the current stress value, current damage degree and the

108 Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112

then a2 ¼ 0, denote the elastic loading or unloading, and

different even at the same load step. Meanwhile, the relationship the incremental equivalent plastic strain ðdep ÞN ¼ 0. The

of elasto-plastic stress and strain relates to the current stress and current equivalent plastic strain is ðepðkÞ Þn ¼ ðepðkÞ Þn1 þ

deformation history. Thus, it is impossible to obtain the analytic

ðdepðkÞ Þn .

solutions with satisfying the boundary condition Eq. (49). The ﬁnite

(4) Determining the damage evolution. Calculate the current

difference method and iteration method are adopted here to solve

value of (F(k))n in Eq. (9). If (F(k))n < 0, the damage will not

the equations. The variables du(k), dv(k), dw(k) are separated in the

develop, and the damage increment is (dx(k))n = 0. If

whole space by the ﬁnite difference method, and the partial deriva-

F(k) = 0, the damage will develop, and the current damage

tives with respect to the space coordinate variables are replaced by

increment (dx(k))n can be calculated from Eq. (13). It should

the differential forms. Due to the elasto-plastic stiffness coefﬁcient

ðkÞ ðkÞ be noted that when the relative normal displacement

Q ij relates to the current stresses and strains, the values of Aij ,

ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ

Bij , Dij cannot be obtained by direct integration along the thickness d1 < 0, the interface is extruded in the normal direction,

n

of plate, so the compound trapezoid formula is used here to calculate ðkÞ

then a1 ¼ 0 ; while d1

ðkÞ

> 0, the interface is stretched in

n

the integration through the thickness direction. ðkÞ

the normal direction, then a1 ¼ 1. The current value of

In order to obtain the interfacial damage value under the action

damage is (x(k))n = (x(k))n1 + (dx(k))n.

of an arbitrary load, the load is supposed to be applied by step, i.e.

(5) Taking n = n + 1, and turn to step (1).

q0 = n Dq, where Dq is the load increment. At each loading step J,

the nonlinear items in equations and boundaries are linearized and

transformed as

4. Numerical examples and discussions

ðx yÞJ ¼ ðxÞJ ðyÞJp ð50Þ

For verifying the validity and reliability of the method, a test

where ðyÞJp is the average value of those obtained in the preceding example is calculated for the static problems of (0°/90°/0°) lami-

two iterations. For the initial step of the iteration, it can be deter- nated plates when the interfacial damage is not taken into consid-

mined by using the quadratic extrapolation, i.e. eration, i.e. x(k) = 0. The plate is under the action of a transverse

ðyÞJp ¼ AðyÞJ1 þ BðyÞJ2 þ CðyÞJ3 ð51Þ distributed static load q, and with identical layer thickness and

material. The material parameters and geometric parameters are

and for the different step of the iteration, the values of A, B and C can taken as [29]

be taken as follows

EL ¼ 250 GPa; ET ¼ 10 GPa; GLT ¼ 5 GPa; mLT ¼ 0:25;

J ¼ 1 : A ¼ 1; B ¼ 0; C ¼ 0 R11 ¼ 200 MPa; R22 ¼ 200 MPa; R66 ¼ 115:47 MPa;

J ¼ 2 : A ¼ 2; B ¼ 1; C ¼ 0 ð52Þ a ¼ 0:2 m; b ¼ 0:2 m; h ¼ 0:01 m

J P 3 : A ¼ 3; B ¼ 3; C ¼ 1

where the subscripts L and T refer to the directions parallel and nor-

In each step, the iteration lasts until the difference of the present mal to the ﬁbers, respectively. Fig. 3 presents the relation of central

value and the former is smaller than 0.1%, and then continue the deﬂection and load, and Fig. 4 shows the stress distribution of the

calculation of the next step. central point along the thickness of plate, and the applied load is

The detailed process of solution is q = 1500 kN/m2. It can be clearly observed that the present solu-

tions agree well with the reference, which proves the reliability of

(1) Solving equations. Adopting the values of stress and damage the present results.

of the step n 1 as the current value of step n, the values of

4.1. Nonlinear static analysis of elasto-plastic laminated plates with

incremental displacements (du(k))n, (dv(k))n, (dw(k))n can be

(k) (k)

interfacial damage evolution

solved, and the corresponding displacements (u )n, (v )n,

(w(k))n of the step n can be obtained. Then the interfacial rel- In this part, the mechanical properties of the laminated plates

ative displacements (d(k))n and its corresponding incremen- with interfacial damage under the action of static transverse dis-

tal forms (dd(k))n can be calculated from Eqs. (38) and (39). tributed load are discussed. In the numerical examples, the

(2) Calculating the current stresses. Substituting the displace- ðkÞ

quadratic failure criteria is adopted and a = b = c = 2, uðkÞ ¼ fg .

ments and incremental displacements of the step n into

Eq. (36), the incremental stress components

of the kth layer

ðkÞ

at the global coordinate system drij can be calculated, 2000

n

and the stress components of the step are obtained as

rðkÞ

ij

ðkÞ

¼ rij

ðkÞ

þ drij . The incremental stress com-

1500

n n1 n

ponents of the kth layer at the local coordinate system

q kN/m2)

dr^ ijðkÞ can be calculated from Eq. (31), and the correspond-

n

ing stress components are r ^ ðkÞ

ij ¼ r^ ðkÞ

ij þ dr^ ðkÞ

ij . 1000

n n1 n

(3) Determining the material property. Substituting the stress

values of the local coordinate system into Eq. (14), then

500

the value of F ðkÞ

p can be calculated. If F pðkÞ ¼ 0 and

Present

@f ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ Belinha and Dinis[29]

^ ðkÞ

dr

^ ij > 0, then a2 ¼ 1, denotes the plastic loading, and

@r ij

0

the incremental equivalent plastic strain ðdepðkÞ Þn can be cal- 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

w/h

@f ðkÞ ðkÞ

culated by Eq. (21). If F pðkÞ < 0, or F pðkÞ ¼ 0 and ðkÞ dr

^ ij 6 s0,

@r

^

ij Fig. 3. Relation of central deﬂection and load.

Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112 109

0.004

0.4 Elastic no damage

0.003 Elastic damage

Elasto-plastic no damage

Elasto-plastic damage

0.2 0.002

0.001

z/h

0.0

u/a

0.000

-0.2

-0.001

Present -0.002

-0.4

Belinha and Dinis[29]

-0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4

σx(MPa) z/h

Fig. 4. Stress distribution of the central point along the thickness of plate. Fig. 6. Effect of interfacial damage on distribution of displacement in axes x along

the thickness of plate.

material is studied, and the material parameters and geometrical Fig. 6 shows the effect of interfacial damage on the distribution

parameters are taken as [11] of displacement in axes x along the thickness of the plate. The hor-

izontal coordinate represents the thickness of plate, and the longi-

EL ¼ 140 GPa; ET ¼ 8:5 GPa; GLT ¼ 4:5 GPa; mLT ¼ 0:35; tudinal coordinate represents the displacement u(a/6, b/2, z) at the

S1c ¼ 85 MPa; S2c ¼ 70 MPa; GIc ¼ 188 J=m2 ; GIIc ¼ 416 J=m2 ; global coordinate system. No matter elastic plate or elasto-plastic

R11 ¼ 70 MPa; R22 ¼ 6 MPa; R66 ¼ 2 MPa; a ¼ 0:6; a ¼ 1 m; plate, the displacements at interfaces are discontinuous when the

b ¼ 1 m; h ¼ 0:1 m interfacial damage is not considered, which is due to the value of

ðrÞ

ki in calculation. However, the global structure analysis is not af-

The constant K(k) can be determined by the simple tension test, and fected. The discontinuity and jumps are obvious when the interfa-

ðkÞ

then K ðkÞ ¼ R11 can be determined. Select r ðkÞ ðepðkÞ Þ ¼ RðkÞ

11 þ cial damage is considered, and the relative displacements at

pðkÞ 0:51

RðkÞ

11 ðe Þ in the numerical examples, and the initial damage of interfaces increase.

each layer is zero. The transverse uniform load is taken as Fig. 7 shows the effect of interfacial damage on the distribution

q ¼ q0 sin pax sin pby, where q0 is the amplitude of the load. of displacement in axes z along the thickness of the plate. The lon-

In the following analysis, the plate calculated by using the elas- gitudinal coordinate represents the displacement w(a/2, b/2, z) at

tic constitutive relationship is named as the elastic plate, and the the global coordinate system. We can see that the interfacial dam-

plate calculated from the elasto-plastic constitutive relationship age leads to the increase of deformation of the plate, but the jumps

is named as the elasto-plastic plate. at interfaces are not obvious due to the transverse compressive

Fig. 5 presents the relationship of the transverse deformation load. The deformation of the elasto-plastic plate is still larger than

and transverse load of the elasto-plastic laminated plates with that of the elastic plate.

interfacial damage. The horizontal coordinate represents the trans- Fig. 8 displays the effect of interfacial damage on the distribu-

verse load, and the longitudinal coordinate represents the deﬂec- tion of normal stress along the thickness of the plate. The longitu-

tion w(1)(a/2, b/2) of the central point of layer 1. It can be dinal coordinate represents the stress rx(a/2, b/2, z) at the global

observed that the interfacial damage develops and the plate defor- coordinate system. Fig. 9 displays the effect of interfacial damage

mation increases with the increasing load. The deformation of the on the distribution of shear stress along the thickness of the plate.

elasto-plastic plate is larger than that of the elastic plate. The longitudinal coordinate represents the stress rxy(a/3, b/3, z) at

the global coordinate system. It is clear that the interfacial damage

0.6 0.23

Elastic no damage Elastic no damage

Elastic damage Elastic damage

0.5 Elasto-plastic no damage Elasto-plastic no damage

Elasto-plastic damage 0.22

Elasto-plastic damage

0.4

0.21

w /h

w/h

0.3

(1)

0.20

0.2

0.1 0.19

0.0 0.18

0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4

q0 / ET z/h

Fig. 5. Relationship of transverse deformation and transverse load of the elasto- Fig. 7. Effect of interfacial damage on distribution of displacement in axes z along

plastic laminated plates with interfacial damage. the thickness of plate.

110 Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112

16 3

Elasto-plastic no damage

Elastic no damage

Elasto-plastic damage

Elastic damage

2

8

1

σx /q0

σx /q0

0 0

-1

-8

-2

-16 -3

-0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4

z/h z/h

(a) Elastic plate (b) Elasto-plastic plate

Fig. 8. Effect of interfacial damage on normal stress rx(a/2, b/2, z) along the thickness of plate.

0.4

Elastic no damage Elasto-plastic no damage

Elastic damage 0.2 Elasto-plastic damage

0.2

0.1

σxy /q0

σxy /q0

0.0

0.0

-0.2

-0.1

-0.4 -0.2

-0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4

z/h z/h

(a) Elastic plate (b) Elasto-plastic plate

Fig. 9. Effect of interfacial damage on shear stress rxy(a/3, b/3, z) along the thickness of plate.

plate is smaller than that of the elastic plate, and the nonlinearity Elastic

0.2 Elasto-plastic

of stress distribution occurs due to the plastic deformation.

interfacial damage evolution

w /h

(1)

uted load are discussed. In the numerical examples, the quadratic

ðkÞ -0.1

failure criteria is adopted and a = b = c = 2, uðkÞ ¼ fg . A (0°/90°/

0°) laminated plate with identical layer thickness and material is

studied, and the material parameters are taken as Section 4.1. -0.2

The geometrical parameters are a = 1 m, b = 1 m, h/a = 16. The con-

ðkÞ ðkÞ

stant K(k) is also set as K ðkÞ ¼ R11 . Select r ðkÞ ðepðkÞ Þ ¼ R11 þ 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030

pðkÞ 0:51

RðkÞ

11 ðe Þ in the numerical examples, and the initial damage of t

each layer is zero. The transverse uniform load is taken as

q ¼ q0 sin pax sin pby sin ht, where q0 and h are amplitude and fre- Fig. 10. Comparison of nonlinear dynamic response between elastic and elasto-

plastic laminated plate.

quency of the load, respectively. In the following examples,

q0 = 0.0046ET, h = 1000, and both the initial velocity and accelera-

tion are zero. plastic laminated plates. The horizontal coordinate represents the

Fig. 10 shows comparison of nonlinear dynamic response be- time, and the longitudinal coordinate represents the displacement

tween elastic laminated plates and elasto-plastic laminated plates w(1)(a/6, b/2) of layer 1. We can see that the amplitude of the elas-

without considering interfacial damage. Fig. 11 shows the effect of to-plastic is larger than that of the elastic plate, which is because

interfacial damage on the nonlinear dynamic response of elasto- the unloading and plastic loading lead to the stiffness variation.

Y. Tian et al. / Composite Structures 93 (2010) 103–112 111

No damage

nated plates. Fig. 13 illustrates the comparison of degree of

0.2 Damage damage between elastic laminated plates and elasto-plastic lami-

nated plates; the longitudinal coordinate represents the degree of

damage at point (a/6, b/2) of layer 1. It can be seen from the ﬁgures

0.1

that the vibration amplitude of the elasto-plastic plate is only a lit-

tle larger than that of the elastic plate due to the clamped bound-

w(1)/h

from that of the elastic plate. The damage develops fast in the elas-

tic plate ﬁrstly, but develops faster in the elasto-plastic plate later.

-0.1 It is because the stress of the elastic plate is lager than the elasto-

plastic plate at the beginning, and the damage develops faster. But

with the plastic deformation increase, and the coupling of the plas-

-0.2

tic deformation and interfacial damage degrade the stiffness of

plate, the damage of the elasto-plastic plate develops faster.

0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030

t

5. Conclusions

Fig. 11. Effect of interfacial damage on nonlinear dynamic response of elasto-

plastic laminated plate.

Geometrical nonlinearity, material nonlinearity and interfacial

damage are involved in the new model for laminated plates with

The interfacial damage increases the vibration amplitude of the interfacial damage. And the nonlinear static and dynamic analysis

plate, as is because the interfacial damage degrades the stiffness for elasto-plastic laminated plates with interfacial damage evolu-

of structure, but the clamped boundary may restrain the damage tion under the action of transverse load is also presented. In the

evolution and decreases plate deformation. numerical examples, the effect of interfacial damage on nonlinear

Fig. 12 illustrates the comparison of nonlinear dynamic re- static and dynamic mechanical behavior for elasto-plastic lami-

sponse between elastic laminated plates and elasto-plastic lami- nated plates is subsequently discussed. Conclusions can be drawn

as follows.

The interfacial damage leads to the degradation of stiffness, and

Elastic arouses the larger deformation of plate. With the initiation and

0.2 Elasto-plastic evolution of the interfacial damage, the discontinuity and jumps

of the displacements occur at interfaces. Both the interfacial dam-

0.1 age and plastic deformation degrade the stress level of the plate.

Comparing to elastic plate, the stress of elasto-plastic plate

through thickness direction displays the phenomenon of nonlin-

w(1)/h

than that of the elastic plate, and the damage evolution of the elas-

tic plate and elasto-plastic plate is different due to the coupling of

-0.1

plastic deformation and interfacial damage.

-0.2

Acknowledgement

This study is supported by the National Natural Science Founda-

t tion of China under Grant No. 10872066.

Fig. 12. Comparison of nonlinear dynamic response between elastic and elasto-

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