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Headquarters: 5 Speen Street Framingham, MA 01701 US A WHITE PAPER Storage Virtualization: Analysis of the

WHITE PAPER

Storage Virtualization:

Analysis of the Benefits of Hitachi's Approach

Sponsored by: Hitachi Data Systems

John T. McArthur

Richard L. Villars

September 2005

Executive

Summary

Virtualization is the use of software and supporting hardware to ease the task of managing complex systems, including storage systems. IDC's definition of storage virtualization is broad. Virtualization includes the capability of connecting servers to logical volumes that are flexibly connected to actual physical volumes. Virtualization also includes the capability to reallocate a heterogeneous collection of storage resources without concern for low-level details, such as block size, and the capability to automate storage management functions.

With the release of the Hitachi TagmaStore Universal Storage Platform in September 2004, new virtualization capabilities became available to storage managers. The TagmaStore Network Storage Controller model NSC55, announced on July 11, 2005, is packaged in a small footprint, rackmounted form factor; uses the same software and firmware; delivers the same features and functions; and shares many of the same hardware components as the Universal Storage Platform.

The Universal Storage Platform and the NSC55 are networked storage controllers capable of attaching heterogeneous storage resources both from Hitachi Data Systems and from other vendors and uniting them under a single management span of control. These products enable data migration across a tiered storage architecture comprising high-performance storage systems, general-purpose storage systems, and high-capacity SATA-based storage systems.

IDC analyzed an Hitachi use-case to investigate the ways in which the Universal Storage Platform provides storage managers with greater efficiencies. With help from Hitachi engineers who use the Universal Storage Platform on a daily basis, IDC studied how critical storage management tasks (i.e., use-case procedures) are performed with and without the Universal Storage Platform's virtualization capabilities.

Results of the use-case analysis show that the Universal Storage Platform changes storage management tasks in several important ways. Without solutions such as the Universal Storage Platform, managers must know how to perform a number of point- to-point procedures — that is, individual tasks that link specific storage resources to a server's operating environment and workload. With the Universal Storage Platform and HiCommand software, uniform procedures replace point-to-point procedures because virtualization masks the differences among storage resources and server- side operating environments.

In addition to streamlining storage management tasks, IDC identified several improvements in storage resource utilization linked to the Universal Storage Platform and virtualization. Management of multitiered storage systems becomes practical when uniform, non-disruptive procedures replace point-to-point, disruptive procedures. Without virtualization, moving data sets from one tier of storage to another is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of both tiers along with decisions and actions aimed at transforming the data. It is a disruptive process, demanding some amount of scheduled outage, plus the risk of unscheduled outage if something goes wrong. Some degree of virtualization is necessary to make multitiered storage systems practical and functional.

Storage

Virtualization

Virtualization is the use of software and supporting hardware to simplify the task of managing complex systems, including storage systems. IDC's definition of storage virtualization is broad and includes the capability of connecting servers to mount logical volumes that are flexibly connected to actual or physical volumes; the ability to reallocate a heterogeneous collection of storage resources across storage systems without concern for low-level details, such as block size, physical location, and address; and the capability to automate storage management functions.

A Spectrum of Storage Virtualization Capabilities

 

Virtualization is not a simple feature that a storage system possesses or lacks. Rather, virtualization is best viewed as a spectrum of capabilities that continues to expand as suppliers of storage products compete to provide software and hardware storage products that are more scalable and easier to manage. By insulating a storage system's low-level details, creating useful abstractions such as a logical volume, and by automating regularly occurring storage maintenance tasks, virtualization promises cost savings in a number of different ways. Table 1 establishes the storage management benefits of many common virtualization capabilities.

The benefits associated with virtualized storage are due to two improvements in storage management. First, management tasks are simplified and streamlined by underlying software automation, which enables fewer storage managers to oversee larger pools of storage. Secondly, storage resources can be better utilized due to improved management. Without virtualization and pooling, storage managers often over-provisioned storage resources to make sure that they were sufficient. Virtualized storage enables better utilization of total resources and eases the task of migrating data among different storage assets in a multitiered storage system. These benefits contribute to a reduced total cost of ownership.

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TABLE 1

 

Storage Virtualization Capabilities and Storage Management Benefits

 

Logical volumes flexibly linked to actual, physical volumes

 

Operator need not know the exact physical location and parameters for volumes of storage.

Physical storage resources can be reallocated without

 

a

disruptive remounting of volumes on servers.

Replicas of data sets written simultaneously to different storage devices

 

Point-in-time replicas of data sets can be prepared non-disruptively.

 

Logical ports flexibly linked to actual, physical SAN ports

 

A

small number of physical SAN ports can serve a

 

large number of servers.

 
 

Servers can be redirected to different SAN resources without disruption or outages.

Migration of data from one logical device to another, across heterogeneous storage devices

 

Archival or backup and recovery replicas can be moved to remote sites or less costly storage resources.

 

Time- and event-driven automation of storage management policies and rules

 

The repetitive duties of a storage manager can be written as policy, verified, and executed reliably and without manager intervention.

Migration of data among tiers of storage resources to match storage costs to the value of data

 

Multitiered storage resources can be reallocated to match the shifting value of data and the shifting needs of the IT organization's workloads.

Source: IDC, 2005

 

Verifying Virtualization's Potential for Storage Management Benefits

 

In order to understand how virtualization affects storage management tasks and storage system utilization, IDC undertook a use-case analysis. In this context, use- cases are the activities of the storage manager, and they include

Information that the manager has

Knowledge that the manager needs to understand that information

 

Actions that the manager takes

Use-case methodology was developed to document software system requirements and to provide a library of cases for regression testing during the development of software systems. A collection of fine-grained use-case scenarios can provide a rich blueprint for software designers as key terms become variables and key decisions are encoded in the software's logic.

 

In this white paper, IDC contrasts storage management tasks where virtualization capabilities are present and absent. In particular, the analysis will examine storage management with and without the capability provided by the Hitachi TagmaStore Universal Storage Platform.

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Hitachi

Platform

TagmaStore

and

Universal

Storage

Network

Storage

Controller

In 2004, HDS announced the availability of TagmaStore Universal Storage Platform, the company's foundation for delivering next-generation tiered storage solutions, based on a networked storage controller foundation. Networked storage controllers make it possible to extend many of the capabilities of individual high-end storage systems to a pool of diverse storage systems without sacrificing performance or availability. In July 2005, Hitachi introduced a midrange version of its Universal Storage Platform, called the TagmaStore Network Storage Controller model NSC55.

Both of these networked storage controller systems provide an array of advanced storage functions built upon a foundation of scalable virtualization. These functions include:

Robust and well-integrated port aggregation, volume management, and common data replication functions

Flexibility in deployment options without sacrificing consistency and commonality of functions

The ability to scale quickly with minimal disruption to ongoing operations, including the ability to partition resources to meet variable requirements

Rapid and painless data migration services across existing and future storage systems from Hitachi and a wide range of other storage systems suppliers

Integration with overall storage resource management systems

The TagmaStore Universal Storage Platform and the Network Storage Controller with supporting virtualization and data replication software deliver a high level of modularity and performance as well as exceptional scalability. The Universal Storage Platform can virtualize and manage as much as 32PB of internal and externally attached heterogeneous storage. Hitachi's implementation of storage virtualization is embedded in the controller architecture of the Universal Storage Platform and the NSC55. Both are capable of routing data to and from direct-attached Fibre Channel hosts as well as ESCON/FICON-attached mainframes and open system environments. As Figure 1 shows, they become the central hub in a constellation of storage and server devices. Except for scalability, the following analysis applies equally to the Network Storage Controller.

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FIGURE 1

Hitachi's Controller-Based Storage Virtualization

 
Controller-Based Storage Virtualization   Source: Hitachi Data Systems, 2005 Use-Case Analysis of

Source: Hitachi Data Systems, 2005

Use-Case

Analysis

of

the

Impact

of

TagmaStore

Universal

Storage

Platform

 

In this use-case scenario, an IT organization in a manufacturing company is replacing

critical application that checks the configuration of the company's products. Before a product order is accepted for pricing, the configuration checker makes sure that all the subcomponents are valid, compatible, and match current specifications. The current version of the application runs on a Sun server and has seen declining use because key features are missing from the application. In spite of its reduced usage, the application uses nearly 600GB of fast, mirrored storage.

a

A

new version of the application with enhanced functionality has been developed in a

Windows environment using Oracle DBMS capabilities. After testing the new Windows-based application, the developers will need to retain the 900GB development test bed while creating an environment of similar size on fast, mirrored storage to support the new system when it is in production.

The current Sun application will need to be relocated to second tier storage to make room for the new, larger application. It will then be retired after the new application is stable and users have had a chance to switch over. The applications may run in parallel for several months.

The Sun server will then be redeployed to support some of the company's Web applications. The old application database contains information within its 600GB of legacy data that the IT organization would like to retain online for analysis. They would like to move the files to lower-cost storage and keep them available for up to a year.

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Two Storage Configurations

The use-case scenario depends on two configurations of storage assets, as shown in Figure 2.

In the older configuration, the IT organization has a Hitachi Lightning 9980V enterprise storage system along with a Hitachi Thunder 9585V ultra high-end modular storage system with intermixed FC and SATA disk storage. These storage systems are SAN connected to Sun and Window servers. The Sun server and new Windows production server access volumes on the Lightning 9980V system while the Windows development server accesses volumes on the Thunder 9585V system.

In the newer configuration, the IT organization added a Universal Storage Platform with internal FC drives. Production applications previously hosted by the Lightning 9980V storage system now reside on the Universal Storage Platform. The Lightning 9980V system was redeployed to a different datacenter. The Thunder 9585V intermixed storage system is externally attached to the Universal Storage Platform, and it functions as a second tier of storage. The Universal Storage Platform virtualizes and supplies access to all internal and externally attached storage resources for the Sun and Windows servers via Fibre Channel SAN connections. It also manages all data movement between different tiers. To the servers, all storage resources appear as if they are internal to the Universal Storage Platform.

FIGURE 2

Windows Windows Windows Development Development Development Windows Windows Windows Two Storage System
Windows
Windows
Windows
Development
Development
Development
Windows
Windows
Windows
Two Storage System Environments
Production
Production
Production
Sun
Sun
Sun
Production
Production
Production
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Lightning
Lightning
Thunder
Thunder
9980V
9980V
9585V
9585V
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Windows
Windows
Windows
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Development
Development
Development
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
RAID 5 & SATA
RAID 5 & SATA
Windows
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Windows
Hitachi
Hitachi
Thunder
Thunder
Production
Production
Production
9585V
9585V
RAID 5 & SATA
RAID 5 & SATA
Sun
Sun
Sun
Production
Production
Production
Older Configuration
Older Configuration
Newer Configuration
Newer Configuration
Source: Hitachi Data Systems, 2005
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In a nutshell, storage managers need to accomplish three objectives as follows:

Shift the existing configuration workload running on the Sun server to less expensive storage resources to make room for an upgraded application

Allocate storage resources to the Windows production environment

Archive the legacy application's data volumes when the system is retired

See Appendix A at the end of this white paper for a side-by-side comparison of the information required, knowledge needed, and actions a storage manager takes when managing resources in a tiered storage architecture with and without the capabilities of the Universal Storage Manager.

Use-Case Steps for Direct (SAN) Attached Storage

Beginning State (Shown in Figure 3)

600GB Sun application on Lightning 9980V mirrored FC storage

900GB Windows development environment on Thunder 9585V RAID 5 storage

Initial Steps

1. Allocate 600GB of RAID 5 storage on the Thunder 9585V to the Sun server.

2. Shut down the Sun legacy application.

3. Using Solaris utilities, copy the 20 Sun database volumes to replicate the Sun environment from mirrored FC on the Lightning 9980V to RAID 5 FC on the Thunder 9585V. The intent is to reduce expense and free up space on mirrored drives for the new Windows production environment. The 600GB copy operation will take several hours during which the application will be unavailable.

4. Restart the Sun application using the new RAID 5 volumes.

5. Using Solaris utilities, wipe and delete the mirrored FC volumes previously used by the legacy application.

6. Allocate a 900GB pool of mirrored FC storage volumes on the Lightning 9980V for the new Windows production environment using the space freed up by the relocation of the legacy Sun application.

7. Using Windows utilities on the new production server, copy the 30-volume 900GB development environment from the Thunder 9585V to the Lightning 9980V production environment. Use Hitachi Cross-System Copy software or shut down the development database overnight.

8. Start the new Windows production application in parallel with the legacy Sun application.

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FIGURE 3

Initial and Final Provisioning, Older Configuration Hitachi Hitachi Hitachi Hitachi Hitachi Hitachi Hitachi
Initial and Final Provisioning, Older Configuration
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Lightning
Lightning
Thunder
Thunder
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Lightning
Thunder
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9980V
9585V
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9585V
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Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
RAID & SATA
RAID & SATA
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
RAID & SATA
RAID & SATA
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
RAID 5 & SATA
RAID 5 & SATA
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
RAID 5 & SATA
RAID 5 & SATA
Initial Provisioning
Initial Provisioning
Final Provisioning
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Windows
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Sun Solaris
Sun Solaris
Sun Solaris
Sun Solaris
Sun Solaris
Sun Solaris
Development
Development
Development
Production
Production
Production
Production
Production
Production
Archival Archival
Archival
Source: Hitachi Data Systems, 2005
Intermediate State
900GB Windows production environment on Lightning 9980V mirrored
storage
900GB Windows test environment on Thunder 9585V RAID 5 storage
600GB Sun production environment on Thunder 9585V RAID 5 storage
Final Steps After Successful Deployment
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Development
Development
Development
Development
Development
Development
9. After allowing users time to learn the new application, retire the legacy
configuration checker application.
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Production
Production
Production
Production
Production
Production
10. Allocate 600GB of SATA storage to the Sun server.
Sun
Sun
Sun
Sun
Sun
Sun
Production
Production
Production
Production
Production
Production
11. Using Solaris utilities, copy the legacy data from RAID 5 FC volumes to SATA
volumes on the Thunder 9585V storage system.
12. Using Solaris utilities wipe and delete the RAID 5 FC volumes previously used by
the checker application.
13. Redeploy the Sun server.
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Development
Development
Development
Development
Development
Development
End State (Shown in Figure 3)
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows
900GB Windows production environment on mirrored 9980V storage
Production
Production
Production
Production
Production
Production
900GB Windows test environment on Thunder 9585V RAID 5 storage
Sun
Sun
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Production
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Production
600GB SATA storage of legacy data from the retired checker application
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Use-Case Steps for Virtualized Storage

Beginning State (Shown in Figure 4)

600GB Sun application on Universal Storage Platform mirrored (RAID 1+ — 4+4) storage

900GB Windows development environment on Thunder 9585V RAID 5 storage system attached to and virtualized by Universal Storage Platform

Initial Steps

1. Using Hitachi HiCommand Tiered Storage Manager, migrate the 600GB of storage for the low-use legacy application from mirrored FC drives on the Universal Storage Platform (tier A) to RAID 5 FC storage on the Thunder 9585V (tier B). Select the data-shredding option to wipe the original volumes clean after migration. The intent is to reduce expense and free up space on mirrored drives for the new Windows production environment. There is no impact on the running production application, as the migration is transparent.

2. Using HiCommand Device Manager, allocate 30 tier A (mirrored FC) storage volumes on the Universal Storage Platform to ports that will be used by the new Windows production server. These will be the migration targets for the next step.

3. Replicate the 900GB Windows development environment from the volumes on the Thunder 9585V storage system (PVOLs) to the mirrored Universal Storage Platform FC production volumes (SVOLs) using Hitachi ShadowImage In-System Replication software. Split the pairs when they are fully synchronized.

4. Boot the Windows production server and start the new Windows production application in parallel with the legacy Sun application.

Intermediate State

900GB Windows production environment on mirrored Universal Storage Platform FC storage

900GB Windows test environment on externally attached Thunder 9585V RAID 5 FC storage system

600GB Sun production environment on Thunder 9585V RAID 5 FC storage

Final Step After Successful Deployment

5. After allowing users time to learn the new application, retire the legacy configuration checker application.

6. Using HiCommand Tiered Storage Manager on the Universal Storage Platform, migrate the previously established migration group from RAID 5 FC to SATA disk storage on the Thunder 9585V storage system. Select the data-shredding option in Tiered Storage Manager to erase images of the data from the FC volumes after migration.

7. Redeploy the Sun server.

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FIGURE 4

Initial and Final Provisioning, Newer Configuration Sun Sun Sun Sun Sun Sun Sun Sun Sun
Initial and Final Provisioning, Newer Configuration
Sun
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Hitachi
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Universal Storage Platform
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Mirrored FC
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Lightning
Lightning
Thunder
Thunder
9980V
9980V
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
9585V
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Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi
9585
9585
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9585
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RAID 5 & SATA
RAID 5 & SATA
RAID 5 & SATA
RAID 5 & SATA
Initial Provisioning
Initial Provisioning
Initial Provisioning
Initial Provisioning
Final Provisioning
Final Provisioning
Final Provisioning
Final Provisioning
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Windows Windows
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Sun Solaris
Sun Solaris
Sun Solaris
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Sun Solaris
Sun Solaris
Development
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Production
Production
Production
Production
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Production
Archival
Archival
Archival
Source: Hitachi Data Systems, 2005
End State (Shown in Figure 4)
900GB Windows production environment on the Universal Storage
Platform's mirrored FC storage
Windows
Windows
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Windows
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Windows
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Windows
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Development
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900GB Windows test environment on externally attached Thunder 9585V
RAID 5 FC storage
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600GB SATA storage of legacy data from the retired checker application on
externally attached Thunder 9585V RAID 5 SATA storage
Sun
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IDC

Analysis

Storage virtualization describes a spectrum of higher-level capabilities that together ease the process of managing complex storage systems. As a result, it is difficult for IT organizations to evaluate the benefits of virtualized storage systems at a time when most storage system vendors can credibly argue that their products are virtualized to some degree. Feature-by-feature comparisons are difficult to make. Moreover, vendors have taken sharply different approaches to the overall design of virtualization functionality (see, New Options for Managing Tiers of Storage in the Enterprise: The Role of the Networked Storage Controller. IDC #4328, January 2005.)

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Opportunities

IDC's use-case analysis of how the Hitachi TagmaStore Universal Storage Platform changes storage management tasks shows that many storage tasks are made simpler, particularly in complex multitiered, multivendor storage environments. The ability to transform point-to-point procedures into more uniform systemwide procedures reduces the workload for storage managers and enables managers to focus on better utilization of storage assets.

 

Challenges

The Hitachi TagmaStore Universal Storage Platform competes with other storage virtualization products that vary in design and capability. Vendors, including Hitachi, will be challenged to explain the benefits of their system's virtualization capabilities and even more hard pressed to help customers make choices among offerings.

 

Entrenched behavior and stove-piped organizational structures are among the greatest challenges to the acceptance of Universal Storage Platform technology. Diverse storage systems are entrenched in many departments within the typical enterprise. IT organizations that attempt to consolidate these systems will often encounter resistance from stakeholders that don't find the promise of enterprisewide gains in efficiency compelling enough in their own business areas.

Hitachi and its business partners must focus on selling the corporatewide benefits of the Universal Storage Platform at senior levels of the organization and in terms of reduced capital and administrative costs, better data protection, and improved IT customer services.

Conclusion

Use-case analysis demonstrates how the Hitachi Universal Storage Platform and Network Storage Controller work with HiCommand Storage Management Software to enhance storage management and enable enterprises to exploit the price and performance advantages of a multitiered storage environment, as well as the TCO improvements from more efficient management and higher levels of storage utilization. Enterprise storage managers investigating ways to better integrate existing storage assets and improve operating efficiencies are encouraged to evaluate offerings from Hitachi Data Systems.

 

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APPENDIX A

Use-Case Scenarios for Managing Storage Resources in a Tiered Storage Architecture

Base case: Reference Architecture without Universal Storage Platform

Virtualization case: Reference Architecture with Universal Storage Platform

Allocate 600GB of tier B storage to the Sun server on the Thunder 9585V

Migrate the Sun Production Volumes to tier B to free up 600GB of tier A space

Information: Name of Sun host, HBA WWN, and list of free Tier B volumes on Thunder 9585V

Information: Name of Sun host server and desired Target Storage Tier

Knowledge: Storage Navigator GUI, switch zoning

Knowledge: HiCommand Tiered Storage Manager

Action: Zone switch to allow Sun server to see Thunder 9585V. Allocate volumes to ports assigned to Sun server

Action: Establish a migration group for the 20 volumes on tier A assigned to the Sun server; background migrate to tier B

Copy the Sun Production Volumes to tier B to free up 600GB of tier A space

Allocate 900GB of tier A storage to the new Windows production server

Information: Source and target volumes to copy

Knowledge: Solaris copy utilities

Information: List of free volumes on storage tier A, name, HBA WWN, and ports to be used by new Windows production server

Action: Find acceptable time to shut down application for several hours. Shut down the Sun application. Copy 20 database volumes to tier B. Restart the Sun application using the new volumes.

Knowledge: HiCommand Device Manager

Action: Allocate 30 volumes of tier A storage to the ports, which will be used by the Windows production server

Wipe the old Tier A volumes before releasing

Information: Source volumes

Replicate the Windows development database to the production environment and begin production

Knowledge: Solaris or other wipe utilities

Information: List of previously allocated volumes on storage tier A to be used by new Windows production server

Action: Wipe prior data from unused volumes. Deallocate volumes to Sun.

Knowledge: Hitachi ShadowImage In-system Replication

Allocate 900GB of Tier A storage to the new Windows production server

Action: Find acceptable time for 5-minute shutdown of Windows development database. Select replication volumes on storage tier A. Synchronize with production volumes. Shutdown the Windows development database momentarily. Split pairs. Restart the development database. Start the new Windows production environment using the new volumes.

Information: List of free volumes on storage tier A, name, HBA WWN, and ports to be used by new Windows production server

Knowledge: HiCommand Device Manager

Action: Allocate 30 volumes of tier A storage to the ports which will be used by the Windows production server

 

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APPENDIX A

Use-Case Scenarios for Managing Storage Resources in a Tiered Storage Architecture

Base case: Reference Architecture without Universal Storage Platform

Virtualization case: Reference Architecture with Universal Storage Platform

Copy the Windows development database to the production environment

Retire the Sun Legacy Application and redeploy the Sun server (after successful parallel period)

Information: Source and target volumes to copy

Information: Name of previously created Sun host migration group

Knowledge: Windows copy utilities

Knowledge: HiCommand Tiered Storage Manager

Action: Find acceptable time to shutdown development database for several hours. Shutdown the Windows development database. Copy 30 database volumes to tier A. Restart the Windows development environment. Start the new Windows production application using the new volumes.

Action: Select data shredding option and background migrate to tier C. Redeploy server.

Allocate 600GB of tier C (SATA) storage to the Sun server on the Thunder 9585V (after successful parallel period)

Information: Name of Sun host and list of free tier C volumes on Thunder 9585V

Knowledge: Storage Navigator GUI

Action: Allocate volumes to ports assigned to Sun server

Copy the Sun Production Volumes from Tier B to less expensive Tier C SATA archive

Information: Source and target volumes to copy

Knowledge: Solaris copy utilities

Action: Retire the Sun application. Shutdown the Sun application. Copy 20 database volumes to tier C.

Wipe the old volumes before releasing

Information: Source volumes on tier B

Knowledge: Solaris or other wipe utilities

Action: Wipe prior data from unused volumes. Deallocate volumes to Sun. Shutdown the Sun server and redeploy.

Source: Hitachi Data Systems, Demonstration Laboratory, 2005

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