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# Data

## Specimen  Diameter : 9.95 cm

 Length : 12.85 cm

𝐷
Cross-sectional area of specimen, 𝐴 = 𝜋( 2 )2

9.95 2
A = 𝜋( )
2

A = 77.76 cm2

𝑑
Cross-sectional area of standpipe, 𝑎 = 𝜋( 2 )2

𝑎 𝐿 ln(ℎ1⁄ℎ2)
k=
𝐴(t2 – t1)

## Standpipe Cross- Level in standpipe Time

diameter d, sectional Initial h1 (cm) Initial h2 interval ℎ1 k (cm/s)
𝑙𝑛
(cm) area of (cm) (t2 – t1) ℎ2

standpipe (s)
(cm2)
0.41 0.132 71.5 19.8 14.43 1.284 1.941 x 10-3
77.4 25.6 14.12 1.106 1.709 x 10-3
76.5 23.2 14.18 1.193 1.835 x 10-3
0.61 0.292 84.2 18.9 18.69 1.494 3.857 x 10-3
89.5 20.2 20.44 1.489 3.515 x 10-3
89.2 21.0 19.85 1.446 3.517 x 10-3
Average k 2.729 x 10-3
Example for standpipe with diameter = 0.41 cm.

(0.132)(12.85)(1.284)
k=
77.76(14.43)
k = 1.941 x 10-3 cm/s

## Example for standpipe with diameter = 0.61 cm.

(0.292)(12.85)(1.494)
k=
77.76(18.69)
k = 3.857 x 10-3 cm/s

Average k ,

(1.941 𝑥 10−3 ) + (1.709 𝑥 10−3 ) + (1.835 𝑥 10−3 ) + (3.857 𝑥 10−3 ) + (3.515 x 10−3 ) + (3.517 𝑥 10−3 )
=
6

## Specimen  Diameter : 7.865 cm

 Length : 22.3 cm

## Height of tube at specimen, cm

Bottom tube Middle tube Top tube
39.4 28.1 2.8