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GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

MINISTRY OF RAILWAYS
(RAILWAY BOARD)

INDIAN RAILWAYS

SIGNAL ENGINEERING MANUAL


PART-II

SEPTEMBER-2001

FOREWARD

1. Indian Railways are committed to provide safe and efficient transportation system. In this context, Railway Signalling sub-systems
promote safety, enhance line capacity and improve flexibility of the operations of the Railways. For meeting this commitment and to
provide the designed safety, the need for adoption all over the Indian Railways of the standard practices and instructions for installation
and maintenance of signalling sub-systems of types is thus of vital importance.

2. Considerable experience has been gained in the installation, operation and maintenance of signalling assets. Technological upgradation
has also been continuously taking place. Since 1955 and particularly from 80s the strategy and practices of installation of Signalling sub-
systems of types have gone through fundamental change from departmental execution to departmental supervision and execution by
contracted agencies. In respect of maintenance philosophy, the thrust for intensive and predictive maintenance and optional/efficient use
of the integrated blocks has been given. These developments have been reflected while preparing SEM Part-ll. The policy and special
instruction issued during these decades have been appropriately incorporated in SEM-Part II comprising of 12 chapters.

3. SEM-Part II is the result of the efforts put in by a number of S&T engineers of the Indian Railways. I hope this will serve as a useful
guide and compendium of instructions to all the officers and staff of the Signalling & Telecommunication Deptt. and will help them to
develop better know-how of the prevalent system in respect of installation, maintenance and operation and thereby improve the
reliability of the Signalling system.

New Delhi (N.K.Chidambaram)


September, 2001 Member (Electrical)
Railway Board
PREFACE

First Edition of Indian Railway Signal Engineering Manual (IRSEM) was issued in January, 1955. IRSEM had 22 chapters covering the
requirements of signalling, requirements and instructions for installation & maintenance of Signalling Systems/Equipment and
Organisation Structure of Signalling & Telecommunication Department.

With the technological upgradation and developments, the review of Jan.'55 Manual became necessary which was undertaken by Sh. CM.
Joseph, CSTE (Retired) in 1980 and later by a committee headed by Sh. S. Narasimhan, OSD/Signal Engineering manual (CSTE/Southern
Railway). It was then decided to publish SEM in two parts. SEM-Part I containing 10 chapters and covering requirements of Signalling,
organisation structure of S&T and matters connected with Budgeting, Planning etc. had been issued in Jan. 1988.

The work on Signal Engineering Manual (SEM) Part II was subsequently undertaken. SEM-Part II caters to the requirements and
instructions of installation, operation and maintenance of the Signalling subsystems and equipments of types. The technological
development in the form of Block Proving by Axle-Counter, Integrated Power Supply Arrangement for Signalling, Axle Counters, Relay
and Electronic Interlocking besides the special practices and instructions for the installation of the Signalling System in 25 KV AC traction
area have been appropriately covered. Specific chapter has also been made for Level Crossings. The Manual also incorporates the various
technical policies, letters/circulars issued by the Board during this time to meet the changing needs of Reliability, Availability,
Maintainability & Safety (RAMS) of the Signalling Sub-system. In respect of subjects like Traffic Management System (TMS), Automatic
Trains Protection (ATP), ATO & ATC and OFC based Signalling which are likely to be brought into use on the Indian Railways in the near
future, the instructions would be drawn based on the experience of the adoption of these technologies and if necessary, associating
consultants/experts on the subject.

The evolution of each of the 12 chapters of SEM Part II passed through the stages of drafting and examination by Expert Committees
involving RDSO and the Railways. Their detailed deliberations and discussions by the Signal Standards Committees were thoroughly
scrutinised at the Board's level.

In as much as the common measure of agreement amongst the Railways in regard to the maintenance schedules, their periodicity, the
format and registers of recording of checks, tests, measurements and the operating conditions obtaining on the Railways, the basis have
been standardised, subject, of course to the conditions that the Chief Signal and Telecom Engineer of the Railway may, where considered
essential, authorise deviations to the prescribed practices and the procedures to the extent necessary.

It will be appreciated, that in a manual of this nature, it may not be feasible to include material to cover each and every contingency that
may arise in the course of installation, working and maintenance of signalling installations, though efforts have not been spared to make
it as comprehensive as possible. In the event of any contingency that might arise requiring supplementing what is contained in this
Manual so as to suit the conditions on a particular Railway, the Chief Signal & Telecom Engineer of the Railway may issue necessary
instructions for the purpose. Copy of such instructions may be docketed to Railways, RDSO as well for their benefit and record. However,
the provisions in this Manual, the Codes/ Manuals issued by various authorities, the General and Subsidiary rules and any other statutory
regulation in force shall not be contravened.

The finalisation of SEM-Part II has been a stupendous task. It has been addressed through the efforts put in by a number of Senior
Officers as well as staff of the Railways, RDSO and Railway Board. No amount of words of appreciation and gratitude to them will be
adequate for the purpose.
It is sincerely hoped that the Manual would serve the needs for which it has been made.

New Delhi (M. Gambhir)


September, 2001 Adviser(Signal)
Railway Board

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER-XI

DUTIES OF MAINTAINERS
Para No. Description
11.1 A. Technical Duties of Signal Maintainers
11.2 The duties of Signal Maintainer
11.3 Locking of Interlocking Frames and Interlocking Circuits
11.4 Maintenance Programs Disconnection of apparatus
11.5 Failures
11.6 Accidents
B. GENERAL DUTIES OF MAINTAINERS
11.7 Knowledge of Rules and Instructions
11.8 Staff under maintainer
11.9 Maintenance of Muster Sheets etc
11.1 Materials and Tools and Plant
11.11 Co-operation between Electrical and Mechanical Signal Maintainers
Annexure 1 Maintainer's report
Annexure 2 Disconnection Notice
Annexure 3 Situations in which disconnection Notice need not be issued provided suitable precautions are taken

Annexure 4 Competency certificate cum training history book.


CHAPTER-XII

DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT

INSTALLATION
.
SECTION 'A' – CABINS
. SECTION 'B' - LEVER FRAME
12.1 Cabins
12.2 Conformity to drawing and specifications
12.3 Marking of parts
12.4 Assembling mechanical locking
12.5 Checking of components
12.6 Erection
12.7 Subsequent additions and alterations
12.8 Information to the Divisional Signal & Telecommunication Engineer
. SECTION 'C - LEAD OUTS (RODDING)
12.9 Type
12.1 Arrangement of Accommodating Cranks
12.11 Down rods
12.12 Rod connections to accommodating cranks
12.13 Crank fastening bolts
12.14 Movement of lead off cranks
12.15 Use of high cranks
12.16 Rod run on curves
. SECTION 'D' - POINT RODDING AND FITTINGS
12.17 Point Rodding
12.18 Alignment
12.19 Distance from the centre of track
12.20 Branching Off
12.21 Rodding running under track
12.22 Fixing Roller Standard
12.23 Spacing of rollers
12.24 Location of cranks, compensators, couplings & lug eyes
12.25 Offsets in roddings
12.26 Offset in cranks and compensators
12.27 Fixing Trestles of Point Rod Rollers
12.28 Fixing Trestles foundations
12.29 Provision of compensators
12.30 Fixing cranks and compensators
12.31 Joints for connections to cranks and compensators
12.32 Joints for branching off
12.33 Location of screw joint
12.34 Point adjusting screws
12.35 Adjustable cranks
12.36 Bolts, Nuts, Washers & Pins
12.37 Washers
12.38 Coach screws
12.39 Reaming of pin holes
. SECTION 'E' - POINTS
12.40 Essential requirements before interlocking
12.41 Adjustment of Point Switches
12.42 Permissible Distances
. SECTION 'F' - FACING POINT LOCKS, SWITCH & LOCK
. MOVEMENTS AND SPRING POINT LEVERS - SELF REVERSING
12.43 Layout
12.44 Notches
12.45 Facing Point Lock-plunger type
12.46 Obstruction Test
12.47 Switch & lock layouts
. SECTION 'G' - LOCK BARS
12.48 Length
12.49 Adjustment
. SECTION 'H' - POINT, TRAP AND SHUNTING PERMITTED
. INDICATORS
12.50 Type, Provision, Placing and Indication
. SECTION 'I' - LOCATION OF SIGNALS
12.51 Deviation to SOD
12.52 special instructions
12.53 Inspection by a Signal sighting committee
. SECTION 'J' - SIGNALS AND FITTINGS
12.54 Signal arms and its fittings
12.55 Slotting
12.56 Shunt Signals
12.57 Balance Levers
12.58 Back Lights
12.59 Lopping of trees obstructing visibility
12.60 Artificial backgrounds
12.61 Posts
12.62 Deck Boards
12.63 Provision of Signal Dubbers and Kerosene
12.64 Cleaning of Signal roundels and lamp lenses
. SECTION 'K' - DETECTORS
12.65 Fitting and placing
12.66 Wire connections and adjustment
12.67 Signal Slide Notches
12.68 Obstruction tests
. SECTION 'L' - SIGNAL WIRE RUN (SINGLE WIRE)
12.69 Spacing of pulleys
12.70 Sharp Diversions
12.71 Wire runs under track
12.72 Wire runs under level crossings
12.73 Wire runs on curves
12.74 Leading away wire from a main run
12.75 Bridge stakes
12.76 Wire crossing
12.77 Signal wires
. SECTION 'M' - PULLEY STAKES AND PULLEYS
12.78 Fixture and alignment
12.79 Fastening pulley brackets
12.80 Maximum spacing between the pulley stakes
12.81 Alignment of Pulley stakes
. SECTION 'N' WIRE JOINTS AND SPLIT LINKS
12.82 Wire Joints
12.83 Split links
. SECTION 'O' - WIRE ROPE
12.84 Galvanized wire rope
12.85 Wire rope round wheels
12.86 Wire rope on cabin wire adjusters
12.87 Precautions in cutting
12.88 Lubrication
. SECTION 'P' - WIRE ADJUSTING APPARATUS (SINGLE WIRE)
12.89 Wire adjusting screw
12.90 Cabin Wire Adjuster
12.91 Additional adjusting screws
. SECTION 'Q' - FOUNDATIONS (SINGLE WIRE)
12.92 Foundations generally
12.93 Foundations for cranks and compensators
12.94 Foundations for wheels, detectors, point indicators and dwarf signals ..
12.95 Fixture of cranks, wheels, detectors, point indicators and dwarf signals to foundations
12.96 Foundations for signals
12.97 Pits for foundation adjacent to tracks
12.98 Concrete foundations

. SECTION 'R' - DOUBLE WIRE INSTALLATIONS - INTERLOCKING FRAMES AND LEAD OUTS

12.99 Type
12.100 Double wire levers
12.101 Size of Drums
12.102 Erection
12.103 Levers for operating Points, locks, detectors and signals
12.104 Clutch lever-adjustment of clutch
12.105 Clutch Resetting Lever
12.106 Wire crosses
12.107 Double wire operation from single wire lever
12.108 Compensators
12.109 Application
12.110 Installation
12.111 Pulleys & Stakes
12.112 Fixture and alignment of stakes
12.113 Running out wire
. DIVERSIONS IN TRANSMISSIONS
12.114 Use of wire pulleys
12.115 Use of wheel with wire rope
12.116 Wheel Guides
12.117 Length of rope and spacing of joints at diversions
. WHEEL BASE
12.118 Fixing Wheels and Wheel Base foundations
. JOINTS
12.119 Type and location
12.120 Disconnecting Link
. ADJUSTING SCREWS
12.121 Provision
12.122 Minimum Spacing
12.123 Opening
. POINT, LOCK AND SIGNAL MECHANISMS
12.124 Type
12.125 Installation of mechanisms
12.126 Size of Wire
. DETECTORS
12.127 Fitting of detectors to Points
12.128 Connections
12.129 Number and spacing
12.130 Size of wire
12.131 Adjustment
12.132 Protecting Covers
. SECTION 'S' - PAINTING
12.133 Equipment to be painted
12.134 Colouring Scheme
12.135 Interval of Painting
12.136 Record of Painting
. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
12.137 Stores
12.138 Mixing of Paints
12.139 Painting of steel works
12.140 Enamel Signal Arms
12.141 Numbering of Points and Signals
12.142 Dates of Painting
. MAINTENANCE
. SECTION 'A'- CABINS.
12.143 Cabins-cleanliness, repair and fittings
12.144 (Left blank Intentionally)
. SECTION 'B' - LEVER FRAME
12.145 Responsibility
12.146 Instructions for maintainers
12.147 Instructions for Junior Engineer (Signal)
. SECTION 'C - LEAD OUTS (RODDING)
12.148 to
Lead outs
12.149
. SECTION 'D' - POINT RODDING AND FITTINGS
12.150 Examination
12.151 Alignment
12.152 Rollers
12.153 Roller foundations
. SECTION 'E' - CRANKS, COMPENSATORS, SCREWS, BOLTS, NUTS, PINS AND COTTERS
12.154 Examination
12.155 Replacement of cracked or broken parts
12.156 Cleaning of oil holes
12.157 Screws, bolts and nuts
12.158 Adjusting Screws
12.159 Pins
12.160 Keys and Cotters
. SECTION 'F' - POINTS
12.161 Visual inspection
12.162 Responsibility of SSE/SE/JE (P-Way) & SSE/SE/JE (Signal)
12.163 Damaged switches and packing of sleepers
12.164 Testing and adjustment
SECTION 'G' - FACING POINT LOCKS, SWTICH & LOCK MOVE-MENTS AND SPRING POINT LEVERS
.
- SELF REVERSING
12.165 Facing point locks
12.166 Switch & Lock Movement
12.167 Loose or cracked parts
12.168 Cross Slides ..
12.169 Testing Switch and Lock movements and facing point locks
. SECTION 'H' - LOCK BARS
12.170 General
12.171 Testing Lock Bars
. SECTION 'I' - DETECTORS
12.172 Detector examination and lubrication
12.173 Detector notches
12.174 Cleaning of detector shoes and angle slides
12.175 Testing detectors
12.176 Replacement of cracked or broken parts
. SECTION 'J' - SIGNAL WIRE RUN (SINGLE WIRE)
12.177 Alignment
12.178 Wires generally
12.179 Wires under track
. SECTION 'K' - PULLEY STAKES AND PULLEYS
12.180 Pulleys and Pulley stakes
. SECTION 'L' - ELECTRICAL REPEATERS AND SIGNAL LAMPS
12.181 Periodical inspection by JE/SE (Signal)
12.182 Examination and replacement of Signal & Indicator lamps

. SECTION 'M' - DOUBLE WIRE INSTALLATIONS - INTERLOCKING FRAMES AND LEAD OUTS

12.183 Transmissions Generally


12.184 Maintenance of Compensators
12.185 Testing Point, Lock, Detector and Signal Levers
12.186 Broken wire lock
12.187 Broken wire tests
12.188 Reconnection or repairs after wire breakage
12.189 Responsibility and Periodicity of Broken Wire Tests
12.190 Wire stretch on newly laid Double Wire transmission
. SECTION 'N' - PAINTING
. SECTION '0' - MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES
Annexure 5 Essential Requirements before interlocking of a point
Annexure 6 Colouring scheme
Annexure 7 Maintenance schedule for mechanical signalling
CHAPTER-XIII

OVERHAULING AND TESTING OF INTERLOCKINGS (MECHANICAL, ELECTROMECHANICAL AND RELAY


INTERLOCKING)

. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
13.1 Interlocking Frames
13.2 System and Equipment Testing
SECTION 'A' OVERHAULING OF INTERLOCKING FRAMES, INTERLOCKING KEY BOXES AND
.
STATION MASTER'S SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES
13.3 Periodicity
13.4 Programme of overhauling
13.5 Requirement of materials for overhauling
13.6 Interlocking Frame
13.7 Detailed Instructions for Overhauling
13.8 Resumption of normal working
13.9 Overhauling of Interlocking Key Boxes
13.10 Overhauling of Station Master's Slide Control Frame
13.11 Certificate of Overhauling
SECTION 'B' TESTING OF INTERLOCKING FRAMES, INTER- LOCKING KEY BOXES AND STATION
.
MASTER'S SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES
13.12 Periodicity
13.13 Programme of Testing
13.14 Essential requirements of Locking to be tested
13.15 Methods of testing
13.16 Testing by the Supervisory SSE/SE/JE (Signal)
13.17 Testing by the Divisional/Assistant Signal and Telecommunication Engineer
13.18 Instructions for testing
13.19 Test Charts
13.20 Lost Motion Test
13.21 Certificate of testing locking
. SECTION 'C' RECORDS
13.22 Records of testing and overhauling
13.23 Date of last overhauling and testing
. SECTION 'D' TESTING AND OVERHAULING OF ELECTRO- MECHANICAL INSTALLATIONS
13.24 Mechanical Locking
13.25 Electrical Locking
13.26 Testing and overhauling of Electrical Locking
13.27 Testing of other electrical equipments
13.28 Date of last overhauling and testing
13.29 Certificate of overhauling
. SECTION 'E' TESTING OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALLING CIRCUITS
13.30 General
13.31 to 3.32 Test Procedures
13.33 Testing Instruments
13.34 Physical inspection of the installation
13.35 Checking of the wiring
13.36 Test of individual circuits
13.37 Testing of individual apparatus
13.38 System Testing of Installation
13.39 Typical testing Procedure for Panel Interlocking/Route Relay Interlocking Installations
13.40 Periodicity of tests
13.41 Precautions during testing
Annexure 8 Certificate of overhauling interlocking frames
Annexure 9 Certificate of testing locking
CHAPTER-XIV

LEVEL CROSSING
14.1 General
14.1.1 Classification of level crossings
14.1.2 Gates
14.1.2.1 Non-interlocked gates
14.1.2.2 Interlocked gates
14.1.2.3 Engineering gates
14.1.2.4 Traffic gates
14.1.3 Normal position of gates
14.1.4 to
Equipment at level crossing
14.1.7
14.1.8 Interlocking
14.1.9 Communication
14.1.10 Approach warning
14.2 Installation
. (A) Instructions applicable to both mechanical and electrical lifting barriers
. (B) Mechanical lifting barriers
. (C) Electric lifting barrier
14.3 Maintenance
14.3.1 Mechanical lifting barriers
14.3.2 Electric lifting barrier
Annexure 10 Safety measures to be provided at Level Crossings
Annexure 11 Maintenance schedule of Level Crossing
CHAPTER-XV

CABLES
15.1 General
. Part I Cables
. SECTION 'A' - REQUIREMENTS
15.2 Types of cables
15.3 Planning
15.4 Laying cable above ground
15.5 Cable laid underground
15.6 Laying of cable in ducts
15.7 Laying of different type of cable in same duct
15.8 Laying of other department cable
15.9 Storing & transportation of cable
. SECTION 'B' – INSTALLATION
15.1 Paying out & testing the cable
15.11 to 15.13 Laying
15.14 Cable crossing
15.15 Cable markers
15.16 Precaution to be taken while carrying the cable
15.17 Excavation of trenches
15.18 Back filling of the trench
15.19 Earth of the trench
15.2 Laying near to sleeper
15.21 Cable Joints
15.22 Supervision of cable laying
. SECTION 'C' – MAINTENANCE
15.23 Testing of cables
15.24 Earth leakage detectors
15.25 Cable termination devices
15.26 Excavation in the vicinity of underground signalling cable
15.27 Inspection of protective work
. Part II Overhead Lines
Annexure 12 Instruction for insulation resistance testing of signalling cable
Annexure13 (Left blank intentionally)
CHAPTER-XVI

POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS


16.1 General
16.2 Sources of Power Supply
16.3 Distribution of Power Supply
16.4 Power Supply Equipment
16.5 Installation of Primary Cells
16.6 Installation of Secondary Cells
16.7 Installation of Power Supply Equipment
16.8 Installation of DG Set
16.9 Maintenance of Primary Cells
16.1 Maintenance of Secondary Cells
16.11 Maintenance of Power Supply Equipment
16.12 Maintenance of DG Set
Annexure 14 Fuel consumption logbook

Annexure 15 Installation and maintenance instructions for self regulating battery charger as per IRS : S 86-2000

Annexure 16 Secondary battery history card


Annexure 17 (Left blank intentionally)
CHAPTER-XVII

TRACK CIRCUITS AND AXLE COUNTERS


. I. TRACK CIRCUITS
. A. REQUIREMENTS
17.1 Types of Track Circuits
17.2 Minimum Length
17.3 Series connection of tracks
17.4 Track relays
17.5 Permanent way requirements of track circuits
. B. INSTALLATION
17.6 Location of track relays
17.7 Loading of track relay contacts
17.8 Jumper connections
17.9 Lead Wires
17.10 Bond Wires and Rope Wires
17.11 Track Circuit Termination
17.12 Cut Section (fed over) arrangement of Track Circuits
17.13 Insulated Rail Joints
17.14 Track Indicators
17.15 DC Track Circuits
17.16 AC 50Hz/ 83.33 Hz Track Circuits
17.17 AC 50 Hz Track Circuits with Vane type Relays
17.18 AC 50Hz/ 83 -1 Hz Track Circuits with Motor type Relays
17.19 Audio frequency Track Circuits
17.20 High Voltage Impulse Track Circuits
C. MAINTENANCE
17.21 General
17.22 Track Relays
17.23 Insulated Rail Joints
17.24 Detection of faulty insulated joint
17.25 Stretcher Bars and Point Rodding Connections
17.26 Bond Wires/Rope Wires
17.27 Jumper Connections
17.28 Ballast
17.29 Drainage
17.30 Joint Inspection of Track by S&T and Permanent Way Inspector
17.31 Train Shunt
17.32 Track Circuit Test Record Card
17.33 Track Batteries/Track Feed Apparatus
17.34 Limiting Reactance of AC track circuit
17.35 Measurement of Phase Angle of AC track circuit
17.36 Raking out of cinders
17.37 Rusty Rails
. II AXLE COUNTERS
. A. REQUIREMENTS
17.38 to 17.42 Composition, application
. B. INSTALLATION
17.43 Installation of track devices and trolley protection track circuit
17.44 to 17.47 Resetting of axle counter
17.48 Protection for axle counter block working
17.49 Fixing of double rail mounted track device
. C. MAINTENANCE
17.50 to 17.53 Maintenance instructions and practices
Annexure 18 Centralization of DC shelf type track relays
Annexure19 Track circuit test record card
Annexure 20 Track circuit test card
Annexure 21 Maintenance card - Jeumont track circuit
Annexure 22 Maintenance Instructions for Axle Counter
Annexure 23 (Left blank Intentionally'
CHAPTER-XVIII

BLOCK INSTRUMENTS
. INSTALLATION
. SECTION 'A' - GENERAL
18.1 Fixture
18.2 Painting
18.3 Transmission Media and other wires
18.4 Block instruments distinction of
18.5 Protective meanures against power line parallelism
18.6 Earth
. SECTION 'B' - SINGAL LINE TOKEN INSTRUMENTS
18.7 to 18.9 Installation
18.10 to 18.3 Tests to be conducted after installation and before commissioning
. SECTION 'C' - DOUBLE LINE BLOCK INSTRUMENTS
18.14 Relays
18.15 Block Release
18.16 to 18.20 Tests to be conducted at the time of installation
. SECTION 'D' SINGLE LINE TOKENLESS BLOCK INSTRUMENT
18.21 Mounting of instrument
18.22 Checks required before installation of instrument
18.23 Issulation Resistance
18.24 Block Release
18.25 to 18.30 Testing of Single Line Tokenless Bleck Block Instruments
. MAINTENANCE
. SECTION 'E' TOKEN INSTRUMENTS - GENERAL
18.31 Register of block Instruments
18.32 Censuse of Tokens
18.33 Damaged Tokens
18.34 to 18.36 Lost Tokens
18.37 Balancing Token
18.38 Token pouches
18.39 Responsibility of the Operating Staff
18.40 Importance of bell signals
SECTION 'F' - BLOCK INSTRUMENTS & THEIR ANCILLARY APPARATUS GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
.
– MAINTENANCE
18.41 Maintenance Check
18.42 Overhauling of Block Instruments
18.43 to 18.46 Block Earths
. SECTION 'G' - MAINTENANCE - DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS
18.47 to 18.54 Token Instruments
18.55 to 18.56 Double Line Block Instruments
. SECTION 'H' - MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
18.57 Maintenance Schedule for Block Instruments
. SECTION 'I' - AXLE COUNTER BLOCK INSTRUMENTS
18.58 Maintenance of Axle Counter Block Instrument
. SECTION 'J' - SOLID STATE BLOCK SYSTEM
18.59 Maintenance of Solid State Block System
Annexure 24 Painting Scheme-Block Signalling Equipment
Annexure 25 Format for recording particulars of lost token
Annexure 26 Token Balance Book Format
Annexure 27 Method of finding out the resistance of an earth
Annexure 28 Schedule of Maintenance for Block Instrument
CHAPTER-XIX

DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT

. SECTION 'A' - GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROPER USE OF TOOLS


19.1 to 19.3 General Instructions
19.4 Soldering Connections
19.5 Wire Termination
. SECTION 'B' - COLOUR LIGHT SIGNALS INSTALLATION
19.6 Type
19.7 Visibility
19.8 Location
19.9 Mounting and Fixtures
19.10 Alignment
19.11 Focussing
19.12 Hoods and Back Screens
19.13 Cables
19.14 Gaskets and Sealing
19.15 Locking
. SECTION 'C - ELECTRIC SIGNAL MACHINES
19.16 Type
INSTALLATION
19.17 to 19.18 Installation
19.19 Testing
19.20 Locking
. SECTION 'D' - ELECTRICALLY LIT SEMAPHORE SIGNALS
19.21 to 19.23 Installation
. SECTION 'E' - ELECTRIC SIGNAL REVERSERS ......
19.24 Type
19.25 Fixing
19.26 Locking
19.27 Installation
. SECTION 'F' - ELECTRIC POINT MACHINES REQUIREMENTS
19.28 to 19.33 Installation
19.34 Initial adjustment of Point Machine
19.35 Adjustment of Driving Rod
19.36 Adjustment of detector contacts
19.37 Adjustment of friction clutch
19.38 Obstruction Test
SECTION 'G' - ELECTRICAL DETECTOR
19.39 to 19.46 Installation
19.47 Circuit Controller
SECTION 'H' - RELAYS REQUIREMENTS
19.48 Type
19.49 Flasher
19.5 Storage
19.51 Protection
19.52. Transportation
. INSTALLATION
19.53 to 19.58 Location
19.59 Code Pin Configuration
19.60 Relay Clip
19.61 Relay Index Board
19.62 Cross protection and double cutting
19.63 Contact Chart
19.64 Sealing of Plug-in Relays
. SECTION 'I' - STATION MASTER'S SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES ..
19.65 Type
19.66 Fixing
19.67 Location
19.68 Mechanical Locking
19.69 Locking or sealing
. SECTION 'J' - ELECTRIC KEY TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
19.70 Type
19.71 Fixing
19.72 Location
19.73 Communication
19.74 Keys
19.75 Sealing
. SECTION 'K' - ELECTRIC LEVER LOCK
19.76 to 19.78 Installation
. SECTION 'L' - SIGNAL INDICATOR
19.79 Location
19.80 Protection
19.81 Audible Warning
19.82 Wiring
19.83 Signal Arm & Light Repeater
19.84 Colour Light Signal Indicator
19.85 to 19.86 (Left blank intentionally)
. SECTION 'M' - FUSES
19.88 to Fuses
. SECTION 'N' - EARTH CONNECTIONS
19.88 to 19.91 Earth Connections
19.92 Method of obtaining Earth
19.93 Earthing Leads
19.94 to
Earth Electrode Siting
19.101
19.102 Earth Resistance
19.103 Earth Electrodes
19.104 Watering
19.105 Earth Connections
. SECTION 'O' - PAINTING OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALUNG EQUIPMENT
19.106 Colour Scheme
19.107 Interval of Painting
. COLOUR LIGHT SIGNALS
19.108 Cleanliness of Lenses
19.109 Replacement
19.110 Maintenance checks
. ELECTRIC SIGNAL MACHINES
19.111 Cleanliness
19.112 Lubrication
19.113 Contacts
19.114 Commutators and Brushes
19.115 Tests
. ELECTRICALLY LIT SEMAPHORE SIGNALS........
19.116 Maintenance
. ELECTRIC SIGNAL REVERSERS
19.117 Maintenance
19.118 Tests
. ELECTRIC POINT MACHINES
19.119 to
Maintenance
19.126
19.127 to
Tests
19.129
. ELECTRIC DETECTOR
19.130 to
Maintenance
19.133
19.134 Obstruction Test
19.135 Circuit Controller
. RELAYS
19.136 to
Maintenance
19.138
19.139 to
Periodical Inspection
19.140
19.141 Overhauling
. STATION MASTER'S SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES
19.142 Maintenance
19.143 Testing and Overhauling
. ELECTRIC KEY TRANSMITTER
19.144 Maintenance
19.145 Testing of Key Transmitter
. ELECTRIC LEVER LOCK
19.146 Maintenance
. SIGNAL ARM AND LIGHT INDICATORS
19.147 Maintenance
. MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
19.148 Schedule of Maintenance of Electrical Signalling Equipment
Annexure 29 Colour Scheme for Electrical Signal Equipment
Annexure 30 Schedule of Maintenance Electrical Signalling Equipment
CHAPTER-XX

AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNALLING


20.1 INSTALLATION
20.1.1 General
20.1.2 Signals
20.1.3 Level Crossings
20.1.4 Track circuits
20.1.5 Power Supply
20.1.6 Installation in 25 kv AC electrified areas
20.1.7 Installation of Cables
20.1.8 Electrical signalling arrangement
20.2 MAINTENANCE
20.2.1 to
Signal lamp
20.2.2
20.2.3 Test by SSE (Signal)
20.2.4 Failures reported vby driver
20.2.5 Track circuits ..
20.2.6 Power Supply
20.2.7 Electrical signalling arrangements
20.2.8 Cables
CHAPTER-XXI

RELAY AND ELECTRONIC INTERLOCKING


. A RELAY INTERLOCKING
21.1 General Requirement
21.2 Control Panel
21.3 Control Panel Indication
21.4 Interlocking & circuit requirements
21.5 Route Release Circuits
21.6 Signal control circuits
21.7 Interlocking of level crossing gates
21.8 Point interlocking & control circuits
21.9 Cross protection
21.1 Relays
21.11 Signals
21.12 Points
21.13 Track circuits
21.14 Cables
21.15 Wiring & Relay racks
21.16 Fuses, terminals & Terminal links
21.17 Power supply arrangements
21.18 General
. B ELECTRONIC INTERLOCKING
. (Section left blank)
CHAPTER-XXII

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF SIGNALLING IN 25KV AC ELECTRIFIED AREA


22.1 General
22.2 Signal structure
22.3 Visibility of signals
22.4 Cables and Cable Laying
22.5 Signalling and Interlocking Circuits
22.6 Line circuits
22.7 Signal feed Circuitry
22.8 Point operation and Detection
22.9 Block working
22.1 Track circuits
22.11 Power Supply
22.12 Axle counter
22.13 ATP system
22.14 Earthing
Rules for Protection of Staff working on Signal & Telecommunication Installation Extracts of Para 20.5 of
22.15
Appendix 1 of ACTM Vol. II, Part II
Detailed Instructions for measurement of stray Direct Current before installation of DC Single Rail Track
Annexure 31
Circuits
Annexure 32 Provisions of Part 'J' of Permanent Way Manual
Annexure 33 RE Drawing from 22.1 to 22.16

CHAPTER-XI
DUTIES OF MAINTAINERS
11.1 A. Technical Duties of Signal Maintainers

11.2 The duties of Signal Maintainer

11.3 Locking of Interlocking Frames and Interlocking Circuits

11.4 Maintenance Programs Disconnection of apparatus

11.5 Failures

11.6 Accidents

. B. GENERAL DUTIES OF MAINTAINERS

11.7 Knowledge of Rules and Instructions

11.8 Staff under maintainer

11.9 Maintenance of Muster Sheets etc

11.10 Materials and Tools and Plant

11.11 Co-operation between Electrical and Mechanical Signal Maintainers

Annexure 1 Maintainer's report

Annexure 2 Disconnection Notice

Annexure 3 Situations in which disconnection Notice need not be issued provided suitable precautions are taken

Annexure 4 Competency certificate cum training history book.

CHAPTER -XI

DUTIES OF MAINTAINERS

A. TECHNICAL DUTIES OF SIGNAL MAINTAINERS

11.1 . The duties of Signal Maintainer are detailed in various Chapters in this Manual, the most essential being:-

(a) Efficient maintenance and testing of all equipment under his charge such as Mechanical Signalling equipment, Electrical
and Electronic Signalling equipment, Telecommunication equipment, etc., so as to keep them properly adjusted and in good
working condition, in accordance with instructions contained in this Manual and such Circulars or Instructions, as may be
issued from time to time.
Note:- The term electrical signalling equipment includes all types of Block Instruments.

(b) Carrying out works and alterations to the existing installations under the instructions of the SSE/SE/JE (Signal).

(c) Bringing to the notice of the SSE/SE/JE (Signal) any emergency and situation that may be beyond his competence or
control by a message on control phone or by a telegram or by a messenger or personally.

(d) Ensuring that the safety appliances like Safety Belts, lifting tackles and staging, etc., are in good condition and are
always made use of in order to ensure his safety and the safety of staff working under him.

(e) Deploying men for look out duties as and when necessary.

11.2 LOCKING OF INTERLOCKING FRAMES AND INTERLOCKING CIRCUITS

11.2.1 The Signal Maintainer shall not remove the covers of interlocking frames and midway release locks or disconnect or
alter any connection in the interlocking circuits of electrical interlocking systems except with the approval of and in the
presence of his SSE/SE/JE (Signal). Any action, which will vitiate interlocking, shall be done only after disconnection notice
has been issued and accepted.

11.2.2 A Signal Maintainer shall, however, attend to the locking failures promptly to permit safe passage of trains till the
arrival of the SSE/SE/JE (Signal). If the locking is jamming, efforts shall be made to release the jam, as far as possible, by
external means, such as, by tapping and oiling, without opening the covers or making any locking disconnection. If the jam
cannot be released in this manner, he shall suspend all the signals operated or controlled from the interlocking frame
before opening the covers or disconnecting any locking.

11.2.3 A Signal Maintainer shall also ensure that, once the signals have been suspended as per para 11.2.2 normal
working shall not be restored until the locking has been attended to, tested and certified by the SSE/SE/JE (Signal) and the
locking trays have been closed, pad locked and sealed.

11.3 MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS

11.3.1 Each Maintainer, as far as possible, adhere to the programme laid down for him by his SSE/SE/ JE (Signal) and
shall maintain a record of his visits on form S&T/MR (Annexure 1).

11.3.2 Signal Maintainer shall not normally leave any gear in disconnected condition and in unavoidable eventuality, a
specific advice to ASM, duly acknowledged by him shall be obtained.

11.3.3 Each Maintainer shall maintain and test all the equipment under his charge at least once a fortnight.

11.3.4 Each Maintainer shall submit a fortnightly report of his maintenance rounds to his Inspector on Form S&T/MR
(Annexure 1).
11.3.5 A Maintainer before leaving his Headquartered Station, shall record his movements in the Movement Board kept at
the Station Master's office.

11.4 DISCONNECTION OF APPARATUS

11.4.1 Each Maintainer shall have in his possession a book of Disconnection Notices- Form S&T/DN (Annexure 2). A
Maintainer who is in possession of a Competency Certificate cum Training History book (Annexure 4) only shall
independently undertake works necessitating issues of Disconnection Notices.

11.4.2 Disconnection Notices need not be issued in situations as listed in Annexure-3 provided suitable precautions are
taken. In other situations, when it is necessary to disconnect any equipment in his charge for repairs, replacement or
adjustment, the Maintainer shall advise the Station Master on duty in writing on Form S&T/DN (Annexure 2) and obtain the
latter's signature before work is started and after it has been completed.

11.4.3 When it is necessary to disconnect point equipment switches or signals for repairs, replacement or alteration,
Warner/Distant and Stop Signals governing the lines in question shall be kept in the 'ON' position and made in-operative
until the work is completed.

11.4.4 The Maintainer must seal the equipment opened by him under his competence.

11.5 FAILURES

11.5.1 A Maintainer shall attend to all failures in his section promptly proceeding by the first available means on receipt of
information. Before taking up work, he shall first obtain failure report/ message from SM/ASM in writing in accordance with
provision of G.R.3.68 for each failure recorded in the signal failure register and then issue disconnection notice as per Para
11.4. He shall make every endeavour to rectify the failures expeditiously and take all possible steps to prevent recurrence.
If a gear has failed on the unsafe side and the ASM has been unable to put the relevant signal to 'ON', the Signal Maintainer
shall take steps to disconnect/disable the relevant signal and bring it to 'ON'.

11.5.2 All failures which are beyond his competence or control must be brought to the notice of the SSE/SE/JE (Signal)
incharge by a message on control phone or by a telegram or by a messenger or personally.

11.5.3 Record of the date and time of rectification and the nature of the fault removed must be recorded in the Signal
Incidence and Inspection Register provided at each interlocked station.

11.6 ACCIDENTS

On receipt of advice about any accident in his jurisdiction, the Maintainer shall proceed to the site of accident by first
available means. He shall not interfere with any equipment on his own but shall act upon the orders given by the senior
most officials at the site of accident.
B. GENERAL DUTIES OF MAINTAINERS

11.7 KNOWLEDGE OF RULES AND INSTRUCTIONS

11.7.1 A Maintainer shall be conversant with rules, regulations and instructions concerning his work contained in the
following books of reference as well as other instructions issued from time to time.

i) General and subsidiary rules;

ii) Signal Engineering Manual;

iii) Safety First Book

11.7.2 A copy of those portions of each of the books mentioned in Para 11.7.1 as also all circulars and instructions
concerning his work, shall be maintained by him for his reference and information. He shall keep them up to date in respect
of Correction Slips issued from time to time.

11.8 A Maintainer shall not permit any artisan or Class IV staff to do any adjustment to the gear in use except under his
personal supervision and he shall ensure that the staff under him clearly understand this rule.

11.9 MAINTENANCE OF MUSTER SHEETS ETC.

11.9.1 A Maintainer shall mark his own attendance and that of his staff on the muster sheets received from the SSE/SE/JE
(Signal) before starting his work. Erasing and over-writing is not permitted. Loss of muster sheet shall be brought to the
notice of the SSE/SE/JE (Signal) at the earliest.

11.9.2 A Maintainer shall work to the duty rosters provided and see that the staff under him also works according to the
roster.

11.10 MATERIALS AND TOOLS AND PLANT

11.10.1 A Maintainer shall, where necessary, get his requirements of materials for maintenance and repair work from the
SSE/SE/JE (Signal), giving full particulars of station, location and the gears to be replaced. Released materials shall be
returned to the SSE/SE/JE (Signal) immediately. There shall absolutely be no wastage of any material.

11.10.2 A Maintainer shall always take his tools with him when on duty. All tools shall be kept in a condition fit for
immediate use.

11.11 CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL SIGNAL MAINTAINERS:

11.11.1 Electrical and Mechanical Signal Maintainers shall co-operate in testing all signals operated mechanically and
controlled electrically.
11.11.2 Electrical and Mechanical Signal Maintainers shall extend full co-operation to each other in their day to day work.

FORM NO. S&T/MR


Annexure 1
Para Nos. 11.3.1 & 11.3.4

SIGNAL & TELECOMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT

MAINTAINER'S REPORT

Day/Night Duty for Week/Fortnight/Month ending....................

Name of Maintainer................................... Hqrs. of Maintainer..................

Section................................

Date of Visit Name of Station/Cabin Train No. and time Train No. and time Maintenance Work
arrived departed Done
1 2 3 4 5

Signature of Maintainer

Date................................
Annexture 2

Annexure 3

Para 11.4.2
Situations in which disconnection notice need not be issued provided suitable precautions are taken:

A.3.1 CLEANING AND/OR LUBRICATING /GRAPHITING WITHOUT AFFECTING ANY PHYSICAU ELECTRICAL
DISCONNECTION

i) Lever frame basement.

ii) Relay Room & Battery Room.

iii) Apparatus case/battery boxes/Goomty.

iv) Lifting barrier mechanism including winch.

v) Lever lock and circuit controller without opening cover.

vi) Inspection and cleaning of inside equipment by opening the covers of point machines, signal motors, reversers,
apparatus cases and detectors,

vii) Point, facing point lock and lock bar.

viii) Cranks, compensators, pullies, wheels, roller stands, counterweights & levers,

ix) Power supply equipment,

x) Insulation joints,

xi) Lens/roundels of signal, point indicator, trap indicator & shunt permitting indicator provided phantom indication to driver
of an incoming train is prevented by covering lenses.

A.3.2 TESTING OF

i) Track locking, approach locking, back locking, indication locking, route release.

ii) Checking various parameters of axle counter without disconnecting the equipment.

iii) Power supply equipment.

iv) Lever frame, SM's control frame, signal operation, point operation, level crossing gate & slot circuits.

v) Point by obstruction test for lock only.

vi) Checking and testing of track circuit parameters when the track is unoccupied,
vii) Focussing of colour light signal provided phantom indication to driver of an incoming train is prevented by covering
lenses.

A.3.3 ADJUSTMENT OF

i) Wire transmission except double wire operated point transmission.

ii) Tightening of terminals using insulated tools without causing any shorts on adjacent terminals.

A.3.4 REPLACEMENT OF

i) Electric signal lamp provided phantom indication to driver of an incoming train is prevented by covering lenses.

ii) Bond wire, one at a time,

iii) Plug-in relay in case traffic condition permits,

iv) Indicator lamps,

v) Push button/switch/key of panel,

vi) Lock bar clips/bar stop, one at a time,

vii) G. D. tubes,

viii) Fuse, one at a time.

ix) Pulley, bottom roller/ top roller in wire and rod transmission one at a time and split pins,

x) Batteries /cells without affecting disconnection of supply to main equipment.

Annexure 4

Para 11.4.1

.................................Railway

SIGNAL AND TELECOMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT

Competency Certificate cum training History book


Certificate number..................

This is to certify that

Shri .
S/o Shri .
Designation .
Staff No. .
Station .
Division .

who has undergone training in....................................has been examined in the relevant rules and instructions pertaining
to his duties stipulated in the Signal Engineering Manual & General and subsidiary rules and he is competent to undertake
independently such work which may necessitates disconnection of signalling and interlocking gear in service under open line
conditions.

This certificate is valid upto............................................

He is also qualified to work on the following block instruments and is competent to disconnect and restore working (Tick the
appropriate)

1 Double line block instrument .


2 Single line token block instrument .
3 Single line push button block instrument .
4 Single line handle type block instrument .
5 . .
6 . .

Date:................ Place:..................
Principal
S& T Training centre

..................Railway

RENEWALS OF COMPETENCY CERTIFICATE

Date Renewed upto Block Instruments Signature


. . Added Deleted .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .

REFERESHER COURSE

S. No. Course No. Last attended Next Due Signature and Date
. . From To . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .

EQUIPMENT AND OTHER COURSE ATTENDED

S.No. Date Name of course From TO Signature


. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .

Situations in which disconnection notice need not be issued provided suitable precautions are taken:

A.3.1 CLEANING AND/OR LUBRICATING /GRAPHITING WITHOUT AFFECTING ANY PHYSICAU ELECTRICAL
DISCONNECTION

i) Lever frame basement.

ii) Relay Room & Battery Room.

iii) Apparatus case/battery boxes/Goomty.

iv) Lifting barrier mechanism including winch.

v) Lever lock and circuit controller without opening cover.

vi) Inspection and cleaning of inside equipment by opening the covers of point machines, signal motors, reversers,
apparatus cases and detectors,

vii) Point, facing point lock and lock bar.

viii) Cranks, compensators, pullies, wheels, roller stands, counterweights & levers,

ix) Power supply equipment,

x) Insulation joints,

xi) Lens/roundels of signal, point indicator, trap indicator & shunt permitting indicator provided phantom indication to driver
of an incoming train is prevented by covering lenses.

A.3.2 TESTING OF

i) Track locking, approach locking, back locking, indication locking, route release.
ii) Checking various parameters of axle counter without disconnecting the equipment.

iii) Power supply equipment.

iv) Lever frame, SM's control frame, signal operation, point operation, level crossing gate & slot circuits.

v) Point by obstruction test for lock only.

vi) Checking and testing of track circuit parameters when the track is unoccupied,

vii) Focussing of colour light signal provided phantom indication to driver of an incoming train is prevented by covering
lenses.

A.3.3 ADJUSTMENT OF

i) Wire transmission except double wire operated point transmission.

ii) Tightening of terminals using insulated tools without causing any shorts on adjacent terminals.

A.3.4 REPLACEMENT OF

i) Electric signal lamp provided phantom indication to driver of an incoming train is prevented by covering lenses.

ii) Bond wire, one at a time,

iii) Plug-in relay in case traffic condition permits,

iv) Indicator lamps,

v) Push button/switch/key of panel,

vi) Lock bar clips/bar stop, one at a time,

vii) G. D. tubes,

viii) Fuse, one at a time.

ix) Pulley, bottom roller/ top roller in wire and rod transmission one at a time and split pins,

x) Batteries /cells without affecting disconnection of supply to main equipment.


Annexure 4

Para 11.4.1

.................................Railway

SIGNAL AND TELECOMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT

Competency Certificate cum training History book

Certificate number..................

This is to certify that

Shri .
S/o Shri .
Designation .
Staff No. .
Station .
Division .

who has undergone training in....................................has been examined in the relevant rules and instructions pertaining
to his duties stipulated in the Signal Engineering Manual & General and subsidiary rules and he is competent to undertake
independently such work which may necessitates disconnection of signalling and interlocking gear in service under open line
conditions.

This certificate is valid upto............................................

He is also qualified to work on the following block instruments and is competent to disconnect and restore working (Tick the
appropriate)

1 Double line block instrument .


2 Single line token block instrument .
3 Single line push button block instrument .
4 Single line handle type block instrument .
5 . .
6 . .

Date:................ Place:..................

Principal
S& T Training centre

..................Railway

RENEWALS OF COMPETENCY CERTIFICATE

Date Renewed upto Block Instruments Signature


. . Added Deleted .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .

REFERESHER COURSE

S. No. Course No. Last attended Next Due Signature and Date
. . From To . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
EQUIPMENT AND OTHER COURSE ATTENDED

S.No. Date Name of course From TO Signature


. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .

CHAPTER-XII
DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT
. INSTALLATION
. SECTION 'A' – CABINS
. SECTION 'B' - LEVER FRAME
12.1 Cabins
12.2 Conformity to drawing and specifications
12.3 Marking of parts
12.4 Assembling mechanical locking
12.5 Checking of components
12.6 Erection
12.7 Subsequent additions and alterations
12.8 Information to the Divisional Signal & Telecommunication Engineer
. SECTION 'C - LEAD OUTS (RODDING)
12.9 Type
12.10 Arrangement of Accommodating Cranks
12.11 Down rods
12.12 Rod connections to accommodating cranks
12.13 Crank fastening bolts
12.14 Movement of lead off cranks
12.15 Use of high cranks
12.16 Rod run on curves
. SECTION 'D' - POINT RODDING AND FITTINGS
12.17 Point Rodding
12.18 Alignment
12.19 Distance from the centre of track
12.20 Branching Off
12.21 Rodding running under track
12.22 Fixing Roller Standard
12.23 Spacing of rollers
12.24 Location of cranks, compensators, couplings & lug eyes
12.25 Offsets in roddings
12.26 Offset in cranks and compensators
12.27 Fixing Trestles of Point Rod Rollers
12.28 Fixing Trestles foundations
12.29 Provision of compensators
12.30 Fixing cranks and compensators
12.31 Joints for connections to cranks and compensators
12.32 Joints for branching off
12.33 Location of screw joint
12.34 Point adjusting screws
12.35 Adjustable cranks
12.36 Bolts, Nuts, Washers & Pins
12.37 Washers
12.38 Coach screws
12.39 Reaming of pin holes
. SECTION 'E' - POINTS
12.40 Essential requirements before interlocking
12.41 Adjustment of Point Switches
12.42 Permissible Distances
. SECTION 'F' - FACING POINT LOCKS, SWITCH & LOCK
. MOVEMENTS AND SPRING POINT LEVERS - SELF REVERSING
12.43 Layout
12.44 Notches
12.45 Facing Point Lock-plunger type
12.46 Obstruction Test
12.47 Switch & lock layouts
. SECTION 'G' - LOCK BARS
12.48 Length
12.49 Adjustment
. SECTION 'H' - POINT, TRAP AND SHUNTING PERMITTED
. INDICATORS
12.50 Type, Provision, Placing and Indication
. SECTION T - LOCATION OF SIGNALS
12.51 Deviation to SOD
12.52 special instructions
12.53 Inspection by a Signal sighting committee
. SECTION 'J' - SIGNALS AND FITTINGS
12.54 Signal arms and its fittings
12.55 Slotting
12.56 Shunt Signals
12.57 Balance Levers
12.58 Back Lights
12.59 Lopping of trees obstructing visibility
12.60 Artificial backgrounds
12.61 Posts
12.62 Deck Boards
12.63 Provision of Signal Dubbers and Kerosene
12.64 Cleaning of Signal roundels and lamp lenses
. SECTION 'K' - DETECTORS
12.65 Fitting and placing
12.66 Wire connections and adjustment
12.67 Signal Slide Notches
12.68 Obstruction tests
. SECTION 'U - SIGNAL WIRE RUN (SINGLE WIRE)
12.69 Spacing of pulleys
12.70 Sharp Diversions
12.71 Wire runs under track
12.72 Wire runs under level crossings
12.73 Wire runs on curves
12.74 Leading away wire from a main run
12.75 Bridge stakes
12.76 Wire crossing
12.77 Signal wires
. SECTION 'M' - PULLEY STAKES AND PULLEYS
12.78 Fixture and alignment
12.79 Fastening pulley brackets
12.80 Maximum spacing between the pulley stakes
12.81 Alignment of Pulley stakes
. SECTION 'N' WIRE JOINTS AND SPLIT LINKS
12.82 Wire Joints
12.83 Split links
. SECTION 'O' - WIRE ROPE
12.84 Galvanized wire rope
12.85 Wire rope round wheels
12.86 Wire rope on cabin wire adjusters
12.87 Precautions in cutting
12.88 Lubrication
. SECTION 'P' - WIRE ADJUSTING APPARATUS (SINGLE WIRE)
12.89 Wire adjusting screw
12.90 Cabin Wire Adjuster
12.91 Additional adjusting screws
. SECTION 'Q' - FOUNDATIONS (SINGLE WIRE)
12.92 Foundations generally
12.93 Foundations for cranks and compensators
12.94 Foundations for wheels, detectors, point indicators and dwarf signals ..
12.95 Fixture of cranks, wheels, detectors, point indicators and dwarf signals to foundations
12.96 Foundations for signals
12.97 Pits for foundation adjacent to tracks
12.98 Concrete foundations
. SECTION 'R' - DOUBLE WIRE INSTALLATIONS - INTERLOCKING FRAMES AND LEAD OUTS
12.99 Type
12.100 Double wire levers
12.101 Size of Drums
12.102 Erection
12.103 Levers for operating Points, locks, detectors and signals
12.104 Clutch lever-adjustment of clutch
12.105 Clutch Resetting Lever
12.106 Wire crosses
12.107 Double wire operation from single wire lever
12.108 Compensators
12.109 Application
12.110 Installation
12.111 Pulleys & Stakes
12.112 Fixture and alignment of stakes
12.113 Running out wire
. DIVERSIONS IN TRANSMISSIONS
12.114 Use of wire pulleys
12.115 Use of wheel with wire rope
12.116 Wheel Guides
12.117 Length of rope and spacing of joints at diversions
. WHEEL BASE
12.118 Fixing Wheels and Wheel Base foundations
. JOINTS
12.119 Type and location
12.120 Disconnecting Link
. ADJUSTING SCREWS
12.121 Provision
12.122 Minimum Spacing
12.123 Opening
. POINT, LOCK AND SIGNAL MECHANISMS
12.124 Type
12.125 Installation of mechanisms
12.126 Size of Wire
. DETECTORS
12.127 Fitting of detectors to Points
12.128 Connections
12.129 Number and spacing
12.130 Size of wire
12.131 Adjustment
12.132 Protecting Covers
. SECTION 'S' - PAINTING
12.133 Equipment to be painted
12.134 Colouring Scheme
12.135 Interval of Painting
12.136 Record of Painting
. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
12.137 Stores
12.138 Mixing of Paints
12.139 Painting of steel works
12.140 Enamel Signal Arms
12.141 Numbering of Points and Signals
12.142 Dates of Painting
. MAINTENANCE
. SECTION 'A'- CABINS.
12.143 Cabins-cleanliness, repair and fittings
12.144 (Left blank Intentionally)
. SECTION 'B' - LEVER FRAME
12.145 Responsibility
12.146 Instructions for maintainers
12.147 Instructions for Junior Engineer (Signal)
. SECTION 'C - LEAD OUTS (RODDING)
12.148 to
Lead outs
12.149
. SECTION 'D' - POINT RODDING AND FITTINGS
12.150 Examination
12.151 Alignment
12.152 Rollers
12.153 Rollerfoundations
. SECTION 'E' - CRANKS, COMPENSATORS, SCREWS, BOLTS, NUTS, PINS AND COTTERS
12.154 Examination
12.155 Replacement of cracked or broken parts
12.156 Cleaning of oil holes
12.157 Screws, bolts and nuts
12.158 Adjusting Screws
12.159 Pins
12.160 Keys and Cotters
. SECTION 'F' - POINTS
12.161 Visual inspection
12.162 Responsibility of SSE/SE/JE (P-Way) & SSE/SE/JE (Signal)
12.163 Damaged switches and packing of sleepers
12.164 Testing and adjustment
SECTION 'G' - FACING POINT LOCKS, SWTICH & LOCK MOVE-MENTS AND SPRING POINT LEVERS -
.
SELF REVERSING
12.165 Facing point locks
12.166 Switch & Lock Movement
12.167 Loose or cracked parts
12.168 Cross Slides ..
12.169 Testing Switch and Lock movements and facing point locks
. SECTION 'H' - LOCK BARS
12.170 General
12.171 Testing Lock Bars
. SECTION 'I' - DETECTORS
12.172 Detector examination and lubrication
12.173 Detector notches
12.174 Cleaning of detector shoes and angle slides
12.175 Testing detectors
12.176 Replacement of cracked or broken parts
. SECTION 'J' - SIGNAL WIRE RUN (SINGLE WIRE)
12.177 Alignment
12.178 Wires generally
12.179 Wires under track
. SECTION 'K' - PULLEY STAKES AND PULLEYS
12.180 Pulleys and Pulley stakes
. SECTION 'L' - ELECTRICAL REPEATERS AND SIGNAL LAMPS
12.181 Periodical inspection by JE/SE (Signal)
12.182 Examination and replacement of Signal & Indicator lamps
. SECTION 'M' - DOUBLE WIRE INSTALLATIONS - INTERLOCKING FRAMES AND LEAD OUTS
12.183 Transmissions Generally
12.184 Maintenance of Compensators
12.185 Testing Point, Lock, Detector and Signal Levers
12.186 Broken wire lock
12.187 Broken wire tests
12.188 Reconnection or repairs after wire breakage
12.189 Responsibility and Periodicity of Broken Wire Tests
12.190 Wire stretch on newly laid Double Wire transmission
. SECTION 'N' - PAINTING
. SECTION 'O' - MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES
Annexure 5 Essential Requirements before interlocking of a point
Annexure 6 Colouring scheme
Annexure 7 Maintenance schedule for mechanical signalling

CHAPTER -XII

DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT

INSTALLATION

SECTION 'A' - CABINS

12.1 CABINS :

12.1.1 SIZE : Cabins shall be of adequate size and provided with glazed windows to enable the Cabin man to have a clear
view of Points, Signals and Level Crossing gates under his control.

12.1.2 SITE : Location and elevation of cabins shall be in accordance with Para 7.78 of Signal Engineering Manual Part I.
The site of the Cabin shall be chosen jointly by Officers of Signalling, Safety and Civil Engineering Departments.

12.1.3 The cabins shall be so located as to allow future expansion of the yard and avoid damages by derailed vehicles on
trap/sand humps.

12.1.4 As far as practicable, End Cabins shall be so sited that they are on opposite sides of the track, the cabin being on
the upside approach end of the Up line and on the down side approach end of the Down Line.
12.1.6 Cabins shall be so sited that Points are preferably within the range of mechanical operation.

12.1.7 The cabins shall have separate Relay Room, Power equipment room, and battery room where required.

12.1.8 Cabin Equipment: All cabins shall be provided with equipment listed at Para 7.79 of Part I of Signal Engineering
Manual.

SECTION 'B' - LEVER FRAME

12.2 Conformity to drawings and specifications : Interlocking frames shall conform to approved drawings and
specifications.

12.3 MARKING OF PARTS

12.3.1 Standards, quadrants, quadrant supports, levers shoes, locking boxes and covers, shafts and intermediate supports
shall be marked with identifying letters or figures painted on them.

12.3.2 Plungers, interlocking bars, mechanical interlocking locks and other parts constituting the 'Locking' shall be stamped
as under:

i) Plungers shall be marked with their relevant lever numbers and number of the 'locking' box;

ii) Interlocking bars shall bear the number beginning from the first left hand side lock to last right hand side lock, the
number of the channel of the locking box, and its position in the channel; and

iii) Mechanical interlocking locks (popularly called 'dogs') shall be marked with their respective lever number and the
number of the channel of the locking box.

12.4 Assembling Mechanical Locking : Mechanical locking shall be assembled in accordance with approved Locking
Diagram. Approval shall be obtained for any alteration, constructional or technical, found essential during the course of
assembling locking. Some important instructions for assembling locking are detailed below:

12.4.1 Locking boxes shall be correctly aligned.

12.4.2 All pin joints shall be made a proper fit with no slackness. This is of particular importance in catch handle type of
locking where a number of pin joints are provided to work the locking through the catch handle. For newly fitted locking
frames there shall be practically no lost motion in connections or locking. Levers shall be straightened where required to
maintain proper alignment. It shall be ensured that all parts of the lever frames including spare levers and their tappets are
intact.

12.4.3 Notches shall be marked off in accordance with the locking diagrams. Marking shall be done with the help of
templates and the outline punch marked.

In the case of catch handle locking, it is most important that the catch rod and links are in correct position before marking.

It is a good practice to operate the catch handle several times, both in the normal and the reverse positions, in the case of
catch handle locking and operate the lever several times in the case of Direct Lever Locking before the notches are actually
marked. While doing so, the catch block shall be properly held against the quadrant.

12.4.4 Notches shall be cut to proper sizes and shapes as marked. Normal and reverse notches for point levers and those
signal levers which have back tails or long leads may be cut with a small clearance up to 1 mm. Notches of straight edge
locks may have a clearance up to 3 mm for the straight edge of the lock.

12.4.5 Joints in interlocking bars shall be avoided as far as possible. Where necessary, the joints shall be made smithy
welding. The welded bars shall be kept truly straight and perfect in shape.

12.4.6 All locks and driving pieces shall be securely fixed square to the interlocking bar. Locks (dogs) shall have free
movement in the channels of the locking box.

12.4.7 Unsupported and long interlocking bars spanning more than 10 levers in SA1101 Lever Frame and 8 levers in SA
530 Lever Frame shall be provided with a carrier lock or dummy pieces.

12.4.8 Any top piece fixed in the plunger shall be ordinarily rivetted except when it is accessible from outside, it shall be
welded on to the plunger.

12.4.9 Each assembled interlocking bar shall be checked and tested to see that-

i) It is in accordance with approved Locking Diagram;

ii) the locking provided through each bar is in accordance with approved interlocking table;

iii) the lost motion of a lever, which is locked, shall be such that the lever block cannot be moved more than 12 mm over
the lever quadrant in the case of locking operated directly by the lever. In the case of catch handle operated locking, it shall
not be possible to raise the catch handle block more than 10 mm;

iv) The locking shall be strong, durable and accurate. It shall not be possible for any mechanical lock to enter a notch other
than that for which it is intended or to force the locking.

v) The locking in the lever frame shall be effected just at the commencement of the movement of the lever or the catch
handle as the case may be.

vi) The release locking shall not be effected before the completion of the movement of the lever.
vii) The locked lever shall not be free before the releasing lever has completed its travel proving thereby that there are no
conflicting notches.

12.4.10 Plungers, interlocking bars and locks (dogs) shall be marked as detailed in Para 12.3.2 .

12.4.11 locking strips shall be in accordance with approved plans.

12.4.12 Locking box covers shall be securely fixed so that it is not possible to force the locking by displacing the locks or
bars. The covers shall be padlocked and sealed.

12.4.13 After assembling locking, it shall be carefully checked and compared with the approved Locking Diagram

12.5 Checking of Components : The JE/SE/SSE (Signal) shall carefully check the components of a new interlocking
frame on receipt against plans and take necessary action.

12.6 Erection : Interlocking frames shall be erected in accordance with approved plans and locking fitted in accordance
with the approved Locking Diagram. The locking shall then be carefully checked and compared with the approved Locking
Diagram and tested by pulling of individual levers against the approved Interlocking Table as per instructions laid down in
Chapter XIII.

12.7 SUBSEQUENT ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS

12.7.1 Subsequent additions and alterations to interlocking frames shall be carried out only in accordance with the
approved revised plans and interlocking tables.

12.7.2 The JE/SE/SSE (Signal) shall requisition all requirements of materials in accordance with the additions and
alterations shown on the approved revised plan and locking diagram and shall when requisitioning new plungers quote
correct drawing number and if that is not available, state the type of frame and length of plunger required. When
requisitioning new mechanical interlocking locks (dogs), the locks (dogs) required must be specified by quoting the type
number shown against each lock on the standard drawings.

12.7.3 After carrying out additions and alterations, locking shall be checked completely as detailed in para 12.4.9.

12.8 Information to the Divisional Signal & Telecommunication Engineer : The JE/SE/SSE (Signal) shall inform the
Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer or Asstt. Signal and Telecommunication Engineer in charge of the section
when a new interlocking frame or an alteration to the existing interlocking frame is ready for his test and introduction.

SECTION 'C - LEAD OUTS (RODDING)

12.9 Type : Lead outs shall be of the crank type unless otherwise instructed.

12.10 Arrangement of Accommodating Cranks : As far as possible, accommodating cranks shall be arranged on the
lead out in the order of the lever to which they are connected.

12.11 Down rods : Down rods shall be 32 mm dia, solid rod and when over 2 metre in length shall be provided with
guides. Down rods shall normally have 200 mm stroke.

12.12 Rod Connections to Accommodating Cranks : Rods from vertical cranks shall be run straight to medium
accommodating cranks with an offset to high and low Accommodating Cranks.

12.13 Crank Fastening Bolts : Cranks shall be securely fastened to the foundations with 20 mm dia. bolts, the nuts being
placed on the top.

12.14 Movement of Lead off Cranks: Lead off cranks in front of the cabin shall, as far as possible, be arranged to have a
pull movement.

12.15 Use of High Cranks : High cranks shall be used only where absolutely necessary.

12.16 Rod Run on Curves: Relief cranks may be used for diversion upto 20 degree when rodding is run on curves.
Alternatively a rodding compensator can be installed in a curved alignment by making straight runs on either side of it
connected to the compensator cranks.

SECTION 'D' - POINT RODDING AND FITTINGS

12.17 Point Rodding: Point rodding shall be solid and shall be in accordance with I.R.S Specification No. S 5.

12.18 Alignment: Point rodding shall be straight before being laid. Runs of rodding shall normally be in a straight
alignment.

12.19 Distance from the Centre of Track : The distance from the nearest rod to the centre of the nearest track shall not
be less than 1905 mm on BG lines and 1370 mm on MG/NG lines except when platform walls or other structures render this
impossible.

12.20 Branching Off: Where practicable, rods in a main run shall be arranged so that they branch off on the track side in
regular order.

12.21 Rodding Running Under Track : When practicable, rodding running under tracks shall be arranged to permit of
the standard spacing and packing of sleepers. The top of the rodding shall not be less than 25 mm below the bottom of the
rails. Whenever possible, the running of rods under rail joints shall be avoided.

12.22 Fixing Roller Standard : The top of roller standards adjacent to tracks shall not be fixed more than 64 mm above
rail level.

12.23 Spacing of Rollers : Runs of rodding shall be supported on rollers spaced not more than 2.2 metre apart for solid
rodding and 1.85 metre apart for tubular rodding. On curves the distance apart shall be 1.85 metre for both types.

(Note: Only solid rodding shall be used in future)

12.24 LOCATION OF CRANKS, COMPENSATORS, COUPLINGS & LUG EYES

12.24.1 Cranks and compensators in a main run shall be so located as to leave the field side clear for additional rodding.

12.24.2 Centro of cranks and compensators shall not be fixed nearer than 0.90 m from a rod roller.

12.24.3 With the lever in its middle position the couplings and lug eyes in rodding shall be located not less than 0.30 m.
from rollers.

12.25 Offsets in Roddings : Offsets in rodding shall be limited, wherever possible to 60 mm. Offsets of 90 mm may,
however, be made where solid rodding is used. The minimum length of the offset shall not be less than twice the amount of
the offset. Where more than one offset is necessary, a guide shall be provided.

When making offsets in joints, the pin shall be kept in place to keep the pin holes true.

12.26 Offset in Cranks and Compensators : Offsets in cranks and compensators are normally not permitted.

12.27 Fixing Trestles of Point Rod Rollers : Point rod rollers shall be securely fixed to adequate foundations. Where
trestles of rollers are of the built up type, outside segments shall be fixed with two bolts or screws and intermediate
segments with one bolt at alternate ends.

12.28 Fixing Trestles Foundations : Roller foundations need not be fixed in concrete. Soil shall be well rammed round
the foundations.

12.29 Provision of Compensators : Compensators need not be provided where the length of rodding is less than 12 m
for point connections and 18.5 m for lock or bar connections.

12.30 Fixing Cranks and Compensators : Cranks and compensators shall be so fixed, that the centre line of the rod
connection passes through the centre of the joint pin when the crank or compensator is in its normal or reverse position.
Care shall be taken to see that the throw on a crank or compensator is the same on each side of the centre.

12.31 Joints for Connections to Cranks and Compensators : Solid joints shall be used for connections to all cranks
and compensators, unless otherwise specified.

12.32 Joints for Branching Off: Solid joints and lug eyes shall be employed where it is necessary to branch off from a
rod which continues onwards. The rod connecting the lug and the crank shall not be less than 0.45m.

12.33 Location of Screw Joint: Adjustable joint (Screw Joint) shall be located as close as practicable to the unit to be
adjusted.

12.34 POINT ADJUSTING SCREWS

12.34.1 Point adjusting screws shall be used in conjunction with each of the following -

i) Points including Traps;

ii) Switch and Lock-Movement;

iii) Midway ground lock slide;

iv) Lock bar.

12.34.2 Point adjusting screws shall be located as near as practicable to the unit to be adjusted without being adjacent to
one another or directly under the rails or crossings. Point adjusting screws shall be so installed as to permit equal
adjustment in both directions.

12.35 Adjustable Cranks : The last crank in a run of rodding operating unit shall be an adjustable crank.

12.36 BOLTS, NUTS, WASHERS & PINS

12.36.1 Type : Nuts and bolts heads shall normally be hexagonal.

12.37 Washers : Washers shall be used under bolt heads and nuts where they come in contact with timber or concrete.
Spring washers shall be used where bolts are used in conjunction with steel and cast iron components.

12.38 Coach Screws : Coach screws or spikes shall not be used without special permission.

12.39 Reaming of Pin Holes : All pin holes shall, where necessary be reamed after assembling so that the pin can be
easily inserted.

SECTION 'E' - POINTS

12.40 Essential requirements before Interlocking : Before any newly laid point is connected to the lever frame or a
point machine and interlocked, it shall be ensured that the JE/SE/SSE (P-Way) has taken necessary steps as detailed in
Annexure 5.

12.41 Adjustment of Point Switches : Point switches and switch and lock movements shall be so adjusted that the lever
operating them is sprung equally in the normal and reverse positions. This springing shall normally be 12 mm on the lever
quadrant.
12.42 Permissible Distances : The permissible distances for operation shall be as in paragraph 7.61 of part I of SEM.

SECTION 'F' - FACING POINT LOCKS, SWITCH & LOCK MOVEMENTS AND SPRING POINT LEVERS-SELF
REVERSING

12.43 Layout:

12.43.1 Facing Point layouts shall be installed in accordance with approved plans.

12.43.2 Facing Point lock shall be fitted on the gauge tie plate where steel sleepers are not provided.

12.43.3 A key lock shall be so placed as to be inaccessible during the passage of a train unless the arrangement is such
that a key is used to release the signals and cannot be brought back to the points until such signals have been put to the
'ON' position.

12.43.4 The FPL may be fitted nearer to the closed switch rail leading to higher speed movement.

12.44 Notches : Notches in stretcher blades shall be cut clean and square and to correct size.

12.45 FACING POINT LOCK-PLUNGER TYPE

12.45.1 Facing Point lock plunger shall be square ended and installed 12 to 20 mm clear of the stretcher blades when the
points are unlocked.

12.45.2 The plunger shall have a stroke of atleast 150 mm.

12.46 OBSTRUCTION TEST : Facing point locks shall be tested by 'obstruction test' with a test piece of 5 mm thickness
placed between the switch and stock rails at 150 mm from the toe. With the obstruction in, it shall not then be possible for
the lever working the facing point lock to be latched.

12.47 Switch and lock layouts are not permitted in new installations. Spring point levers self-reversing shall be installed in
accordance with approved plans.

SECTION 'G' - LOCK BARS

12.48 Length : Lock bars shall not be less than 12800 mm long for Broad Gauge and 12200 mm for Metre Gauge and
Narrow Gauge lines.

12.49 ADJUSTMENT

12.49.1 Lock bars shall be so installed that with the operating lever normal-
i) An outside lock bar lies practically level with the top of the rail. (NOTE : In new installations, outside lock bars shall not
be used);

ii) An inside lock bar lies 38 mm below the top of the rail and the bar does not lean away from the rail.

iii) Whenever practicable, the end of the lock bar shall not be more than 25 mm clear of the toe of the switch, when the
points are bolted.

12.49.2 Each lock bar shall be provided with not less than twelve clips and three stops located in such a manner that the
maximum inter clip distance is 1220 mm. A lock bar clip shall be fixed as near the end of the bar as possible but not more
than 225 mm.

12.49.3 Lock bar shall not be installed over a check rail portion as a matter of course. Under special circumstances and
only if other electrical means cannot be provided, lock bars can be installed over check rail portion when they are fitted with
a special type of check rail joint

12.49.4 Lock bars shall preferably be installed on the rail associated with straight track.

SECTION 'H' - POINT, TRAP AND SHUNTING PERMITTED INDICATORS

12.50 TYPE, PROVISION, PLACING AND INDICATION

12.50.1 Point, Trap and Shunting Permitted Indicators shall be provided in accordance with the approved plans.

12.50.2 Type, Provision, Placing and Indication of these indicators are covered in detail in paras 7.66 to 7.69 of Part I of
SEM.

SECTION T - LOCATION OF SIGNALS

12.51 Signals shall be so located that they do not infringe the Schedule of Dimensions. Deviations shall be sanctioned by
the competent authority.

12.52 Signal posts shall normally be on the left side and adjacent to the line to which they refer, and signals shall be
located so that they are normally on the left of, or above the line to which they apply, unless authorised by special
instructions.

12.53 Signals shall be inspected by a Signal sighting committee consisting of officials of Signal, Traffic and Mechanical/
Electrical Departments before being brought into use.

SECTION 'J' - SIGNALS AND FITTINGS

12.54 SIGNAL ARMS AND ITS FITTINGS :


12.54.1 Signal arms on a straight track shall be at right angles to the track concerned when sufficient approach is on the
straight. On curves, signal arms shall be at right angles to an imaginary line drawn from the signal to the point where the
best view is to be provided to the driver.

12.54.2 Signal arms shall be kept securely fastened to the spectacles casting and maintained at the correct level when in
the 'ON' position.

12.54.3 Signal arms shall be kept clean and properly painted.

12.54.4 It shall be ensured that spectacles are securely fixed on their spindles or studs, bearing brackets are firmly
attached to the post and back light blinders are in their correct position.

12.54.5 Arm spindles or studs and counterweight lever connections shall be oiled regularly and kept working freely. It shall
be ensured that counterweights are in their correct position and firmly secured and that the lock nuts on adjustable joints
are tight.

12.54.6 Spectacle roundels or glasses found loose, cracked or broken shall be attended to and replaced promptly.

12.55 SLOTTING

12.55.1 Where signals are slotted, any of the controlling agencies shall be independently capable of returning the signal to
'ON'.

12.55.2 When a Warner arm is placed below a Stop arm, the slot lever shall be installed so that the Warner can not be
taken 'OFF' unless the Stop Signal above is at 'OFF'. When the Stop Signal is returned to 'ON', the Warner shall return to
'ON'.

12.56 Shunt Signals : Where a Shunt Signal is placed on the same post as a main line signal, it shall be placed not less
than 2.5 metres below the main arm.

12.57 Balance Levers : Where practicable, balance levers shall be placed out of reach from the ground and parallel to the
line. Counterweights shall be securely fastened to the levers and safety bolts provided at the end of the levers.

12.58 BACK LIGHTS

12.58.1 Indications : Except when the front light can be seen from the Cabin or interlocking frame location, back lights of
mechanical signals shall show a white light when the arm is in the 'ON' position and no light in any other position.

12.58.2 Warner Signal Fixed green light: The fixed green light of a Warner Signal shall also show a back light.

12.58.3 Distant Signals : Distant Signals in multiple aspect area shall show two back lights in the 'ON' position and no
light in any other position. However, where electric lighting of Distant Signals is provided, the Distant Signals in Multiple
aspect area may show atleast one back light in the 'ON' position if the arrangement is such that the bottom light is lit only
when the arm is displaying the 'attention' aspect.

12.59 Lopping of Trees Obstructing Visibility : Where trees interfere with the driver's or cabin man's sighting of
signals, the SSE/SE/JE (Signal) shall arrange with the SSE/SE/JE (Works) for lopping of tree branches or cutting of trees
within the Railway boundary. If the trees are in private land, the Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer or
Asstt. Signal and Telecommunication Engineer incharge of the section shall be informed so that he may arrange for the
removal or cutting of the trees.

12.60 ARTIFICIAL BACKGROUNDS

12.60.1 Signals may be provided with an artificial background painted white, if found necessary to improve the sighting or
when the background is a bridge or structure, such portion as necessary to form a background, may be painted white or be
white washed.

12.60.2 Arms provided with an artificial background shall project 150 mm beyond or be provided with a tell tale arm so
that it can be seen by the Station Master.

12.61 Posts : Signal posts shall be kept plumb. Signal post guys, where provided shall be kept tight and in good repair.

12.62 Deck Boards : Deck boards on bracket posts and gantries shall be inspected to detect decayed or loose boards.
Missing or defective boards shall be replaced.

12.63 Provision of Signal Dubbers and Kerosene : Whenever kerosene lit signals are provided, the signal dubbers and
kerosene shall be provided by Traffic staff.

12.64 Cleaning of Signal Glasses and Lamp Lenses : The Traffic staff are responsible for wiping and cleaning of signal
glasses, roundels, and lenses of kerosene lit signals. Roundels of electrically lit signals shall be cleaned by signal staff.

SECTION 'K' - DETECTORS

12.65 FITTING AND PLACING

12.65.1 Detectors shall be fitted to switches in accordance with approved plans.

12.65.2 Where practicable, detectors shall be placed in the main wire run.

12.66 WIRE CONNECTIONS AND ADJUSTMENT

12.66.1 Where there is more than one detector in a wire run, the wire shall be run from the cabin, first to the detector
farthest from the signal it operates, then through the other detectors concerned and back to the signal.
12.66.2 The signal wires to the detector shall be in alignment with the respective slides of the detector.

12.66.3 Wires shall be so adjusted that when a signal is returned to the 'ON' position, all signal slides of detectors travel
back to their stops.

12.67 Signal Slide Notches : The signal slide notches for the more important line shall preferably be so cut that the slide
butts first against the closed switch blade before it touches the bolt detector blade or the open switch blade.

12.68 Obstruction Tests : A detector shall be tested by 'Obstruction test1 with a test piece of 5 mm thickness placed
between the switch and stock rail at 150 mm from the toe. With the obstruction in, the signal slide shall get locked.

SECTION 'L' - SIGNAL WIRE RUN (SINGLE WIRE)

12.69 Spacing of Pulleys : Signal wires shall be carried in pulleys placed not more than 10 metre apart.

12.70 Sharp Diversions : Sharp diversions in wire runs shall be made around wheels with wire rope slings.

12.71 Wire runs under track : Wire runs leading under the track shall be run through protective pipes. For periodic and
convenient renewal, wires on either side of the pipe shall be terminated and provided with links.

12.72 Wire Runs Under Level Crossings : For running wire under level crossings, either pipes or duct may be provided
in the level crossings. For periodic and convenient renewal, wires on either side of the pipe shall be terminated and
provided with links.

12.73 Wire runs on Curves : Wire runs shall normally be taken round a curve in succession of straights and angles.
Angle pulleys shall be kept to a minimum as they cause loss of stroke.

12.74 Leading away wire from a main run : When leading a wire away from the main run or to a horizontal wheel for
crossing, the change in alignment or level shall be gradual. Additional stakes shall be provided if necessary.

12.75 Bridge Stakes : For a large number of wires, stronger stakes, preferably bridge stakes with angle pulleys hanging
vertically, shall be provided.

12.76 Wire crossing : Crosses shall as far as possible be avoided in wire leads from the cabin. The top pulleys shall carry
the wires having the longest run and the pulleys below successive shorter runs.

12.77 SIGNAL WIRES

i) Galvanised steel wire strand No.7/1.40 mm (dia) to IS Specification No. 2265, or galvanized solid steel wire 3.35 mm
(dia) to IRS Specification No. Sl, shall be used for signal connections.
ii) Coils of wire shall be run out from a creel. Twists, kinks and nicks shall be avoided.

SECTION 'M' - PULLEY STAKES AND PULLEYS

12.78 Fixture and Alignment: Pulley stakes shall be firmly driven into the ground, shall be in true alignment and shall
not be twisted or bent.

12.79 Fastening Pulley Brackets : Pulley brackets shall be fastened to pulley stakes with bolts, rivets or any other
method providing equal security. When bolts and nuts are used, the ends of the bolts shall be burred to prevent thefts.

12.80 The maximum spacing between the pulley stakes shall not exceed 10 metres. To reduce the sag in the wire run, the
stakes may be fixed at a spacing closer than 10 metres where required.

12.81 The face of the stake on which pulley brackets are fixed shall be truly parallel to wire run, so that friction is
minimised.

SECTION 'N' WIRE JOINTS AND SPLIT LINKS

12.82 WIRE JOINTS

12.82.1 Signal wire joints shall be either of the sleeve or the wrapped type and shall be made in accordance with approved
drawings. When making wire connections to fittings, standard thimbles shall be employed.

12.82.2 Special tools shall be used for making sleeve joints. If sleeves are rough from inside, the roughness shall be
removed with a drift.

12.82.3 When making a sleeve joint in stranded wire or wire rope, the short end shall be next to the slot in the sleeve and
be forced out to receive the rivet.

12.82.4 Joints shall be located at least 2 metres from pulley stakes and be always on the cabin side, where practicable.
Joints in adjacent wires shall be suitably spaced to avoid entanglement.

12.83 Split Links : Split links shall be used in making all connections between wires and fittings wherever disconnection
may be required.

SECTION 'O' -WIRE ROPE

12.84 Galvanized wire rope : Galvanized steel wire rope for signalling purposes ordinarily used for single wire runs shall
be to IRS Specification No. S-3.

12.85 Wire rope round wheels : Wire rope when used for making turns on wheels shall not be less than 2 metre in
length.
12.86 Wire rope on cabin wire adjusters : Wire rope when used on cabin wire adjusters and draft wheels shall be in a
continuous length.

12.87 Precautions in cutting : Wire rope shall be soldered or bound before being cut to avoid splaying. The cut shall be
made by sawing through the middle of the soldered portion or between the bindings.

12.88 Lubrication : Wire rope in service and in stock shall be kept well lubricated.

SECTION 'P' - WIRE ADJUSTING APPARATUS (SINGLE WIRE)

12.89 Wire runs for all signals worked by single wire shall be provided with one wire adjusting screw connected to the lever
tail in the cabin.

12.90 Cabin Wire Adjuster: Wire runs for signals located over 300 metres from the Cabin shall be provided with a cabin
wire adjuster.

12.91 Where wire runs are carried through detectors, additional adjusting screws shall be provided at the detectors as
necessary. One adjusting screw shall be placed in the wire run between the signal and the first detector when the signal is
more than 9 metres from the detector, and also between intermediate detectors where the wire run is carried through more
than one detector.

SECTION 'Q' - FOUNDATIONS (SINGLE WIRE)

12.92 Foundations Generally: Foundations shall be rigid, level and in good alignment.

12.93 Foundations for Cranks and compensators : Crank and compensator bases shall be set in concrete in
accordance with standard plans.

12.94 Foundations for wheels, detectors, point indicators and dwarf signals : Except where the nature of the
ground renders it necessary, foundation piers for wheels, detectors, dwarf signals or point indicators shall not be concreted
in. Soil shall be placed round the foundations in layers of not more than 0.30 metre, each layer being thoroughly rammed
before more soil is added. The bottom and top layers may consist of ballast well rammed if the nature of the soil makes it
desirable.

12.95 Fixture of cranks, wheels, detectors, point indicators and dwarf signals to foundations :Cranks, wheels,
detectors, dwarf signals and point indicators etc. shall be fixed to foundations with bolts, the nuts being always on the top.
Wheels and their foundations shall be rigidly fixed diagonally, i.e. along the line bisecting the angle between the wires.

12.96 Foundations for signals : Foundations for signals shall be sufficiently strong. The type of soil will be taken into
account while deciding the depth of the foundation. Foundation bolts of standard size shall be embedded in the foundation.
Templates shall be used to ensure correct spacing of foundation bolts.
12.97 Pits for foundation adjacent to tracks : Where pits for foundations are excavated between or adjacent to tracks,
the JE/SE/SSE (Signal) shall, if necessary, arrange with the JE/SSE (Works) Branch to make provision for the safety of the
track.

12.98 Concrete foundations : Before any apparatus is connected thereto, concrete foundations shall be allowed to set
fully.

SECTION 'R' - DOUBLE WIRE INSTALLATIONS - INTERLOCKING FRAMES AND LEAD OUTS

12.99 Type : Double wire interlocking frames shall conform to IRS Specification No. S-12.

12.100 Double wire levers may be of the following types :

(i) Direct lever;

(ii) Clutch lever;

(iii) Trailable lever;

(iv) Rack and Pinion lever;

(v) Miniature lever.

12.101 Size of Drums: 500 mm stroke drum shall normally be fitted to all levers, but where difficulty in operation is
anticipated, a 600 mm stroke drum may be used. The normal limit of a 500 mm stroke drum is 1200 metres for Signals
without detectors and up to 600 metres for a single or coupled detector lever transmission.

Notes; In all new installations points, locks and bars shall not be operated by wire but by rodding or by electrical means.

12.102 Erection : Interlocking frame supports, foundations and arrangement of levers shall be erected in accordance with
approved plans.

12.103 Levers for operating Points, locks, detectors and signals : Levers operating double wire points, facing point
locks, independent detectors and signals with detectors shall be of the trailable or clutch driven type and must be so
adjusted as to cause the locking to be displaced when the clutch trips to provide a safe-guard against broken wire and
levers being forced.

Trailable levers shall be used with trailable point mechanism.

12.104 Clutch lever-adjustment of clutch : The clutch shall be so adjusted that the rope drum will trail freely with a
pull of about 28 kgs. on the dynamometer, equivalent to a difference in tension between the transmission wires of 85 kg.
With 24 kg the drum must not trail and the clutch shall not lift more than 2.5 mm. The method of testing is shown in the
sketch below. Special attention is drawn to the distance between the fulcrum and where the dynamometer is fixed.

DOUBLE WIRE INTERLOCKING FRAME-TESTING CLUTCH LEVER WITH DYNAMOMETER

12.105 Clutch Resetting Lever: The clutch resetting lever shall be kept in a sealed and padlocked box. Instructions
regarding use of resetting lever shall be embodied in the Station Working Rules.

12.106 Wire crosses : Wire crosses are not permitted inside the cabin.

12.107 Double wire operation from single wire lever : Double wire operation of Outer/Warner from a Single Wire
lever frame shall be as per approved drawing.

12.108 Compensators : Double wire compensators shall be in accordance with IRS Specification No. S 15. and
instructions in RDSO Booklet No. STS/M/DWJ/COMP/I/MI. Salient features of the Instructions are-

12.109 Application : Use of different types of D.W. compensators is shown in table given below.
12.110 INSTALLATION
12.110.1 All moving parts of the compensator shall be cleaned and lubricated.

12.110.2 Compensators shall be fixed on longitudinal channel just below the relevant lever. The bolts shall be kept slightly
loose at first.

12.110.3 The position of the pedestal of the compensator shall be adjusted so that two fixed wheels of the compensator
are equidistant from the wire rope coming from the groove of the lever drum.

12.110.4 Foundation bolts shall be tightened and all split pins spread out.

12.110.5 Stop bolt shall be fixed at the top end of the ratchet rod to prevent the weight levers from being lifted off the
Rod.

12.110.6 After fitting weight, weight screws should be tightened with weight levers ensuring that they do not slide.
Tighten the lock nuts on the screws. Stop bolts at weight end of the weight levers shall be fixed.

12.110.7 With the help of a pulley block, weight levers shall be lifted so that pawl arrangement rests at the Stop Pin at the
bottom end of the ratchet rod, i.e., compensator is lifted to the position corresponding to lowest temperature value. Care
shall be taken to see that the floating wheels of 2600 mm stroke compensators are also lifted to their highest position. The
levers shall be supported in that position. The floating wheels of 2600 mm stroke compensator shall be held in the lifted
position.

12.110.8 After fitting wire ropes soldered joints shall be made. Wires shall be connected commencing at the lever and
compensator end working towards the mechanism allowing rope lengths and spacing of joints. Provision of wire adjusting
screws and disconnecting links shall be done as required. For deciding the position of joints / rope length, the spacing is to
be ensured in accordance with approved transmission plan keeping the wire under tension of 68 kg while cutting the wire
for joining.

12.110.9 After ensuring that the wire rope is taken through the groove at all wheels without having escaped off the guides
the support shall be removed and the weight levers lowered slowly by mean of pulley block till the grips of the pawls are
opposite the lowest tooth of the ratchet rod. It must be checked that the direction of travel in relation to the rope lengths
and spacing of joints is correct.

12.110.10 It must be checked that the location of joints are in accordance with the approved wiring diagram.

12.110.11 The final position of weight levers of the compensator is to be adjusted to suit prevailing temperature and
length of transmission in accordance with the adjustment table. In case of new transmission, weight levers are to be
adjusted to a position about 20 mm to 30 mm lower than as required in order to allow for permanent stretch.

12.110.12 Weight levers shall not pass the breakage mark provided in the ratchet rod to show extreme compensating
position of weight levers for longest transmission at maximum temperature and to show beginning of broken wire way.
12.110.13 It shall be checked that both pawls of the compensator are out of engagement with the teeth of the ratchet rod
when the transmission is at rest. The weight levers of the compensator shall be in level with each other.

12.110.14 Jockey weight shall be employed only after obtaining the approval of Divisional Signal and Telecommunication
Engineer or Asstt. Signal and Telecommunication Engineer incharge of the section, to increase the tension when all other
means to make a transmission work easily have failed.

12.110.15 It must be checked that the bolts of the compensator weights are tight and safety bolts are provided at the end
of weight levers.

12.110.16 It must be ensured that the wire guards on all wheels of compensators are provided and that the clearance
between the wire guard and wheel is less than 1.5 mm

12.110.17 It must be ensured that all the wheels are moving freely and do not wobble on their respective pins.

12.111 PULLEYS & STAKES

12.111.1 Pulleys for points lock and detector lever transmission shall be fixed not more than 15 metres apart.

12.111.2 Pulleys for a signal lever transmission shall be fixed not more than 20 metres apart on the straight. This distance
may be reduced suitably on curves.

12.111.3 When both points and signal transmission run together, pulleys shall be fixed 15 metres apart.

12.111.4 These pulley spacing can be reduced, if required, to suit local conditions.

12.112 FIXTURE AND ALIGNMENT OF STAKES

12.112.1 Stakes shall normally be fixed not less than 2135 mm from the centre of the nearest track.

12.112.2 Stakes shall be rigidly fixed; if local conditions of soil do not provide adequate rigidity, stakes must be set in
concrete.

12.112.3 Runs of stakes shall be installed in as straight a line as possible and shall be level. Where straight runs are not
possible, owing to local conditions, then transmissions shall ordinarily be laid in a succession of straights. The installation of
continuously curved runs shall be avoided as far as possible .

12.113 Running out wire : Coils of wire shall be run out from a drum or creel on a spindle and great care taken to avoid
twists, kinks and nicks. If such a damage occurs that part of the wire shall not be used and either a fresh length run out or
a piece, jointed in.

DIVERSIONS IN TRANSMISSIONS
12.114 Use of wire pulleys : When owing to curvature, stakes cannot be run in a continuously straight alignment, wire
pulleys may be used only for diversions upto 10 degree.

12.115 Use of wheel with wire rope : Diversions exceeding 10 degree may be made by using wire rope around
standard wheels. All wheels shall be accurately aligned.

12.116 Wheel Guides

12.116.1 Wheels in all diversions shall be provided with adequate guides to prevent ropes escaping from wheel grooves.

12.116.2 For diversions up to 25 degree, one guide shall be used for each independent set of wheels and one guide for the
outside wheels of a nest, the wheel nests serving as guide for other wheels.

12.116.3 For diversions above 25 degree, two guides shall be used for each independent set of wheels.

12.117 Length of rope and spacing of joints at diversions:

12.117.1 Minimum lengths of ropes and spacing required at diversions shall be in accordance with approved drawings.

12.117.2 Wire rope shall be Double Wire signalling rope, 6x19 to IRS Specification No. S-11. Wire rope shall be kept well
lubricated.

12.117.3 Coils of wire rope used for diversions around wheels shall be run out from a creel on a spindle.

WHEEL BASE

12.118 Fixing Wheels and Wheel Base foundations :

12.118.1 Wheels shall be fixed to bases with bolts of correct size, with nuts on top.

12.118.2 Wheel bases of all sizes shall be rigidity fixed in concrete.

12.118.3 Wheel base foundations for all diversions shall be fixed diagonally, i.e. along the line bisecting the angle of
diversion between the wires.

JOINTS

12.119 Type and location : Joints between wires and wires and ropes and their location shall be made in accordance with
approved drawings. The use of twisted or sleeve joints is prohibited.

12.120 Disconnecting Link :


12.120.1 One disconnecting link adjacent to the lead out and another near the signal mechanism for making broken wire
tests shall be provided in both wires of each transmission.

12.120.2 Joints between wires and ropes used at diversions shall not be provided with any form of disconnection. The use
of split links and shackles is prohibited.

12.120.3 Painting of Joints: Joints in the pull wire shall be painted red and those in the return wire black for
identification.

ADJUSTING SCREWS

12.121 Provision : Adjusting screws shall be provided in each wire of the transmission as follows:

(i) One near the mechanism to be adjusted.

(ii) One near the disconnecting link, close to the cabin.

(iii) One in the wire running between each mechanism where two or more mechanisms are operated by one transmission.

Note: Under approval from the Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer, provision of the adjusting screws close to the
cabin may be dispensed with, if the wires are not required to be adjusted near the cabin.

12.122 Minimum Spacing : Minimum spacing of adjusting screws in adjacent wires of transmissions shall be in
accordance with approved drawings or instructions.

12.123 Opening : Adjusting screws shall be opened out to their fullest length when first installed.

POINT, LOCK AND SIGNAL MECHANISMS

12.124 Type : Point and lock mechanism shall be of an approved type and shall be provided with broken wire locks. The
Signal mechanism shall be of an approved over-run cam path type.

12.125 Installation of mechanisms :

12.125.1 All mechanisms shall be installed in accordance with the approved drawings.

12.125.2 The wire ropes shall be wrapped round drums sufficiently so that the mechanism rope studs will be in such a
position as to maintain the wire partly wrapped round the drum when it has completed the full broken wire stroke.

12.126 Size of Wire : Galvanized solid steel wire 4.00 mm (dia) or 3.35 mm (dia) to IRS Specification No. S 13 and S 1
respectively shall be used for signal transmissions and 5.00 mm (dia) to IRS specification No. S-14 for Point transmission.
DETECTORS

12.127 Fitting of detectors to Points: Detectors shall be fitted to all facing points in accordance with approved plans.

12.128 Connections:

12.128.1 Detectors connected in the operating wire of a signal shall be worked off the pull wire.

12.128.2 In a detector lever transmission, the pull wire from the lever in the normal position shall first be carried to the
end detector, then through each intermediate detector in series and back to the lever.

12.128.3 Both wire ropes shall be wrapped round the detector wheel at least one and a half times.

12.129 Number and spacing : In any transmission, the number of detectors shall not exceed three and the distance
between the detectors shall not normally exceed 230 metres.

12.130 Size of wire : Galvanised solid steel wire of 5.00 mm (dia) to IRS Specification No.S-14 shall be used for detector
lever transmissions.

12.131 Adjustment :

12.131.1 Notches in Point and Lock Slides shall be cut at site.

12.131.2 Detectors shall be so adjusted that the notches in wheels are clear of the point slides and the clearance between
the notches in the wheels and the point slides shall not be less than 50 mm and not more than 100 mm when the
transmission is normal.

12.132 Protecting Covers : Protecting covers of all mechanisms and detectors shall be kept in good condition and
securely fixed to safeguard apparatus from unauthorised interference.

SECTION'S' -PAINTING

12.133 Equipment to be painted : The following are the main items of mechanical signalling equipment that need
regular painting:

i) Signal arms, Point Indicators, boards and markers;

ii) Signal posts and Signal fittings;

iii) Interlocking frames, their levers & fittings;


iv) Ground and miscellaneous gear, such as rodding, guide roller assembly, cranks, compensators, turnout wheels;

v) Lifting barriers, if maintained by Signal and Telecommunication department.

12.134 Colouring Scheme : Items detailed in Para 12.133 shall be painted in accordance with colouring scheme shown
for the respective item in Annexure 6.

12.135 Interval of Painting : The general principles for fixing intervals shall be the following :

i) Signal arms, indicators, etc., which are required to be painted to conventional shapes and/or colours shall be painted
once a year.

ii) Signal posts which are to be kept conspicuous and cabin levers which are to be distinguished by colours, shall be painted
once in three years;

iii) Rodding, guide roller assembly, etc., which only need a protective covering, shall be painted once in six years.

Note : The intervals mentioned above may be reduced in areas where, on account of weather or other local conditions
painting at shorter intervals is necessary.

12.136 Record of Painting :

12.136.1 Each JE/SSE (Signal) shall maintain a Painting Register, one page or more being allotted to each station or cabin
on his section. Record of the painting work done with dates of commencing and completing the work shall be regularly
entered in this register.

12.136.2 Each JE/SE/SSE (Signal) shall also record the date of painting with particulars of the programme carried out in
the Signal Incidences Book maintained at each station. This should be done on the very first inspection by him after
painting work has been completed.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS :

12.137 Stores:

12.137.1 Paint shall be stored in a cool dry place away from flame or naked light

12.137.2 All containers shall be kept securely closed when not in use, to avoid loss of material due to skinning and
contamination. Paints, especially quick drying paints, shall not be left open to the atmosphere.

12.138 Mixing of Paints :

12.138.1 Paints from pigments and pastes shall be prepared in accordance with standard specifications.
12.138.2 Linseed oil or turpentine shall not be added to ready mixed paints. Mixing of kerosene with paints is forbidden.

12.139 Painting of Steel Works :

12.139.1 The surface of metal shall be clean and free from dirt, scale, deteriorated old paint and rust and shall be perfectly
dry before application of paint. Painting shall be done preferably during dry weather.

12.139.2 For a new steel work, three coats of paints shall be applied. First coat shall be 'Red Lead', the second 'Red Oxide'
and the third of the specific paint recommended for the structure. When repainting a structure, if the old paint does not
show any signs of blistering, scaling or cracking, it need not be scraped off. It may be used as foundation for the new coat.

12.139.3 When there are patches of blistering, scaling or cracking, these patches shall be cleaned down to the steel and
treated in a manner as recommended for a new structure.

12.139.4 The surface of metal shall be cleaned by scraping, chipping or scrubbing with brickbats. No chemical of any kind
shall be used. Old paint may be burnt, if necessary and then scraped off.

12.139.5 Paint shall be applied with brushes and spread evenly, smoothly and as thin as possible. Rags or waste cotton
shall not be used for the application of paint.

12.139.6 Brushes shall be thoroughly cleaned in proper driers after use.

12.140 Enamel Signal Arms :

12.140.1 Enamel signal arms shall be scrubbed with soap to clean them. If corroded in places, these shall be touched up
with enamel paints.

12.140.2 Signal arms which are not enamelled, shall be painted with enamel paints.

12.141 Numbering of Points and Signals :

12.141.1 The cabin lever number of points and facing point lock bars shall be painted in 50 mm letters on the web and
close to the toe of the switch rail.

12.141.2 The number of the cabin lever operating the signal shall be painted in 50 mm letters at the back of the signal
arm blade.

12.141.3 Numbers shall be written in codes as under:

i) Points-20W '20W' stands for lever No.20 west cabin.


Points & Facing Point lock(P32 'P32' stands for points lever no.32 and 'L33E' stands for lock bar lever
ii) L33E) nos. 33, East Cabin.
'51 A' stands for lever no. 51 'A' Cabin,'52B' stands for lever No. 52
iii) Signals-51A -52 B -53GFA
'B' Cabin, '53GFA' stands for lever no. 53, Ground Frame 'A'.

12.141.4 Numbers of interlocking frame levers shall also be painted on the front and back side of the main girder
supporting the frame opposite each lever in 50 mm white letters.

12.142 Dates of Painting : The year and the month of painting work shall be clearly and neatly shown on all interloccking
frames, signal posts, block instruments, Station master's slide control frames and instruments. Suitable entries shall also
be made in the Register maintained for this purpose.

MAINTENANCE

SECTION 'A' - CABINS

12.143 Cabins-cleanliness, repair and fittings:

12.143.1 Ground floor of cabins shall be kept clean and tidy.

12.143.2 Cabins including battery room and repair room shall be kept in good condition and periodically
painted/distempered. The roof shall be so maintained as to prevent leakage. "Ghara" stands shall be kept properly drained
off. Wash basins, where provided, shall be kept in perfect repair. Any repair required shall be promptly notified to the
JE/SE/SSE (Woks).

12.143.3 JE/SE/SSE (Signal) shall bring to the notice of his Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer or Asstt.
Signal and Telecommunication Engineer incharge of the section when repairs to cabin are delayed.

12.143.4 Windows of cabins shall be kept clean. This is the duty of the operating staff.

12.143.5 Each JE (Signal) shall see that the cabin diagram, pull chart, Cabinman's instructions and Maintained programme
provided in the Cabin are up-to-date and their glazed frames are in proper repair.

12.144 ( Left blank Intentionally)

SECTION 'B' - LEVER FRAME

12.145 Responsibility : Each JE (Signal) is personally responsible for efficient maintenance of the locking of the
interlocking frames under his charge. Locking box covers shall be kept padlocked and sealed with his personal seal supplied
to him for the purpose.
12.146 Instructions for maintainers :

12.146.1 All accessible working parts of interlocking frames shall be thoroughly lubricated and cleaned.

12.146.2 All split pins shall be checked to ensure that they are intact and properly open. Also all nuts and bolts shall be
checked and tightened wherever necessary.

12.146.3 The transportation official on duty in the cabin shall be questioned by the Maintainer on his visits about any
discrepancy or defect in the locking of the interlocking frame. Discrepancy or defect, if any, shall be brought to the notice of
the JE (Signal) immediately.

12.146.4 Handles of levers of interlocking frames shall be kept clean and bright by the Transportation Staff.

12.147 Instructions for Junior Engineer (Signal):

12.147.1 The Junior Engineer (Signal) shall ensure that the interlocking frames are kept clean and lubricated

12.147.2 On his monthly inspections, the Junior Engineer (Signal) shall question the transportation official on duty in the
cabin to know if there is any defect or discrepancy. If any defect or discrepancy is pointed out to him, the same shall be
immediately attended to and rectified if within his competence or brought to the notice of the Divisional Signal and
Telecommunication Engineer or Asstt. Signal and Telecommunication Engineer incharge of the section for instructions.

12.147.3 Locking of all interlocking frames shall be tested as per instructions contained in Chapter XIII.

12.147.4 During the testing of interlocking frames, careful note shall be taken of slack locking and if the slack locking
exceeds the limits laid down in Para 12.4.9 (iii), overhauling shall be taken up forthwith.

12.147.5 Locking of all interlocking frames shall be overhauled at least once every three years or earlier, if necessary, as
per instructions laid down in Chapter XIII.

SECTION 'C - LEAD OUTS (RODDING)

12.148 All lead outs shall be examined regularly and kept clean and well oiled.

12.149 All connections, especially the down rods, shall be examined to detect cracks and worn out threads. The whole of
the apparatus shall be kept rigidly and solidly connected.

SECTION 'D' - POINT RODDING AND FITTINGS

12.150 Examination :

12.150.1 All runs of rodding shall be regularly examined to see that all joints make good and solid connections.
12.150.2 All couplings, adjusting screws and adjustable joints shall be examined for looseness, worn out threads or slack
nuts.

12.150.3 Rodding shall be examined for detecting weak places due to rust, corrosion or other causes.

12.151 Alignment: The rods shall be kept in true alignment and free from all obstructions.

12.152 Rollers: Rollers shall fit properly in the standards and move freely. Broken roller standards, missing rollers and
pins shall be replaced.

12.153 Roller foundations : Roller foundations shall be realigned if found to have shifted or sunk and shall be renewed
when necessary.

SECTION 'E' -CRANKS, COMPENSATORS, SCREWS, BOLTS, NUTS, PINS AND COTTERS

12.154 Examination :

12.154.1 All cranks and compensators shall be examined regularly and working parts well oiled.

12.154.2 The position of the compensators shall be carefully checked when a point or lock bar does not work properly or
where the stroke at the adjusting crank has to be unduly increased.

12.155 Replacement of cracked or broken parts : Cracked or broken parts of cranks, compensators shall be repaired
or renewed.

12.156 Cleaning of oil holes : Oil holes shall be cleaned before oil is applied. Oil shall not be used in excess as it collects
dust.

12.157 Screws, bolts and nuts : All screws, bolts and nuts shall be in place and shall be kept tight.

12.158 Adjusting Screws : Threads of point adjusting screws shall be oiled regularly and kept free from dust. Lock nuts
of adjusting screws and set screws of adjusting cranks shall be kept tight.

12.159 Pins:

12.159.1 All pins of cranks, wheels, etc., shall be in place and kept oiled regularly. All pins shall be . raised slightly where
possible, and oil applied underneath so as to ensure proper distribution.

12.159.2 All badly worn pins shall be replaced by new pins.

12.159.3 Tight pins can often be loosened with kerosene; if this is not possible, pins shall be driven out and thoroughly
cleaned. Pin holes shall never be filed.

12.160 Keys and Cotters : All keys and cotters shall be examined regularly. Keys and cotters shall be in place and
properly spread; split ends shall be spread not less than 10 mm. Keys and cotters shall be of proper size and in good
condition; old nails or pieces of wire shall not be used.

SECTION 'F' - POINTS

12.161 Visual inspection of the condition of insulation of insulated rod joints shall be done during maintenance inspections.

12.162 Responsibility of JE/SE/SSE (P-Way) & JE/SE/SSE (Signal):

12.162.1 Maintenance of switches, gauge tie plates and bolts and cotters for pad locks is the responsibility of the
JE/SE/SSE (P-Way). In addition, all non-interlocked switches, leading and following stretcher bars connecting rods, self
reversing levers, hand points, spring loaded points are also maintained by him. Connections to switches other than those
specified above such as facing point locks and bars, detectors, point and trap indicators are maintained by the JE/SE/SSE
(Signal).

12.162.2 S&T Staff shall not take on themselves the responsibility of disconnecting the permanent way fittings or making
adjustments thereto.

12.163 Damaged Switches and Packing of Sleepers :

12.163.1 Advice of switches found chipped or damaged shall be promptly given in writing to the Junior Engineer/Senior
Section Engineer (P way).

12.163.2 Sleepers under interlocked points and cross overs shall be kept well packed. Advice of loose packing shall be
given promptly to the JE / SE / SSE (P-Way). When packing of sleepers of interlocked points is being done by the
permanent way staff, signal maintainer shall also be present there.

12.164 Testing and Adjustment:

12.164.1 All switches shall be frequently tested to see if they are in correct adjustment. For testing, the switches shall be
moved slowly and it shall be ensured that-

(i) the switches set properly against the stock rail, and

(ii) the lever operating the points springs a little, equally in the normal and the reverse positions before being latched.

12.164.2 When two or more switches are operated by a single lever, all switches shall be adjusted correctly.

12.164.3 The switches get out of adjustment on account of wear in fittings and pins, creep of track and poor track
maintenance. When the slackness in fittings becomes excessive, slack fittings shall be replaced. Where creep and
maintenance of track is affecting the adjustment of signalling gear at the points, it shall be promptly reported to the JE / SE
/ SSE (P-Way).

SECTION 'G' - FACING POINT LOCKS, SWTICH & LOCK MOVEMENTS AND SPRING POINT LEVERS-SELF
REVERSING

12.165 Facing point locks : Facing point lock plunger shall be kept lubricated and free from rust. The end of the plunger
shall be square. It shall be adjusted to be at least 12 mm clear from the stretcher blades, when the points are unlocked.
The edges of notches in stretcher blades shall be kept square and sharp.

12.166 Switch & Lock Movement (for existing installations) :

12.166.1 All sliding parts of switch and lock movements shall be thoroughly lubricated.

12.166.2 Switch and lock movements shall be kept adjusted so that the lock bar shall rise to two-thirds of its full height
before the switch points start to open.

12.167 Loose or cracked parts : Switch and lock movements and facing point locks and bars shall be examined closely
to detect loose or cracked parts. Loose or cracked parts shall be replaced.

12.168 Cross Slides : In the case of facing point bolt locks provided with cross slides or plunger detection, there shall be
no undue play between the cross slide and the facing point detector connections.

12.169 Testing Switch and Lock movements and facing point locks: Switch and lock movements and facing point
locks shall be given an obstruction test by inserting a test piece of 5mm between the switch and stock rails at 150 mm from
the toe of the switch. The obstruction shall-

i) In the case of facing point bolt lock, prevent the lever working the facing point bolt lock from being latched;

ii) In the case of facing point lock, key type, prevent the extraction of the key and

iii) In the case of switch and lock movement, prevent the signal governing the movement over the switch and lock
movement from being cleared.

SECTION 'H' - LOCK BARS

12.170 General:

12.170.1 Lock bars shall be kept straight and true both vertically and horizontally; driving pieces shall be examined to see
if there is any lost motion.
12.170.2 Lock bar clips, stops and guides shall be tightly attached to the rails. Arms and pins of clips shall be kept in good
order so as to ensure that the lock bars fit close up to the rail. Bearings of clips shall be kept well oiled. Lock bar clips shall
not be bent to prevent leaning away. Care shall be taken to ensure that there is adequate clearance between clip hanger
and the top studs when fully tightened so as to permit easy working.

12.170.3 All lock bars, clips, stops and guides shall be overhauled and thoroughly cleaned at least once a year. Renewals
shall be made where necessary.

12.170.4 If rail creep is affecting the working of lock bars, Maintainer shall make a report in writing to the JE (P-Way),
giving copy to the JE (Signal).

12.171 Testing Lock Bars : Lock bars shall be tested to see that with the operating lever normal or reverse-

i) Outside lock bars lie practically level with the top of the rail;

ii) Inside lock bars lie 38 mm below the top of the rail. They shall lie flush with the top of the rail when the lever is in the
mid-stroke.

SECTION 'I' - DETECTORS

12.172 All detectors shall be examined regularly and the slides kept well lubricated.

12.173 Detector notches : Detector notches shall be kept square and not eased beyond the standard size. Notches in
point slides shall be kept properly adjusted.

12.174 Cleaning of detector shoes and angle slides : Detector shoes and their angle slides should be regularly cleaned
and graphited to permit free movement of the detector shoe.

12.175 Testing detectors : Detectors shall be regularly tested by obstruction test as laid down in Para 12.68.

12.176 Replacement of cracked or broken parts : Cracked or broken parts of detectors shall be repaired or renewed.

SECTION 'J' - SIGNAL WIRE RUN (SINGLE WIRE)

12.177 Alignment : All wire runs shall be maintained in proper level and alignment.

12.178 Wires generally :

12.178.1 Damaged wire or wire rope showing signs of corrosion or rusting shall be renewed. Kinked wire shall be
straightened and bad joints removed .

12.178.2 To prevent excessive wear over pulley wheels at one point, the wire shall be periodically moved and worn out
portion shifted off the pulley wheel.

12.179 Wires under track : Wires running under the track shall neither drag on the ground nor rub against ballast, base
of rails or side of sleepers.

SECTION 'K' - PULLEY STAKES AND PULLEYS

12.180 Pulleys and Pulley Stakes :

12.180.1 Brackets of pulley wheels shall be examined to see that they are securely fixed and that the wheels revolve
freely.

12.180.2 All damaged, broken and missing pulley wheels or brackets shall be renewed promptly.

12.180.3 Bent pulley stakes shall be straightened and worn-out ones replaced.

SECTION 'L' - ELECTRICAL REPEATERS AND SIGNAL LAMPS

12.181 The JE / SE / SSE (Signal) shall test the working of the signals fitted with electric repeaters when making their
periodical inspection and see that they are in proper adjustment.

12.182 Examination and Replacement of Signal & Indicator Lamps :

12.182.1 All Signals (Oil lit and electrically lit) and Point and Trap Indicator lamps shall be examined regularly and any
lamps or founts found defective shall be replaced promptly. Cases of excessive damage to lamps or neglect in cleaning shall
be reported to the Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer or Asstt. Signal and Telecommunication Engineer
incharge of the section. Cleaning of signal lamps is the responsibility of the operating staff.

12.182.2 Overhauling and Repairs : All !amps shall be overhauled once a year and the date of overhaul marked on each
lamp.

12.182.3 Only petty repairs to Signal lamps are to be carried out by JE / SE / SSE (Signal). Lamps requiring heavy repairs
shall be carefully packed and sent to the Signal Workshops.

SECTION 'M' - DOUBLE WIRE INSTALLATIONS

INTERLOCKING FRAMES AND LEAD OUTS :

12.183 Transmissions Generally :

12.183.1 All transmissions shall work freely and loss of stroke at the end of transmission shall be avoided.
12.183.2 There shall be no binding in any part of transmissions and all wires and ropes shall lie properly in the grooves of
pulleys and wheels respectively. All pulleys shall be parallel to the wire run.

12.183.3 All transmissions shall be kept taut; there shall be no appreciable sag between pulleys.

12.183.4 Care shall be taken to see that wires and ropes do not scrape against platform and other objects as rails, chairs,
covers and lids.

12.183.5 All wheels and mechanisms shall be thoroughly lubricated with a grease gun and made to work easily. All cam
paths shall be kept well lubricated with grease.

12.184 Maintenance of Compensators: Compensators shall be maintained as per the instructions for 'Installation and
Maintenance of Double Wire Compensators'. Some of the salient features are-

12.184.1 All moving parts shall be lubricated every fortnight with axle oil medium to IS:1628 and where nipples are
provided Grease to IS:507 shall be used with a grease gun. The compensator wheels grooves and the wire rope lengths
working in them shall be lubricated with graphited grease grade I to IS:508.

12.184.2 It shall be checked that all bolts are properly tightened and all split pins and nuts are in proper positions.

12.184.3 All broken parts shall be replaced immediately.

12.184.4 It shall be checked that both the weight levers move independently. Weight levers shall not be bound together
either by wire or by chain.

12.184.5 It shall be maintained that locking pawl is in a position normally free from the ratchet rod but during lever
operation they shall be engaged properly with the ratchet rod teeth.

12.184.6 In case of hard working of Double Wire transmission during cold weather, it shall be checked by night that weight
levers are not binding against stop pin at the bottom of the ratchet rod and adjustments made where required.

12.185 Testing Point, Lock, Detector and Signal Levers : The Senior Section Engineer (Signal) incharge of Double
Wire transmission shall test each point, lock, detector and signal lever by means of dynamometer as shown in Diagram in
Para 12.104 once every 6 months. It shall be ascertained that-

i) the force required to operate a lever does not ordinarily exceed 35kg. In the case of a signal lever without detectors, it
shall not ordinarily exceed 27 kg.

ii) Point, lock or detector lever clutch does not trip after completion of lever movement. Should it do so, it indicates that the
coupling spring adjustment is not correct or that somewhere in the transmission, usually at point or lock mechanism or
detector, tight working or an obstruction exists. The cause shall always be carefully traced and rectified.
12.186 Broken wire locks : Broken wire locks on Point and Lock mechanisms shall be inspected to see that they are
properly adjusted and are working correctly.

12.187 Broken wire tests :

12.187.1 The return wire shall be disconnected with the lever normal and the pull wire with the lever reverse, to prove
operation of broken wire lock on Point or Lock mechanism. The disconnection shall be effected by removing the link pin
adjacent to the lead out. The tripping of the clutch shall also be observed when taking broken wire tests of clutch levers.

12.187.2 To prove that the Point, Lock or detector lever clutch will trail or trip with a broken wire, the clutch shall be so
adjusted that rope drum shall trail freely with a pull of about 28 kg on the dynamometer. With a pull of 24 kg the drum
shall not trail and the clutch shall not lift more than 2.5 mm.

12.187.3 With the insertion of a 5 mm test piece between the switch and stock rail at 150 mm from the toe of the switch,
it shall be tested that the signal governing the movement over the point is not cleared.

12.187.4 Each wire of transmission shall be disconnected, one at a time by removing a disconnecting link pin adjacent to
the lead out, to prove that signal arm (or either signal arm in the case of two coupled signals) will return to or remain at
ON' with a broken wire.

Note: If the 'Return' wire is broken when signal is at 'ON', the unbroken 'PULL' wire will, through the falling weights of the
compensator, operate the arm momentarily to 'OFF' before returning to 'ON'.

12.187.5 Where clutch driven signal levers are used to prove that the clutch will trip with a broken wire, each wire of
transmission shall be disconnected, one at a time, by removing an adjusting screw pin near the signal mechanism.

12.187.6 The tripping of the clutch shall be tested by means of an auxiliary lever and adjustment of the coupling spring
checked. To assist trailing or tripping of the lever clutch in case of broken wire, the wedge surfaces of coupling pawl and
rope drum shall always be kept clean and slightly greased.

12.187.7 The adjustment of clutch shall not be done by any one lower in rank than JE (Signal).

12.187.8 Broken wire locks shall be tested for easy movement every quarter by lifting the compensator weights.

12.188 Reconnection or repairs after wire breakage :

12.188.1 After each test, or after wire breakage, compensator weights shall first be lifted by means of a pulley block to
enable reconnection or repairs to be made.

12.188.2 The drum of a trailable or clutch lever shall be reset by an auxiliary lever.

12.189 Responsibility and Periodicity of Broken Wire Tests : Broken wire tests mentioned in Para 12.187 shall be
carried out by each Senior Section Engineer (Signal) incharge of maintenance of Double Wire installations atleast once a
year, unless otherwise specified.

12.190 Necessary steps shall be taken to shorten the wire wherever necessary in a newly laid Double Wire transmission for
the wire stretch occuring in the course of time.

SECTION 'N1 - PAINTING

12.191 JE (Signal) shall, during the course of his monthly inspection, see that the painters are making satisfactory
progress and that the painting work done is in accordance with the instructions.

12.191.1 Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer or Asstt. Signal and Telecommunication Engineer incharge of
the section shall see that the six-yearly painting programme is adhered to and that it is completed in due time, He shall,
during the course of his inspection, also see that all the equipment and apparatus is kept properly painted in accordance
with the instructions.

SECTION 'O' - MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES

12.192 The maintenance schedule for various items of 'Mechanical signalling equipment shall be as in Annexure '7'. At
stations having dense traffic and high speeds, the Railways may prescribe more frequent inspections, if considered
necessary.

Annexure 5

Para 12.40

ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS BEFORE INTERLOCKING OF A POINT

Before the interlocking work at points is undertaken, it must be ensured that the JE/SE( P-Way) has :-

i) brought the track to correct level and alignment.

ii) eased off rail joints on either side of points to be interlocked and closed the stock rail joints associated with lock bars.

iii) fully ballasted and packed all points which are to be interlocked and taken adequate measures to prevent lateral and
longitudinal movement of points.

iv) provided creep and level pillars.

v) arranged the sleepers on adjacent tracks in alignment, where rods and wires have to cross.
vi) seen that the gauge is correct.

vii) provided and fixed special timbers as required.

viii) provided means to prevent creep in the vicinity of points.

ix) fitted gauge tie plates correctly.

x) made the stretchers of such a length so that the throw of switches is as per approved drawings.

xi) adjusted loose heel switches so that:-

a) they can be thrown both ways with ease and can be housed against the stock rail by hand and remain there when the
pressure is removed.

b) the planed surface of the switch rail fully houses against the stock rail as per approved drawings.

xii) adjusted fixed heel switches to that:-

a) they normally lie in the mid-position and flex equally in the normal and reverse positions.

b) the planed surface of the switch rails fully houses against the stock rails as per approved drawings.

xiii) fitted flexible stretchers so that they flex equally in the normal and reverse positions,

xiv) provided a stop for the open position of a single switch layout.

Annexure 6

Annexure 6
Para 12.134
Sheet 6
S. No. EQUIPMENT COLOUR
(vi) Facing point lock lever Blue
Upper Half-Black
(vii) Economical Facing point lock lever
Lower Half-Blue
Upper Half-White
viii) Station Master's Control lever
Lower Half-Black
(ix) Level crossing Gate control lever Chocolate
(x) Release Lock Lever Black with a 150mm wide Blue band in the middle.
(xi) Detector (Double Wire) Red and Blue bands 150mm wide alternately.
7Upper half-Red
(xii) Route lever
Lower half - Black
(xiii) Siding key control lever Black
(xiv) King lever Red & White bands 150 mm wide alternately.
(xv) Spare lever White
(b) Interlocking frame parts and fittings except
.
levers above quadrants.
(i) Interlocking frame supports, Quadrants,
Levers below Quadrants, locking troughs,
Black
Drop Block, Catch Handle connections,
Indicator plates.
(ii) Down rods between lever tail and pedestal
Black
crank
4 Ground and Miscellaneous- Cranks,
compensators, wheels, stakes facing point
locks, lock bars detectors, cabin wire Black
adjusters, interlocking key boxes and foot.
Rests.
`
Annexure 6
Annexure 6
Para 12.134
Sheet 6

S. No. EQUIPMENT COLOUR


(vi) Facing point lock lever Blue
Upper Half-Black
(vii) Economical Facing point lock lever
Lower Half-Blue
Upper Half-White
viii) Station Master's Control lever
Lower Half-Black
(ix) Level crossing Gate control lever Chocolate
(x) Release Lock Lever Black with a 150mm wide Blue band in the middle.
(xi) Detector (Double Wire) Red and Blue bands 150mm wide alternately.
7Upper half-Red
(xii) Route lever
Lower half - Black
(xiii) Siding key control lever Black
(xiv) King lever Red & White bands 150 mm wide alternately.
(xv) Spare lever White
(b) Interlocking frame parts and fittings except
.
levers above quadrants.
(i) Interlocking frame supports, Quadrants,
Levers below Quadrants, locking troughs,
Black
Drop Block, Catch Handle connections,
Indicator plates.
(ii) Down rods between lever tail and pedestal
Black
crank
4 Ground and Miscellaneous- Cranks,
compensators, wheels, stakes facing point
locks, lock bars detectors, cabin wire Black
adjusters, interlocking key boxes and foot.
Rests.
CHAPTER-XIII
OVERHAULING AND TESTING OF INTERLOCKINGS (MECHANICAL, ELECTROMECHANICAL AND RELAY INTERLOCKING)
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
13.1 Interlocking Frames
13.2 System and Equipment Testing
SECTION 'A' OVERHAULING OF INTERLOCKING FRAMES, INTERLOCKING KEY BOXES AND STATION
.
MASTER'S SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES
13.3 Periodicity
13.4 Programme of overhauling
13.5 Requirement of materials for overhauling
13.6 Interlocking Frame
13.7 Detailed Instructions for Overhauling
13.8 Resumption of normal working
13.9 Overhauling of Interlocking Key Boxes
13.10 Overhauling of Station Master's Slide Control Frame
13.11 Certificate of Overhauling
SECTION'B' TESTING OF INTERLOCKING FRAMES, INTER- LOCKING KEY BOXES AND STATION MASTER'S
.
SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES
13.12 Periodicity
13.13 Programme of Testing
13.14 Essential requirements of Locking to be tested
13.15 Methods of testing
13.16 Testing by the Supervisory SSE/SE/JE (Signal)
13.17 Testing by the Divisional/Assistant Signal and Telecommunication Engineer
13.18 Instructions for testing
13.19 Test Charts
13.20 Lost Motion Test
13.21 Certificate of testing locking
. SECTION 'C RECORDS
13.22 Records of testing and overhauling
13.23 Date of last overhauling and testing
. SECTION 'D' TESTING AND OVERHAULING OF ELECTRO- MECHANICAL INSTALLATIONS
13.24 Mechanical Locking
13.25 Electrical Locking
13.26 Testing and overhauling of Electrical Locking
13.27 Testing of other electrical equipments
13.28 Date of last overhauling and testing

13.29 Certificate of overhauling

. SECTION 'E' TESTING OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALLING CIRCUITS

13.30 General
13.31 to
Test Procedures
3.32
13.33 Testing Instruments

13.34 Physical inspection of the installation

13.35 Checking of the wiring

13.36 Test of individual circuits

13.37 Testing of individual apparatus

13.38 System Testing of Installation

13.39 Typical testing Procedure for Panel Interlocking/Route Relay Interlocking Installations

13.40 Periodicity of tests

13.41 Precautions during testing

Annexure 8 Certificate of overhauling interlocking frames

Annexure 9 Certificate of testing locking

CHAPTER -XIII

OVERHAULING AND TESTING OF INTERLOCKING


(MECHANICAL ELECTROMECHANICAL AND RELAY INTERLOCKING)

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

13.1 Interlocking Frames

13.1.1 All interlocking frames, interlocking key boxes and Station Master's Slide Control frames shall be overhauled and
tested periodically as per requirements contained in Section 'A' and 'B' respectively of this Chapter. The records of the same
shall be maintained as per Section 'C' of this chapter.

13.1.2 The Electromechanical Frames shall be overhauled and tested periodically as per requirement contained in Section
'D'.

13.2 System and Equipment Testing

13.2.1 Relay interlocking and solid state interlocking installation shall be tested as indicated in Section 'E'.

13.2.2 Periodical testing and overhauling of electrical signalling equipment used in signalling installations shall be done as
per requirements contained in Chapter XIX.

13.2.3 Periodical testing and overhauling of mechanical signalling equipment used in signalling installations shall be done
as per requirements contained in Chapter XII.

SECTION 'A' - OVERHAULING OF INTERLOCKING FRAMES, INTERLOCKING KEY BOXES AND STATION MASTER'S
SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES.

13.3 Periodicity

All interlocking frames, interlocking key boxes and Station Master's Slide Control frames shall be overhauled once in every
three years or earlier if necessary.

13.4 Programme of overhauling

13.4.1 The Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer shall draw out a programme of overhauling of interlocking
frames, interlocking key boxes and Station Master's slide control frames on the Division on a monthly basis spread
preferably over the first 9 months of a calendar year. Any overhauling work that may fall into arrears due to unforeseen
circumstances shall be completed during the remaining three months.

13.4.2 The programme shall indicate:

(a) Particulars of Interlocking Frames, Interlocking Key Boxes and Station Master's slide control frames to be overhauled
month by month;
(b) Dates of last overhauling.

13.4.3 A Copy of the programme shall be supplied to each Supervisory SSE/SE/JE (Signal) who has to carry out the
overhauling accordingly.

13.5 Requirement of materials for overhauling

The Supervisory SE/JE (Signal) shall check before undertaking the work that the material needed for overhauling of
interlocking frames, interlocking key boxes and Station Master's slide control frames is available. If not, he shall requisition
the same sufficiently in advance so that it is available for the work in time.

13.6 Interlocking Frame

13.6.1 Instructions for working of Traffic during overhauling

When a lever frame, Station Master's control frame or interlocked key box or any other interlocking frame is being
overhauled, the station shall be worked in accordance with special instructions issued by each Railway to ensure full
compliance with G.R.3.38 and 3.39 and the Station Master shall be responsible for ensuring that all the facing points over
which the train will pass, are correctly set, clamped and padlocked and that all trailing points over which the train will pass
are correctly set before taking 'OFF' signals. The manner in which Station Master will ensure this shall be clearly laid down.
Detailed temporary working instructions shall be prepared for every station by the Divisional Safety Officer for each phase
of the work in consultation with concerned Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer and supplied to the station
before overhauling is commenced.

13.6.2 A notification showing the date and time when the overhauling work would be taken in hand, its probable duration
and instructions for the station Master to issue Caution Order to drivers and for Loco Foreman to advise drivers to observe
the temporary speed restriction shall be issued jointly by the Divisional Signal & Telecommunication Engineer and the
Divisional Safety Officer.

13.6.3 For the portion of the yard, which is controlled by the Cabin to be overhauled:-

(a) Before undertaking overhauling work wherever required, suitable communication facilities shall be provided.

(b) The Driver shall be issued a Caution order at the last stopping station instructing him of the speed restriction of 15
Km/h at the station where overhauling of interlocking frame is in progress.

(c) Special instructions for reception/dispatch of trains and shunting operations, if any, should be drawn keeping in view GR
& SR 15.09 (2) and annexed to the notification referred to in 13.6.2.

(d) Distant/warner signal and main home signal proceed aspect shall be made in- operative. Distant/warner signal shall be
kept at 'ON' position.
(e) Wherever work is required to be done during night hours, adequate lighting arrangements shall be provided.

(f) Section of the track, on which caution is to be imposed, must be specified.

13.6.4 Only after the Station Master on duty has assured himself that the line has been correctly set and facing points
locked for the required movement, he may permit the signals to be taken 'OFF' for the reception or dispatch of a train.

13.6.5 Disconnection Memo on Form No. S&T/DN (Annexure-2, Chapter XI) shall be given by the SSE/SE/JE (Signal)
incharge to the Station Master on duty and his signature shall be obtained before starting the work and reconnection memo
shall be given after the work is completed.

13.6.6 The issue of caution orders and the imposition of speed restriction of 15KMPH shall remain in force until interlocking
frame has been tested by the authorised official and normal working is restored.

13.7 Detailed Instructions for Overhauling

13.7.1 All interlocking frames shall be overhauled under the personal supervision of the SSE/SE/JE (Signal) incharge.

13.7.2 Before taking up the overhauling of a lever frame, the SSE/SE/JE (Signal) incharge shall examine the lever frame
and collect the necessary materials to carry out repairs/rectify deficiencies noticed.

13.7.3 Quadrants, Quadrant supports, Levers, Lever shoes, Locking Boxes, Locking Box supports and Holding down bolts
shall be examined to see that they are rigidly fixed and properly secured. The levers shall be aligned in straight line in case
any misalignment exists. It shall be ensured that all the parts of the Lever Frame including the spare levers and their
tappets are intact. It shall also be ensured that proper padlocking and sealing facility exists.

13.7.4 All notches in tappets, locks and the lock rivets shall be examined to ensure that they have not become unduly
worn or slack. False (spare) notches in tappets shall be filled up or the tappets replaced.

13.7.5 All interlocking bars shall be examined to ensure that they are rigid, truly straight and not twisted or buckled. Spare
holes in interlocking bars shall be filled up.

13.7.6 All tappets and connecting link pins shall be examined to see that they are not unduly worn out and do not permit
excessive lost motion.

13.7.7 All worn out/cracked parts must be replaced wherever necessary.

13.7.8 The inside of the locking box as also the bars, the tappets and the locks shall be thoroughly cleaned with a stiff
brush and kerosene. Afterwards, they shall be polished with graphite mixed with thin oil and finally dusted with graphite.

13.7.9 Each interlocking bar shall be tested before refitting to ensure that the locking provided through it is correct and the
lost motion of the locked levers or their catch handles is within the permissible limit, i.e. the lever block cannot be moved
more than 12mm over the lever quadrant in the case of locking operated directly by the lever. In case of catch handle
operated locking, it shall not be possible to raise the catch handle block more than 10mm. Defects, if any, shall be rectified.

13.7.10 Locking shall be refitted carefully. Before replacing the covers, the locking shall be again powdered with graphite.
Thin mineral oil shall be used for lubrication when graphite is found unsuitable owing to climatic conditions.

13.7.11 It shall be ensured that waste cotton pieces or any other foreign materials are not left inside the locking boxes.

13.7.12 Before replacing the covers, the locking shall be carefully checked with the approved locking diagram.

13.8 Resumption of normal working

13.8.1 It will be personal responsibility of the Supervisory SSE/SE/JE (Signal) to test all interlocking frames up to 20
working levers after completion of overhauling and to introduce normal working. As regards interlocking frames with 20 to
30 working levers, normal working can be introduced after completion of overhauling and testing of interlocking by the
Supervisory SSE/ SE/JE (Signal). The Divisional/ District/Assistant Signal & Telecommunication Engineer must, however
test the locking as soon as possible after normal working has been resumed by the Supervisory SSE/SE/JE (Signal).

13.8.2 When the lever frame to be overhauled is more than 20 working levers, as soon as the overhauling work has been
completed, it will be the personal responsibility of the Supervisory SSE/SE/JE (Signal) incharge to intimate the Signal
Officer concerned that the interlocking frame is ready for his test.

13.8.3 In regard to interlocking frames with more than 30 working levers, it will be the persona! responsibility of the Signal
Officer concerned to test all such interlocking frames after completion of overhauling and to introduce normal working.

13.8.4 The testing referred to in para 13.8.1 to 13.8.3 shall be carried out as per approved locking table.

13.8.5 The Divisional/Assistant Signal & Telecommunication Engineer must keep in close touch with the progress of the
overhauling work and see that the duration of the work is reduced to what is actually necessary to avoid undue continuance
of the restrictions imposed on the traffic working.

13.9 Overhauling of Interlocking Key Boxes

13.9.1 Interlocking Key Boxes must be overhauled under the personal supervision of the SSE/SE/JE (Signal) incharge.

13.9.2 Disconnection Memo on Form S&T/DN (Annexure-2, Chapter XI) shall be issued by the SSE/ SE/JE (Signal) to the
Station Master on duty and his signature obtained before starting and reconnection memo issued after completion of the
overhauling work.

13.9.3 The responsibility for the safe custody of the interlocking keys released from the interlocking key box as long as the
locking is disconnected shall rest with the SSE/SE/JE (Signal) in-charge.
13.10 Overhauling of Station Master's Slide Control Frame

13.10.1 Station Master's Slide Control Frames shall be overhauled under the personal supervision of the SSE/SE/JE
(Signal) incharge.

13.10.2 Instructions for working of Traffic during overhauling as laid down in paras 13.6.1 and 13.6.2 shall be applicable
during overhauling of Station Master's Slide Control Frames.

13.10.3 The Supervisory SSE/SE/JE (Signal) incharge shall issue disconnection memo on Form S&T/DN Annexure -2
(Chapter XI) to the Station Master on duty and his signature obtained before starting and reconnection memo issued after
completion of overhauling work. The following precautions should also be taken by SM on duty to ensure the safety of the
train movements.

(a) The Cabin man on duty should be instructed to see that no signals are taken 'OFF' by him unless permitted by the
Station Master on duty.

(b) It should be ensured that no electric slot or key is transmitted in an unauthorised manner and that no conflicting slot or
key is transmitted.

13.11 Certificate of Overhauling

Locking overhauling certificates on Form S&T/LO Annexure-8 for all interlocking frames, interlocking key boxes and Station
Master's slide control frames shall be promptly submitted by the SSE/SE/JE (Signal) to the Divisional Signal &
Telecommunication Engineer, in duplicate. The Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer shall, after necessary
scrutiny forward a consolidated statement of the overhauling carried out every quarter along with one copy of the
Certificate to the Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer for his record.

SECTION 'B' - TESTING OF INTERLOCKING FRAMES, INTERLOCKING KEY BOXES AND STATION MASTER'S
SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES.

13.12 Periodicity

13.12.1 Locking of interlocking frames, interlocking key boxes and Station Master's slide control frames shall be tested
once in a year or earlier if required.

13.12.2 Locking shall also be tested before opening a new installation, after every addition and alteration and immediately
after overhauling.

13.13 Programme of Testing

The testing of interlocking frames, interlocking key boxes and Station Master's slide control frames shall be done in a
programmed basis on the same lines as laid down in Section 'A' for overhauling. The testing programme shall be arranged
as follows:-

First at the time of overhauling, second a year later and third 2 years after overhauling. At the end of the third year, a test
should be carried out separately only if overhauling is not proposed to be done within two months of the date on which
periodical testing is due.

13.14 Essential requirements of Locking to be tested

13.14.1 It is essential that the interlocking of all signals with the points is so effected as to ensure the following conditions
:-

(a) It shall not be possible to take 'OFF' a running signal until all points on the running line are correctly set and the facing
points locked, all points giving access to the running lines from interlocked siding and goods lines are set against the
running lines and interlocked level crossing gates on the routes including overlap are closed and locked across the road
way. A signal lever when pulled shall lock or back lock as necessary the levers operating the points and gate locks referred
to above.

(b) It shall not be possible to take 'OFF' conflicting signals at the same time.

(c) When signals are at 'ON', all points, which would be locked by the taking 'OFF' of such signals, shall be free.

(d) It shall not be possible to take 'OFF' a Warner Signal until all the relative Stop Signals in advance have first been taken
'OFF' and when 'OFF' it must back lock such signals.

(e) It shall not be possible to take 'OFF' main home signal to proceed aspect unless all advance signals like advanced
starter, intermediate starter and mainline starter are taken 'OFF' to proceed aspect.

13.14.2 The locking in the frame shall correspond with that shown in the approved Interlocking Table.

13.14.3 The Locking shall be strong, durable and accurate and it should not be possible -

(a) for any mechanical lock to enter a notch other than that for which it is intended;

(b) to force the locking.

13.14.4 The locking in the lever frame shall act on the commencement of the movement of the lever in the case of a direct
type lever frame. In the case of a catch handle type of lever frame, the locking shall act on the commencement of the
movement of the catch handle.

13.14.5 The release locking shall not be effected before the completion of the movement of lever and releasing the catch
handle in the case of catch handle type lever frame.
13.14.6 Lever collars and slide collars shall be tested so that it is not possible to operate a lever or slide with a collar
placed on it.

13.15 Methods of testing

There are two methods of testing the locking :-

(i) against the Interlocking Table, and

(ii) against the signalling Plan.

13.16 Testing by the Supervisory SSE/SE/JE (Signal) :-

The supervisory SSE/SE/JE (Signal) shall test locking against the interlocking table and do spot checks from the Signalling
Plan.

13.17 Testing by the Divisional/Assistant Signal and Telecommunication Engineer

Divisional Signal & Telecommunication Engineer/Assistant signal & Telecommunication Engineer shall test locking against
the interlocking table as well as make spot checks from the Signalling Plan.

13.18 Instructions for testing

13.18.1 All levers shall be placed in their normal position before testing is started. When testing against the interlocking
table, levers shall ordinarily be tested consecutively beginning from lever number-1.

13.18.2 In each case where a lever is released by a combination of other levers, it is necessary to have all the levers of the
group pulled over to test the back locks, then to put back each lever separately, leaving the other levers pulled over, to test
each individual lock.

13.18.3 Some examples of testing locking are as follows -

A. Warner Signal

(i) Try the Warner lever. It should be locked.

(ii) Pull over the relative Loop Homes and Outer Levers and also Loop starters if worked from the same cabin. Try the
Warner lever again, it should be locked.

(iii) Pull over the relative Main Home and Outer levers and try the Warner lever again. It should be locked.
(iv) Pull over the Main line Starter lever and once more try the Warner lever. It should be free if there is no other running
signal in advance of the Starter signal.

(v) After pulling the Warner lever, see if the Outer, the Home and the Starter signal levers are back locked.

(vi) Replace the Warner, the Outer and the Home signal levers, but leave the starter lever pulled over. Try again to pull the
Warner lever. The Warner lever should be locked.

B. Stop Signal

(i) Set up each route separately, and if the stop signal is released by another signal (e.g., the Outer by the Home), prove
that the releasing and back locking is correct as in the case of Warner signal levers.

(ii) See that all conflicting point and signal levers, both in advance and in rear of the signal under test, are locked.

(iii) Replace the signal lever under test and pull over each conflicting point lever or combination of conflicting point levers in
the route separately and see if the signal lever is locked.

(iv) Try each conflicting signal with the signal lever under test in the normal position, pulling such levers as required
releasing each conflicting signal.

(v) Points in rear of the signal under test should be tried both in the normal and reverse positions with the signal lever
reversed to see if the both ways locking is correct. The extent of this both ways locking in rear of each signal varies
according to local condition.

C. Junction Signal Test

In Figure 1, when lever No.2 is tested, it is not sufficient to pull 3 and try if 4 is locked normal because 3 locks 4 both ways.
The methods of testing where the facing points stand normally unlocked, should be as follows :-

(i) Try 1 and 2. Both should be locked.

(ii) Pull 3 and try 1, 2 and 4.2 and 4 should be locked and 1 free.

(iii) Pull 1 and see that 3 is back locked.

(iv) Replace all levers and pull 4 and 3.1 should be locked, 4 locked in reverse and 2 free.

(v) Pull 2 and see that 3 is back locked.


D. Point Locking

The locking between point levers is tested on the same principles as the locking between signal levers, care being taken
that each point lever is free to be tested by pulling the releasing levers, if any, and also that points are not being held by
facing point locks.

E. Special Locking

Figure 2 is an example of special locking, where 1 is released by 3 when 2 is normal. The method should be as follows :-

(i) Try 1,1 should be locked,

(ii) Pull 2 and try 1,1 should be free,

(iii) Pull 1,3 should be locked and 2 backlocked.

(iv) Replace all levers. Pull 3 and try 1,1 should be free,

(v) Pull 1,2 should be locked and 3 backlocked.


In each case, where a lever is released by a special combination, as in Fig.3, where 1 is released by 4 with 2 and 3 normal,
each part of the combination must be tested on the same principle as before. Either 2 reverse or 3 reverse must "break-
down" the release on 1 by 4.

F. Reciprocal Locks and Checking

As each lock is tested, its reciprocal should, whenever possible, be tested at the same time. As and when they are dealt
with, the figures must be ticked off on the interlocking table so that no lock is missed.

G. Locked Levers
While testing a locked lever, a steady pressure should be applied so as to ensure that it is not free before the releasing
lever has completed its travel. This will prove that there are no conflicting notches.

13.19 Test Charts

Test Charts showing the manipulation of various levers to check each locking as detailed in para 13.18.3 should preferably
be prepared to facilitate testing of large interlocking frames.

13.20 Lost Motion Test

When a lever or catch handle which should be locked can be moved more than the allowance stipulated in para 13.7.9 it
should be considered as having too much lost motion, which must be removed.

13.21 Certificate of testing locking

Certificate of Testing locking on Form S&T/LT (Annexure-9) for all interlocking frames, interlocking Key Boxes and Station
Master's slide control frames shall be promptly submitted by the SSE/SE/JE (Signal) to the Divisional Signal &
Telecommunication Engineer in duplicate. The Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer shall, after necessary
scrutiny, forward a consolidated statement along with a copy of the certificate to the Chief Signal and Telecommunication
Engineer for his record.

SECTION 'C' - RECORDS

13.22 Records of testing and overhauling

Record of testing and overhauling of interlocking frames, interlocking key boxes and Station Master's slide control frames
shall be maintained as follows :-

(a) At individual stations : In the Signal incidences and Inspection register.

(b) With the SSE/SE/JE (Signal): In a separate Register, a separate page shall be used for each interlocking frame,
interlocking key box and Station Master's slide control frame.

(c) With the Divisional Signal & Telecommunication Engineer and the Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer: On cards.
One card shall be used for each interlocking frame, interlocking key box and Station Master's slide control frame. These
cards shall be suitably filled to indicate -

(i) Testing or overhauling due "current period".

(ii) Testing or overhauling "over -due".

(iii) Testing or overhauling "done during the period".


(iv) Testing or overhauling "done during previous period and not requiring immediate attention".

(d) A site verified copy of approved locking table and locking diagram, which was basis for testing on completion of
overhauling shall each be maintained with the SSE/SE/JE (signal) and the Divisional Office.

13.23 Date of last overhauling and testing

Date of last overhauling and testing shall be painted on the lever frames, interlocking key boxes and Station Master's slide
control frames.

SECTION 'D' - TESTING AND OVERHAULING OF ELECTROMECHANICAL INSTALLATIONS

13.24 Mechanical Locking

13.24.1 Instructions contained in the preceding paragraphs for the installation, maintenance, overhauling and testing of
locking of mechanical interlocking frames shall also apply to electromechanical installations with mechanical locking frames
wherever relevant.

13.24.2 The mechanical locking of interlocking frames shall be tested for lost motion, as per para 13.7.9 and lost motion,
when in excess of the prescribed limits, shall be removed.

13.25 Electrical Locking

13.25.1 In electromechanical installations electric lever locks, key transmitters, circuit controllers etc shall be provided as
per approved plan.

13.25.2 Diagram of electrical circuits for each such gears shall be prepared and shall show all the necessary controls which
shall be required to release a particular lever.

13.25.3 Where lever locks have been provided in the mechanical lever frames for controlling operation of Electric Point
Machine, Electric Signal Machine or for route holding etc the functioning of the same shall be tested.

i) Points Lever: - In points lever ABDE locks are provided for Track & Indication locking. Lever shall be tested to ensure
that the lever lock is energised and the lever is free to be operated in A/E position only when the controlling tracks are
clear. The lever shall again be locked in D position when the point is being operated from normal to reverse and lever shall
be free only when the points has operated fully and locked and detected in reverse position. Similarly, while operating the
lever from reverse to normal the lever shall be first locked in E position to ensure track locking and subsequently will be
held at B position for point operation. The lever lock shall not energies at B position unless the points have operated, set,
locked and detected in normal position.

ii) Signal Lever: - While pulling the signal lever from normal to reverse the lever shall be locked in A position and will be
free only when route for the reception of the train has been correctly set, all facing points locked and all the controlling
tracks are clear i.e. all conditions are fulfilled for taking 'OFF' the signal. While putting back the lever from reverse to
normal position the lever shall be locked at B position and will be free only when the intended movement is completed and
it is free from back locking as well as approach locking where provided. Normal indication locking must also be effective in
B position in case of semaphore signal.

13.26 Testing and overhauling of Electrical Locking

13.26.1 Mechanical interlocking frames provided with electrical signalling equipment shall be tested and overhauled as per
requirements contained in Chapter XIX.

13.26.2 The testing of electrical locking shall be carried out in accordance with the approved release circuit of each lever as
shown on the approved diagram of electrical circuits.

13.26.3 For testing the electrical locking provided on a lever, the other levers required to release that lever shall be pulled
and it must be ensured that the lever is free to be pulled mechanically.

13.26.4 All the conditions for the release of the electrical lock of the lever under test shall be set up. The lever shall now
be pulled from normal to reverse for testing of A&D locks and reverse to normal for E&B locks and proper functioning of the
lever locks checked.

13.26.5 A test lamp/voltmeter shall now be connected on the electrical lock of the lever under test. The lever shall now be
pulled from normal to reverse and vice versa. The test lamp should lit up at lock positions. The lever shall be held at these
positions one after the other and all the lock release conditions shall be broken one by one. It shall be ensured that feed to
the lever lock is disconnected each time. While doing this test, care shall be taken to test each circuit individually one after
the other duly isolating other parallel circuits.

13.27 Testing of other electrical equipments

13.27.1 Instructions contained in section 'E' for testing of electrical signalling installations shall also apply to
electromechanical installations wherever relevant.

13.27.2 All electrical equipments such as electric lever locks, circuit controllers etc., as well as wiring shall be examined
and tested for insulation. The insulation must not be less than ten Mega Ohm. Defective equipments shall be replaced.

13.27.3 Moving parts of circuit controllers, their mechanical connections and contact makers shall be checked. Repairs and
replacements should be carried out wherever necessary.

13.28 Date of last overhauling and testing

Date of last overhauling and testing should be painted on the interlocking frame.
13.29 Certificate of overhauling

Locking overhauling certificate on Form S&T/LO Annexure -8 (para 13.11) for all mechanical interlocking frames shall be
promptly submitted by the SE/JE (Signal) to the Divisional Signal & Telecommunication Engineer, who shall after necessary
scrutiny forward a consolidated certificate to the Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer.

SECTION 'E' - TESTING OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALLING CIRCUITS

13.30 General

The checking and testing of electrical signalling installations may be divided into five different groups as detailed below:

13.30.1 Physical inspection of the installation.

13.30.2 Checking of the wiring and cables.

13.30.3 Testing of the individual circuits.

13.30.4 Testing of individual apparatus.

13.30.5 System testing of the installation.

13.31 Test Procedure

Systematic methods such as marking on locking/selection tables and suitably and clearly marking on the circuit diagrams
while checking the circuits and equipment should be adopted to ensure that all circuits have been completely checked.

13.32 Suitable proforma should be devised for recording the tests of electrical equipment before testing of the installation
is taken up to ensure availability of records of the tests and their analysis.

13.33 Testing Instruments

Suitable instruments should be used in the testing of electrical signalling circuits. Calibration of these instruments should be
checked periodically.

13.34 Physical inspection of the installation

13.34.1 It shall be checked that the work has been carried out in accordance with the approved plans and that equipment
is of proper type and is in good condition.

13.34.2 The following aspects shall be checked during the physical inspection:
a) The signals, location boxes and other out-door equipment are as per approved plans and are in good condition.
Arrangements for proper ventilation, where provided, are not choked.

b) Each location contains all the apparatus required as per approved plans, the apparatus is of approved type and that the
power supply equipment, batteries, fuses, etc., are installed according to the approved plan and specification.

c) The location of insulation joint, jumper wiring, traction bonding in electrified areas, point machines, switch locks and
other apparatus is as per approved plans and their condition is satisfactory.

d) The electrolyte, inter-connections between cells, cell voltage etc., are in required condition as per relevant specifications
or instructions.

e) Each wire is tagged or marked where feasible so that it can be identified at each end and the nomenclature on the tag
corresponds to that on the wiring diagram. The tags or other sleeves of identification shall be of insulating material.

f) The number of wires terminated on each terminal or relay terminal boards or other devices are counted and tallied with
the number of wires shown in the wiring diagrams.

g) All connections on terminals and binding posts are properly secured,

h) The lightning arrestors are properly connected and earthed as per plan.

i) Detailed specifications & instructions for inspection and testing of different types of equipment as applicable to them
should be available.

j) All other equipment such as lever frames, cable sheaths, signal screens, location huts, etc., in A.C. electrified areas are
properly earthed as per requirements contained in Chapter XXII.

k) No equipment including relays are due for overhauling.

13.35 Checking of the wiring

13.35.1 Wiring shall be checked to ensure that it has been carried out as per approved wiring diagram. Point to point
testing shall be carried out before plugging in the relays. Wires shall be tested one by one for continuity and insulation.

13.35.2 Prior to conducting continuity and insulation test, contact occupancy test must be carried out for each relay as per
the contact analysis available. The number of contacts allotted must tally.

13.35.3 During the course of continuity testing, wire count test shall also be done simultaneously to verify the number of
wires actually available on each contact.

13.35.4 All cables shall be tested in accordance with the instructions given in Chapter XV.
13.36 Test of individual circuits

13.36.1 It shall be checked that each individual circuit is actually controlled by the proper contacts of the relays or other
devices as per wiring diagram.

13.36.2 Where feed to a particular device is controlled through two or more paths in parallel, the check of each path must
be carried out separately.

13.36.3 Cases of intermittent or continuous extraneous feed of even small magnitude or wrong operation of any relay
observed shall be investigated thoroughly and remedial action taken to rectify the fault.

13.36.4 Once the indoor wiring works are completed before conducting the system testing as detailed in para 13.38,
simulation test shall be conducted. This will ensure the correctness of indoor system, complete. System testing shall be
carried out after all the field functions are connected to the relay room.

13.37 Testing of individual apparatus

Testing shall be done as per relevant paras of Chapter XIX in accordance with specification & instructions applicable to each
individual apparatus.

13.38 System Testing of Installation

13.38.1 After the tests mentioned in previous paras have been carried out, the electrical installation shall be subject to the
detailed operational/system tests.

13.38.2 These tests shall be planned carefully. Requisite number of staff considered essential for carrying out such tests
shall be selected and deputed to concerned locations. They should be equipped with requisite tools, meters, portable
telephones and/or walkie talkie sets so that they are in contact with the official in charge of testing and other testing
parties and take such action as directed.

13.38.3 These tests shall be carried out against approved Selection Table/Control Table/Route Chart and Signalling Plan.

13.38.4 Complete tests shall be carried out against approved Selection Table/Control Table/Route Chart. Checks against
signalling plans for main signal routes and a few spot checks of the remaining routes shall also be carried out.

13.38.5 Following guide lines are laid down for carrying out system tests:-

(a) Signal Control Circuits

Each route shall be set individually by operating control lever or switch (es) and/or button (s) as the case may be. After
checking that the signal for this particular route has been cleared, each track circuit controlling the signal shall be shunted
individually to check that the signal goes back to danger. Similar tests shall again be made by de-energizing point detection
relays and other relays controlling this route. Each such relay will be de-energized individually and it shall be checked that
the signal goes back to danger.

(b) Approach Locking

Each route shall be set up individually. After ensuring that the signal for this particular route has been cleared, each track
circuit controlling the approach locking shall be de-energised in turn. The signal shall be put back to 'ON'. Efforts shall be
made to alter the route under test and to set up conflicting route. It shall be checked that it is not possible to cancel the
route set up and/or to set up a conflicting route and/or to individually operate any point in the route under test. This
locking shall be effective till the set route is cancelled and the time release circuit has operated provided the track beyond
the signal is not occupied.

(c) Route Release

(i) Tests shall be carried out to ensure that once a signal is cleared for a particular route, position of none of the points in
the route can be changed when track circuit immediately in advance of the signal is de-energised.

(ii) Where sectional route release is provided, it shall be ensured that a sub route does not release only by picking up of the
concerned track relay (s) but the same should be released only after the next track circuit has also dropped and picked up.

(iii) Where sectional route release is not provided tests shall be made to ensure that the entire route remains locked when
any of the track circuits beyond the signal up to the track circuit controlling the last point is de-energised.

(iv) In cases where the route is controlled by single track circuit the route shall be released after prescribed time delay to
be effective after the concerned track circuit has been occupied and cleared by the train.

(d) Time Release

Time release, where provided, shall be tested to ensure that it will be possible to alter the route or set up a conflicting route
or change the position of the points in the route only after the signal is put back to 'ON' and the prescribed time interval
has lapsed. Similar tests shall be carried out for overlap release, where time release is provided for releasing the overlap
after the occupation of the berthing track.

(e) Dead Approach Locking

Where dead approach locking is provided, the same test procedure as in (b) will be adopted except that there is no
controlling track circuit to be de- energised. After the signal has been taken 'OFF', the approach locking shall be effective till
the signal is put back to 'ON' and time release circuit has operated.

(f) Signal Indication Circuits


Indication of 'ON' aspect of all signals shall be checked for its correspondence with aspect displayed at site. Each signal
shall then be cleared after setting its route and the indication of each aspect shall be checked for its correspondence with
the aspect displayed at the site. This test shall be carried out for each signal as well as for direction type route indicator
where provided. In the case of later, it shall also be ensured that the indication relay is not energised and the indication
does not appear until the minimum number of lamps as required are actually lit.

(g) Point Controlling Circuits

Each point shall be set to reverse position by operating the controlling lever/switch/button. After the point has been fully
reversed, each track circuit controlling the point shall be individually shunted in turn and operation of points to normal
position shall be attempted. It shall not be possible to operate the point under these conditions. These tests shall be
repeated with the point set in normal position, attempt being made to operate it to the reverse position.

With the obstruction in the points, the point shall be operated from normal to reverse and reverse to normal and it shall be
checked that the over-load relay where provided gets energised and the feed to the motor is cut off immediately. Where
over load relay is not provided, the feed to the motor shall be cut off after the lapse of a prescribed time.

The out of correspondence test shall be carried out by opening cut out contact of one end of point machine and the point
lever/knob/button operated. The other end of the point may operate but the point indication relay shall not energise.

(h) Point Indication Circuit

The point shall be operated from normal to reverse and reverse to normal and the position of point detection relay as well
as the indication of the point in the cabin/panel shall be checked for correspondence with the position of the points at site.
It shall also be checked that with the obstruction in the point, the detection relay is de-energised and both normal and
reverse point indication in the cabin/panel are extinguished in case of electromechanical signal and flash in case of PI /RRI
installations.

The operation of the detection relay to the correct position as well as its de-energisation should be checked by making and
breaking the relevant point detector contacts at site.

(i) Crank handle interlocking

It shall be checked that when the crank handle is removed from its normal position in Electric Key Transmitter/other
approved Relay interlocking arrangement, the signals reading over the concerned route/zone cannot be taken 'OFF' nor the
points could be operated from the cabin/ panel. It shall also be checked that when the signal reading over the concerned
route/zone is taken 'OFF', the crank handle cannot be released from its normal position in Electric Key Transmitter/other
approved Relay interlocking arrangement.

(j) Testing of Track Circuits

Testing and inspection shall be done as per Chapter XVII.


13.39 Typical testing Procedure for Panel Interlocking/Route Relay Interlocking Installations

Typical testing procedure for panel interlocking /Route Relay interlocking installations are given below. It shall be ensured
that the interlocking system conforms to the approved relay interlocking specification.

13.39.1 Panel Interlocking installation:


(i) Point Locking

Operate point No. 2 to reverse position and clear the signal route No. 2WBI by operating signal switch/button. Operate
point knob 2 to normal. The point should remain locked. Restore the point knob to reverse. De-energise 2RWKR. Signal
2WBI shall go to 'ON'. Restore the signal switch/button to normal. When point No. 2 is free, shunt the track 2T. Turn the
point knob 2 from reverse to normal. The point should remain locked.

(ii) Approach locking

Take 'OFF signal for route No. 2WBI by setting the points in required position. Normalize the signal switch with A2WT clear.
The signal assumes 'ON' position. Try to alter the route, it should be free.

Again take 'OFF' signal for route No. 2WBI. Shunt the approach Track A2WT. Normalize the signal switch/button. Try to
alter the route. Route should be held till the route is cancelled and 120 sees, time delay has lapsed.

(iii) Interlocking of signals

Clear the signal route 2WBI after setting the route. Try to clear the signal 4EB by operating the relevant switch/button.
Signal 4EB should remain in 'ON' position and signal 2W should continue to display 'OFF' aspect. Similar tests shall be
carried out for signal 2E also.

(iv) Track Circuit Controls

Clear the signal route 2WBI again. Shunt the track 2WT. Signal should go to 'ON'. Remove the shunt, the signal should not
re-clear. Normalize route and re-clear again. Shunt A2ET and other controlling track circuits one by one. Signal should go
to 'ON' in all cases. Remove the shunt. Normalize the route.

(v) Back locking

(a) Clear the signal 2W for route 2 WBI again. Shunt the track 2WT. The signal should go to 'ON'. Normalize the signal
switch/button. The route should be held. Shunt and clear all the back locking tracks as per selection table in sequence. The
route shall be released by sequential proving of tracks as per the provisions of para 4.3.3 of Relay interlocking specification
IRS: S 36-87.

(b) Clear the signal route 2WBI again and de-energize the L-xing gate control relay. The signal should go to 'ON'. Re-
energize the relay, the signal should assume 'OFF' aspect.

13.40 Periodicity of Tests

13.40.1 All the tests indicated in Para 13.30 shall be conducted at the time of new installation or making any alteration to
the existing installations.

13.40.2 Periodical Testing

13.40.2.1 In a working installation, the following periodical tests shall be done: -

(i) Physical inspection as per Para 13.34 once in a year or earlier to the extent feasible;

(ii) System tests as per Para 13.38 once in three years or earlier;

(iii) Insulation tests on Cables as per Para 15.23.1.

(iv) Test of individual apparatus in accordance with specifications and instructions applicable for each apparatus as
stipulated in Chapter XIX

13.40.2.2 It will be personal responsibility of supervisory SSE/SE/JE (Signal) to test all Electrical signalling circuits of relay
interlocking up to 20 routes.

13.40.2.3 It will be personal responsibility of Signal Officer concerned to test all electrical signalling circuits of relay
interlocking with more than 20 routes.
13.41 Precautions during Testing

Following precautions in addition to what is stipulated in para 11.4 shall be taken during testing and checking so that -

(a) No signal taken 'OFF' for a train movement is thrown to 'ON' in the face of the train.

(b) No signal which will create a conflicting or unsafe movement is taken 'OFF

(c) No point and isolation in a route set for a train movement is disturbed.

(d) No track relay of an occupied track circuit is energised.

(e) No voltage higher than permissible voltage is applied to the equipment.

(f) There should be no risk of electric shock to testing or operating personnel.

Form No. S&T/LO


Annexure 8
Para 13.11

....................RAILWAY
SIGNAL AND TELECOMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT CERTIFICATE OF OVERHAULING INTERLOCKING FRAMES

No........................

To

The Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer,


......................................Division

This is to certify that I have personally supervised the overhauling of the interlocking frames/ Interlocking key
boxes/Station Master's slide control frames at the station/cabins on my section shown below, and that they have been
thoroughly examined and cleaned, also repaired or refitted where necessary and all parts are in good working order. The
mechanical locking is in accordance with the approved interlocking charts and interlocking tables.

Station Apparatus Date of last Date Reference to plans Remarks


/Cabin name overhauled overhaul overhauled
. . . . Locking table, Signalling .
locking plan
diagram
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .

Dated:

Signature.... ............

Designation...............

Station....................

Form No. S&T/LT


Annexure 9
Para 13.21

...........................RAILWAY

SIGNAL AND TELECOMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT CERTIFICATE OF TESTING LOCKING forthe month


ending.....................20..

No..............

To,

The Divisional Signal & Telecommunication Engineer,

......................................Division

This is to certify that I have personally tested the interlocking frames, interlocking key boxes and Station Master's slide
control frames at the stations on my section shown below and that they are in good working order and that the mechanical
locking/electrical locking is in accordance with the approved interlocking tables.
Name of Apparatus Date of last Date Tested against Remarks
Station tested test tested Signalling plan Locking table/
/Cabin selection table
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .

Dated:

Signature.... ...........

Designation..............

Station...................

CHAPTER-XIV
LEVEL CROSSING
14.1 General

14.1.1 Classification of level crossings

14.1.2 Gates

14.1.2.1 Non-interlocked gates

14.1.2.2 Interlocked gates

14.1.2.3 Engineering gates

14.1.2.4 Traffic gates

14.1.3 Normal position of gates


14.1.4 to
Equipment at level crossing
14.1.7
14.1.8 Interlocking

14.1.9 Communication

14.1.10 Approach warning

14.2 Installation

. (A) Instructions applicable to both mechanical and electrical lifting barriers

. (B) Mechanical lifting barriers

. (C) Electric lifting barrier

14.3 Maintenance

14.3.1 Mechanical lifting barriers

14.3.2 Electric lifting barrier

Annexure 10 Safety measures to be provided at Level Crossings

Annexure 11 Maintenance schedule of Level Crossing

CHAPTER -XIV

LEVEL CROSSING

14.1 GENERAL

This chapter should be read in conjunction with chapter III and chapter. XVI of General Rules, 1990andchapter.VII of SEM, Part 1, 1988

14.1.1 CLASSIFICATION OF LEVEL CROSSINGS : The classification of road-rail surface level crossings shall be decided by the
Engineering Department as per para 902 of Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual (IRPWM). Level crossings have been classified as
under:

Special)
A Class) ...for roads
B Class)
C Class)
D Class - for cattle crossings

14.1.2 GATES : The closing arrangement for gates may be of swing/movable type or lifting barrier type of approved design.
Gates can be broadly divided into the following categories:

i) Non-interlocked gates and Interlocked gates

ii) Engineering gates and Traffic gates

14.1.2.1 NON-INTERLOCKED GATES : These gates may be in the form of lifting barriers or swing/ movable gates of approved design.
These gates are installed and maintained by Engineering department.

14.1.2.2 INTERLOCKED GATES : At interlocked gates, interlocking and communication equipment are provided and maintained by S&T
department

14.1.2.3 ENGINEERING GATES : Gates outside station limits are called Engineering gates and are manned and operated by
Engineering staff. These gates may be non-interlocked or interlocked. with signals.

14.1.2.4 TRAFFIC GATES:- Gates within station limits are called Traffic Gates and are manned and operated by Traffic staff. These
gates may be non- interlocked or interlocked with signals.

14.1.3 NORMAL POSITION OF GATES: Normal position of gates shall be as per para 904 and 907 of IRPWM.

14.1.4 EQUIPMENT AT LEVEL CROSSING : The Level crossings shall be provided with equipment as per para 910 of IRPWM. These
equipments are provided and maintained by Engineering or Traffic department.

14.1.5 The Working instruction including the gate working diagram of level crossing equipped with gate signals and situated outside the
station limits, shall be provided at the gate lodge. A copy of the working instruction shall also be kept at the controlling station. These
instructions shall be provided in vernacular language.

14.1.6 The Working Instruction of level crossings within station limits shall be incorporated as an appendix to Station Working
Rule/Instruction of the station and shall also kept at the gate lodge.

14.1.7 Safety measures for different classes of level crossings such as interlocking with signals, provision of telephone communication
and approach warning arrangement shall be as per Annexure-10.

14.1.8 INTERLOCKING:

14.1.8.1 Interlocking shall be provided as per para 7.82 of SEM, Part I.

14.1.8.2 Where interlocked level crossings within station limits are operated from a place other than the place of operation of the signal
protecting the gate, arrangements of interlocking should be such that the last operation before taking 'off the signal should be the closing
of the gate and the first operation after the train has cleared the level crossing and the signal has been put back to 'ON' position should
be the opening of the gate by the Gateman
14.1.8.3 Approach locking and back-locking shall be provided on the control lever of the interlocked level crossings situated on sections
provided with automatic signalling. The approach locking shall be effective from the moment the train occupies the track circuit provided
at braking distance in rear of the gate signal and the back-locking shall be effective until the train clears the level crossing.

14.1.9 COMMUNICATION : Telephone communication between the Gate-lodge and the Station Master's office shall be provided in
accordance with para 2 of Annexure -10. Such telephone communication may be provided to the Switchman instead of Station Master's
office to suit the local operating condition.

14.1.10 APPROACH WARNING : Audible warning by a bell/buzzer of approved type operated by the approach of a train shall be
provided at interlocked gates in accordance with para 3 of Annexure-10

14.2 INSTALLATION

(A) INSTRUCTIONS APPLICABLE TO BOTH MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL LIFTING BARRIERS

14.2.1 At stations, it is desirable that level crossings should not be located fouling reception, stabling lines and signal overlaps.. As far as
possible, level crossings should be provided at a place which gives an uninterrupted view not only to drivers of approaching trains but
also to the road users.

14.2.2 Lifting barrier of approved design and drawing shall be installed.

14.2.3 Locking arrangement at the interlocked gate shall be as per approved plan and wiring diagram.

14.2.4 The minimum distance of gate post from the centre line of nearest track shall be as per para 904 -Annexure 9/1 of IRPWM.

14.2.5 Foundation for pedestal shall be of adequate strength.

14.2.6 Lifting barrier shall have two booms, one each on either side of the track.

14.2.7 The boom of the barrier shall extend across the full width of the road. It shall be installed perpendicular to the road.

14.2.8 The boom rest (stop post) shall be in alignment with the boom.

14.2.9 When the gate is closed to road traffic, clearance between the road surface level and the boom shall be 0.8 to 1 metre. The road
surface level shall be maintained as per para 904 -Annexure 9/1 of IRPWM.

14.2.10 The open position of the lifting barrier shall be within 80 to 85 deg. from the horizontal and the closed position shall be within 0
to 10 deg. from the horizontal.

14.2.11 Lifting barrier shall be so installed that it shall be possible to stop or reverse its movement at any point during operation without
damage.
14.2.12 At the centre of the boom, the lifting barrier shall be provided with a 600mm dia red disc having red reflector/luminous strip
facing the road traffic.

14.2.13 The boom shall be either painted with 300-mm bands of alternate black and yellow colour or provided with approved type of
retro-reflective strips. The fringes, if provided, shall also be painted.. Fluorescent or any other approved type of paint shall be used for
yellow colour.

14.2.14 The fringe and flat bar where provided shall be straight.

14.2.15 Signals and Warning boards shall be provided as per section 'D' and section 'E' of Chapter VII of SEM, Pt I, respectively. Markers
on signals in automatic signalling territory shall be provided as per para 7.168.

14.2.16 Gate signalling shall match sectional signalling.

14.2.17 In semaphore signalling territory, where distant/separate warner signal is worked with electric signal machine, indication locking
shall be provided on gate signal lever.

14.2.18 Approved type of train detection device shall be provided for initiating approach warning. The device shall be so located as to
provide the warning for at least 60 seconds. The warning shall continue till the train reaches the level crossing.

14.2.19 (Left blank intentionally)

14.2.20 A gate Working diagram shall be provided at the place of operation for all interlocked level crossing gates located outside the
station limits.

14.2.21 In RE area, power supply for level crossing located outside station limits shall be made available from both UP and DN AT supply
in accordance with para 20713.2 (iii) of ACTM' Vol. II (Part I).

14.2.22 For interlocking a level crossing in RE area, neutral section shall be relocated wherever minimum distance between gate signals
and neutral section is not available as per para 16.4 and 16.5 of AC Traction Manual (Volume II, Part II)

14.2.23 In RE area, proper precautions as stipulated in SEM chapter XXII should be taken.

14.2.24 All relays, batteries, etc. for operation of gate and gate signals shall be kept in proper sealed and locked condition.

14.2.25 Telephone or any other approved communication equipment shall be fixed inside gate lodge on a wooden or on any other
approved type shelf/box at 1200 mm to 1500 mm height from ground level. The wiring for communication equipment shall be provided
through a PVC pipe/ boxing.

14.2.26 Rumble strip, speed breakers and warning signs to road user shall be provided by Engg. department as per extant instruction.

14.2.27 In case of wider roads provided with road divider, provision of two half barriers, each set operated diagonally by a separate
winch may be considered.
(B) MECHANICAL LIFTING BARRIERS

14.2.28 A separate fracture segment shall connect the boom with the mechanism near the pivot. Fracture segment mounting shall be of
such a design that it can be transported, replaced easily and quickly and in case of a mighty hit shall allow for the break of the segment
without endangering the mechanism itself.

14.2.29 Winch for the operation of the lifting barrier shall be located at a place (including cabin) not exceeding 150 metres from the gate
and having clear visibility of the road.

14.2.30 It shall be ensured that while closing the gate, warning bell rings and lamp bracket also gets turned to give required indication
to road users.

14.2.31 It shall be ensured that the roller fitted to the rope drum enters the Trunnion bracket and activates the boom for
closure/opening.

14.2.32 It shall be ensured that Boom locking is effective and it is not possible to lift the boom by more than 10 degree from closed
position.

14.2.33 The wire rope shall not overlap at the winch and rope drums.

14.2.34 The guy rod shall be given sufficient tension for smooth operation of the boom.

14.2.35 Oil holes, grease nipples, etc. shall be provided with spring loaded covers.

14.2.36 It shall be possible to extract the key from the winch only when the gate is fully closed.

14.2.37 At swing/movable types of interlocked gates, interlocking shall be achieved through 'E' type locks.

(C) ELECTRIC LIFTING BARRIER

14.2.38 Where power supply is available, all new installations of interlocked level crossing gates of special class, A, B class & in suburban
section should preferably be provided with electrically operated lifting barrier. 'Electric Lifting barrier shall be of an approved design.

14.2.39 The boom shall be either metallic or any other approved type. The metallic type boom shall be segmented for easy transport,
installation and replacement.

14.2.40 Operation of the lifting barrier may be provided from a control panel or SM slide or by any other approved equipment.

14.2.41 At the centre of the boom, a red light shall be provided. This light shall show red light to road traffic when gate is closed.

14.2.42 Proper operation of lifting barrier by a hand crank shall be checked.


14.2.43 The boom must be so balanced that in case of failure of power supply, the barrier shall remain in the position last assumed.

14.2.44 In non-RE area, power supply equipment shall be installed. in a separate room or location box or in the gate lodge.

14.3 MAINTENANCE

14.3.1 MECHANICAL LIFTING BARRIERS :

14.3.1.1 All moving parts shall be properly lubricated.

14.3.1.2 Gears, rope drums and wire rope shall be doused with soft grease.

14.3.1.3 Cleaning of rodding and wire transmission should be done properly. Cleaning of all pipes and ducts to prevent obstruction by
accumulation of dirt shall be ensured.

14.3.1.4 All bolts and nuts shall be tightened and split pins shall be split properly.

14.3.1.5 Worn out pins, if any, in the crank shall be replaced.

14.3.1.6 It shall be ensured that both the booms are parallel in open condition.

14.3.1.7 Proper adjustment of wire sag and tension shall be made.

14.3.1.8 Integrity of interlocking and boom locking shall be checked.

14.3.1.9 Rusty wires and rodding shall be replaced.

14.3.1.10 It shall be ensured that 'E' type lock which locks the winch should also lock winch handle in closed position of barrier.

14.3.1.11 All gate locking apparatus must be examined regularly and working parts kept oiled. Gate locks must be kept in good working
order.

14.3.1.12 Proper working of audio/visual warning shall be ensured.

14.3.2 ELECTRIC LIFTING BARRIER:

14.3.2.1 Machines must be kept in good condition, free from rust, dust and dirt.

14.3.2.2 The bearing surface and moving parts of the electric lifting barrier shall be lubricated properly

14.3.2.3 Contacts must be kept clean and in proper adjustment. If contact surfaces are pitted, they must be replaced.

14.3.2.4 Commutator and Brushes.


a) Commutator must be clean, smooth and have a bright appearance.

b) Brushes must be kept clean and properly bedded on the commutator. Brushes should have proper pressure and should be free in
brush holders.

14.3.2.5 Friction clutch must be so adjusted that the same should get de-clutched when the boom is raised or lowered fully and the
power supply is not cut off.

14.3.2.6 The shock absorber at the boom rest (stop post) must be kept properly adjusted.

14.3.2.7 The time of operation of electric lifting barrier shall not exceed stipulated time. Measured value of current should not exceed
rated values.

14.3.2.8 The satisfactory functioning of the lifting barrier by a hand crank shall be checked.

14.3.2.9 All gate locking apparatus must be examined regularly and working parts kept oiled. Gate locks must be kept in good working
order.

14.3.2.10 Proper working of audio/visual warning shall be ensured.

14.3.3 Approach warning arrangement where provided, is working satisfactorily and effectiveness of Approach and Back locking provided
shall be ensured.

14.3.4 Electrical Lever Locks, ESR, Signal machines, HKTs etc. shall be maintained in accordance with instructions laid down in Chapter
XIX of this manual.

14.3.5 Maintenance of Levers, signals and overhauling of lever frames shall be as per instructions laid down in chapter XII of this
manual.

14.3.6 Track circuits/Axle counters, if provided, shall be maintained in accordance with instructions laid down in chapter XVII of this
Manual.

14.3.7 The telephone communication facilities where provided between Level Crossing gates and the adjoining stations shall be checked
in regard to their satisfactory functioning.

14.3.8 Heavy repairs, renewals or alterations to gate interlocking must not be carried out until Jr. Engineer/Section Engineer/Sr. Section
Engineer (Signal) concerned has arranged for the protection of the road traffic by the concerned department and the work shall be
carried out under proper disconnection.

14.3.9 Sectional Signal engineer shall maintain a register indicating details of each class of level crossing gate in regard to its location,
number, type of gate provided, provision of communication, interlocking arrangement, provision of approach warning and flash lights
etc., pertaining to his section. A statement in regard to the above should be submitted on first January and first July every year, to the
Sr. Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer/Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer.

14.3.10 Maintenance Schedule as laid down in Annexure-11 shall be followed. This may be modified by CSTE of the Railway to suit local
needs.

Annexure10
Annexure 11
CHAPTER-XV
CABLES
15.1 General
. Part I Cables
. SECTION 'A' - REQUIREMENTS
15.2 Types of cables
15.3 Planning
15.4 Laying cable above ground
15.5 Cable laid underground
15.6 Laying of cable in ducts
15.7 Laying of different type of cable in same duct
15.8 Laying of other department cable
15.9 Storing & transportation of cable
. SECTION 'B' – INSTALLATION
15.10 Paying out & testing the cable
15.11 to 15.13 Laying
15.14 Cable crossing
15.15 Cable markers
15.16 Precaution to be taken while carrying the cable
15.17 Excavation of trenches
15.18 Back filling of the trench
15.19 Earth of the trench
15.20 Laying near to sleeper
15.21 Cable Joints
15.22 Supervision of cable laying
. SECTION 'C' – MAINTENANCE
15.23 Testing of cables
15.24 Earth leakage detectors
15.25 Cable termination devices
15.26 Excavation in the vicinity of underground signalling cable
15.27 Inspection of protective work
. Part II Overhead Lines
Annexure 12 Instruction for insulation resistance testing of signalling cable
Annexure13 (Left blank intentionally)

CHAPTER -XV

CABLES

15.1 GENERAL

Railway signalling circuits should normally be carried on cables. Overhead lines may be used on branch lines. For new works, signalling
circuits shall only be carried on cables. In 25 KV AC electrified areas, overhead lines shall not be used.

PART I - CABLES SECTION 'A' - REQUIREMENTS

15.2 TYPE OF CABLES

Cables used for carrying signalling, circuits shall conform to relevant approved specification. The conductors used shall be of annealed
copper and of approved size.

Power cable used for carrying power supply for signalling circuits shall conform to relevant approved specification. The size of conductor
shall be so selected as to suit the electrical load.

15.3 PLANNING

15.3.1 While planning for cabling on a route, the number of conductors required, depending upon the circuits should be first determined.
Recommended core sizes as per specifications shall be used.

15.3.2 Adequate spare conductors to a minimum of 20% of the total conductors used shall be provided for in each main cable up to the
farthest point zone, beyond this there should be a minimum of 10% spare conductors of the total conductors used. No spare conductors
are required if the total number of conductors used is 3 or less. The spare conductors shall be provided on the outermost layer.

15.3.3 Where a number of cables have been laid along a route, the circuits shall be so distributed that cables can be disconnected for
maintenance purpose with the least possible dislocation to traffic. Line wise and, if necessary; function wise cable shall be provided.
Auxiliary signals shall be taken in different cables.

15.3.4 After deciding the size and the number of conductors in the different types of cables to be used on a route, a foot survey along
the track should be done to determine the best route for the cable.

15.3.5 The route shall be shown clearly on a cable route plan showing the actual alignment of track, giving offsets from permanent way
or permanent structures. The diagram should indicate the various road and track crossings, crossing with power cables, water and
sewage mains and other points of importance. It is preferable to chart the route on a route plan on which the existing routes of power
cables, etc. are shown. Changes if any should be incorporated in the chart/plan.

15.3.6 Cable route plan shall also be approved by Engineering and Electrical department.

15.3.7 As far as possible low lying areas, platform copings, drainages, hutments, rocky terrains, points and crossings, should be avoided

15.3.8 Separate cables of suitable size shall be laid for point operation.

15.4 LAYING CABLES ABOVE GROUND

Signalling cables for out door circuits should not normally be laid above ground. In exceptional cases where it becomes unavoidable, the
following precautions should be taken.

i) The cable should be suspended in wooden cleats, from cable hangers or in any other approved manner so that no mechanical damage
occurs to the cable even under exposed condition.

ii) The cable supports shall be so spaced as to avoid sag.

iii) In station yards, cable shall be laid in ducts suitably protected.

iv) Indoor signalling cable should normally be laid on ladders, channels or in any other approved manner. The cables should be neatly
tied/laced.

Note: In AC electrified areas cables shall be laid underground only. For laying cables in RE area instructions laid down in chapter XXII of
SEM shall also be followed.

15.5 CABLES LAID UNDERGROUND

Cables may be laid underground, either in the trench, in ducts, in cement troughs, in pipes or in any other approved manner.

15.6 LAYING THE CABLES IN DUCTS

15.6.1 RCC, masonry or any other approved type of ducts may be used for laying the cable.
15.6.2 The ducts shall have suitable covers.

15.6.3 The ducts shall be of such design as to prevent water collecting in the duct.

15.6.4 When cables are laid in rocky area, it is desirable to protect them with split RCC ducts of suitable design.

15.6.5 Where it is necessary to take the cable between the tracks, it shall be carried in trunking kept sufficiently below the ballast level.

15.7 Where several cables of different categories have to be laid in the same trench, they shall be placed as far as possible in the
following order starting from the main track side, so that in the event of failures, the maintenance staff may easily recognise the
damaged cables.

i) Telecommunication cable

ii) Signalling cable

iii) Power cable

15.8 Cables belonging to the Posts & Telegraphs Department or the Electrical Department must not be laid in the same trench along with
Signal & Telecommunication cables. A distance of approximately 10 cm must be maintained between telecommunication cable and
signalling cables. The signalling cables must be separated from power cables by a row of bricks between them.

15.9 STORING AND TRANSPORTATION OF CABLE.

15.9.1 Cable drums shall not be stacked on flat side. Suitable stoppers shall be placed for stability.

15.9.2 Cable drums shall have easy access for lifting and moving.

15.9.3 When rolling the cable drum either for unloading or transportation, the drum shall always be rotated in the direction of the 'arrow'
which is marked on the drum.

15.9.4 The drums shall not be rolled over objects that could cause damage to the protective battens of the cable.

15.9.5 When unloading is carried out from the vehicle the drum shall not be dropped on the ground directly to avoid damage due to
impact. Fork lifter or ramp shall be used.

15.9.6 During all stages of storage, it is essential that the ends of the cable are effectively sealed by end cap or in any other approved
manner to avoid water entry into the cable.

15.9.7 It is desirable that cable drums are stored in covered shed to protect against direct exposure to sun.

SECTION 'B' INSTALLATION


15.10 PAYING OUT AND TESTING THE CABLE

15.10.1 For paying out cables, the cable drums shall be mounted on cable wheels. It should be ensured that no kink is formed while
paying out the cable.

15.10.2 The drum on the wheel shall be brought to one end of the trench and the end of the cable freed and the cable shall be laid along
the trench.

15.10.3 A party of labourers shall move along the trench carrying cable at suitable intervals so that cable is not damaged due to
dragging along the ground or bent unduly.

15.10.4 Before the cable is laid in the trench, a visual inspection of cable shall be made to see that there is no damage to the cable. It
shall be tested for insulation and continuity of the cores. Thereafter the cable shall be laid into the trench. Record of insulation and loop
resistant must be maintained.

15.10.5 In cases where the wheels are not available, the drum shall be mounted on an axle at one end of the trench and cable paid out
and carried by labourers.

15.10.6 In no case, shall the drum be rolled off on to the road for laying the cable and the cable dragged on the ground for laying
purposes.

15.10.7 Whenever mechanized equipment is used, the work shall be carried out by a trained operator under the supervision of
SSE/SE/JE (Signal) incharge of the work.

15.10.8 Where the cable drum is in damaged condition the cable may be placed on a horizontal revolving platform and the cable paid
out in the same manner as given in paras above.

15.10.9 Paying out of cable should be done by rotating the cable drum and not by pulling the cable with excessive force.

15.11 LAYING

Cables shall be laid generally as per instructions given in this chapter. However, special precautions to be taken in the station yards etc
where a number of other utilities may be existing, may be detailed in a joint circular issued by the Civil Engineering, Signalling and
Electrical Department (where applicable) of the Railway.

15.12 The cable laid parallel to the track shall normally be buried at a depth of 0.80 meters from ground level. While those laid across
the track must be 1.0 metre below the rail flanges. However, in case of rocky soil, the depth may be reduced suitably. When it concerns
the laying of tail cables which serve the track apparatus etc the depth should not be less than 0.50 metres. In theft prone areas the
cables may be laid at a depth of 1.2 m with anchoring at every 10m.

15.13 The width of manually made cable trenches should commensurate with number of cables. The minimum width shall be kept as 0.3
meters. The bottom of the cable trench should be levelled and got rid of any sharp materials. In the soft ground, the cable should be laid
at the bottom of the trench previously levelled. In the rocky ground, the cable should be laid on a layer of sand or sifted earth of 0.05
meter thickness previously deposited at the bottom of the trench. In both the above cases, the cable should be covered with a layer of
sand or sifted earth of 0.10 metre thickness and thereafter a protective cover of trough or a layer of bricks should be placed.

15.14 CABLE CROSSING

15.14.1 When a cable has to cross the track, is should be ensured that-

i) The cable crosses the track at right angles;

ii) The cable does not cross the track under points and crossings and

iii) The cable is laid in concrete / Gl / Cl / PVC pipes, suitable ducts or in any other approved manner while crossing the track.

15.14.2 Wherever practical, the cable may be taken underground across the drain bed at a suitable depth for crossing small culverts
with low flood level.

15.14.3 When cables have to cross a metallic bridge, they should be placed inside a metallic trough which may be filled, as an anti-theft
measure, with sealing compound. The cable should be supported across the bridge in a manner which would involve minimum vibrations
to the cable and which will facilitate maintenance work. Adequate cable length to the extent of 2 to 3 meters shall be made available at
the approaches of bridge.

15.15 Cable markers wherever provided should be placed at suitable interval and at diversion points.

15.16 While laying the cables in accordance with the above instructions, the following instructions should be adhered to for the safety of
the track.

i) Outside the station limits, the cables should generally be laid at not less than 5.5 m from the centre of the nearest track.

ii) Within the station limits, the trenches shall preferably be dug at a distance of not less than 3 m from the centre of the track, width of
the trench being outside the 3m distance.

iii) At each end of the main cable an extra loop length of 6 to 8 m should be kept.

15.17 It is desirable that the excavation of the trenches is not done in long lengths and does not remain uncovered for long period. It is
preferable that cables are laid and refilling done on the same day.

15.18 Backfilling of the trenches should be done properly. The earth excavated shall be put back on the trench, rammed and
consolidated.

15.19 During excavation, the earth of the trenches should not be thrown on the ballast. The earth should be thrown by the side of the
trenches away from the track.
15.20 In places where cables are to be laid within 1 metre from sleeper end, digging beyond 0.50 meter shall be done in the presence of
an official from Engineering Department, and the laying of the cable and refilling of trench should be done with least delay.

15.21 Cable joints of approved type shall only be used.

15.22 The work shall be supervised at site personally by an official of the Signal and Telecommunication Department not below the rank
of a JE / SE / SSE (Signal).

SECTION 'C - MAINTENANCE

15.23 TESTING OF CABLES

15.23.1 All conductors in signalling cables must be tested for their insulation in dry weather every year as per instructions in annexure
'12'. A comparison of the test results between successive tests carried on a cable under similar conditions will give an indication of the
trend towards deterioration of the insulating material over a period of time. If a sudden fall in insulation is observed, the cause should be
investigated and immediate steps taken up to repair or replace the cable.

15.23.2 In addition to the regular testing of cables in dry weather, random tests in wet weather may also be carried out, where
considered necessary, to localise any sudden deterioration in insulation of cables.

15.24 EARTH LEAKAGE DETECTORS

The use of this device is desirable in all electrical signalling installations, such as Route Relay Interlocking, panel interlocking, centralized
traffic control and SSI.

15.25 All cables termination devices, pillar boxes, cable heads and glands shall be kept clean and dry. These parts shall be frequently
inspected and any tendency for moisture or water leak shall be immediately attended to.

15.26 No excavation in the vicinity of underground signal cables shall be undertaken without a representative of the signal &
telecommunication department being present and without taking suitable precautions for the safety of the staff. Suitable instructions in
this regard shall be issued by the Railway in the Joint circular as stipulated in para 15.11.

15.27 The protective works provided for the cables at places like track crossings, culverts, bridges etc shall be regularly inspected by the
maintenance staff. Special attention being paid to these protective works soon after the monsoon.

PART II - OVERHEAD LINES

The requirements, installation practices and maintenance of Overhead lines carrying signalling circuits shall be in accordance with and be
followed as laid down for telecom circuits and detailed in IR Telecom Manual.

Annexure 12
Para 15.23.1

INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSULATION RESISTANCE TESTING OF SIGNALLING CABLE

1.1 General
These instructions apply only to cables used for Railway Signalling and do not cover open line wires and internal wiring.

1.2 Insulation Resistance tests should be made in such a manner that safe operation of trains is not affected. It should be ensured that
no unsafe conditions are set up by the application of test equipment.

1.3 All conductors in signalling cables must be tested for their insulation at the time of commissioning and thereafter in dry weather
every year preferably during the same part of the year.

1.4 The insulation resistance tests should be made when conductors, cables and insulated parts are clean and dry.

1.5 In addition to regular testing of the cables in dry weather, random tests in wet weather may also be carried out where considered
necessary.

1.6 The conductors of the cables possess appreciable electrostatic capacity and may accumulate electrostatic charge. The cable
conductors should be shorted or earthed to completely discharge any accumulated charge (i) before connecting the insulation tester while
commencing the test (ii) before the insulation tester is disconnected when the test is completed. This is in the interest of safety of
personnel and protection of equipment

1.7 A 500V insulation tester should be used for insulation testing. The fact that the cable has capacitance means that it has to be
discharged before a measurement of the insulation resistance can be made. The insulation resistance should therefore be recorded after
the test voltage has been applied for one minute or so when the indicator of the insulation tester shows a steady reading.

1.8 Any metallic sheath or metal work of any rack or apparatus case should be bonded to earth during test.

PROCEDURE

2.1 Disconnect all cores of a cable at both ends. The disconnection may be made through links of ARA terminals, if provided.

2.2 Connect one terminal of the insulation tester to the conductor under test and other terminal to all the other conductors being
bunched together and connected to earth.

2.3 Similarly test remaining conductors of the cable one by one as in 2.2

2.4 Insulation Resistance so measured should not be less than 5 mega ohms per kilometer at buried temperature. If the insulation
resistance is found to be lower than 5 mega ohms, the cause should be investigated and immediate steps taken to repair or replace the
cable to prevent any malfunctioning of the equipment and circuits.
2.5 The results of the insulation resistance tests should be recorded in approved proforma. A comparison of test results between
successive tests carried out on a cable under similar conditions will give an indication of the trend towards deterioration of the insulation
resistance of the cable. If sudden fall in the insulation resistance is observed the cause should be investigated and immediate steps taken
to repair or replace the cable.
CHAPTER-XVI
POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS
16.1 General
16.2 Sources of Power Supply
16.3 Distribution of Power Supply
16.4 Power Supply Equipment
16.5 Installation of Primary Cells
16.6 Installation of Secondary Cells
16.7 Installation of Power Supply Equipment
16.8 Installation of DG Set
16.9 Maintenance of Primary Cells
16.10 Maintenance of Secondary Cells
16.11 Maintenance of Power Supply Equipment
16.12 Maintenance of DG Set
Annexure 14 Fuel consumption logbook
Annexure 15 Installation and maintenance instructions for self regulating battery charger as per IRS : S 86-2000
Annexure 16 Secondary battery history card
Annexure 17 (Left blank intentionally)

CHAPTER -XVI

POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS

16.1 GENERAL

16.1.1 Power supply arrangements for different types of signalling installations shall be in accordance with policy approved by the Chief
Signal and Telecommunication Engineer of the Railway.

16.1.2 Primary cells may be used for signalling circuits where either there is no power supply or it is very unreliable and the current
drawn is small. Wherever possible solar panel (s) in conjunction with secondary cells of suitable capacity may be provided.

16.1.3 At all other locations, Secondary Batteries of appropriate capacity shall be provided for signalling circuits.

16.1.4 Normal power supply for signalling installations shall be 230V AC (single phase) 415 AC three phase or any other supply may be
used with the specific approval of the Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer of the Railway to meet any specific requirements.

16.1.5 Power supply system shall be such that fixed stop signals for approaching train do not become blank when main power supply
source fails.

16.2 SOURCES OF POWER SUPPLY

16.2.1 Railway Electrified Area.

16.2.1.1 Electric supply for signalling and telecommunication installations in RE areas shall normally be provided through auxiliary
transformers (ATs) of suitable capacity by tapping 25KV OHE.

16.2.1.2 On double/multi line sections, the power supply shall be drawn from 25KV OHE through ATs provided on up and down OHE lines
separately. It shall be ensured that supply from at least one AT is available in the event of power block.

16.2.1.3 On single line section where power supply is drawn from a single AT, a DG set of suitable capacity shall be installed.

16.2.1.4 At stations where local power supply is also available, it shall act a stand-by source of power supply.

16.2.1.5 In big yards, DG sets of adequate capacity shall be installed in addition to supply from ATs and local source.

16.2.1.6 The power supply from auxiliary transformers (ATs), local source and DG set (s) shall be brought and terminated at a power
supply control panel in ASM's office/cabin or at LC gate as required. The power supply control panel shall be provided with the facilities
for automatic change over between two ATs. In addition, manual change over facility shall also be provided in the control panel. The
power supply control panel, cable (other than from DG room) and other associated arrangements shall be provided and maintained by
Electrical Deptt.

16.2.1.7 The supply from the power supply control panel as provided by Electrical Deptt. shall be taken to various S&T locations by S&T
Deptt.

16.2.1.8 The supply from the power supply control panel shall be extended through separate MCBs to cabins, LC gates, telecom
installations etc. if these are falling within two kms of power supply control panel. For location beyond two kms, a separate set of ATs and
power supply control panel shall be provided.

16.2.1.9 DG sets where installed shall be provided with push button start/stop facility from ASM office/ cabin/LC gate as the case may
be.

16.2.2 Non Railway Electrified Area

16.2.2.1 For Colour Light Signalling (CLS) installations, power supply shall be drawn from the station feeder. In addition, two standby
diesel generators shall be installed. These generators should be of standard make and of adequate capacity for reliable and trouble free
service.
16.2.2.2 The output supply of these generators shall be brought to the ASM office and connected to Auto/manual change-over Panel.

16.2.2.3 Solar panels or other renewable source of energy may also be used as power supply.

16.3 DISTRIBUTION OF POWER SUPPLY

16.3.1 The selected supply from the Auto/manual change-over panel shall be distributed to installations/cabins at the station through
underground power cables of approved type. Proper capacity HRC fuses/Miniature circuit breakers (MCBs) shall be provided to protect
against overload/short circuits.

16.3.2 Visual Indications showing availability of power supplies from various feeders shall be provided for information of the ASM.

16.3.3 230V power which is derived from the auto/manual change-over panel shall be distributed to various power equipments such as
transformer-rectifier sets, battery chargers, transformers etc. through a Distribution Panel. Proper capacity HRC fuses/MCBs shall be
provided for protection of the equipment against overload etc.

16.4 POWER SUPPLY EQUIPMENT

16.4.1 All power supply equipment such as battery chargers, transformers, voltage regulators, transformer-rectifier sets, inverters,
batteries etc. shall be procured as per approved specifications.

16.4.2 Battery chargers for axle counters shall have in-built filters to maintain ripple content below specified value.

16.4.3 Standby power equipment such as battery chargers, transformers, Voltage regulators, Transformer-Rectifier Sets etc may be
provided.

16.4.4 Secondary cells of prescribed capacities shall be provided for DC circuits. DC-DC converters with isolated outputs may be used to
obtain different voltages from a common Battery-bank.

16.4.5 Integrated power supply system of approved type may be used at CLS installations

16.4.6 Maintenance free cells wherever provided shall be used only with charger suitable for charging maintenance free cells as per
approved specification

16.4.7 AC supply for signal transformers shall be derived from a voltage regulator of approved type.

16.4.8 Separate transformer shall be used for feeding signals and track feed chargers.

16.4.9 The current rating of battery charger may be derived from the following formula -

Current rating of charger = Load current + AH capacity of cell 10


16.4.10 Battery Chargers shall not directly feed the line circuit of Block Instruments.

16.4.11 For operating signal machines of semaphore signals and for their lighting, solar power packs of approved type may be used as
far as possible.

16.5 INSTALLATION OF PRIMARY CELLS

16.5.1 Primary cells of approved type may be used in circuits such as those indicated below which do not involve continuous and heavy
intermittent discharge:-

a) Electric Key Transmitters;

b) Arm & Light Repeaters;

c) Repeater Circuits;

d) Track/Treadle Circuits (Open type);

e) Single Line Block Instruments - line and local circuits;

f) Double Line Block Instruments - line and local circuits;

g) Tokenless Block Instruments - line circuits;

h) Magneto Phones and annunciators.

16.5.2 Primary cells shall be stored in a cool dry place. The period of storage shall be no longer than absolutely necessary.

16.5.3 When installing primary cells, they shall be located in a dry place which is not subject to extreme heat. For connecting cells,
stranded insulated wires of appropriate gauge shall be used. The ends should be skinned and scraped bright to make good connection
with cell terminals. Terminals should be firmly tightened. The connected wires shall be neatly dressed.

16.5.4 The date of installation shall be marked on each cell.

16.6 INSTALLATION OF SECONDARY CELLS

16.6.1 Lead acid cells of an approved type shall be used. The cells shall be installed as per approved drawings

16.6.2 The batteries shall be installed in separate room/apparatus case to avoid damage to power equipment due to fumes. The battery
room shall be provided with acid proof flooring and acid proof tiles on walls up to a suitable height. The battery room shall be well
ventilated and provided with exhaust fan (s).
16.6.3 The batteries shall be so installed that they are away from direct rays of sun and any heat radiating equipment.

16.6.4 The batteries shall be installed on wooden racks /insulated masonry surface of suitable height to permit easy access for
maintenance. The racks shall be protected by two or more coats of acid resistant paint of approved type. The racks shall be level and
mounted on approved type of insulators. Where batteries are housed in location boxes, these housings shall be painted with acid
resistant paint and shall have suitable openings/holes for ventilation.

16.6.5 The batteries shall be kept properly aligned and suitably numbered. An adequate clearance shall be kept between the cells.

16.6.6 Initial charging of the batteries shall be done as per instructions of the manufacturer and the date of charging shall be suitably
painted on the batteries, or on a separate board kept near the batteries.

16.6.7 Battery grade dilute sulphuric acid conforming to IS 266 and distilled or de-mineralised water conforming to IS 1069 shall only be
used as electrolyte.

16.6.8 A glass, porcelain, rubber or any other acid proof container shall only be used for mixing acid and water. Metal utensils except
lead must not be used as these will contaminate the electrolyte.

16.6.9 Always acid shall be added to water. During mixing, the solution must be stirred constantly so that its temperature does not
exceed 50° C.

16.6.10 On receipt of charged secondary cells, the vent Plugs shall be removed and the height of the electrolyte shall be noted. If it is
below the prescribed level, the loss may be due to spillage during transit. The level of the electrolyte can be restored by adding battery
grade acid of recommended specific gravity.

16.6.11 A hydrometer of approved type shall be available in the battery room.

16.6.12 At the time of installation, capacity test shall be done and record shall be maintained.

16.7 INSTALLATION OF POWER SUPPLY EQUIPMENT

16.7.1 The power supply equipment shall be so installed as to facilitate easy replacement of equipment without affecting the other
circuits as far as possible. It is desirable to provide ring main type of power supply arrangement at large stations.

16.7.2 Transformers and battery chargers of adequate capacity and of air-cooled type shall be provided.

16.7.3 Power equipment shall be housed in well ventilated locations/rooms.

16.7.4 Wires connecting equipment shall be of adequate size so that there is not more than 0.5% loss in voltage.

16.7.5 Battery leads shall be colour coded and cut to correct length. They shall be crimped/soldered to appropriate terminal.

16.7.6 Installation and Maintenance instructions for self regulating battery charger as per IRS:S:86-2000 are given in Annexure 15.
Initial installation shall be done by an official not below the rank of SSE/SE (Signal).

16.8 INSTALLATION OF DG SET

16.8.1 DG sets shall be installed in a separate room of adequate size with proper ventilation.

16.8.2 The diesel generator set shall be mounted on anti-vibration pads.

16.8.3 The exhaust pipe shall be extended outside the generator room and the silencer fixed away from the premises. Exhaust pipe shall
be appropriately insulated.

16.8.4 . The starting battery shall be of adequate capacity to meet the starting load. Where automatic
start has been provided, the generator once started should stop only with a time delay after Main supply is resumed.

16.8.5 The connection between the battery and the DG Set shall be through sufficiently thick wire to avoid drop in voltage.

16.8.6 The starting battery shall normally be on trickle charge.

16.9 MAINTENANCE OF PRIMARY CELLS

16.9.1 Each cell shall be tested individually with a load of 10 ohm resistance and if the voltage of cell falls below 0.85V, then the cell
shall be discarded. The voltmeter used for this purpose shall have the sensitivity of not less than 1000 ohms per volt.

16.10 MAINTENANCE OF SECONDARY CELLS

16.10.1 Maintenance tests and repair work on the cells, which may interfere with safe operation of trains shall not be started until
movements are fully protected. Temporary repairs or adjustments shall be made in such a manner that safety of train operation is not
impaired when repairs and or adjustments are made: Tests shall be immediately carried out to ensure that the connected apparatus
functions satisfactorily.

16.10.2 The battery room and location boxes shall be kept well ventilated, free from water, oil or dust. Surroundings and batteries shall
be kept clean.

16.10.3 Connecting cables shall be flexible and sufficiently long to prevent strain on the battery terminals.

16.10.4 The electrical connection shall always be kept tight.

16.10.5 The terminals and connections shall be coated with pure Vaseline or petroleum jelly to prevent corrosion. Grease shall not be
used.

16.10.6 The Electrolyte shall be maintained at the correct level by topping up as often as necessary with distilled or demineralised water.

16.10.7 Electrolyte lost due to spillage shall be replaced with proper amount of electrolyte of the same specific gravity as that of other
cells of the battery. Electrolyte shall not be added in any other circumstances.

16.10.8 Each cell shall be tested periodically and its cleaning and charging arranged so that its voltage and specific gravity are within
specified limits. Test results and dates of cleaning and charging adjustments shall be recorded on the Battery History Card No. S&T/BCP-
Annexure 16. A separate card shall be maintained for each battery set. The voltage of individual cell shall not fall below 1.85 volts.

16.11 MAINTENANCE OF POWER SUPPLY EQUIPMENT

16.11.1 The Change-over panel in ASM office shall be kept in good working condition. Defects, if any, shall be promptly rectified.

16.11.2 The working of standby voltage regulator, transformer, battery charger, rectifier, inverters etc., provided in power equipment
room shall be checked including proper working of switches, fuses, MCBs, terminals, meters etc. during scheduled maintenance. Units
shall be switched from active to standby as per local instructions.

16.11.3 The power equipment shall be cleaned by blower or any other suitable device to remove dust etc.

16.11.4 The wiring shall be checked to ensure that wires are in good condition and connections are properly tightened.

16.11.5 Record of voltages and load current of all power equipment shall be maintained. Remedial action shall be taken in case any
abnormality is observed.

16.11.6 Insulation of transformers shall be meggered at 500V annually.

16.12 MAINTENANCE OF DG SET

16.12.1 Fuel tank shall be cleaned periodically. Fuel shall be filled through a wire gauze filter which shall form part of fuel tank. Before
filling up, unused fuel shall be decanted/replaced if the DG set has been idle for a considerable time.

16.12.2 Lubricating oil shall be periodically checked and proper level maintained.

16.12.3 The maintenance of DG set shall be undertaken by qualified and trained Mechanics.

16.12.4 After 1000 hours of run, the diesel generator sets shall be overhauled. It is preferable to have them overhauled by the
manufacturer or his authorised representative.

16.12.5 Leakage of fuel oil, lubricating oil and radiator water shall be effectively checked.

16.12.6 Radiator fan shaft shall be grease lubricated and worn out shafts replaced. Radiator hose and fuel oil hose shall be checked for
leakage and replaced in time.

16.12.7 Automatic Starting Device, where provided, shall be tested periodically for effective starting during power failures and low
voltage condition.
16.12.8 Flexible coupling between the engine and the alternator shall be checked for elongated holes and replaced in time.

16.12.9 The no load and on load voltages of the alternator shall be maintained within limits and the Governor adjusted during periodic
maintenance to the RPM specified and a steady output of 50 Hz. The DG set shall be run for 5-10 minutes on load to verify its proper
working during periodic maintenance check.

16.12.10 A log book shall be maintained at every location which shall bear the history of performance and maintenance of DG set
together with the signatures of the Maintainers and SE (Signal).

16.12.11 Wherever auto start is not reliable, the same shall be disconnected and steps taken for manual start/hand cranking of the
generator during power failure and also to stop the engine as soon as power supply resumes. Steps shall be taken to rectify the auto
start as early as possible.

16.12.12 Adequate number of spares in respect of the following items shall be kept ready with the SE (Signal) for speedy maintenance
replacements:

1) Fuel Filter;
2) Oil Filter;
3) Fuel Pipe;
4) Pressure Pipe;
5) Air cleaner;
6) Nozzle;
7) Ring set;
8) Fan Belt;
9) Grease;
10) Lubricating Oil; &
11) Cotton waste 'A' grade

16.12.13 Maintenance of Fuel Account

16.12.13.1 Where standby generators are provided at way side stations for signalling purposes and starting and stopping the standby
engine is done by Traffic Staff, suitable instructions for maintenance of fuel account shall be issued locally. The log book shall be
maintained by the ASM (Annexure 14).

Annexure 14

Para 16.12.13.1

_________Railway ___________Division

FUEL CONSUMPTION LOG BOOK


Page1

1. Name of Station:

2. Date of commissioning:

3. Location:

4. Description of Generator:

(Make, Capacity in KVA, Voltage, Power Factor, Speed in RPM, Frequency, No. of Phases, Type of Excitation etc.)

5. Description of Engine:

(Make, BHP, Speed in RPM, No. of Cylinders, Capacity of Fuel Tank, Fuel, Standard rate of consumption, Type of start).

Page2

Date Time of Start Time of close Hours worked Fuel filled in litres Signature
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .

.
Annexure 15

Para 16.7.6

INSTALLATION AND MAINTANANCE INSTRUCTIONS FOR SELF REGULATING BATTERY CHARGER AS PER IRS : S 86 - 2000

(A) Output current rating less than 50 A

Various Front panel controls, switches and indications are given in Sketch No. SDO/CH/ 009 enclosed.

1 INITIAL COMMISSIONING
1.1 Auto Mode Working

a) Connect Earth terminal (#8) to earth. After connecting the 230V AC mains to input terminals at the back of the charger, Switch ON the
unit by changing the ON/OFF Switch (# 5) to "ON" position. Indication Mains ON (green LED) will glow.

b) Set the Mode selector switch in "Auto" position provided inside the charger.

c) Since there is no battery connected across the battery terminals, the charger will come in Auto Float mode immediately. Indication
Auto Float will glow. Adjust the Float voltage to 2.15V/Cell. (25.8V for a 24V charger/12.9V for 12V charger) by adjusting Voltage control
pot provided on the Control PCB inside the charger.

d) Current control potentiometer is provided on the control card PCB inside the charger to adjust the output battery current of the battery
charger as per actual battery current requirement. The control will permit the continuous variation from 25% to 100% of the rated
current. These correspond to 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the rated output current. The current across battery terminals should not
exceed 10 % of AH capacity of the battery (i.e. C10 rate of charging). The use of current control pot. is explained by the following,
example.

Example
Sometimes a higher current rating battery charger is used at site for charging a lower AH capacity batteries. For example, only 10A rating
charger is required for charging 40AH battery set (Clause 1.4, Note 1 of the spec.) However, If 20A rating charger is connected to a 40AH
battery set, the Current Control pot. shall be adjusted to "50%" of the rated value therefore the rating of the charger becomes 10A. As
long as the Current control pot. remains at 50% position the total output current of the charger ( Load current + Battery current) will not
exceed 10A. Therefore overcharging of batteries can be avoided by making use of the Current control pot.

If the AH capacity of the batteries is matching with the charger output current rating (Clause 1.4, Note 1 of the spec), the Current Control
pot shall be kept at "100% position"

e) Connect batteries across the battery terminals (#9). With mode selector switch in Auto mode, the charger is in "Auto float mode". But
if the current drawn by the batteries changes by more than 8 to 12% of the set current, the charger automatically changes to " Auto
Boost Mode" and its output voltage changes to 2.4 V/cell (28.8V in case of 24V charger and 14.4V in case of 12V charger). It comes back
to "Auto float mode" when the current drawn across battery terminals drops down to less than 5% of C10 rate and battery voltage builds
upto 2.4V/Cell. This happens after the batteries have almost got fully charged.

f) In this mode of working Manual Voltage Selector switch (#4) is ineffective and therefore need not be touched.

1.2 Manual Mode

a) Connect Earth terminal (#8) to earth. After connecting the 230V AC mains to input terminals at the back of the charger, Switch ON the
unit by changing the ON/OFF Switch (#5) to "ON" position., Indication Mains ON (green LED) will glow.

b) Change Mode selector switch provided inside the charger to manual position. The charger comes into manual mode and indication
amber LED glows.
c) Change manual voltage selector switch (#4) to first, second or third position as per the No. of cells connected to the charger.

d) Connect the load across the load terminal, the output voltage should be 2.25V per cell with the load connected across the load
terminal.

e) Initial setting in manual mode is to be done by the SSE/SE (Signal) depending on the load connected. ESM of the station should
closely monitor the battery charger as per instructions of the SSE/SE (Signal)

f) Manual mode is to be used when "Auto mode" fails. Manual mode is an unregulated mode where the output voltage changes with
change in AC input voltage, and output load. Therefore, the maintainer should keep a watch so that batteries are not overcharged.

2 PROTECTIONS AND INDICATIONS

[ To be checked at the time of initial installation ]

a) Indication Mains ON (green LED) appears as soon as ON/OFF switch is switched "ON".

b) When in auto mode, indications Auto Float or Auto Boost will appear depending on whether the charger is in Auto float or Auto boost
mode.

c) Switch ON the charger in Auto mode and short the load terminals. Short circuit indication should glow and charger output becomes
zero. If short circuit is removed, the indication extinguishes and the charger gives the required output without any other adjustment. The
charger should not trip.

3. ROUTINE OPERATION (BY ESM)

a) Normally the charger will be working in Auto mode. Once it is initially commissioned in "Auto Mode" by the SSE/SE (Signal), no
adjustment is required to be done by ESM.

b) Change over to Manual mode

i) When "Auto mode" fails, the Mode Selector Switch provided inside the charger shall be turned to Manual position.

ii) Manual Voltage Selector Switch (#4) may be kept in position 1,2 or 3 depending on load/battery charging requirement.

iii) Failure of Auto mode will be immediately informed to SE (Signal), who in turn will check up the charger as soon as possible.

4. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE

a) During the visit of ESM on duty to the station, he must check the front panel of the battery charger for correctness of the indications.
The indications displayed must be in conformity with the mode in which the charger is working. If not so , he must refer to para 3 above,
changeover the battery charger to manual mode and report the failure to SE (Signal)
b) The ESM will check the tightness of the connections to battery and load terminals on the front panel and tighten the same if found
loose.

c) If everything is normal and indications on the charger front panel are in conformity with the mode of working, the ESM shall not
disturb the control switches of the charger.

(B) Output current rating more than 50A

Additional protections and indications are provided for chargers of output ratings 50A and above. These are -

a) Fuses

i) Rectifiers/SCR fuse

ii) Condenser fuse

b) Alarms (Audio & Visual)

i) Main fuse blown

ii) Output fuse blown

iii) SCR/Rectifier fuse blown

iv) Overload/Short circuit

v) Condenser fuse blown

The installation & commissioning procedure is same as that for the charger of current rating less than 50A. There is an additional audio
alarm resetting switch/ button on the front panel which is required to be pressed by the ESM on duty to silence the buzzer/hooter. The
visual indication will continue till the fuse is replaced or the fault rectified.
Annexure 16
CHAPTER-XVII
TRACK CIRCUITS AND AXLE COUNTERS
. I. TRACK CIRCUITS
. A. REQUIREMENTS
17.1 Types of Track Circuits
17.2 Minimum Length
17.3 Series connection of tracks
17.4 Track relays
17.5 Permanent way requirements of track circuits
. B. INSTALLATION
17.6 Location of track relays
17.7 Loading of track relay contacts
17.8 Jumper connections
17.9 Lead Wires
17.10 Bond Wires and Rope Wires
17.11 Track Circuit Termination
17.12 Cut Section (fed over) arrangement of Track Circuits
17.13 Insulated Rail Joints
17.14 Track Indicators
17.15 DC Track Circuits
17.16 AC 50Hz/ 83.33 Hz Track Circuits
17.17 AC 50 Hz Track Circuits with Vane type Relays
17.18 AC 50Hz/ 83 -1 Hz Track Circuits with Motor type Relays
17.19 Audio frequency Track Circuits
17.20 High Voltage Impulse Track Circuits
. C. MAINTENANCE
17.21 General
17.22 Track Relays
17.23 Insulated Rail Joints
17.24 Detection of faulty insulated joint
17.25 Stretcher Bars and Point Rodding Connections
17.26 Bond Wires/Rope Wires
17.27 Jumper Connections
17.28 Ballast
17.29 Drainage
17.30 Joint Inspection of Track by S&T and Permanent Way Inspector
17.31 Train Shunt
17.32 Track Circuit Test Record Card
17.33 Track Batteries/Track Feed Apparatus
17.34 Limiting Reactance of AC track circuit
17.35 Measurement of Phase Angle of AC track circuit
17.36 Raking out of cinders
17.37 Rusty Rails
. II AXLE COUNTERS
. A. REQUIREMENTS
17.38 to 17.42 Composition, application

. B. INSTALLATION

17.43 Installation of track devices and trolley protection track circuit

17.44 to 17.47 Resetting of axle counter

17.48 Protection for axle counter block working

17.49 Fixing of double rail mounted track device

. C. MAINTENANCE

17.50 to 17.53 Maintenance instructions and practices

Annexure 18 Centralization of DC shelf type track relays

Annexure19 Track circuit test record card

Annexure 20 Track circuit test card

Annexure 21 Maintenance card - Jeumont track circuit


Annexure 22 Maintenance Instructions for Axle Counter

Annexure 23 (Left blank Intentionally)

CHAPTER XVII

TRACK CIRCUITS AND AXLE COUNTERS

I. TRACK CIRCUITS

A Requirements

17.1 Types of Track circuits

17.1.1 A closed type track circuit shall be provided to prove the clearance of rail track.

17.1.2 Double rail track circuits shall be provided on non-RE areas, as far as practicable. Single rail or double rail type as convenient may
be provided in RE areas.

17.2 Minimum Length

The length of a track circuit shall not be less than the maximum wheel base of any vehicle. Except in marshalling Yards, the Track circuits
shall cover at least two rail lengths.

17.3 Series connection of tracks

The various portions of tracks in a line shall, as far as possible, be connected in series.

17.4 Track relays shall be of an approved design.

17.5 Permanent Way Requirements of Track Circuits

17.5.1 Glued Joints or Insulation Joints of approved type shall be provided for defining boundary of track circuit. In all future works of
track circuiting, glued insulated joints should preferably be provided.

17.5.2 Insulated Joints wherever provided shall be maintained as square joints. Where staggering can not be avoided the distance
between staggered joints shall not exceed the minimum wheel base of the vehicles.

17.5.3 Rail ends of insulated joints shall be square and true. All rough edges and burrs shall be removed from bolt holes. Battered ends
shall be put right and the gap between the rails should be equal to the thickness of the end post.
17.5.4 Fish bolts at the joints must be kept tight and the sleepers well packed in the vicinity of the joints.

17.5.5 Proper drainage should be ensured so as to avoid flooding of tracks during rains, particularly in yards where watering of coaches
is done and in water columns and ash pits. It would be desirable to provide washable concrete aprons on platform lines at originating
stations, in track circuited areas.

17.5.6 Ballast shall be kept dean throughout the track-circuited section and care should be taken to see that the ballast is kept clear off
the rails and rail fastenings. The clearance from the foot of the rail should not be less than 50mm. Well screened ballast right up to the
formation level shall be provided.

17.5.7 Rail ends shall be kept free from brake-dust, dirt, sand, rust, other foreign materials etc. All rough edges and burrs at rail ends
must be removed.

17.5.8 To avoid crushing of end posts of insulated rail joints due to creep, at least one rail length on either side of insulated joint should
be provided with anti creep devices.

17.5.9 Rail screws should preferably be used in place of dog spikes at insulated joints.

Note : - The requirements mentioned in the paras 17.5.1 to 17.5.9 above are covered in the chapter II, Part "H" of Permanent Way
Manual.

17.5.10 Wooden sleepers, concrete sleepers or any other approved type of insulated sleepers shall be provided for track circuiting.
Concrete sleepers where used, shall have a minimum resistance of 500 ohms between insert-to-insert.

17.5.11 Where short welded rail panels are used, SWR shall not butt against insulated joint. Two rail lengths of 13 meters/12 meters
shall be interposed to isolate short welded rail from insulated joint. This standard length of rails shall be anchored effectively to arrest
movement in either direction.

17.5.12 In case of turnouts and crossings, insulated stretchers, insulated gauge tie plates and insulated crossing plates shall be provided
as per approved drawings.

17.5.13 GFN liners shall be provided in the track circuited area using concrete sleepers

B. Installation

17.6 Location of track relays

17.6.1 Track relays shall be located at the entering end of the track circuits wherever possible.

17.6.2 Where track relays cannot be located in the cabin, they shall be housed in locations of an approved type.
17.6.3 Where relays are likely to be subjected to vibration, they shall be mounted on shock absorbers such as rubber pad, foam etc.

17.6.4 Connections between the track relays and track repeating relays shall be made in accordance with the approved wiring diagram
and must invariably incorporate both cross protection and double cutting arrangements.

17.6.5 The feed and relay ends shall be connected by separate and individual cables.

17.6.6 Anti-tilting arrangement shall be provided for shelf type relays.

17.7 Loading of track relay contacts

All the contacts of the track relay shall be loaded as far as possible. Where spare contacts are available, they shall be connected in
parallel to the loaded contacts.

17.8 Jumper connections

17.8.1 Jumper connections shall normally be so made that the whole of track circuit is in series excluding traction return rail. When the
rails of a track circuit are in parallel, care shall be taken that the jumper connections are effective.

17.8.2 Jumper connections shall be so arranged that they are as far as possible protected from damage.

17.8.3 All connections to the track shall be of sufficient length and allow for rail creep. Connections shall be firmly fitted to the web of
the rail.

17.8.4 For short jumpers, galvanized iron wires and for long jumpers cables, may be used. Where galvanized iron jumper is used,
duplicate jumpers shall be run. Where cables are used, the size shall not be smaller than 7/0.750 mm.

17.9 Lead Wires

The lead wires used for connecting the feed set to the feed end boot leg/track lead JB and the track relay to the relay end boot leg/track
lead JB shall preferably be of copper conductor having a minimum cross section of 2.5 sq. mm.

17.10 Bond Wires and Rope Wires

17.10.1 Bond wires/Rope wires shall be of an approved type. Duplicate wires shall be installed close to the fish plate. It is desirable to
use bond wire clips for securing the bond wire.

17.10.2 Bond holes shall be drilled with a twist drill and the bonds driven-in immediately. The wires may be fixed by using channel pins
in the holes or by brazing/welding.

17.10.3 The resistance of rail and bonding per 1000 metres of track shall not exceed 0.5 ohm for track circuits longer than 700 metres.
A rail and bond resistance upto 1.5 ohm per 1000 metres of track may be allowed for length of track circuit less than 700 metres.
17.10.4 The rail bonding and connections to the relay and feed set shall be made according to approved drawings.

17.10.5 The lugs of impedance bond connections shall be firmly fixed by pressing rivets into the web of the rail with a bond press.

17.11 Track circuit termination

For track circuited points or lines in a station, track circuit termination shall be provided sufficiently before the Fouling Mark so as to avoid
infringement to the standard dimension by any portion of the vehicle. The distance between track circuit termination and Fouling Mark
shall not be less than 3.0 metres.

17.12 Cut Section (fed over) arrangement of Track Circuits

Where cut section track circuits are installed, the track relays concerned, when de-energized, shall open the track feed and shunt the
track circuit.

17.13 Insulated Rail Joints

17.13.1 All components of insulated joint shall be of approved type and shall conform to RDSO drawings. The components shall be
installed using correct sizes and combinations.

17.13.2 Insulated rail joints shall, as far as possible, not be provided on the outer rail in curves. Insulated rail joints are not required for
AFTC.

17.13.3 Before an insulated joint is installed, it shall be ensured that permanent way requirements stipulated in para 17.5 are complied
with. The installation of glued rail joints shall be done by Civil Engineering Department. The installation of Nylon insulated rail joints shall
be done in accordance with RDSO's booklet No.STS/E/IRJ/IMI - Installation and Maintenance Instructions for Nylon insulated rail joint.
Particular attention shall be paid to the following: -

17.13.3.1 Hammer driving offish-bolt shall be avoided, as this will damage nylon bushes. If the rail hole and the fishplate holes are in
their proper position and alignment, the fish bolt can be easily inserted by hand pressure.

17.13.3.2 If an end-post projects above the rail table at the rail ends, it shall be trimmed and brought to the level of the rail table,
specially when inserted between the worn-out rails, before first wheel of a train passes over it.

17.13.3.3 The insulated rail joint shall be installed at least one rail length in advance of the signal.

17.13.3.4 In the case of point track circuits, the insulation joint shall not be in the stock rail joint but in the rail joint ahead of it
wherever feasible.

17.13.4 Only 'J' type clip shall be used in glued joint portion of track.

17.14 Track Indicators


At track circuited stations where track indicators are provided, the following arrangements shall be made:

17.14.1 Panel Interlocked/Route Relay Interlocked Stations

a) Normally the track indicators would show no light when the line is unoccupied. When action is initiated to set the route for taking off a
signal and the concerned route is set, the track indicator light for the route shows Yellow/White, if unoccupied. However, if any portion of
the track circuited area is occupied, a "RED" indication is shown on the panel diagram, irrespective of the route being set or not.

b) The track indicators would show white/yellow light when the track is cleared after the intended movement is completed till the route
signal button or switch is restored to normal unless the panel interlocking/ route relay interlocking is provided with Automatic Route
Release facility in which case the indication would be lit until the sub route/sectional route/ route is released.

17.14.2 Other Stations

The indicator shall show yellow/white light when the line is unoccupied and RED when line is occupied.

17.15 DC Track Circuits

17.15.1 DC track relays of approved design shall be used.

17.15.2 Track Relays

(i) In non-electrified sections, the resistance of the shelf type track relay shall be 9 ohms, except that for track circuits of more than 100
metre laid on wooden sleepers, where it shall be 2.25 ohms.

(ii) In electrified areas shelf (9 ohm only) or plug in type AC immune relays shall be used,

(iii) In future installations, only plug in type track relays (4 or 9 ohm) shall be used.

Note-

1) For detailed instructions on track circuits in RE areas, Chapter XXII on "Special requirements of signalling in 25 kV AC electrified area"
may be referred.

2) For maximum length of track circuit under different track parameter conditions as given in para 17.15.5 may be referred.

17.15.3 Limiting resistance of D.C track circuits

The limiting resistance shall be adjustable and of an approved type.

17.15.4 Excitation of DC track relay


The relay shall be excited at minimum 125% of its rated pick up voltage under minimum ballast resistance condition and normal working
voltage of the supply. The maximum excitation shall not exceed 250% of the rated pickup value for shelf type relays and 300% for plug-
in type relays.

17.15.5 Maximum length of track circuits

Maximum length of track circuit under different track parameter conditions shall not exceed the limits as given in the following table.

Maximum length of track circuit under different track parameter conditions shall not exceed the limits as given in the table below:

17.15.6 Track feed

i) Approved type of primary cells or secondary cells shall be used for feeding track circuits,

ii) Where primary cells are used, two batteries in parallel shall be used.

iii) When secondary cell (s) is /are used, it shall be used along with battery charger/solar panel of adequate capacity.
iv) Separate feed shall be provided for each track circuit.

17.15.7 Centralization of shelf type track relays shall be done as per Annexure 18.

17.15.8 Q series track relay must be used in conjunction with Q series slow to pick up relay as a repeater relay.

17.16 AC 50 Hz/ 83.33 Hz track Circuits

17.16.1 50 Hz / 83.33 Hz. track circuits may be provided in DC traction areas and where there is likelihood of DC extraneous current
interfering with the track circuits. 83.33 track circuits may also be provided in AC electrified area.

17.16.2 The track circuits may be either single rail or double rail type. Note : At new installations, 83.33 Hz track circuits shall not be
used.

17.16.3 Track Relays

Vane type AC track relay of double element 2 position type conforming to BSS NO. 1745 or motor type track relays to approved
specifications may be used.

17.17 AC 50 Hz track circuits with Vane type relays

17.17.1 Power supply

The power supply shall be normally 110V 50 Hz and phase angle of about 80° between local . and control shall be obtained through a
reactor or condenser depending on the design of the relay.

17.17.2 Feed Transformers

Feed transformers of approved type shall be provided with output of 12 volts for reactor fed and 110 volts for condenser fed.

17.17.3 Reactor

Approved type of reactor with tapping shall be provided at the feed end.

17.17.4 Impedance Bonds

Impedance bonds of approved type shall be provided at either end of double rail track circuit to give continuity for the traction return
current. The impedance bond shall have a minimum capacity of 1000 Amps per rail and it may be resonated or auto coupled. Every bond
shall have secondary windings. The secondary windings are used for track circuit connections at the feed and relay ends. The tail cables
used for all track circuit connections shall be of at least 2.5 Sq. mm cross section. Centre resonated bonds can be introduced on tracks
for bonding and to tap the traction return current into sub station, if required.
17.17.5 Excitation of track relay

Maximum excitation of the control element of the track relay shall not exceed 200% of the rated control voltage. The local element of the
track relay shall be fed from the same power source as the control element. The voltage shall be 110V + 10%.

17.17.6 Maximum length of track circuit

i) The length of single rail track circuit shall not normally exceed 200 metres.

ii) Length of double rail track circuit shall not exceed 800 metres with auto coupled track circuits employing resonated relays.

17.18 AC 50 Hz / 83.33 Hz. track circuits with motor type relays

17.18.1 Motor type track relays to the approved specifications shall be used.

17.18.2 Power Supply

3 phase 50 Hz / 83.33 Hz power supply shall be used. 110V control feed and 130V local feed shall be used for 50 Hz track circuits. 110V
control feed & 165V local feed shall be used for 83.33 Hz track circuit.

17.18.3 Transformers and Resistors

17.18.3.1 Transformers at the feed end and relay end and damping resistors at feed end and protective resistor at relay end shall be to
approved specifications.

17.18.3.2 No external resistors/wires may be used to alter the effective value of fixed resistors.

17.18.4 Excitation of track relay

The control coils of the relays shall be excited at 130% of its rated pick up voltage under minimum ballast resistance conditions and
normal working voltage of the source of supply. The maximum excitation shall not exceed 200% of the minimum pick up voltage.

Jumper wires from bootleg to rail may be connected either to web of the rail through bond lugs as per approved drawing or to the flange
of the rail through brazed pin connection.

17.18.5 Impedance Bonds

Impedance bonds of approved type shall be used.

17.18.6 Maximum length of track circuit

i) The length of single rail track circuit is permitted upto 500 metres. The number of fish-plated joints in traction rail shall not exceed one
for every 100 metres of track length

ii) Maximum permissible length of double rail track circuit shall be 2300 metres. The cable lead resistance at relay end shall not exceed
12 ohms irrespective of length of track circuits. The feed end cable resistance shall not exceed 12 ohms for track circuits of length
between 2100 metres and 2300 metres and it can be progressively more with reduction of track circuit length.

17.18.7 Phase distribution

The phase distribution shall be done in proper sequence between control and local feeds and also in conjunction with adjacent track
circuits. Though the phase angle between the control and local phases is 120°, the actual phase angle will be close to 90° due to minor
impedance of rails, transformers, etc.

17.18.8 Centralisation of track relays

All track relays at a station shall be centralised at Central Cabin as permitted by the design.

17.19 Audio Frequency Track Circuits

17.19.1 The use of audio frequency permits the physical limits of an individual track circuit to be defined by tuned short circuits between
the rail rather than the insulation in the rails themselves. These types of track circuit have distinct advantage of not requiring IRJs and
offers considerable saving in IRJs and impedance bond, especially on tracks subjected to high speed, high axle load traffic or where there
is an intensive service.

17.19.2 Main features of Audio Frequency track circuit are -

Built in time delay, therefore a slow to pick up QSPA1 Relay as TPR is not required.

Can be used in most ac, dc and non-electrified areas.

It is an Audio Frequency track circuit, but can also be used with Insulated Rail Joint.

Can be used in end or centre-fed configuration.

17.19.3 Only approved type modulated Audio Frequency track circuit shall be used.

17.19.4 Track circuit shall not be configured in single rail mode operation.

17.19.5 Audio Frequency Track Circuit may be operated as local fed or in a remote fed mode.

17.19.6 Audio Frequency track circuit components are

- Tuning unit
- Transmitter

- Receiver

- Power Supply

- Track Connections

- Impedance Bond (optional)

17.19.7 Installation and Maintenance

17.19.7.1 Installation of track circuit shall strictly follow the instructions given for that type of track circuit.

17.19.7.2 Tuning area shall be devoid of check rails, level crossing, insulated bond and each fishplated joint shall be bonded with
jumpers of adequate thickness.

17.19.7.3 Special precautions shall be taken to ensure the tightness of connection of rail and tuning unit.

17.19.7.4 A frequency assignment scheme for the track circuit shall be decided in advance and it shall be strictly followed.

17.19.7.5 Terminal junction on insulation joint to track circuits with the same frequency is prohibited, however, frequencies not
belonging to same pair can be used.

17.19.7.6 Cable cores of same cable shall not be used for connecting transmitter & receiver of a track circuit.

17.19.7.7 When wiring and installing track circuit, circuit pairing should be observed in the line cables. Each transmission or reception
shall use conductors from one same pair. Circuit pairing results in cable transmission parameters being changed and may induce
significant cross talk levels in adjacent circuits.

17.19.7.8 The design and installation of field equipment should take in account the requirements for mechanised track maintenance and
should not be hazard for men walking along the track.

17.19.7.9 Protection against atmospheric voltage surges shall be installed on each pair of conductors providing a link to the outside in
order to limit the harmful effect of lightining on electronic equipment. This protective arrangement shall cover against both common
mode and differential mode voltages on line.

17.19.7.10 Transmitter, receiver and power supply shall be mounted in standard relay rack in manner to allow maintenance and testing
staff to view the track relay while making adjustments.

17.19.7.11 TUs and ETUs shall be mounted at a minimum distance of two metres away from the near rail as it gives good safety margin
to staff.

17.19.7.12 In case of failure of track circuit attempt shall not be made to pick up the track circuit by adjusting the gain of receiver of TC
without investigating the cause of drift in the receiver voltage.

17.19.7.13 Impedance bond within track circuit shall be tuned with the correct resonating capacitor across the auxiliary coil and this
tuning shall match with the frequency of track circuit.

17.19.7.14 Maximum length of track circuit depends upon various factors like ballast resistance, frequency adopted, track layout
(whether any level crossing or bridge falls within track circuited area) and vendor of AFTC, and it cannot be laid down in absolute terms.
Broadly its length is limited to 700 metres in end fed mode.

17.20 High Voltage Impulse track circuits

17.20.1 Only approved type impulse track circuits shall be used.

17.20.2 Power supply

These track circuits shall operate on 220V, 50Hz AC or 110V, 50Hz AC supply.

17.20.3 Field equipments

A high voltage impulse track circuit shall consist of-

- a transmitter which generates impulse with a given shape, amplitude & recurrence frequency, injected into the track by means of a
matching isolating transformer and

a receiver which detects at the other end of track section the specific signal and operates the fail safety relay if specific signal responds to
the correct positive & negative amplitude. Whenever the specific signal is not received, is deformed or is too weak, the track circuit fail-
safe relay shall remain de-energised.

- The transmitter & receiver shall be located either near the track or in a centralised room. Transformers and impedance bonds shall
always be located near the track.

17.20.4 Maximum length of track circuits :-

For single rail high voltage impulse track circuit, maximum length shall be 400 mtrs and for double rail track circuit, this shall be 5000
mtrs.

C. Maintenance

17.21 General
Track circuits shall be so maintained that:

17.21.1 There is always a good connection between power feed and track, relay and track and also between adjoining rails, through
jumpers and rail bonds.

17.21.2 The ballast resistance always remains high and does not fall below prescribed minimum values.

17.21.3 The limiting resistance shall be as high as possible.

17.21.4 The insulating joints are of high resistance.

17.21.5 The surface of rail is clean and is free of dust, sand and foreign materials.

17.21.6 The circuit is properly energised during wet weather on minimum ballast resistance conditions and during dry weather on
maximum ballast resistance conditions. The track circuit shall not be over-energised to such an extent that the shunting value drops
below 0.5 ohms for all types of track circuits. However, the shunting value of double rail track circuits with AC track relays should not
drop below 0.15 ohms. These values shall be obtained irrespective of whether the track is provided with concrete sleepers or wooden
sleepers.

17.21.7 The connection of DC track relay shall be quarterly interchanged to prevent permanent magnetisation.

17.22 Track Relays

17.22.1 Pick up and drop away values shall be maintained within the limits specified by the manufacturer.

17.22.2 Relays shall not be tilted or turned over to close the contacts.

17.22.3 Track relays shall be inspected visually every two years by the Supervisory Signal Inspector and the following visual checks
conducted :

i) Movement of armature and contact carriage;

ii) Wiping of contacts;

iii) Arcing of contacts, if any;

iv) Pitting or charring of contacts;

v) Dust on contacts;

vi) Electroplating

vii) Corrosion, rusting of components;


viii) Cracks or breakage in components;

ix) Presence of fungus, if any;

x) Charring of cover near contacts (for plug-in relays)

xi) Correctness of label;

xii) Presence of seal.

17.22.4 The relay that is in any way defective should be changed at once and sent to shops together with a brief report stating the
nature of the defects. On no account should any attempt be made by the line staff to rectify the relay.

17.22.5 Track relays of all type shall be periodically overhauled every 10 years subject to a maximum of 12 years. These limits may be
reduced depending upon the intensity of traffic and other local conditions of the section such as heavy sub urban and major Route Relay
Interlocking installation as decided by the Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer.

17.23 Insulated Rail Joints

Insulated rail joints shall be maintained in accordance with the instructions given in Booklet No. STS/E/IRJ/IMI "Installation and
Maintenance Instructions for Nylon Insulated Rail Joint" issued by the RDSO/Lucknow, with particular attention being paid to the following
:

a) Before opening an insulated rail joint, the components required for replacement, conforming to the rail-section, shall be kept ready by
the side of the track.

b) For replacement of an end-post when there is no gap at the Insulated Rail Joint, loosen the rail fastening and pull back the rail and
insert end-post between the rail ends.

c) It is imperative that when an insulated rail joint is provided at least three sleepers on either side of the insulated rail joint shall be
packed properly.

d) Fish bolts shall be kept tight. Nuts shall be tightened several times during the first two weeks after installation/replacement, until all
components of an insulated rail joint are firmly set.

e) A metal flow is seen often at the rail-table at the joints. Such metal flow of metal forms a lip and creates sharp burrs at the rail ends.
Projections formed at the rail ends shall be chiseled without damaging the end post so that these do not bridge the rail expansion gap
and cause a short circuit.

f) Brake-block dust, which may accumulate on the head and sides of the end post and top surfaces of the fish-plates, shall be brushed off
frequently so that the possibility of electrical conductivity being established between the rail ends is eliminated.
g) Opening & fixing of fish plates of Nylon insulation joint for installation/replacement of joint shall not be done by S&T staff as it is the
responsibility of Engineering Department.

h) Special type pandrol clips ('J' type) shall be provided at Nylon insulation joints/ glued joint to avoid touching of pandrol clip with the
fish plate.

i) Periodic coating by insulating varnish/epoxy over the nylon-insulated joint/glued joint to avoid shorting due to brake dust shall be
done.

17.24 A faulty insulated joint may be detected by taking the voltage readings across the track relay terminals and noting if this reading
changes when the adjacent track circuit feed is shunted or disconnected. Any change in the voltage reading will indicate a faulty insulated
joint.

17.25 Stretcher Bars and Point Rodding connections

Insulation for stretcher bars and point rodding shall be periodically checked to see that they are in sound condition. All defective
insulation shall be changed.

17.26 Bond Wires /Rope Wires

17.26.1 Bonds shall be inspected frequently and maintained in good condition.

17.26.2 Bonds shall be painted with aluminium paint, where bond corrosions are excessive.

17.26.3 Voltage reading may be taken every 15 rail lengths or less as required by special track circuits, to determine if the variation in
voltage is gradual throughout the track circuit. If any unusual variations are found between any two readings, defective bonding may be
detected by taking readings every rail length in that section or by inspection of each bond.

17.27 Jumper connections

Jumper connections shall be inspected frequently and maintained in good condition. Long jumper connections shall be properly secured.

17.28 Ballast

Minimum ballast resistance per km. of track should not be less than 2 ohm per km. in station yard and 4 ohms per km. in the block
section.

Note: Wherever PSC Sleepers are used, availability of insulated liners upto a minimum level of 97% shall be ensured.

17.29 Drainage

17.29.1 Special attention shall be paid during the rains to track drainage. Defects, if any, shall be reported to the Permanent Way
Inspector.
17.29.2 All cases of defective valves of overhead water pipes in track circuited area shall be reported to the Inspector of works.

17.30 Joint Inspection of Track by S&T and Permanent Way Inspector

The track-circuited portion of the track shall be jointly inspected by Sr. Section Engineer (Signal) and Sr. Section Engineer (P-way) at
least once in six months. This is in addition to routine inspections to be carried out by each Branch. The condition of rail and insulation at
the rail joints, ballast and sleepers, abnormal collection of brake dust, rusting of the rail and drainage system of the yard shall be
particularly noted. It shall be ensured that percentage of missing liners for track circuit length not to exceed 3%. Maintenance work found
necessary on insulation joints after such inspection should be carried out jointly.

17.31 Train Shunt

17.31.1 A train shunt test shall betaken every quarter and every time the track circuit is adjusted or any alteration is made.

17.31.2 Shunt test shall be taken not only at relay end but also at other parallel portions of the track, such as, turnouts and crossovers.

17.32 Track Circuit Test Record Card

17.32.1 Track circuit test record Card No. S&T/TC-1, Annexure 19 for DC track circuits, Card No. S&T/ TC-2, Annexure 20 for AC track
circuits with vane type relays /motor type relays and Card No. S&T/TC-3 Annexure 21 for Jeumont type track circuits shall be maintained
for each track circuit. For other types of track circuits, suitable record card may be framed by the Chief Signal and Telecommunication
Engineer. Readings shall be recorded every six months. Suitable remedial action shall be taken when abnormal readings are noticed at
any time.

17.32.2 Test cards shall be easily accessible for inspection by officials.

17.32.3 The test card shall be kept up-to-date in accordance with the instructions given on the cards.

17.33 Track Batteries/Track Feed Apparatus

Track batteries or the track feed apparatus, where provided, shall be so arranged that the track relay will operate under the most
adverse conditions. Batteries shall be kept in good fettle and special care shall be taken in maintenance of the cells.

17.34 Limiting Reactance of AC track circuit

Reactance shall be fixed as high as possible and at the same time maintain sufficient voltage to operate the track relay.

17.35 Measurement of Phase Angle of AC track circuit

The phase angles shall be measured by synchronous motor type /digital phase meter.

17.36 Raking out of cinders


It should be ensured that indiscriminate raking out of cinders in the track-circuited area is avoided.

17.37 Rusty Rails

Where there are rusty rails in the track circuited areas, zig-zag welding using steel wire shall be done by P-Way staff on top of rail to
ensure shunting of track circuit by the vehicle.

II. AXLE COUNTERS

A. Requirements

17.38 Axle counter consists of track device mounted on the rails, trackside electronic equipment provided near the track and connected
with track device & evaluator. Evaluator monitors the counts of track device (s) to give clear/occupied indication. Two intelligent track
side electronic equipment may also be connected together to give clear/occupied indication.

17.39 Axle counters of approved type may be used in lieu of track circuits to prove the clearance of a portion of track.

17.40 Axle counters may also be provided in lieu of conventional track circuits for block working, viz. Intermediate Block Signalling,
Automatic Signalling, Block Working controlled by track circuits, etc.

17.41 Axle counters shall conform to IRS Specifications S-42 unless otherwise approved.

17.42 One track side electronic equipment can be common to two adjacent sections. In such a case output signals of track side
electronic equipment shall be transmitted to two evaluators.

B Installation

17.43 The installation of axle counters shall be done as per RDSO's document- INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS FOR
AXLE COUNTER as modified from time to time or as per manufacturer's installation & maintenance instructions. The important features of
the installation procedure are:

17.43.1 The track detection unit containing the rail inductors shall be fixed to the rails & secured with proper staggering as per the
recommended values.

17.43.2 On sections where trolleys are in operation, trolley protection track circuit shall be provided to prevent the operation of system
by insulated trolleys. Trolley protection track circuit shall be closed track circuit and track devices shall be fixed on rails within the
boundaries of track circuit. It is possible to dispense with the provision of trolley protection track circuit for track devices provided on
point zone portion by using approved circuits for this purpose. On sections where non-metallic wheels are used for trolley, trolley
protection track circuit can be dispensed with.

17.43.3 The trolley protection track circuits shall be of adequate length to permit the track repeater relay in the cabin to drop before the
first wheel comes within the sphere of influence of track devices. Since the track repeater relays in AC electrified areas are AC immunised
and slow to drop, the length of track circuits has to be carefully decided to prevent malfunction of the axle counter.

17.43.4 On double line section where shunting movements are frequent in the opposite direction, track circuit length shall be such that
even during the opposite shunt move the track repeater relay de-energises before the first wheel comes within the sphere of influence of
track devices at the maximum shunting speed.

17.43.5 Subject to considerations in 17.43.3,17.43.4 and 17.43.8 the minimum distance between track device and insulation joint/glued
joint of track circuit in the direction of movement shall be as per following table.

17.43.6 The track detection unit shall be fixed minimum 6 sleepers away from the nearest rail joint.

17.43.7 On electrified sections, a minimum distance of 20 metres shall be maintained between the rail inductor and the nearest block
joint, in case of double rail track circuits.
17.43.8 The distance between the 2 rail inductors of different axle counting circuits shall be at least 5 metres so as to avoid mutual
interference.

17.43.9 To protect track fittings against damage from hanging parts of moving train, protectors shall be mounted on both sides of the
fitting on single line and one side on double line. Protectors shall be placed in the sleeper space next to the track fittings.

17.43.10 The track side electronic equipment shall be housed in a location hut close to the detection points so that the length of cable
between the unit and the detection points is minimum and does not exceed the limit recommended by the manufacturer. The equipment
inside the location hut shall be placed at a level well above the flooding level of the area.

17.43.11 The incoming cables from rail conductors and evaluator may first be terminated on a cable distribution board to provide facility
for testing oscillator/amplifier units.

17.43.12 For all connections, from the track detection unit to the track side electronic equipment, multi strand flexible cable shall be
used.

17.43.13 Cable for transmitter coils and the receiver coils shall be laid in different pipes at a minimum separation of 500 mm.

17.43.14 The output of receiver amplifier is to be fed to evaluator through proper cable connections.

i) In 25 KV RE areas, PE Insulated quad of main Telecommunication cable to specification TC-14, four quad axle counter cable to
specification TC-30 or polythene jelly filled Telecommunication cable to specification TC-41 shall normally be used for transmission of
signals between track side electronic equipment and evaluator.

ii) In non RE areas, four quad axle counter cable to specification TC-31 or Polythene jelly filled Telecommunication cable to specification
TC-41 shall normally be used for transmission of signals between track side electronic equipment and evaluator.

iii) For transmitting signals from track side electronic equipment to evaluator which is more than 2 Km. away, cable with 0.9 mm dia
conductor shall be used.

iv) All precautions prescribed for laying communication cables shall be strictly followed. Proper earth for each sheath of cables shall be
provided, separately.

17.43.15 Track side electronic equipment shall be operated from Central battery of 24 volts used for feeding evaluator. Battery used for
this purpose shall not be less than 80 AH capacity. More than one evaluator and their track side electronic equipment may be fed from
common central battery of adequate capacity. At remote locations track side electronic equipment may be provided with separate battery
of 12/24 volts.

17.43.16 The evaluator shall be installed preferably in a relay room or at a location which is not accessible to unauthorised persons.
Equipment shall be installed at a high level, well above the flooding level of the area and protected from rain water. It shall be fixed on a
separate shelf away from signalling relays. As far as possible, it shall be located away from any source of heavy electromagnetic
interference like industrial machinery, motor/generator or welding plants, etc.
17.43.17 The power to evaluator is fed from a dc-dc converter of approved specification which shall be procured from suppliers of the
axle counter system or from approved manufacturers, having complete test facilities. Each evaluator shall be provided with a separate
dc-dc converter.

17.43.18 Evaluator, dc-dc converter, Evaluator and Supervisory relays, and the track relays providing the feed for trolley protection shall
be so installed that all connections to the evaluator can be made with minimum lead length.

17.43.19 DC-DC Converter shall be fed from 24 volt battery of not less than 80 AH capacity provided with a float charger of approved
type and of adequate capacity.

17.43.20 When a common battery is used for more than one evaluator, separate dc-dc converter shall be used for each unit, and the
capacity of battery shall be suitably increased. Similarly when a common battery is used to feed more than one electronic junction box,
battery capacity shall be increased.

17.43.21 All lead connections to and from battery and dc-dc converter on 24V bus shall have adequate current capacity to ensure that
the voltage drop does not exceed 0.2 V. These connections at terminals shall be secured properly and should preferably be made through
lugs to give firm contact.

17.43.22 The float charger input from AC mains shall be through metal clad DPDT switch and all wire connections at terminals, fuse
blocks, etc, shall be tightly secured to avoid any intermittent contact or sparking.

17.43.23 Connections between battery, battery charger and dc-dc converter shall not be bunched with any other wires. These wires
shall preferably be laid at least 150 mm from any other bunch of wires. Positive and negative wires shall be twin twisted to avoid
interference pick up especially when the lead wires are long.

17.43.24 Only good quality shielded wires of minimum 1 mm diameter shall be used for wiring between the evaluator and associated
relays. The length of wires shall be minimum possible.

17.44 Whenever axle counters are used for block working, for control of reception signals, etc., reset buttons may be provided so that
whenever the axle counter shows fault condition, the same can be reset to normal by the Assistant Station Master in charge after
ensuring that the monitored portion is clear of obstruction.

17.45 Each and every operation of the reset button shall be counted on a Veeder counter and shall be properly recorded in the Train
Signal register indicating the movement before and after the operation of the reset button.

17.46 The procedure/records to verify the vacancy of the track before resetting shall be checked during inspection by the supervisory
staff in charge of Signalling and Traffic Departments and the staff should be properly educated during the various courses at the Zonal
Training Schools.

17.47 Before use of the reset button for axle counters provided in lieu of track circuits in station section etc. the following further
safeguards shall be followed.
17.47.1 Once the axle counter has failed and is showing fault condition, the first train shall be piloted as per the extant rules after
verification of the clearance of the reception line. After the piloted train has cleared the portion being monitored by the axle counter, the
axle counter may be reset.

17.47.2 The reset device shall be operated by a key which shall be kept locked in a separate box in the SMs office. Whenever, it
becomes necessary to operate the reset device, the resetting shall be done jointly by the ASM along with SM and in case SM is not
available this resetting shall be done jointly by ASM with Switchman or by ASM with Electrical Signal Maintainer.

17.47.3 Each and every operation of the reset button shall be recorded in the Train Signal Register by the ASM and during inspection of
the station, the Signal and Traffic inspecting officials shall specifically check up the procedures being followed in respect of the above
resetting device and ensure that the first train after the failure has been piloted and after the vacation of the same the axle counter has
been reset. This procedure of piloting the first train and ensuring that the monitored portion is free of any vehicle before resetting is done
shall be clearly laid down in the station working rules.

17.48 Where axle counters are used for block working, viz. Intermediate block signaling, tokenless block signalling automatic signalling
etc, the following precautions shall be observed :-

17.48.1 Once the axle counter has failed and the concerned signal cannot be taken off, the dispatching station shall verify the clearance
of the block section by exchange of private number with the station in advance. After ensuring that the block sections is clear, the axle
counter shall be reset by co-operative effort between the ASM of the dispatching and the receiving stations. The circuitry shall be such as
to obviate the possibility of the resetting by the dispatching/ receiving station independently.

17.48.2 Each and every operation of the reset button shall be recorded in the Train Signal Register by both the stations and during
inspection of the stations the Signal and Traffic Inspecting officials shall specifically check up the procedures being followed in respect of
the above reset buttons and ensure that the exchange of private number in this regard is being maintained properly.

17.49 In case of double rail mounted track devices there shall be no differential creep between the two rails of the track to the extent as
to alter their inter distance beyond the permissible tolerance. It is, therefore, necessary that 4 rail lengths on either side shall be well
anchored.

C. Maintenance

17.50 Maintenance of axle counters shall be done as per RDSO's document "INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS FOR
AXLE COUNTERS and maintenance of Universal Axle ' counter as per 'MAINTENANCE PRACTICES FOR UNIVERSAL AXLE COUNTER'.
Important maintenance instructions are given in Annexure 22.

17.51 Maintenance of axle counters manufactured by other manufacturers shall be as per instructions given by the manufacturers.

17.52 Anchoring of track on either side of the rails where transducers of axle counters are fixed, shall be closely watched by the
Permanent Way staff to ensure that there is no differential creep.

17.53 Tie Tamper shall not be used for 4 sleepers on either side of the axle counters. Incidentally they should be manually maintained.
Annexure 18

Note: The Relay end and Feed end resistance shown in the table are fixed values for the purpose of centralising the equipment and
should be made up by the use of Rheostatic Resistance.

Annexure 19
Annexure 20
Annexure 21

Annexure 22

Para 17.50

MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS FOR AXLE COUNTER

1. WEEKLY INSPECTION OF OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT (BY ELECTRIC SIGNAL MAINTAINER)

1.1 Check all nuts and bolts of base clamps, receiver and transmitter housings and ensure they are fully tight.
1.2 Inspect the wiring loops and ensure they are in good condition and the connections are tight.

1.3 Check the 'Staggering' of the rail inductors. Check staggering has not been affected by excessive rail creep.

1.4 Observe the packing condition of supporting sleepers and ensure the fittings do not vibrate heavily during
passage of trains. If necessary, get the sleepers packed well.

1.5 Inspect all connections on the oscillator/amplifier unit and ensure they are tight.

1.6 Check the screw coupler on the oscillator/receiver amplifier unit and ensure they are tight.

1.7 Measure the amplifier output voltage of both channels and ensure they are within the prescribed limits.

1.8 Inspect the battery. Check electrolyte level, specific gravity and voltage.

1.9 Inspect the charging equipment. Measure charging current and ensure it is neither too low nor too high.

1.10 Interference with power supply, connections of oscillator/receiver amplifier and transmitter and receiver coils
are likely to cause random counting in the Evaluator and should be done only after ensuring that no train is
occupying or approaching the controlled section.

1.11 Inspect the track circuit, its connections, rail joints, etc., and ensure everything is in good condition.

2. INSPECTION OF EVALUATOR (BY ELECTRIC SIGNAL MAINTAINER) FORTNIGHTLY

2.1 Ensure the screw coupler connectors are fully tight.

2.2 Measure the incoming voltages of all channels and ensure they are within the prescribed limits; Record the
readings.

2.3 Check that all indication lamps are lighting in correct sequence.

2.4 Observe the reading on the display unit after passage of a train and compare it with the actual number of axles
of the train. Verify that the counting is correct.

2.5 Measure the coil voltages on Evaluator and Supervisory relays and ensure that they are within permitted limits.

2.6 Measure the voltages on Evaluator and Supervisory relay coil terminals when the relays are de-energised and
ensure that the voltage is not more than 0.5 V.

2.7 Inspect the battery. Check electrolyte level, specific gravity and voltage. Efficient maintenance of the battery
is a must for the correct performance of the equipment.

2.8 Inspect the charging equipments. Measure charging current and ensure it is neither too low nor too high.

2.9 Measure the dc-dc converter output voltages & record the voltage readings.
2.10 Interference with power supply and evaluator connections is likely to cause random counting of the evaluator
and should be done only after ensuring that no train is occupying or approaching the controlled section.

2.11 Ensure the reading of the Reset counter tallies with that recorded in the register.

2.12 Ensure the 'Reset' switch is in the 'Normal' position and is sealed properly after the maintenance and
inspection.

3. QUARTERLY INSPECTION OF OUTDOOR EQUIPMENTS (SECTION ENGINEER / SIGNAL OR SR. SECTION ENGINEER / SIGNAL)

3.1 In addition to all items mentioned under fortnightly inspection, the following should be checked.

3.2 Check the transmitter housing and its aluminium clamps, holding bolts and nuts and ensure that these are fully
tight.

3.3 Check the receiver housing holding bolts and nuts and ensure these are fully tight.

3.4 Check the oscillator output voltage & frequency. It should be within the permissible limits.

3.5 Check the oscillator output wave shape is sinusoidal.

3.6 Check indication lamps in Station Master's resetting box are lighting in correct sequence.

3.7 Ensure output level of receiver amplifier is 0.7 to 1 V rms.

4. QUARTERLY INSPECTION OF EVALUATOR (SECTION ENGINEER/SIGNAL OR SR. SECTION ENGINEER/SIGNAL)

4.1 In addition to all items mentioned under Fortnightly inspection, the following should be checked.

4.2 Check the 5 KHz input signal of each channel. Ensure there is no interference and modulation.

4.3 Safe working of the axle counter shall be checked with the help of dummy wheel.

4.4 Check working of trolley protection circuit.

4.5 With unequal counts (train in controlled section) ensure that both 'SUP' and 'EV' relays are de-energised and
voltages on relay terminals are less than 0.5 V.

4.6 Switch 'ON' and 'OFF' the battery charger at quick intervals. Ensure that no false count is registered by the
evaluator.

5 INSPECTION AFTER REPAIRS : When repairs involving change of components are carried out the concerned card should
be tested thoroughly as per the detailed test schedule issued by RDSO. Such repairs should normally be carried out
only at the central repair centre where necessary calibrated instruments required for the purpose are available.
CHAPTER-XVIII
BLOCK INSTRUMENTS INSTALLATION
. SECTION 'A' - GENERAL

18.1 Fixture

18.2 Painting

18.3 Transmission Media and other wires

18.4 Block instruments distinction of

18.5 Protective meanures against power line parallelism

18.6 Earth
. SECTION 'B' - SINGAL LINE TOKEN INSTRUMENTS

18.7 to 18.9 Installation


18.10 to
Tests to be conducted after installation and before commissioning
18.13
. SECTION 'C' - DOUBLE LINE BLOCK INSTRUMENTS

18.14 Relays

18.15 Block Release


18.16 to
Tests to be conducted at the time of installation
18.20
. SECTION 'D' SINGLE LINE TOKENLESS BLOCK INSTRUMENT

18.21 Mounting of instrument

18.22 Checks required before installation of instrument

18.23 Issulation Resistance

18.24 Block Release


18.25 to
Testing of Single Line Tokenless Bleck Block Instruments
18.30
. MAINTENANCE

. SECTION 'E' TOKEN INSTRUMENTS - GENERAL


18.31 Register of block Instruments

18.32 Censuse of Tokens

18.33 Damaged Tokens


18.34 to
Lost Tokens
18.36
18.37 Balancing Token

18.38 Token pouches

18.39 Responsibility of the Operating Staff

18.40 Importance of bell signals


SECTION 'F' - BLOCK INSTRUMENTS & THEIR ANCILLARY APPARATUS ENERAL INSTRUCTIONS –
.
MAINTENANCE
18.41 Maintenance Check

18.42 Overhauling of Block Instruments


18.43 to
Block Earths
18.46
. SECTION 'G' - MAINTENANCE - DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS
18.47 to
Token Instruments
18.54
18.55 to
Double Line Block Instruments
18.56
. SECTION 'H' - MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

18.57 Maintenance Schedule for Block Instruments


. SECTION 'I' - AXLE COUNTER BLOCK INSTRUMENTS

18.58 Maintenance of Axle Counter Block Instrument

. SECTION 'J' - SOLID STATE BLOCK SYSTEM

18.59 Maintenance of Solid State Block System

Annexure 24 Painting Scheme-Block Signalling Equipment

Annexure 25 Format for recording particulars of lost token


Annexure 26 Token Balance Book Format

Annexure 27 Method of finding out the resistance of an earth

Annexure 28 Schedule of Maintenance for Block Instrument

CHAPTER -XVIII

BLOCK INSTRUMENTS

INSTALLATION

SECTION 'A' - GENERAL

18.1 Fixture:

18.1.1. All block instruments shall be of approved type only.

18.1.2 The Table or other fixture on which instruments are placed must be substantial and the Instruments are securely fixed there on.

18.1.3 Turn-table arrangement may be provided for fixing the Token Instrument to enable easier maintenance but the plate on which
the instrument turns shall be securely fixed to the table.

18.2 Painting:

Painting of Block Instruments shall be in accordance with the painting scheme in Annexure -24.

18.3 Transmission Media and other wires :

18.3.1 Line Wires:

The line wires from the point where the lines of two adjacent block sections meet to the terminating point on or near the building shall
either be insulated or be so erected as to be not less than 150 mm from any other wire. The provision of insulated wires should be
preferred.

The insulated line wires must be terminated on pot-head insulators. The line wires must not be easily accessible. Alternatively, a cable,
suitably protected, may be used, but a separate cable should be provided for each instrument circuit. The insulated line wires must be led
in sloping upward to the building, otherwise a drip loop should be provided.

18.3.2 Leading in wires:

The wires leading into the building from the terminating point shall be adequately separated from the wires of other circuits and shall be
single, braided or metal sheathed, run in one length from the pot-head insulator to the test panel. Alternatively, a cable, suitably
protected, may be used, but a separate cable should be provided for each block instrument circuit.

18.3.3 Indoor Wires:

Indoor wires must be run in troughing or other suitable form of trunking which provides protection from interference and separation from
the wires of any other circuit.

18.3.4 Radio / Optical Fibre Cable:

Where radio channel or optical fibre cable is used in lieu of line wires, approved type block interface shall be provided.

18.3.5 Specification of Wires :- All wires or cables shall be in accordance with the Indian Railway Standard Specification or other
approved specification.

18.3.6 Lightning Dischargers shall not be located in the Block Instrument but installed separately and shall be the demarcating point for
test purposes.

18.4 Block instruments, distinction of :

Where two or more block instruments are located in the same room, they shall be fitted with bell units/ bell buzzers of distinctive tones.

18.5 Protective measures against power line parallelism

18.5.1 It shall be ensured that induced voltage due to power line parallelism does not exceed 150V and the short circuit fault current
does not exceed 430V as prescribed by CCITT.

18.5.2 If the induced voltage goes beyond these limits, overhead block circuit shall be transferred to an underground telecom. PET quad
cable/OFC/Radio, so as to bring the induced voltage within the permissible limits.

18.5.3 Since the immunity of PR relay is only up to 10V, block filters shall be used in all block instruments using this relay where this
limit is exceeded.

18.5.4 Block filters shall be used with Handle type Block instruments using frequency coded signal, where diodes have been used in line
circuits.

18.5.5 Use of single line push button token less block instruments is permitted in sections where length of parallelism does not exceed
1.5 Km, so as to ensure that the DC coding used in these block instruments is not mutilated.

18.6 Earth

18.6.1 A separate earth shall be provided for each instrument. The earth shall be of an approved type and should be buried at depth of
not less than 1.5m and at a distance not less than 2.5m from any other earth. The resistance of the earth should not be more than 10
ohms.

18.6.2 The length of the Earth wire shall be as short as possible and cross section of the wire not smaller than the size of the line wire
and in any case shall not be smaller than 4mm dia. The earth wire shall not have a sharp bend or spiral. Earth wire should be adequately
protected from mechanical injury and be efficiently connected to the earth. All connections to the earth shall be well soldered.

SECTION 'B' - SINGLE LINE TOKEN INSTRUMENTS

INSTALLATION

18.7 The token instruments shall be so installed that the token of one section cannot be placed in any other instrument at that station. It
is also desirable that the installation be such that if the token is over carried, it cannot be placed in any instrument at the next station.

18.8 Consecutive block sections shall be provided with tokens of configurations A, B & C. Following block sections shall also be provided
with similar configuration in the same order. Where a junction station falls in between or new crossing station is opened, tokens with
special configuration (D&E) shall be provided.

18.9 Block Instruments must be mounted level (spirit level may be used) so that tokens will not get into any particular race in case of
ball token instrument and the token will not tilt in case of tablet token instrument.

Tests to be conducted after installation and before commissioning :-

18.10 Check that correct polarities are connected to the instruments at the both ends.

18.11 Check that all mechanical parts are free to move without undue friction and that there is no jamming of moving parts.

18.12 Check that the commutator does not change unless the token gets into the races in the case of Ball Token instruments and slides
down the rail beyond the tablet receiver in the case of Tablet Token instrument.

18.13 Check that the insulation of electrical components and internal wiring of the block instrument is proper and free from leakage from
the instrument body/earth.

Note: RDSO Booklet STS/E/BTI/IMI may be referred to for detailed instructions regarding installations testing.

SECTION 'C - DOUBLE LINE BLOCK INSTRUMENTS

18.14 Quick acting relays shall not be used for stick circuits of the block instrument. Shelf type relays or alternatively two immunized
plug-in type 'Q' series relays connected in tandem or one 'Q' series slow to pick up AC immunized relay shall only be used. The total pick
up time of relays used shall not be less than 300 ms.

DC 3-position polarized line relay of approved type shall only be used in the line circuit for block working.

18.15 Block release shall be by the operation of two track circuits sequentially.
Tests to be conducted at the time of installation

18.16 Check that the commutator handle is locked first before the "Train On Line" indication appears on the indicator when the handle is
turned from "Line Clear" to "Train On Line" position.

18.17 Check that the Block Clearance Relay picks up only after the commutator is turned to "Train On Line" position.

18.18 Check that the Last Stop Signal cannot be taken 'OFF' when the commutator is in other than "Line Clear" position.

18.19 Check that the Last Stop Signal is automatically replaced to 'ON' when the train enters the block section and continues to remain
in the 'ON' position until the train has arrived at the receiving station and a fresh "Line Clear" is obtained.

18.20 Check that when the commutator is turned from "Line Closed" position to "Train On Line" position, the commutator is free for
return to "Line Closed' position.

SECTION 'D' - SINGLE LINE TOKENLESS BLOCK INSTRUMENT

18.21 The instruments shall be mounted level. The instruments shall be so placed as to have an easy access and space for their
maintenance.

18.22 Before installation, the instrument shall be checked for the following: -

(a) Free from mechanical damage, corrosion. All nuts and bolts shall be secure and complete.

(b) The Front Panel shall be free from splitting, twisting or warping in case of Push Button type instruments.

(c) The seal of all the relays and counters shall be intact.

(d) Sealing.

18.23 All the external connections to the block instrument shall be removed and insulation resistance measured between individual
insulated circuits and Earth. The minimum value between each individual insulated circuit and Earth shall not be less than 10 mega ohms.

18.24 Block release shall be by operation of two track circuits sequentially.

Testing of Single Line Tokenless Block instruments

18.25 Check that the Last Stop Signal at the sending station cannot be taken 'OFF' until the receiving station instrument is set to "Train
Coming From" condition and the sending station instrument is set to "Train Going To" condition.

18.26 Check that the Line Clear can be granted only when reception signals and the Last Stop Signal are proved at 'ON'.
18.27 Check that the Last Stop Signal is replaced to 'ON' by the entry of a train into the block section and the same is maintained in the
'ON' position until the train has cleared the block section and the instruments are brought back to the 'Line Closed' condition and fresh
"Line Clear" is obtained.

18.28 Check that the opposing Last Stop Signals of the block section cannot be taken "OFF" atone and the same time.

18.29 Check that the circuit for proving the arrival of a train is directional.

18.30 Check that the shunting key can be taken out only when the instruments are in "Line Closed" condition or "Train Going To"
condition.

MAINTENANCE

SECTION 'E' - TOKEN INSTRUMENTS - GENERAL

18.31 Register of Block Instruments:

The Senior Section Engineer /Signal shall maintain a register containing the following information: -

(a) The type of instrument, its serial number, location, and name of manufacturer;

(b) Date of installation;

(c) Date of last overhaul;

(d) Particulars of all tokens working in each block section and particulars of tokens either removed or lost irrecoverably during the course
of working and of those introduced as replacement.

18.32 Census of Tokens:

Each Senior Section Engineer/Signal shall take a census of the tokens working in various block sections at least once in six months and
shall keep their record in the register of Block Instruments. He should also record this information in the Signal History Book at every
station and keep it up to date in this respect.

18.33 Damaged Tokens:

18.33.1 Tokens, which are cracked or deformed or have worn to a size smaller than the normal size or are damaged in any other way
and are liable to jam in an instrument and cause a failure shall be removed, broken up and returned to Stores. Advice of tokens that
have been removed shall be given to all concerned.

18.33.2 Token so removed shall be replaced with another token of the same number and all concerned advised.

18.34 Lost Tokens:


When a token has been lost and cannot be found after a thorough search, a joint certificate to that effect shall be given to the Senior
Divisional /Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer by the Supervisors of the Signal and Telecommunication Department and
the Operating Department. On receipt of the certificate, a joint circular shall be issued by the Senior Divisional /Divisional Signal and
Telecommunication Engineer and the Divisional Operating Manager giving full particulars and cancelling the lost token for the information
of the staff. The particulars of the lost token shall be published in the Railway's Gazette.

18.35 Particulars of lost tokens on Card No. S&T/TL, as per Annexure - 25 shall be conspicuously exhibited near the relevant instrument
for the information of the Operating Staff.

18.36 If a lost token is not found for six months, it shall be replaced with a token of next higher number in continuation of the series in
use on the section. The lost token, if found subsequently, shall be broken and returned to stores.

18.37 Balancing Tokens:

18.37.1 Maintainers shall, whenever necessary, transfer tokens from the instrument in which they have accumulated to the instrument
at the other end of the section. Each Maintainer in charge of single line token instruments shall be provided with a "Token Balance Book"
consisting of Form No. S&T/TB, as per Annexure - 26, serially numbered. Each book before issue shall be endorsed by Senior Section
Engineer/Signal as under :-

"Page.........to...........checked and found correct".

18.37.2 Maintainers shall fill up portions 'A' and 'B' of Token Balance Book form and take the signatures of-

(i) The Station Master of the Station from where tokens have been extracted to verify that token numbers as mentioned were extracted
from the instrument with his permission;

(ii) The receiving Station Master to verify that token numbers mentioned in the book have been correctly deposited in the relevant
instrument.

18.37.3 An entry in the "Train Signal Register" shall be made to this effect.

18.37.4 Station Masters shall have instructions to advise the Maintainer by wire/control message as soon as the balance of tokens in
their token balance register falls to "Six".

18.37.5 Extracting of/replenishment of tokens in token instruments shall be done when the instruments are in the "Line Closed" position.

18.38 Token pouches shall be kept in proper repair by the Traffic Department and damaged pouches shall not be allowed to be used.

18.39 Responsibility of the Operating Staff :

It shall be impressed on the Staff operating the instruments that they are responsible for the safe working of the instruments and that
such safe working is dependent on the correct use of the code of bell signals and the correct operation of the instruments being carried
out in proper sequence.

18.40 Importance of bell signals:

It shall also be clearly impressed on the operating staff that the provision of telephones do not do away with the necessity for use of
authorised code of bell signals.

SECTION 'F-BLOCK INSTRUMENTS & THEIR ANCILLARY APPARATUS GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS - MAINTENANCE

18.41 Maintainer shall ensure by a fortnightly check that -

18.41.1 Locks : - Electrical or Mechanical Locks are in a condition that they are not liable to be forced.

18.41.2 Indicators : - Indicators operate fully and return to the normal position correctly when released.

18.41.3 Contacts : - All contacts are clean and free from pitting. If surfaces are pitted, they shall be cleaned with chamois leather and
refurbished.

18.41.4 All springs are in good condition and kept properly adjusted.

18.41.5 Relay armatures : - Relay armatures are free and return to their normal position when no current is flowing.

18.41.6 Track Circuits : - Instructions as laid down in Chapter XVII are adhered to.

18.41.7 External Wiring : - All wiring is in good condition and free from joints. Joints, wherever necessary, are properly soldered and
insulated.

18.41.8 Terminal Screws : - All terminal screws, lock nuts and locking screws are kept tight and split pins opened.

18.41.9 Batteries :- All batteries are kept clean, terminals tight and free from dirt or corrosion and maintained in accordance with
instructions in Chapter XVI.

18.41.10 Lightning protector :- Lightning and power protective devices and earth connections are effective and in good condition.

18.41.11 Block instrument telephone:- Block instrument telephone, its flexible cord and the condenser or other means provided for
isolating the telephone from the Block Instrument circuit are in good condition. The isolation is such that there is no direct path for the
current to flow from one circuit to the other.

18.41.12 Receiver diaphragms are not buckled and are at the correct distance from the pole pieces.

18.41.13 Receiver earpiece fits correctly and is screwed tight.

Note :- Para 18.41.1 to 18.41.13 shall be checked once in a month by the Section Engineer / Signal and once in three months by the
Senior Section Engineer/Signal.

18.41.14 When a pair of block instruments of a block section falls in different contiguous Railway/ Division, both instruments and their
associated equipment shall be maintained by one agency.

18.42 Overhauling of Block Instruments :

Periodical overhauling interval shall not exceed ten years for Single Line Token Block Instruments and seven years for Double Line Block
Instruments and Handle type Single Line Tokenless Block Instruments. Push Button Tokenless Block Instruments do not require
overhauling. The associated polarised relay shall also be overhauled along with the Block Instrument.

18.43 Block Earths:

Block earths and their connections shall be examined at intervals of not more than one month by the Section Engineer/Signal and at
intervals of three months by the Senior Section Engineer /Signal.

18.44 Block earths shall be tested for resistance at intervals of not more than 12 months by the Section Engineer/Signal or Senior
Section Engineer/Signal in accordance with Annexure -27. Where the resistance exceeds 10 ohms, action shall be taken to reduce the
resistance by providing additional earths in parallel.

18.45 In A.C. electrified areas, two different Earth shall be provided for Discharger and Block Earth.

18.46 The four Terminal Condenser used in filter shall be connected in such a way that the D.C. circuit is completed through the plate or
foil of the condensers. It shall be ensured that any break in the foil or Earth connection, which might affect the efficiency of the filter,
puts the circuit itself out of use.

SECTION 'G' - MAINTENANCE - DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS

Token Instruments

18.47 Care shall be taken to see that the safety catch provided near the spring clutch shaft is in position and functioning properly and
free to move about the fulcrum without any friction.

18.48 Token indicator shall be checked to see if it is free to move. The pin shall be oiled once a fortnight with axle oil medium grade to
IS: 1628. Effectiveness of 'No token' lock shall be checked. It shall not be possible to take handle to Train Going To' position when token
indicator shows Red.

18.49 Care shall be taken to see that "Train Going To" and "Train Coming From" locks rocker arm is free to move about its fulcrum pin.
The locks shall be about 1mm above the rack; if not, the locks shall be changed. The edge of the lock shall be square.

18.50 It shall be ensured that all parts of the instrument, which undergo wear and tear are replaced at the time of overhauling.
18.51 The locking Pawl shall be checked to ensure that it is correctly shaped, square ended and the width is 9.5mm.

18.52 Care shall be taken to see that in the case of Tablet instrument, the tablet holding arm release lever is working satisfactorily and
the tablet can be released only after full rotation and release of the instrument handle in the "Train Going To" position.

18.53 It shall be checked that the notches in the rack are correctly shaped and square.

Note: - RDSO Booklet No. STS/E/BTI/IMI may be referred to for detailed instructions regarding maintenance of Token Instruments.

Single Line Tokenless Instruments - Push Button type

18.54 The tests enumerated in paragraphs 18.25 to 18.30 shall be carried out during routine maintenance.

Double Line Block Instruments

18.55 Locking assembly shall be replaced during each overhauling irrespective of its condition. It shall also be ensured that all parts of
the instrument which undergo wear and tear are replaced at the time of overhauling as per approved instructions.

18.56 Tests enumerated in paragraphs 18.16 to 18.20 shall also be carried out during routine inspection.

SECTION 'H' - MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

18.57 The Maintenance Schedule for Block Instruments shall be as in Annexure - 28. At stations having heavy traffic the Railways may
prescribe more frequent inspections, if considered necessary.

SECTION 'I' - AXLE COUNTER BLOCK INSTRUMENTS:

18.58 Maintenance of axle counter block instrument:

18.58.1 Various parameters of axle counter track equipment shall be maintained within permissible values as per the instructions issued
from time to time.

18.58.2 It shall be ensured that various signal levels at prescribed points of electronic equipment are within permissible limits as per laid
down instructions .

SECTION 'J' - SOLID STATE BLOCK SYSTEM

18.59 Maintenance of Solid State Block System:

18.59.1 Various parameters as per the instructions issued from time to time shall be maintained within permissible values.

18.59.2 It shall be ensured that various signal levels at the prescribed points of electronic equipment are within permissible limits.
Annexure 24
Para 18.23

PAINTING SCHEME - BLOCK SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT

1.Single Line Token and Tablet Instruments

(a) Body .. Grey Enamel

(b) Operating Handle, Bell except Gong, Station Master's Control Lock. .. Black Enamel

2. Single Line Tokenless Block Instruments

(a) Body .. Grey Enamel

(b) Operating handle, if any .. White

(c) Base .. Black Enamel

3. Double Line Block Instruments

(a) Wood Work .. Spirit Polish

(b) Metal Casing .. Green Enamel

4.Token Delivery nets .. White

5. Line Clear pick up apparatus

(a) Post .. White

(b) Fittings .. Black

Card No. S&T/TL


Annexure 25
Para 18.35

................RAILWAY

SIGNAL & TELECOMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT

TOKENS/TABLETS LOST
BLOCK SECTION...................................
Division.................................................... Station..............................................................
Type of Block Instrument:..............................................................................
Serial No..................................................
Date of Installation....................................

Signature and
Serial No. of Token lost Date lost Serial No. of New Token used Date inserted remarks of
SSE/SE/JE (Signal)
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .

Annexure 26
Annexure 27

Para 18.44

1. METHOD OF FINDING OUT THE RESISTANCE OF AN EARTH

1. (1) Earths shall be tested by means of a wheatstone Bridge or a G.P.O. Detector or a megger Earth Tester. Two Iron bars with
terminals fixed on them and suitable length of wire shall be used as temporary Earths.

(2) To test an Earth, iron bars shall be driven about 6m from the Earth to be tested and 6m from each other as shown in the
diagram below.

The bars shall be used as temporary Earths and driven in the ground for 1m, 0.25m at a time, then worked backwards and
forwards so as to leave a space for watering. Salt water shall be used to ensure that the bars make a good connection with the
Earth. Should salt be not available, a weak solution of salamoniac in water may be used.

In the diagram, E-1 represents the Earth under test, E-2 and E-3 represent temporary earths.

The resistance in ohms, between the respective Earths shall be tested with the Wheatstone Bridge or G.P.O. Detector or Megger
Earth Tester.
Annexure 28
CHAPTER-XIX
DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT
. SECTION 'A' - GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROPER USE OF TOOLS

19.1 to 19.3 General Instructions

19.4 Soldering Connections

19.5 Wire Termination

. SECTION 'B' - COLOUR LIGHT SIGNALS INSTALLATION

19.6 Type

19.7 Visibility

19.8 Location

19.9 Mounting and Fixtures

19.10 Alignment

19.11 Focussing

19.12 Hoods and Back Screens

19.13 Cables

19.14 Gaskets and Sealing

19.15 Locking

. SECTION 'C - ELECTRIC SIGNAL MACHINES

19.16 Type
INSTALLATION
19.17 to 19.18 Installation
19.19 Testing
19.20 Locking
. SECTION 'D' - ELECTRICALLY LIT SEMAPHORE SIGNALS
19.21 to 19.23 Installation
. SECTION 'E' - ELECTRIC SIGNAL REVERSERS ......
19.24 Type
19.25 Fixing
19.26 Locking
19.27 Installation
. SECTION 'F' - ELECTRIC POINT MACHINES REQUIREMENTS
19.28 to 19.33 Installation
19.34 Initial adjustment of Point Machine
19.35 Adjustment of Driving Rod
19.36 Adjustment of detector contacts
19.37 Adjustment of friction clutch
19.38 Obstruction Test
SECTION 'G' - ELECTRICAL DETECTOR
19.39 to 19.46 Installation
19.47 Circuit Controller
SECTION 'H' - RELAYS REQUIREMENTS
19.48 Type
19.49 Flasher
19.50 Storage
19.51 Protection
19.52. Transportation
. INSTALLATION
19.53 to 19.58 Location
19.59 Code Pin Configuration
19.60 Relay Clip
19.61 Relay Index Board
19.62 Cross protection and double cutting
19.63 Contact Chart
19.64 Sealing of Plug-in Relays
. SECTION 'I' - STATION MASTER'S SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES
19.65 Type
19.66 Fixing
19.67 Location
19.68 Mechanical Locking
19.69 Locking or sealing
. SECTION 'J' - ELECTRIC KEY TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
19.70 Type
19.71 Fixing
19.72 Location
19.73 Communication
19.74 Keys
19.75 Sealing
. SECTION 'K' - ELECTRIC LEVER LOCK
19.76 to 19.78 Installation
. SECTION 'L' - SIGNAL INDICATOR
19.79 Location
19.80 Protection
19.81 Audible Warning
19.82 Wiring
19.83 Signal Arm & Light Repeater
19.84 Colour Light Signal Indicator
19.85 to 19.86 (Left blank intentionally)
. SECTION 'M' - FUSES
19.87 Fuses
. SECTION 'N' - EARTH CONNECTIONS
19.88 to 19.91 Earth Connections
19.92 Method of obtaining Earth
19.93 Earthing Leads
19.94 to 19.101 Earth Electrode Siting
19.102 Earth Resistance
19.103 Earth Electrodes
19.104 Watering
19.105 Earth Connections
. SECTION 'O' - PAINTING OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALUNG EQUIPMENT
19.106 Colour Scheme
19.107 Interval of Painting
. COLOUR LIGHT SIGNALS
19.108 Cleanliness of Lenses
19.109 Replacement
19.110 Maintenance checks
. ELECTRIC SIGNAL MACHINES
19.111 Cleanliness
19.112 Lubrication
19.113 Contacts
19.114 Commutators and Brushes
19.115 Tests
. ELECTRICALLY LIT SEMAPHORE SIGNALS........
19.116 Maintenance
. ELECTRIC SIGNAL REVERSERS

19.117 Maintenance

19.118 Tests

. ELECTRIC POINT MACHINES

19.119 to 19.126 Maintenance

19.127 to 19.129 Tests

. ELECTRIC DETECTOR

19.130 to 19.133 Maintenance

19.134 Obstruction Test

19.135 Circuit Controller

. RELAYS

19.136 to 19.138 Maintenance


19.139 to 19.140 Periodical Inspection

19.141 Overhauling

. STATION MASTER'S SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES

19.142 Maintenance

19.143 Testing and Overhauling

. ELECTRIC KEY TRANSMITTER

19.144 Maintenance

19.145 Testing of Key Transmitter

. ELECTRIC LEVER LOCK

19.146 Maintenance

. SIGNAL ARM AND LIGHT INDICATORS

19.147 Maintenance

. MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

19.148 Schedule of Maintenance of Electrical Signalling Equipment

Annexure 29 Colour Scheme for Electrical Signal Equipment

Annexure 30 Schedule of Maintenance Electrical Signalling Equipment

CHAPTER -XIX

DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT

SECTION 'A' - GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROPER USE OF TOOLS

19.1 All staff engaged in the installation and maintenance of electrical signalling equipment shall be in possession of proper tools. List of
specific tools shall be circulated by CSTE.

19.2 While using metal tools like screwdrivers, nose pliers, cutting pliers, etc. near the working apparatus, care shall be taken to avoid
short circuiting and consequent blowing out of the fuse.

19.3 All staff shall possess adequate number of appropriate insulated tools like rubber gloves, pliers, screw drivers, etc. A rubber floor
mat may be used for standing while attending to circuits carrying more than 110-Volt except in outdoor locations. Signal maintainer shall
possess a competency certificate for working on more than 110V AC circuits.

19.4 Soldering connections

19.4.1 Staff working in the installation and maintenance of electrical equipment shall be conversant in use of soldering iron/gun for
making good soldering joints.

19.4.2 Care shall be exercised to avoid dropping of particles of solder and clippings of wire on adjacent terminals and apparatus.

19.4.3 In addition to soldering irons of adequate wattage for the type of work done, the following shall be at hand:

(a) A Small file for dressing the soldering tip;

(b) A fire proof pad for wiping the tip;

(c) A mica sheet of adequate size or a suitable stand for soldering iron

19.4.4 Electrical soldering irons shall be switched off when not in use over extended periods.

19.4.5 While making a soldering joint, the surface shall be thoroughly cleaned, fluxed and tinned.

19.4.6 Use of too much solder shall be avoided to prevent lumpy connection.

19.4.7 Soldering iron shall not be held on the wire connection for too long to avoid damage to insulation.

19.4.8 Imperfect joints are the result of any one of the following causes, which should be avoided,

(a) Soldering iron not sufficiently hot.

(b) Soldering iron held on the connection for insufficient length of time

(c) Unclean terminal or wire.

(d) A solder of improper composition or inferior fluxing agent.

19.4.9 A newly soldered connection shall not be disturbed till the solder has thoroughly cooled.

19.5 Wire Termination

19.5.1 While terminating wires, care shall be taken to bend the wires in clockwise direction.
19.5.2 Wire strippers shall be used for the purpose of stripping off the wire insulation. Cutting pliers shall not be used for the purpose.

19.5.3 Washers and check nuts shall be used whilst fastening.

19.5.4 Not more than two wires shall be terminated on one terminal.

19.5.5 Multi-strand wires shall be terminated on terminal lugs and covered with insulation sleeves.

19.5.6 Wires of cable shall be neatly terminated and properly bunched.

19.5.7 Crimping tools of appropriate design should be used.

SECTION 'B' :- COLOUR LIGHT SIGNALS INSTALLATION

19.6 Type :- Colour Light Signals shall be multi unit of approved type.

19.7 The signal shall have a minimum visibility as indicated in Chapter Vll. Spread light lenses may be used on curvatures and gradients
to ensure continuos visibility of signals.

19.8 Location :- The location and spacing of signals shall be in accordance with approved plans. The signal shall be so located that a
clear view is available to the driver of an approaching train and is as close to the track as permissible. The height of normal aspect of the
signal shall be approximately at 3.65 metre from the rail level. Wherever this is not feasible due to local terrain, height of the signal post
may be suitable increased or decreased to get a clear view of the signal. The actual visibility of signal shall be checked by a sighting
committee and action to improve the visibility taken on recommendation of the committee before commissioning a new signal.

19.9 Mounting and Fixtures :-

19.9.1 Colour Light Signals may be mounted on a rigid ground post or a signal gantry clear of standard dimensions.

19.9.2 Each signal unit shall be rigidly fixed in position.

19.9.3 Signal posts shall be kept plumb and lead wool packed.

19.9.4 Lead wool packing may be used to close the excess gap from post to signal unit, surface base to post. The cable entry at the
signal unit should be provided with wooden plug around the cable to close excess gap to prevent rodent entry.

19.9.5 Signal number plate shall be provided.

19.10 Alignment :- Each signal unit shall be aligned correctly to the required distance and direction by employing the sighting hole
along the side of the signal unit and by manipulating the separate horizontal and vertical adjustments.

19.11 Focussing :- Each aspect shall be properly focussed.


19.12 Hoods and Back Screens: - Hoods of adequate size to counteract the effects of sunrays shall be provided. Where required,
metallic mesh at suitable spacing shall be provided to protect lenses from outside interference.

19.13 Cables :- Cables shall be used from the point of operation to the location box/signal unit and/ or location box to the signal unit.
Cable shall be protected suitably at the entry points of location box and signal post..

19.14 Gaskets and Sealing :- All openings shall be gasketted and cable/wire entrance shall be sealed to make the enclosure water
tight, dust-proof and vermin-proof,

19.15 Locking :- The housing shall be kept locked.

SECTION 'C - ELECTRIC SIGNAL MACHINES

19.16 Electric Signal machines shall be Top of Mast' type and shall conform to approved specifications. Suitable anti-theft measures shall
be provided.

INSTALLATION

19.17 General :

19.17.1 Electric signal machines shall be installed in accordance with approved plans.

19.17.2 Before installation of the machine, it shall be ensured that-

(a) The signal post is plumb and where necessary has been suitably guyed, especially where fitted on top of mast.

(b) The machine has been properly cleaned, greased and oiled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and working freely

(c) A suitable platform has been provided on the signal post for the maintainer to have an easy access to all parts of the machine.

19.17.3 The machine shall be fixed to the post with clamps of suitable size and be prevented from slipping downwards.

19.17.4 Only 'B' type spectacle shall be used for semaphore arm operated through electrical signal machine mounted top of mast,
however, 'A' type spectacle may be used for base of mast mounted electric signal machine.

19.17.5 Excessive lowering more than 50° or excessive raising more than 90° shall not be permitted to ensure self-restoration of signal
arm when signal is put back to ON.

19.17.6 Gaskets and sealing shall be in accordance with Para 19.14.

19.18 The signal machine shall be worked on cable.

19.19 Testing :- Machine shall be tested in accordance with para 19.115 before being brought into use, and thereafter at such interval
as laid down in Chapter XIII.

19.20 Locking :- The housing of the machine shall be locked. Anti-theft arrangements shall be provided where required.

SECTION 'D' - ELECTRICALLY LIT SEMAPHORE SIGNALS

19.21 Electrically lit semaphore signals where provided shall conform to approved drawings and normally be operated from batteries
charged from solar panels or alternatively from the battery charger, provided electrical power is available.

19.22 A suitable device of an approved type shall be used to switch off the power supply during day light, where it is so desired.

19.23 Fixing arrangements of signal lamp for electric lighting of signals shall be of approved design. The arrangement for electric lamp
should be such that in emergency Kerosene oil lamp can be provided without modification to the fixing arrangement. Focussing
arrangements by way of horizontal and vertical adjusting screws similar to Kerosene lit lamps shall be provided.

SECTION 'E' - ELECTRIC SIGNAL REVERSERS

19.24 Type :- Electric Reverser shall be of an post mounting type as per approved design.

19.25 Fixing :- Reverser shall be securely fixed. The signal controlled through the reverser shall return to 'ON' when the control circuit is
opened.

19.26 Locking :- Covers must be properly fitted and securely locked.

19.27 Installation :-

19.27.1 Oil level in the dash pot shall be checked to be minimum 35mm from the bottom surface of the sliding cylinder.

19.27.2 Proper fitting of all parts shall be checked by visual inspection.

19.27.3 Manual check lock shall be effective.

19.27.4 Circuit Controller shall be adjusted for ±5° for ON proving, 4o°-60° for lowering for OFF proving, 45°-60° for raising for
caution/attention proving and 85°-90° for clear aspect proving.

19.27.5 All bolts and nuts to be tightened fully and split pins opened.

SECTION 'F' - ELECTRIC POINT MACHINES

REQUIREMENTS

19.28 Type: - Electric Point Machines of an approved type shall be used.


19.29 Electric Point Machines shall be installed in accordance with approved plans. Ground fittings of approved design shall be used.
Ground connections shall be thoroughly checked for any crack or improper welded joint. Normally the machine shall be installed beside
the close switch leading to high-speed movements clear of all infringements. Before installation of the machine, it shall be ensured that —

19.29.1 The permanent way Inspector has made all the provisions at the Points as detailed in Para 12.40 of Chapter XII.

19.29.2 The machine has been properly cleaned, greased and oiled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and is working
freely.

19.29.3 Proper alignment and level of connections is maintained between the machine and the point gears.

19.29.4 The top of sleepers which are to support the point machine are at level and that surrounding ballast is well tamped to prevent
sinkage during the passage of train.

19.29.5 The machine shall be so installed that it is clear of all infringements.

19.29.6 Proper drainage shall be provided to avoid water logging near point area.

19.30 Wiring :- Wiring from the point of operation to the location box/apparatus case nearest to the machine shall be in cable. The
power cable shall be of appropriate size to keep the voltage drop minimum. The connection between location box/apparatus case and
point machine shall be through underground cable adequately protected below track and near point machine, through Gl pipe or
equivalent. It shall be tested for insulation and continuity before bringing into operation.

19.30.1 The excess gap around cable entry to the machine shall be plugged to avoid rodent entry.

19.31 Gaskets and sealing :- Electric Point Machine shall be provided with suitable gaskets and wire entrances shall be sealed to make
them water tight and dust proof. All the extra openings shall be closed as far as possible.

19.32 Locking :- Electric Point Machine covers shall be locked. The cover provided for insertion of crank handle shall also be locked with
separate key providing access only for crank handle and crank handle key.

19.33 Notches in stretcher blades:- Notches/Notch profile of the locking, driving and detection slides should not be
tampered/reconditioned. Worn-out slides should be replaced with new ones.

19.34 INITIAL ADJUSTMENT OF POINT MACHINE

19.35 Adjustment of Driving Rod:- The points shall be adjusted by operating the machine first by hand crank. The insertion of hand
crank should disconnect the power supply to the machine. When the machine has been fastened down, the throw bar connections shall
be set up and the point machine hand cranked to one end of the stroke positioning the locking blades so as to allow the appropriate
locking dog to pass through notches. The closed switch shall be adjusted to just in contact with the stock rail. Then the connections shall
be tightened further by 2 mm to 3.5 mm to impart a springing action to the tongue rail. The machine should be hand cranked to the
opposite end of the stroke and the setting repeated for the other switch.
NOTE: Unless any special instruction are issued by the Railway, adjustment for driving rod and lock rod shall be done for the close switch
nearest to the point machine first.

19.36 Adjustment of detector contacts:- The machine shall be hand cranked to the end of the stroke to close the tongue rail. Insert
1.6 mm test piece between stock rail and switch rail at 150 mm from toe of the switch and operate the point. Ensure detector contacts
just make. A test gauge of 3.25 mm shall be inserted between the switch rail and stock rail at a distance of 150 mm from the toe of the
switch. The detector connection of the closed switch shall be adjusted till the appropriate detector contact are just broken. The same shall
be repeated at the other end of the stroke. All the relevant nuts shall be tightened.

NOTE: Where lock slide is provided in the machine, during switch detector adjustment the test shall first be done with fictitious locking.
After completing the above test, same test be repeated with machine properly locked.

19.37 Adjustment of friction clutch:- Friction clutch should be so adjusted that slipping current is between one and half times to twice
the normal operating current or as specified by the manufacturer. For rotary type point machines no attempt should be made to adjust
friction clutch at site. Friction clutch can only be adjusted in authorized Workshop. When difference between normal operating current
and operating current under obstruction is less than 0.5A, the clutch requires adjustment. Such machine should be replaced.

19.38 Obstruction Test:- The point driving rod and the lock connections of the machine must be so adjusted that with 5 mm thick test
piece obstruction placed between the switch and the stock rail at 150 mm from the toe of the switch:-

i) the point cannot be locked,

ii) the point detector contacts should not assume the position indicating point closure &

iii) Friction clutch should slip.

SECTION 'G' - ELECTRICAL DETECTOR

INSTALLATION

19.39 Electric detector of an approved type shall be used. Normally it shall be installed beside the close switch leading to high-speed
movement, clear of all infringements as per approved plan and drawing.

19.40 Detectors shall be mounted either on the left or on the right hand side of a point layout clear of infringements.

19.41 The detectors shall be mounted on extended sleepers or as per any other approved arrangement.

19.42 Contacts shall be adjusted so that they make or break at the same time. Shunt contacts shall be adjusted so that they do not
make before the detector contacts break. In AC traction area shunt contact shall not be used. Care shall be exercised to check that the
detection contacts flex a little after they are closed.

19.43 All nuts and screws shall be tightened. Check nuts with spring washer shall be provided.
19.44 After installation before connecting the detector slide, the slides shall be pulled by hand to check for free movement. Binding, if
any shall be attended to.

19.45 The lock slide shall be pulled and it shall be checked that as soon as the roller is lifted above the slot in the lock slide, the normal
or reverse contacts are open and the shunt contacts are made. The electrical detector must be so adjusted that with 3.25 mm thick test
piece obstruction placed between the switch and the stock rail at 150 mm from toe of the switch - The electrical detector contacts shall
not make.

19.46 To keep the slides in correct position the locating marks on the switch and lock slides shall be made use of.

19.47 Circuit Controller

19.47.1 Installation of circuit controller shall be done in accordance with approved plans on a rigid base as under:

(a) Single wire lever frames:- On under frame in cabin basement & actuated by a connecting rod connected to lever tail

(b) Ground frames:- As per approved plan & actuated by a connecting rod connected to lever.

(c) Double wire lever frame:- Behind the levers, actuated by a connecting rod connected to lever tail.

(d) Signal post:- Using clips & bolts, its arm shall be directly actuated by the signal arm.

19.47.2 Connect connecting rod on circuit controller arm in its normal position to the lever tail/ lever/ signal arm in their normal position
as the case may be. It shall be ensured that stroke available from above gears is not adjusted more than the stroke required by circuit
controller in its extreme positions.

19.47.3 The contact segment shall be cut clean to required length & edge shall be tapered. While 'fixing, it shall be adjusted in required
position & ensured that it does not make in any other position.

19.47.4 Contact segment positions when used with lever.

Lever position Description


N Full normal position of lever.
A Normal lock/ Track lock while during movement from Normal to Reverse.
B Normal indication lock position for point during movement from Reverse to Normal between 'C & 'A' position.
C Centre position of lever.
D Reverse indication lock position for point during movement from Normal to Reverse between 'C & 'E' position.
E Reverse lock/ Track lock during movement from Reverse to Normal.
R Full reverse position of lever.
Longer contact segments may be used where required. Some typical examples are as under
AB For Normal lock cum Normal indication locking.
AC On lock bar/ Signal lever for door lock release on Double line block instrument.
AE Normal/ Reverse track locking without indication locking.
AR To feed electric signal reverser.
DE For Reverse lock cum Reverse indication locking.

Contact segment adjustments, when used for arm proving

Type of signal Aspect Lower quadrant Multi aspect upper quadrant

ON ±5° from horizontal ±5° from horizontal


40° -45° above horizontal for Caution/
OFF 45° -60° below horizontal for clear attention and 85°-90° above horizontal
for clear.
Contact segments provided in electric point machine & signal machine shall always be cut & adjusted in manufacturer's
premises.

SECTION 'H' - RELAYS

REQUIREMENTS

19.48. Type:- Relays of an approved type shall be used.

19.48.1 Line relays of Neutral/ Polar Biased/ Magnetic latch/ Interlocked type rated at 24/60 V DC shall normally be used. Normally
plug-in type relays shall be used.

NOTE : 12 V DC shelf type relays shall not be used in new installations, except as mentioned above. Also, effort shall be made to reduce
their use in existing installations in phased manner.

Shelf type Polar line relays of approved type, shall only be used in line circuit for block working.

Suitable type of Lamp proving relays for ON & OFF proving shall be used for signal lamps operating on DC or AC to meet with parameters
to suit various lamps.

Special line relays of reed type shall be of double tuned filter type.
19.48.2 Track relays shall always be of metal to carbon contact type & normally be of plug in type, unless otherwise specially permitted.

NOTE : The use of Shelf type track relays snail be avoided in future installations. In case power is not available & their use can not be
avoided, the length of track circuit shall be decided, taking into account the maximum sectional speed & drop away time of relay (
normally 1200 msec) & its follower repeating line relay (normally 600 msec for shelf type line relay). Also, effort shall be made to reduce
their use in existing installations in phased manner.)

In non electrified area, the following relays shall be used:-

9 ohm DC non-AC immunized (shelf type & plug-in type).

4 ohm DC non-AC immunized.

2.25 ohm DC non-AC immunized (Shelf type).

In electrified area, the following relays shall be used:-

9 ohm DC neutral, AC immunized.

9 ohm DC biased, AC immunized.

Double element motor type relay, operating on 83 & one third Hz in AC traction area and 50 Hz in DC traction area shall be used. Vane
type relays may continue in use till replacement.

Relays for track circuit provided with coded, pulsed, electronic (audio frequency or high frequency track circuit), shall be of an approved
type of track/ line relay or as recommended by manufacturer.

19.48.3 Where magnetic latch relays are used, the circuit shall be so designed so as to prevent undue dropping of the relay due to back
emf generated by other relays.

19.48.4 Wiring of 'Q' type relays shall be done through flexible wire preferably.

19.49 Mercury wet contact type relay shall be used for flasher circuits, alternatively, a solid state flasher may be used. If solid state
flasher is used, flashing indication on operating panel should be provided for indicating healthy condition of flasher.

19.50 Storage:- Relays shall be kept in reasonable storage condition. It shall be ensured that such a storage place is not in the vicinity
of damp or chemically polluted environment.

19.51 Sealing screws of the relays shall be intact.

19.52. Transportation:- Care shall be exercised in transporting the relays from the place of storage to the work site so that the relays
do not get damaged.
INSTALLATION

19.53 Location :- It shall be ensured that as far as practicable, the relay room is not located in the vicinity of chemical factory, loco
shed or engine ash pits etc. In case it becomes unavoidable, necessary precautions shall be taken so that relays are least affected by the
chemical fumes, dust etc. and are provided with dust free environment. Where there is concentration of relays, Air-conditioning shall
preferably be provided.

19.54 Where Relays can not be located in the Cabin, they shall be housed in location of approved type which are properly secured.

19.55 Where relays are likely to be subjected to vibrations, they shall be mounted in such a way that the relays are free from shock and
can not be tilted.

19.56 It is desirable to provide insulating caps on the terminals of shelf type relay to avoid inadvertent short-circuiting during
maintenance.

19.57 When a number of shelf type relays are used, the mounting and arrangement of relay rack shall be such as to facilitate easy
maintenance. Suitable anti-tilting arrangement shall be provided wherever shelf type relays are used.

19.58 Relays shall be housed on level surface.

19.59 In 'Q' style relay the code pins configurations for plug in relay shall not be changed by drilling additional holes on plug board to
avoid fixing of a wrong relay which may lead to unsafe condition. In Siemen's K-50 relays, the Code pins position on base plate should
not be changed and to be retained as fixed by the manufacturer.

19.60 All relay clips shall be checked for proper locking in the base when plugged in. Extreme care shall be exercised while removing the
clips from the jacks of the plug-in type relay.

19.61 In all installations, a relay index board shall be provided for locating relays easily.

19.62 Relays involving external circuits shall have cross protection and double cutting. Signal control relays shall preferably be provided
with double cutting.

19.63 A contact chart shall be prepared duly showing the contacts used circuit-wise with reference and spare contacts available, wire
count for each contact and relay position in the rack.

19.64 Sealing of Plug-in Relays

19.64.1 In case of metal to carbon contact type relays, sealing shall be done at Manufacturer's premises before dispatch and if the seals
have to be broken due to any defect noticed, resealing must be done at the workshops.

19.64.2 In case of metal to metal contact type relays, sealing of the cover shall be done by the Section Engineer at site. Whenever seals
have to be broken at site for maintenance purposes, the same shall be done by an official not below the rank of Section Engineer.
19.64.3 Line Relays shall be energized at the rated voltage specified in the specification.

19.64.4 Locking screw shall be removed and the hole sealed in case of Shelf type relays.

SECTION M' - STATION MASTER'S SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES

19.65 Type : - Station Master's slide control frame shall be of approved type.

19.66 Fixing :- Station Master's Slide Control frame shall be securely fixed and the fixtures shall be substantial.

19.67 Location :- Station Master's slide control frame shall be suitably located, preferably adjacent to other instruments in the Station
Master's office.

19.68 Mechanical Locking :- Mechanical locking of Station Master's Slide Control frame shall be in accordance with approved plan.

19.69 Locking or sealing :- Station Master's slide control frame shall be securely locked and the locking box sealed.

SECTION 'J' - ELECTRIC KEY TRANSMITTER

INSTALLATION

19.70 Type : - Electric key transmitter of an approved type shall be used.

19.71 Fixing :- Electric key transmitters shall be securely fixed vertically. There shall not be any opening giving access to the interior of
the key transmitter through which it is possible to operate the mechanism by any irregular means.

19.72 Location :- Electric key transmitters shall be fitted as near as possible to the gear they control.

19.73 Communication :- Telephonic communication shall be provided between the pair of electric key transmitters when they are in
different locations. Where direct communication is not possible, a bell shall be provided near each electric key transmitter.

19.74 Keys :- It shall not be possible to insert and operate the key transmitter by any key other than the one for which the key
transmitter is intended. It shall also be ensured that the key of any one transmitter at a station does not fit in any other key transmitter
at the same station except its counterpart.

19.75 Sealing :- Electric key transmitter cover shall be securely sealed.

SECTION 'K' - ELECTRIC LEVER LOCK

INSTALLATION

19.76 Type:- Electric lever lock shall be of an approved forced Drop type. It shall be provided with economizer contact and lock in
proving contacts.
19.76.1 Lever lock with 200 mm stroke shall be installed vertically on a rigid frame on under frame in .cabin basement in case of single
wire lever frames & as per approved plan when used in conjunction with ground frames. Installation of lever lock with 40 mm stroke
when used in double wire lever frame shall be done behind the levers. When this lock is used in conjunction with an 'E' type lock, it shall
be mounted on a suitable rigid frame.

19.76.2 The lock slide & lock plunger shall be free from any jamming.

19.76.3 The locking face of locking notches for lever locks with 200 mm stroke shall be cut clean & square and case hardened preferably
in workshops to suit the site requirements.

19.76.4 When circuit controller is built into the lever lock, it shall be ensured that it keeps engaged with lock slide throughout the stroke
till extreme positions.

19.76.5 The locking notches for lever locks with 40 mm stroke shall only be cut in workshops & depth of notch shall be 4 mm + 0.2 mm.
The notches shall be cut radially.

19.76.6 The force drop mechanism shall be effective at all the locking positions of the levers.

19.77 The circuit controller contact segments shall be so cut that the contacts will not close in other than the required position refer para
19.47.4.

19.78 The lever lock cover/covers shall be properly fitted and sealed. Where lever lock is not provided in cabin basement, it shall be
securely locked also.

SECTION 'L' - SIGNAL INDICATOR

19.79 Location :- Signal Indicator/Repeater shall be provided nearest to the place from which the signal is worked and shall be clearly
visible.

19.80 Lightning and power protective devices shall be provided where required.

19.81 Audible Warning :- Audible Warning device, where provided, may be common to all light indicators.

19.82 Wiring :- Wires leading from the indicator shall be suitably protected.

19.83 Signal Arm & Light Repeater

19.83.1 Lamp proving device for each aspect

(a) For oil lit lamps :- Thermostat expander contact shall be of an approved type.

(b) For Electric lamps used for semaphore signals :- Suitable Electric/Electronic/Optical sensor shall be provided.
19.83.2 Arm Proving :- Circuit controller used for semaphore arm proving shall be adjusted as per para 19.47.4.

19.83.3 Arm indicator used for semaphore signal shall give 'WRONG' indication except for indications covered in para 19.47.4.

19.83.4 Group Light indicator for semaphore signals :- Each signal light to be indicated need not to be provided with an individual
light indicator. Lights on the same bracket signal or gantry may be series wired for group indicator.

19.83.5 Battery Boxes :- Battery Boxes provided for the indication battery shall be substantial and secured against any unauthorized
interference and be located at or nearest the signal.

19.84 Colour Light Signal Indicator

19.84.1 Lamp proving relay of an approved type shall be used.

19.84.2 Colour Light Signal Indicators :- Colour Light Signal Indicators shall repeat the 'ON' and each one of the 'OFF' aspect of
signal.

19.85 (Para left blank intentionally)

19.86. (Para left blank intentionally)

SECTION 'M' - FUSES

19.87 FUSES

19.87.1 Fuses shall be of an approved type. Normally non-deteriorating type, 'G' type, alarm or cartridge type fuses shall be used. When
fuse is not provided with fuse blown of indication, additional indication circuit may be provided.

19.87.2 At the time of commissioning of any signalling installation, the normal load current of every circuit shall be measured and
recorded. These recorded values shall be checked with the theoretically obtained values. Fuse of correct capacity which should be not less
than 2.5 times the rated current, shall be provided.

19.87.3 When there is a case of fuse blowing off, the concerned circuit current shall be measured and compared with the original
recorded value. If there is a variation, action shall be taken to locate and remove the defect before a new fuse is inserted.

SECTION 'N' - EARTH CONNECTIONS

19.88 EARTH CONNECTIONS

19.89 Separate earth shall be provided for each block instrument at a station
19.90 The resistance of earth for signalling circuits shall not exceed 10 ohm. If the resistance is more than 10 ohm, steps to reduce the
earth resistance shall be taken as indicated in paras 19.92. If it is still not possible to reduce the value below 10 ohm, even with the
adoption of these methods, additional earths may be provided in parallel.

19.91 Where more than one earth is used , the distance between Earthing pipes shall not be less than 3 metre. The conductor leading to
these earthings shall be electrically insulated from each other throughout and also from metallic structures connected to different earths.

19.92 Method of obtaining Earth

19.92.1 Earthing arrangement shall normally consist of one or more galvanized iron pipes of not less than 38 mm internal diameter and
not less than 2.5 metre in length with a spike at one end and a lug at the other for connecting the earth lead or galvanized iron/steel rods
of not less than 16mm dia or copper rods of not less than 12.5 mm dia and of not less than 2.5 metre length. While the pipe is embedded
vertically, the rod electrodes are driven vertically in the ground. When a rocky soil is encountered at a depth of less than 2.0 metres of
the length of this electrode, the electrode may be buried inclined to the vertical, the inclination being limited to 30°. from the vertical.
Earth electrodes shall not be buried in a position likely to cause an obstruction or where it is likely to be damaged.

19.92.2 The resistance of these electrodes in a soil of uniform resistivity decreases with depth but there is little to be gained by driving
the rod to more than 3 to 3.5 metres. Also the decrease in the resistance with increase in rod diameter is not significant. It is, therefore,
recommended to use the rod electrodes of such diameters as can easily withstand the strain of driving.

19.93 Earthing Leads

19.93.1 Earth wires shall be protected against mechanical damage and possibility of corrosion particularly at the point of connection of
earth electrode.

19.93.2 The earthing lead shall be mild steel flat of size 35mm x 6mm or copper wire of 29 sq. mm cross sectional area (19 strands of
1.4 mm dia). In case the conductor is buried underground, It shall be protected from corrosion by an application of suitable anti-corrosive
paint or bitumen or varnish. The length of the cable so treated shall extend half a metre beyond the buried length.

19.93.3 The earthing lead shall be soldered or crimped on a lug, which shall be bolted to the earth electrode. The nut & bolt to be
painted with anti corrosive paint.

19.94 The site for earthing shall be chosen in the following order of preference :-

(a) Wet marshy ground and grounds containing refuse, such as ashes, cinders and brine waste.

(b) Clay soil or loam mixed with small quantities of sand.

(c) Clay and loan mixed with varying proportions of sand, gravel and stone; and

(d) Damp and wet sand and peat.

19.95 A site which is naturally well drained shall be chosen. A water logged situation, however, is not essential unless the soil be sand or
gravel. Perennial wells may also be used as sites for earth electrodes with advantage where the bottom of the earth is rocky.

19.96 Electrodes shall preferably be situated in a soil which has a fine texture and which is packed by watering and ramming as tightly
as possible. Where practicable, the soil shall be sifted and all lumps broken up and stones removed in the immediate vicinity of the
electrodes.

19.97 Where soil conductivity is poor, the chemical treatment may be resorted to improve the same. Common salt together with
charcoal in alternate layers is generally used for this purpose and the addition of less than one part by weight of salt to 200 of soil mass
may reduce the resistivity by 80% but there is little advantage in increasing the salt content above 3%. Calcium chloride and sodium
carbonate are also beneficial.

19.98 Use should be made where possible of natural salts in soil produced by bacteriological action on decaying plants. The resistivity of
the soil on which plants are growing will be less than that of a similar soil in the absence of plants.

19.99 As far as possible, the earthing arrangement shall be located in the natural soil. The made-up soil which has not consolidated or is
likely to be eroded by weather, shall be avoided.

19.100 The minimum clearance of equipment earths from system earths provided by the Electrical Department either of the Railways or
of the other Administrations shall be 20 metres.

19.101 Ashphalt or concrete cover of about 50mm thickness around the Earth for a radius of 1 metre to retain the soil moisture is
desirable.

19.102 Earth Resistance:- The total resistance of an 'earth' is the sum of three separate resistances, viz.,

(a) the resistance of the conductor joining the earth electrode to the installation;

(b) the contact resistance between the surface of the earth electrode and the soil, and

(c) the resistance of the body of soil surrounding the earth electrodes.

Normally the first two resistances are negligibly small compared with the third; so, the resistance of an 'earth' is primarily determined by
the nature of the soil and not by the electrode itself.

19.103 Under ordinary soil conditions, use of galvanized iron or mild steel electrode is recommended. In cases where soil corrosion is
likely to be excessive, it is preferable to use either copper or copper clad electrode. The electrodes shall be free from paint, enamel or
grease.

19.103.1 Earth tester normally used for measurement of earth resistivity comprises of the current source and meters in a single
instrument and directly read the resistance value.

CONNECTION FOR A FOUR TERMINAL MEGGER


When using a megger as shown below, the resistivity may be evaluated from equation as given below:

19.103.2 Test Procedure :- At the selected test site, four electrodes are driven into the earth along a straight line in a chosen direction
at equal intervals' S'.

The depth of the electrodes in the ground shall be of the order of 10 to 15 cm. The megger is placed on a steady and approximately level
base, the link between terminals P1 and C1 opened and the four electrodes connected to the instrument terminals as shown in the fig. An
appro. range on the instrument is then selected to obtain clear readings, avoiding the two ends of the scale, as far as possile. The
readings are taken while turning the crank at about 135 rev/min.

Resistivity is calculated by substituting the values of 'R' in the equation


P = 2 л SR
Method of finding out the resistance of an Earth -
Refer annexure 27 chapter XVIII

MAINTENANCE

19.104 Watering :- Earths shall be regularly watered.

19.105 Earth connections :- All Earth connections shall be carefully examined and kept intact and joints soldered. The wire between
each earth and the connected equipment shall be electrically isolated.

SECTION 'O' - PAINTING OF ELECTRICAL SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT

19.106 Electrical signalling equipment shall be painted in accordance with the Colour Scheme shown for the respective items in
Annexure-29.

19.107 Painting :-The provisions in the Chapter XII para 12.135 shall be adhered to. COLOUR LIGHT SIGNALS

19.108 Cleanliness of Lenses

19.108.1 Lenses, glasses and lamps shall be kept clean. A dry soft cloth free from lint and abrasives shall be used for cleaning.

19.108.2 Housing shall be kept clean and opening in inclement or stormy weather avoided. The condition of the gasket shall be checked
to ensure that rain water does not have access to the interior of lamp unit.

19.109 Replacement

19.109.1 Defective lenses and glasses must be replaced immediately.

19.109.2 The frequency of replacement of lamps shall be decided by CSTE of Zonal Railway.

19.109.3 When double filament lamps are used, they must be replaced when one filament fails. It is preferable to give audio/visual
indication at the place of operation.

19.109.4 New lamp shall be pre-tested as per approved instructions before putting into use.

19.110 Maintenance checks :- The following checks shall be made periodically :

19.110.1 The bulb shall be properly seated and contact springs have adequate tension.
19.110.2 The signal focussing shall be checked and adjusted periodically.

19.110.3 All adjusting nuts are properly tightened.

ELECTRIC SIGNAL MACHINES

19.111 Cleanliness :- Machines shall be kept in good condition free from rust, dust and dirt.

19.112 Lubrication :- All gearing and bearings shall be lubricated according to manufacturers' instructions and free from grit and dirt.

19.113 Contacts :- All contacts shall be kept clean and in proper adjustment.

19.114 Commutators and Brushes

19.114.1 Commutators shall be clean, smooth and have a bright appearance. These should be cleaned with chamois leather.

19.114.2 Brushes shall be kept clean and properly bedded on the commutator. Brushes shall have proper pressure and shall be free in
brush holders. Brushes shall be replaced when excessively worn-out or hardened.

19.115 TESTS :- The machine shall be tested by actual operation to see that:

(a) On closing the machine circuit, the motor operates smoothly, the hold off device is effective and the arm is taken 'OFF' correctly. If
the motor does not operate smoothly and the hold off device is not effective, it is evidence of a faulty operation, which must be
corrected.

(b) On opening the machine circuit, the signal arm returns to the 'ON' position smoothly without jerks. Ensure snubbing is effective and
there is no tendency to stick.

(c) Normal and reverse stop provided outside the machine shall be properly adjusted so that the machine stops without any jerk in both
'ON' & 'OFF' positions.

(d) The position of the arm is correctly repeated on the arm indicator, if provided.

(e) Manual check lock when provided, shall be effective.

(f) Test the minimum operating values of the signal machine motor and the hold off device at least once in 3 months.

19.115.1 The maintainer shall test as per 19.115(a) to (f).

19.115.2 Each Inspector in charge of electrical apparatus shall perform the following periodical tests :-

(i) test the minimum operating values of the signal machine motor and the hold off device at least once in 3 months;
(ii) test the machine motor and hold off device at minimum operating values. If the motor does not operate smoothly and the hold off
device is not effective, it is evidence of a faulty operation, which must be corrected. It should be ensured that there is no tendency of
jamming of the arm in 'OFF' position.

(iii) test for effectiveness of the snubbing.

ELECTRICALLY LIT SEMAPHORE SIGNALS

19.116 MAINTENANCE

19.116.1 Battery provided for lighting of signals shall be maintained regularly.

19.116.2 Working of photoelectric switch shall be checked whenever the Maintainer makes his rounds.

19.116.3 Focussing of signal lamps should be done regularly. ELECTRIC SIGNAL REVERSERS

19.117 The electric reversers shall be so maintained that -

19.117.1 All moving parts work freely and are well lubricated, special care being taken during rainy weather to prevent rusting and
sticking of parts. Parts requiring lubrication shall be oiled once a fortnight with high grade lubricating oil to Specification NO. IS. 1628.
Ball bearings must not be oiled but filled with graphite grease (Grease A. No. 0 to IS 408). Dash Pot assembly shall be checked at least
once in a year and if the oil is lower than 35mm above the bottom of sliding cylinder, insulating oil to specification No. IS.335 shall be
used to bring the oil up to the level.

19.117.2 There is no tendency for the reverser to hold when de-energised.

19.117.3 The coil core does not retain any magnetism. The connection of the coil shall be periodically reversed to eliminate any such
possibility at least once in a month. The surfaces of armature and core should be properly cleaned from dust. The armature must be kept
free from oil or grease.

19.117.4 All mechanical connections to the reverser are properly aligned and work freely.

19.117.5 All terminal screws, lock nuts and locking screws are tight and split pins opened.

19.118 TESTS :- Each electric reverser is periodically tested by -

19.118.1 Taking 'OFF' the signal and replacing to 'ON' by putting back each control separately. The signal must go to 'ON' as soon as
any one of the controls is replaced to 'ON'. Ensure that the dash pot is in proper working order.

19.118.2 Pulling the lever which operates the signal slowly without obtaining the electrical control. The signal shall not come to 'OFF'.
Alternatively, efforts may be made to take 'OFF' the signal by pulling the wire slowly at the signal. The signal shall not come 'OFF' and the
reverser shall not show any tendency to stick.

19.118.3 The voltage at the reverser coil terminals shall be tested. It shall not be more than 25% above the rated voltage.

19.118.4 It shall not be possible to lower/raise the signal arm manually from its 'ON' position without electrical control.

19.118.5 The insulation and continuity of the coil of the reverser must be checked once in 3 months.

19.118.6 The maintainer shall test as per para 19.118.1 to 19.118.4.

19.118.7 The Section Engineer shall test as per para 19.118.1 to 19.118.5.

ELECTRIC POINT MACHINES

19.119 Cleanliness :- Machines shall be kept in good condition free from rust, dust and dirt.

19.120 Lubrication :- All gearing and bearing shall be properly lubricated according to manufacturer's instructions.

19.121 Commutator, Brushes & Electrical Connections :-

19.121.1 Commutator shall be kept clean, smooth and have bright appearance. Commutator may be cleaned with chamois leather
Under no circumstances, shall emery paper be used.

19.121.2 Brushes shall be kept clean and properly bedded on the commutator. Brushes shall have proper pressure and shall be free in
brush holders.

19.122 All cables connections on terminal, motor terminal etc. shall be checked for intactness.

19.123 All tail cables shall be checked for their insulation as per periodicity given in Annexure 30.

19.124 Adjustment of Contacts :- Contacts shall be clean, free from pitting and in proper adjustment.

19.125 Rain water drainage arrangements shall be checked especially prior to and during rainy season.

19.126 FIXING NUTS AND SCREWS

19.126.1 Fixing nuts and screws of newly installed point machine often tend to get loose. Care shall be taken to attend to them and
readjust where required. To prevent this, check nut with spring washer shall be provided.

19.126.2 All moving parts including locking Dogs and notches slides, etc. shall be checked for chamfering or undue wear. Where badly
worn-out, the relevant parts shall be promptly replaced.

19.127 TESTS
19.127.1 Obstruction Test :-The point driving rod and the lock connections of the machine must be so adjusted that with 5 mm thick
test piece obstruction placed between the switch and the stock rail at 150 mm from the toe of the switch:-

i) the point cannot be locked;

ii) the point detector contacts should not assume the position indicating point closure

iii) Friction clutch should slip.

19.127.2 The Maintainer shall check whether the current required to operate the machine in either direction is the same
(approximately). The reason for unbalance, if any, shall be investigated and eliminated.

19.127.3 Test the spring in each switch and ensure sufficient spring. It shall not be too excessive to cause excessive wear on machine
part, neither it shall too less to hold the switch against the stock rail. In either of the case, the point drive rod shall be adjusted.

19.127.4. Friction clutch where provided shall slip at a value not less than one and half and not exceeding twice the normal working
current.

19.127.5 Badly worn-out pins shall be replaced; the holes shall be reamed out and fitted with a oversized pin. Split pins where provided
shall be properly split out.

19.127.6 Voltage and current shall be checked periodically at the motor terminals. This will indicate any undue friction on the points or
improperly fastened terminals at cable terminations.

19.127.7 Cable and wire insulation and continuity tests shall be done as per Annexure 30.

19.127.8 The essential requirement for interlocking of point shall be periodically checked as per Chapter XII, Para 12.40.

19.128 It shall be ensured that during obstruction in the point, the feed to point is automatically disconnected within 1.5 times to 2
times the normal operating time of point machine and reconnects only when a fresh operation is done. Where sequential operation of
point machine is done, the maximum time before disconnection may exceed to 3.5 times the normal operating time of one machine. For
the machines provided with over load current protection, the feed to motor shall be disconnected with current ranging between 1.5 to 2
times its normal operating current. It shall reconnect only when a fresh operation is done.

19.129 Each Section Engineer in charge of electrical apparatus shall test the operating values of the machine and adjustments of the
machine by obstruction test in accordance with para 19.127 every month. The Sectional in charge of the section shall carry out these
tests once in three months.

ELECTRIC DETECTOR

19.130 The essential requirement for interlocking of point shall be periodically checked as per Chapter XII, para 12.40.
19.131 All nuts and screws shall be tightened where required. Particular care shall be taken to see that the lock nuts of the Detector and
Lock Slides with lugs are kept tight. After tightening, the nut and lock nut should be turned in opposite directions towards each other to
lock the nut. Slides, rollers and pins shall be lubricated with axle oil medium grade to a suitable specification.

19.132 Wires shall be kept neat and clear of moving parts.

19.133 The sleepers shall be got well ballasted and packed.

19.134 OBSTRUCTION TEST :- Before doing obstruction test, it shall be ensured that both the switches flush with stock rail properly &
sufficient spring is available on each switch.

a) Insert 1.6 mm test piece between stock rail & switch rail at 150 mm from the toe of switch & operate the point to close by lever.
Ensure detector contacts just make. In case the contacts do not make, manipulate the detector slide nuts to just make the contacts.
Tighten check nuts on both sides of detector slide.

b) Test with a 5mm test piece. The point shall not lock and detection contacts shall not make.

c) The lock adjustment given in para 19.36 stands good for both setting of point, However, The locking shall be tested by 5 mm test
piece for other setting also.

In case of failure in obstruction test, immediate remedial measure shall be taken to prevent locking of point as per Chapter XII.

19.134.1 The maintainer, Section Engineer & senior Section Engineer shall do the above tests as per periodicity given in Annexure 30.

19.135 CIRCUIT CONTROLLER

(a) The circuit controller remains securely fixed and all mechanical connections work freely.

(b) The contacts are kept clean and properly adjusted.

(c) Wires are properly dressed and not entangled with any mechanical parts.

(d) The axle is kept lubricated by light oil.

(e) The contacts make with adequate pressure in the required position only and are properly secured.

(f) All the split pins are split out.

RELAYS

19.136 Cleaning shall be done regularly so that dust is not deposited on the relays.

19.137 Anti-tilting arrangement for shelf type relays is available and relays shall not be tilted or turned over to close contacts and relay
contacts shall not be bridged.

19.138 During routine inspection and maintenance, if high contact resistance is observed on any contact of metal to metal relays, such
contacts can be cleaned. In case of metal to carbon relays either the spare contact shall be used or the relay shall be replaced.

19.139 Periodical Inspection

19.139.1 All relays used in vital circuits shall be visually inspected each time during inspection.

19.140 Section Engineer shall visually inspect the relays. During visual inspection, relay shall be taken out of service if any of the defects
are noticed in respect of :-

(a) Movement of armature and contact carriage;

(b) Wiping of contacts;

(c) Arcing of contacts;

(d) Pitting or charring of contacts;

(e) Dust accumulation on contacts;

(f) Electro-plating;

(g) Corrosion, rusting of components;

(h) Crack or breakage in components;

(i) Presence of fungus and ants inside the relay casing;

(j) Charring of cover near contacts in the case of plug-in-type relays;

(k) Corrosion of Label;

(I) Absence or tempering of seal;

(m) Any other abnormal condition.

19.141 OVERHAULING

(a) Track relays of all types and line relays of only shelf type should be overhauled periodically. All other relays may not be overhauled
periodically.
(b) All types of track relays should normally be overhauled every 10 years subject to a maximum of 12 years.

(c) Line relays of shelf type should be overhauled every 15 years.

(d) Overhauling period mentioned in (b) and (c) above should be counted from the date of manufacture/last overhauling.

(e) The periodicity of overhauling of track relays and shelf type line relays may be reduced by the Railways depending upon intensity of
traffic and other local conditions obtaining thereon, such as heavy suburban sections and major route relay interlocking installations.

(f) All metal to carbon contact miniature plug-in type relays other than track relays should be overhauled only when they are removed
from service after a failure.

STATION MASTER'S SLIDE CONTROL FRAMES

19.142 Station Master's Slide Control frame shall be so maintained that-

(a) All moving parts are clean and work freely.

(b) All contact springs are kept clean, correctly tensioned and spaced.

(c) All contact making studs are tight.

(d) All wiring is in good condition and properly protected.

(e) Broken or worn-out springs and studs shall be replaced.

(f) SM lock is effective to lock all the slides both ways.

(g) All slides and locking dogs are kept lubricated / graphited.

(h) Slide frame is kept properly sealed and locked.

19.143 Testing and Overhauling : Mechanical locking of Station Master's Slide control frame shall be maintained and tested and
overhauled in accordance with the instructions laid down in chapter XIII.

ELECTRIC KEY TRANSMITTERS

19.144 Key transmitters shall be so maintained that-

19.144.1 All moving parts are clean and work freely. All contact springs are kept clean, correctly tensioned and spaced. Galvo functions
satisfactorily.
19.144.2 The respective keys turn freely in the transmitter and the cover is correctly secured.

19.144.3 The keyholes are such that the only correct transmitter key can be inserted in each transmitter.

19.144.4 All wiring is in good condition and is properly protected.

19.144.5 While transmitting the key, the contacts shall break and make in proper sequence.

19.145 Testing of key Transmitter :- Key transmitters shall be tested periodically for the following :-

(a) Effectiveness of the forced lock arrangement;

(b) It shall not be possible to extract the key once inserted and locked in the key transmitter unless the control from the other end is
obtained

(c) It shall not be possible to release the key in jerks or any other irregular means

(d) Check the insulation resistance of current carrying components

ELECTRIC LEVER LOCK

19.146 Electric Lever locks shall be so maintained that -

19.146.1 All moving parts are clean, oiled and work freely.

19.146.2 The lock armature works freely and in the case of Forced Drop Locks, the lock is properly forced down for each locking
position.

19.146.3 The face of the locking notch and the lock face is not worn-out.

19.146.4 The working current shall be within the rated value.

19.146.5 All terminal screws, lock nuts, locking screws, etc. shall be kept tight.

19.146.6 Sealing & locking is intact.

SIGNAL ARM AND LIGHT INDICATORS

19.147 The following instructions in regard to maintenance of signal Arm and Light Indicators shall be observed :-

(a) Indications of the signal arm indicator correspond to those detailed in para.
(b) Light Indicator works freely and indicates light 'IN' or 'OUT correctly. Any other lamp proving arrangement of electrical / electronic/
optical type is working correctly.

(c) The thermostat or expander is kept correctly adjusted and in working order.

(d) The audible warning device where provided is in working order.

(e) All lightning and power protective devices are in working condition.

(f) All connections from the lightning protector to Earth are continuous and in good order.

(g) Batteries are kept clean, terminals and links are properly tightened and are free from dirt and corrosion.

(h) All wiring is in good condition and properly secured.

MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES

19.148 The maintenance schedule for various items of Electrical Signalling equipment shall be as in Annexure 30. At stations having
dense traffic and high speeds, the Railways may prescribe more frequent inspections, if considered necessary.

Annexure 29
Annexure 30
CHAPTER-XX
AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNALLING
20.1 INSTALLATION

20.1.1 General

20.1.2 Signals

20.1.3 Level Crossings

20.1.4 Track circuits

20.1.5 Power Supply

20.1.6 Installation in 25 kv AC electrified areas

20.1.7 Installation of Cables

20.1.8 Electrical signalling arrangement

20.2 MAINTENANCE
20.2.1 to
Signal lamp
20.2.2
20.2.3 Test by SSE (Signal)

20.2.4 Failures reported vby driver

20.2.5 Track circuits


20.2.6 Power Supply
20.2.7 Electrical signalling arrangements
20.2.8 Cables

CHAPTER - XX

AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNALLING

20.1 Installation

20.1.1 General

20.1.1.1 The installation and wiring shall be carried out as per approved plan and Circuit Diagrams.

20.1.1.2 All fail-safe circuits shall work on continuously energized principle such that any open circuit in wiring, relay contacts, etc. or
loss of power supplies shall not cause an unsafe condition.

20.1.1.3 The circuits and equipment shall be so installed as to cause minimum failures while ensuring maximum safety.

20.1.1.4 Triple pole double filament electric signal lamps shall be used, as far as possible. In case double pole lamp is used, 'ON' aspect
lamp must have two filaments in parallel.

20.1.1.5 All external circuits shall be provided with double cutting arrangements.

20.1.2 Signals

20.1.2.1 The aspects of a signal shall be controlled by the signal in advance through lamp proving relays, in addition to the controlling
relays.

20.1.2.2 The circuits shall be so designed that if an automatic signal which must display red aspect does not do so for any reason
whatsoever, the signal in rear shall display a red aspect.

20.1.2.3 An automatic signal on a double line shall require all tracks to be clear upto the next signal and an adequate distance beyond,
before it can display 'OFF' aspect. In case of Single Line, after establishment of favorable direction of traffic, an automatic signal shall
require all tracks to be clear up to the next signal in advance and in case the next stop signal in advance is a manual stop signal, the line
is clear for an adequate distance beyond it before it can display 'OFF' aspect.

20.1.2.4 The lamps of the signal shall be so wired that if the lamp of the aspect displayed fails, the signal shall immediately assume the
next restrictive aspect.

20.1.2.5 (a) The circuit for illuminated 'A' marker shall be such that the 'A' marker lights up only when the signal is working as an
automatic signal.

(b) The circuit for illuminated 'AG' marker where provided shall be such that the 'AG' marker lights up only when the conditions for 'A'
Marker to light up are satisfied except for the level crossing gate which may either be open to road traffic or may have failed.

20.1.2.6 The illumination of the 'A' marker shall prove the correct setting and locking of the points as required and ensures the back-
locking of the route. Level crossing gates, if any, on the route shall be proved closed to the road traffic.

20.1.3 Level Crossings

20.1.3.1 Level Crossing gates in automatic sections shall be worked by lifting barrier gates operated mechanically or electrically and
shall be interlocked with signals. The gates shall be both approach locked and back-locked by track circuits. They shall also be provided
with audible warning on both sides of the road, actuated by approaching trains. In addition, road-warning lights shall be provided on both
sides of the road, which will be lit when there is any train on the approach or whenever the gate is not in the open condition.

20.1.3.2 (a) The approach locking shall be effective from the moment the train occupies the track circuit in rear of the signal which
assumes clear aspect when the Gate Signal is taken 'OFF' and the backlocking shall be effective until the train clears the level crossing.
The audible warning shall stop when the gate is closed and locked but the red warning lights for road users where provided shall be
exhibited till the gates are re-opened for traffic.

(b) Approach locking should be effective from a distance not less than braking distance required for maximum permissible speed on that
section.

20.1.3.3 The audible and visual train approach annunciation shall be such that the Gateman gets adequate warning time. This time shall
normally be 60 seconds for the fastest train, for closing the level crossing gates before the train approaches within the sighting distance
of the relevant gate signals.

20.1.4 Track circuits: - Provision contained in Chapter XVII shall be adhered to.

20.1.5 Power Supply: - Provisions contained in Chapter XVI shall be adhered to.

20.1.6 Installation in 25 kV AC electrified areas: - Provisions contained in Chapter XXII shall be adhered to.

20.1.7 Installation of Cables: - Provisions contained in Chapter XV shall be adhered to.

20.1.8 Electrical signalling arrangement: - Provisions contained in Chapter XIX shall be adhered to.

20.2 Maintenance

20.2.1 The triple pole electric signal lamps shall be replaced as early as possible, after the fusing of its main filament.

20.2.2 The double pole electric signal lamps used in colour light signals and marker lights shall be replaced on a regular schedule as
prescribed by the Railways to avoid failures due to burning out of lamps. The interval between replacement of lamps for the various
aspects will depend on the intensity of traffic on the section and the anticipated life of lamps.

20.2.3 The following shall be tested by the SSE (Signal) at-least once in a year.

(i) Track Circuit control on signal and aspect control by signals in advance;

(ii) Automatic Cutting-in of the next restrictive aspect when the lamp of one aspect burns out;

(iii) Interlocking equipment and circuits for level crossings and points;

(iv) The circuits that establish the direction of traffic and prevent clearing of conflicting signals on sections provided with Automatic block
Signalling on Single Line.

20.2.4 All failures reported by the Drivers shall be promptly attended to.

20.2.5 Track circuits


20.2.5.1 Adequate precautions should be taken after every track renewal work to ensure proper working of track circuits.

20.2.5.2 Provisions contained in Chapter XVII shall be adhered to.

20.2.6 Power Supply: - Provisions contained in Chapter XVI shall be adhered to.

20.2.7 Electrical signalling arrangements: - Provisions contained in Chapter XIX shall be adhered to.

20.2.8 Cables: - Provisions contained in Chapter XV shall be adhered to.

CHAPTER XXI
RELAY AND ELECTRONIC INTERLOCKING
. A RELAY INTERLOCKING

21.1 General Requirement

21.2 Control Panel

21.3 Control Panel Indication

21.4 Interlocking & circuit requirements

21.5 Route Release Circuits

21.6 Signal control circuits

21.7 Interlocking of level crossing gates

21.8 Point interlocking & control circuits

21.9 Cross protection

21.10 Relays

21.11 Signals

21.12 Points

21.13 Track circuits

21.14 Cables

21.15 Wiring & Relay racks

21.16 Fuses, terminals & Terminal links

21.17 Power supply arrangements


21.18 General

. B ELECTRONIC INTERLOCKING

. (Section left blank)

CHAPTER - XXI

RELAY & ELECTRONIC INTERLOCKING

A. RELAY INTERLOCKING

21.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

21.1.1 The relay interlocking installations can be of: -

i) Route setting type by entry/exit.

ii) Non-route setting type i.e. Route is set with individual operation of points.

21.1.2 The equipment used in the system shall, as far as practicable, comply with the requirements of IRS, IS, BRS and BS specifications
and drawings.

21.1.3 For areas having 25KV AC traction, all equipments and circuitry shall comply with the requirements of Chapter XXII on "Special
requirements of signalling in AC electrified areas".

21.1.4 The signalling and interlocking arrangements for the yard shall be in accordance with the approved signalling plans,
selection/control tables, detailed wiring diagram including control panel diagram, relay contact analysis and relay rack arrangements.

21.2 CONTROL PANEL

21.2.1 The display of the layout on the front of the panel referred to as the illuminated diagram shall be well proportioned. Where
additional facilities are likely to be provided, domino type panel shall, preferably, be used. The areas covered by each track circuit shall
be clearly distinguished by use of different colours.

21.2.2 The illuminated diagram shall be so mounted as to be conveniently visible to the operator. The control panel shall be easily
accessible for operation. The inside wiring etc. should be such that it is easily accessible for maintenance staff.

21.2.3 The operating members, namely route switches/buttons, point switches etc., referred to in the following clauses shall normally be
provided on the illuminated diagram itself in Geographical order. A separate illuminated diagram for indication and a separate 'console'
containing all the operating members may also be provided.
21.2.4 The route setting shall be on the basis of "Entrance Exit" principle for installations of Route Setting type.

21.2.5 At Non route setting type installations, the route may be set with individual operation of points.

21.2.6 In route setting system, each route shall be controlled either by means of two push buttons-one at the entrance and the other at
the exit of the route or by means of one switch at the entrance and one push button at the exit of the route. The entrance switch button
may be of three position type or two position type as required.

21.2.7 In non route setting type installations, after setting of the route by individual operation of points is completed, signal can be
cleared by an individual push button in conjunction with a group button or by an individual switch controlling each signal or a common
switch for conflicting signals which are not required at the same time, or one push button at the entrance and other at the exit end.

21.2.8 Individual push button in conjunction with a common push button or two/three position switches shall be provided for individual
operation of points.

21.2.9 Where a route has more than one overlap, it shall be possible to select and set the desired overlap beyond the exit signal of the
route.

21.2.10 Where the route has alternate approach routes, it shall be possible to select and set the desired route with desired overlap.

21.2.11 The switches/buttons shall have distinctive colours so that they can be readily distinguished, such as running signal red, shunt
signal yellow, calling on signal red with white dot & exit button white. The alternate overlap white with black dot, alternate route Grey,
point black, slot green, crank handle blue and point group button black with red dot etc.

21.2.12 The control panel shall be provided with suitable covers with locking and sealing facility which shall be easily removable to
facilitate access to the internal wiring etc.

21.2.13 The control panel shall be provided with:-

a) Arrangement for individual operation of points.

b) Arrangement for emergency operation of points where provided, during point zone track circuit failures. Emergency group point button
for such operation must be kept normally sealed. Each such individual operation shall be recorded on a suitable counter.

c) Necessary slotting facilities for adjoining cabins, ground-frames, level crossings and crank handles etc.

d) Arrangement so that slot shall be controlled by operation of two buttons or a switch similar to route setting principle for individual line.
For cancellation of slot a group slot cancellation button to be operated along with entrance/exit button shall be provided. Each such
cancellation shall withdraw the slot but the route controlled by the slot shall be kept held for a predetermined time delay or till route
locking if any, is effective. Each cancellation shall be recorded in a counter specially provided for this purpose.

e) Arrangement to adjust the supply voltage for panel indication circuit to control the intensity of illumination by selecting different supply
voltages with the help of button/switches provided on the panel, if necessary.

f) When SM's key is taken out, it shall not be possible to change the last operated position of any signalling apparatus from control panel.
However, facility shall be provided to put back the signal to 'ON' position without altering the route. It shall preferably be ensured that no
command gets executed automatically on reinsertion of SM's key.

21.2.14 An indication panel giving position of the yard and important indications required for maintenance staff shall be provided inside
the relay room in major yards.

21.3 CONTROL PANEL INDICATIONS

The control panel shall be provided with the following indications :-

21.3.1 POINT INDICATIONS

a) The position of points shall be indicated either by white/yellow or green lights near each individual point switch/button or by white
strip light on the point zone. During operation of the points, light/strip light for the intended position will flash till points are correctly set
and locked.

b) The point locked indication in route shall be given by illumination of a small white light near the point or points switch/button which
shall be extinguished when point is free.

21.3.2 ROUTE INDICATIONS

a) Route indication lamps shall be provided to indicate setting and locking of the route. When any route is not set, route indicator lamps
shall be extinguished.

b) The complete route over which the movement is to take place shall be lit with a row of white lights when the route is correctly set and
locked.

c) As the train moves over the route, the portion of the route occupied shall change to red and after the train has cleared the particular
track, it should change back to white lights until the sectional route/entire route is released, when the white light is extinguished.

21.3.3 SIGNAL INDICATIONS

a) Indication that a stop signal is at 'ON' shall be given by a red light and a permissive signal is at 'ON' shall be given by a yellow light on
the corresponding signal symbols on the panel.

b) Indication that stop/permissive signal is 'OFF' shall be given normally by a green, yellow or double yellow light as signal is seen in the
field, on the corresponding signal symbol on the panel. However, in case of a domino panel where indication of all aspects is not
provided, any 'OFF' aspect can be shown by green along with the following flashing indications for conditions as enumerated below:-

i) Failure of green; green flashes red* blank;


ii) Failure of yellow; green flashes, red lit;

iii) Failure of double yellow, both green and red* flash; &

iv) Failure of red*, green not lit (blank), red* flashing.

*To be read as yellow for a permissive signal.

c) Signal indication for the 'ON' aspect of a shunt signal on the same post as the running signal is not required. In the case of shunt
signal on independent post, the 'ON' indication shall be given by a white light strip or two miniature white lights in a horizontal position
on the corresponding shunt signal symbol on the panel.

d) Signal indication for 'OFF' aspect of a shunt signal shall be given by a slanting white light strip or two miniature slanting white lights.
Such indication of a shunt signal located on the same post as a running signal shall be given below the running signal indication.

e) A white light for 'A'/'AG' marker indication should be lit up on the panel below the symbol of the signal when set for automatic
working.

f) Indication that "Calling on" signal is 'OFF' shall be given by a white light below the running signal indication of corresponding signal
symbol.

g) Repeat indication shall be provided by a white strip light which should be lit when repeater of the signal has displayed 'OFF' aspect.
This indication should be provided by a white strip over the running signal symbol on the panel.

21.3.4 TRACK CIRCUIT INDICATIONS

a) Indication that the track circuit is occupied shall be given by a row of red lights (not less than two) on the each track circuit portion.

b) When the track is not occupied, the red lights shall be extinguished.

21.3.5 POWER SUPPLY INDICATIONS

a) An indication to indicate the availability of the supply from the Mains/Diesel Generator/ Catenary 1 or 2 should be suitably indicated.

21.3.6 OTHER INDICATIONS

a) Approach track circuits where provided, for all directions shall be indicated on illuminated diagram. In continuous track circuit territory,
the approach track circuits will cover all the track circuits in rear of the first stop signal up to the next signal in rear or up to the track
circuit specified in the table of control for approach locking. An approach track circuit controlling calling on signal shall be indicated
separately with a distinct mark.

b) Advance approach warning of trains if required shall be indicated on the panel in the form of flashing lights or other type of indication
and audible bell warning to attract attention of Station Master. These visual and audible warnings shall stop as soon as the approach
track circuits mentioned in Cl. 21.3.6(a) above are occupied or signals are taken 'OFF' for the train. It shall be possible to silence the
audible warning by pressing a push button. This cancellation shall not apply to train approaching subsequently for which the push button
must be pressed again.

c) Where required, failure of a signal lamp/route lamp shall light a red lamp on the panel and give an audible warning for the same. Such
indication may cover group of signals. A common audible warning can also be provided for a group of signals. It shall be possible to
silence the audible warning by pressing a push button. Such cancellation of audible warning shall not apply to subsequent failures for
which the push button must be pressed again.

d) A red lamp indication showing that the crank handle is free and a white indication showing that the crank handle is in the locked
position shall be provided on the control panel near the crank handle control transfer switch / button.

e) The respective signal lock indication (white light) shall start flashing when an emergency route cancellation is initiated, in an approach
locked condition of the route. This indication will extinguish after a lapse of two minutes and cancellation of the route.

f) If push buttons are used on control panel, a buzzer to indicate that push button/push buttons has/have been left pressed may be
provided.

g) Suitable indications for slots, gate control etc. shall be provided.

h) The panel indication lamps shall be operated by not more than 24V miniature type bulbs or light emitting diodes.

i) Return wires from indication lamps and relays shall be suitably bifurcated so that excessive current does not damage it. Any break in
return wire shall not fail the indication/relay or give a wrong indication or pick-up a wrong relay.

j) When an approved electronic flasher relay other than Mercury type is provided, a flashing white indication shall be provided at
appropriate corner of the operating panel to indicate to the operator the satisfactory working of electronic flasher relay.

21.4 INTERLOCKING AND CIRCUIT REQUIREMENTS

21.4.1 General Circuit Requirements

a) Before designing the detailed circuits, route and point control tables showing approach locks, back locking, release overlaps, isolation,
interlocking, dependence of signal aspect, grouping of crank handles and the condition for release of crank handles, route release, gate
release etc. shall be drawn up and approved by the competent authority. Provisions of GR & SR shall be observed.

b) Signal circuits shall be so designed that the signal shall not change to a lesser restrictive aspect than intended one and route shall not
be released because of fluctuations in power supply voltage or when the supply resume following its failure.

c) While designing signal circuits and equipment to be used in AC traction territory special precaution shall be taken according to
provisions of Chapter XXII on "Special requirements of signalling in AC electrified areas"
d) Common return shall not be provided in vital circuits.

e) All external circuits shall be in cables.

f) Where relays other than 24V, 1000 ohm relay with metal to carbon contacts are used, the circuits shall be so designed that not more
than 45 such contacts are used in series in a circuit.

g) The proving of back contacts of metal to metal relays should be done in the circuitry,

h) All new installations shall preferably be of route setting type interlocking.

21.4.2 Route setting and interlocking circuits for installations provided with route setting system.

The route setting and clearance of signal shall be with the following conditions:-

a) SM's key is In

b) The interlocking is free

c) Operate the point in the route including overlap and isolation, if any, to desired position.

d) The crank handle for all the motor operated points and keys for all the key-locked points in the route, overlap and isolation are locked
and their control is not released.

e) Interlocked level crossing gates are closed against the road traffic in the route including overlap, if any.

f) The complete route including overlap and isolation, if any, is correctly set and electrically locked.

g) The track circuits in the route up to the next signal/dead end and its overlap, if any, are clear.

h) Slot if any, from other agency shall be received,

i) Stop signal ahead is not blank,

j) Clearing of signal.

21.4.3 Route setting and interlocking circuits for installations provided with "route setting by individual ' operation of point" system.

The route setting and clearance of signal shall be with the following conditions :-

a) The points in the selected route and if required in overlap and isolation are operated to required position by individual operation of
switches or push buttons in conjunction with group push button.
b) Operation of entrance exit buttons/switches or one control switch clears the signal if-

i) SM's key is In

ii) The interlocking is free

iii) The points including hand operated points in the route including overlap and isolation if any, are set, locked and detected.

iv) The crank handle for all the motor operated points and keys for all the key-locked points in the route, overlap and isolation are locked
and their control is not released.

v) All interlocked level crossing gates are dosed and closed against the road traffic in the route and overlap, if any.

vi) Slot if any, from other agency has been received.

vii) The track circuits in the route up to the next signal/dead end and its overlap if any, are clear.

viii) Stop signal ahead is not blank,

ix) Clearing of signal.

Note:- i) For clearing calling on signals, proving of track circuits in the route and overlap is not required. Calling on signal shall detect all
the points including interlocked level crossings in the route, which the main signal above it detects.

ii) For clearing of shunt signals the proving of berthing track circuits, points & LC gates in overlap are not needed. This applies to both the
systems having route or non route setting facilities.

21.4.4 The interlocking between conflicting routes shall be achieved through route interlocking electric circuits.

21.4.5 Approach locking or dead approach locking shall be provided for all manual stop signals. Approach locking shall be continuously
effective from the predetermined point on approach of the signal.

21.4.6 Controls on level crossings, ground frames, cabins, sidings etc., shall be suitably interlocked.

21.4.7 A white indication for block control on the last stop signal should be provided on control panel, where -

i) Section ahead is worked on Absolute Block System and control panel and block instrument are placed at different locations.

ii) Block working is by means of axle counter or track circuit.


21.5 Route Release Circuits

21.5.1 Complete route release including overlap shall be effective only after the signal governing the route is put back to 'ON' and
corresponding route switch/button has been operated to normalize the route. Automatic route release by the passage of train and
complete release of route through sequential route release shall be provided.

21.5.2 Where a route has got number of route sections, the circuit shall be so designed that the route section does not release only by
picking up of the concerned track relay. Same is released only after the next track circuit is also dropped and picked up, except in case
when the last track is a berthing track. In cases where the route is controlled by single track circuit, the route release shall be controlled
after predetermined time delay.

21.5.3 The route release circuit shall be so designed that it will release only when at least two track circuits drop and pick-up in
sequence.

21.5.4 In installations provided with route setting system, sectional route release shall be provided where required. In such cases sub-
route section already released shall permit setting up of other routes, if interlocking otherwise permits.

21.5.5 In case of installations provided with non route setting system, sectional route release may be provided where considered
necessary. The complete route release shall be effective only after the signal governing the route is put back to 'ON' and corresponding
route switch/push button has been operated to normalize the route. However, where sequence proving relays are provided to prove the
authorized passage of a train, automatic route release shall be provided.

21.5.6 It shall be possible to release a route in emergency after suitable time delay, with the approach track occupied, provided the train
has not passed the signal during the time interval.

21.5.7 It shall be possible to release a route in emergency after a suitable time delay where a approach track circuits have not been
provided and after the signal has been put back to danger provided the train has not passed the signal during this time interval.

21.5.8 When the route is released by the passage of train, the overlap points shall be released only after the lapse of two minutes of
occupation of berthing track as well as clearance of last point track circuit of the route. On cancellation, the overlap points may be
released simultaneously along with the main route.

21.5.9 Facility of emergency route/sub-route cancellation may be provided, where necessary. Every such cancellation shall be recorded
on a counter and in a register to be maintained by traffic representative.

21.6 Signal Control Circuits

21.6.1 It shall not be possible for a signal to assume 'OFF' aspect in installations provided with route setting facility unless the route
switches/buttons have been operated and relevant route has been correctly set and locked and relevant track circuits are clear. In
installation provided with non route setting facility, the signal shall not assume 'OFF' aspect unless the route is set and locked, relevant
track circuits are clear and signal switch/button has been operated. In case self restoring type of push buttons are used, signal shall not
assume 'OFF' aspect unless push button is pressed and released.
21.6.2 Circuits shall be so designed that the failure of any part of a circuit affecting the control of the signal shall cause the signal to
display a more restrictive aspect than the intended aspect.

21.6.3 The circuit shall be so designed that in case of failure of a signal lamp, the lamp of more restrictive is lit automatically and in case
of failure of red lamp it shall not be possible to clear the signal in rear.

21.6.4 Fouling protection, approach locking, indication locking, route locking, siding control key locking, crank handle locking and track
locking shall be incorporated in the relevant control circuits.

21.6.5 Each aspect light of a signal may be proved where necessary and the aspect indication shall be provided as per Para 21.3.3(b).

21.6.6 Wherever required, necessary control on the level crossing, ground frames, cabins, siding control key, crank handles etc. shall be
provided.

21.6.7 The correspondence of the point control relays and point indication relays may be proved in signal circuits before the signal
displays an 'OFF' aspect

21.7 Interlocking of level crossing gates

It shall not be possible for a signal to assume 'OFF' unless all interlocked level crossing gates in its route and overlap are closed and
locked against the road traffic. Similarly, it shall not be possible to release any such interlocked gate until the signal is replaced to 'ON'
position and the route up to the gate is released.

21.8 Point Interlocking and control circuits

21.8.1 The points once set shall remain in the last operated position until these are operated by different route setting or by individual
operation of points. However, isolation points of catch siding, slip siding may operate automatically after the passage of train to their
isolation position where sectional route release is provided.

21.8.2 Operation of points shall be possible only when the interlocking is free and relevant point track circuit is clear. Emergency
operations, where provided when point zone track circuit fails, it shall be possible to operate the concerned point provided interlocking is
free by releasing an emergency control. Each such operation shall be recorded on a counter.

21.8.3 Interlocking between points shall be provided only to the minimum extent necessary.

21.8.4 Point control circuits shall be so designed that a cross connection or a short circuit can not operate a point or give a false
indication of the same.

21.8.5 Crossovers shall be operated by separate point machines, one at each end. The detection of setting and locking of the points at
the two ends of a crossover shall be connected in series.

21.8.6 Crank handle / point NX key provided for manual operation of the points worked by electric point machine must be interlocked
with signals.
21.8.7 It must not be possible to release the crank handle/point NX key unless the signals have been put back to 'ON' position and
concerned route is released. However, if the route remains locked due to what so ever reason, it shall be possible to release the crank
handle/point NX key after a time delay of 120 seconds from the time the signals have been put back to 'ON' position at a station where
crank handle is kept in location near the concerned points. In case of stations having crank handle in SM's office, it shall be possible to
release the crank handle as soon as the signal is put back to 'ON' and crank handle release command is given.

21.8.8 In major yard where number of points are more, these points should be grouped in different zones maintaining the yard
flexibility. The crank handle/point NX key for each group of point machines should be so arranged that they can not be interchanged.

21.8.9 Siding control key for manual operation of siding points, taking off from running lines, shall be so interlocked that it may not be
possible to clear the signal leading over to that line when the key is released for operating siding points for shunting purposes.

21.9 Cross Protection

21.9.1 For purely internal circuits including vital circuits, double cutting or cross protection may not be provided unless specifically
required.

21.9.2 All equipments in external circuits shall be suitably protected from cross connections and rendered immune to false operation by
stray currents/induced voltages.

21.10 RELAYS

21.10.1 The various type of relays used in relay interlocked systems shall be of approved type and conform to appropriate specifications
as detailed in Para 8.13 Chapter VIII unless otherwise specially permitted.

21.10.2 Time element relays of approved type shall be used. Where approved electronic time element relays are used, these shall be
two in number and their contacts shall be in series in the concerned time release circuits.

21.10.3 The relays, including track relays, located in the track side location boxes, shall be preferably plug-in type.

21.10.4 All plug-in relays and relay groups shall be fitted with non-interchangeable interlocking device to prevent the wrong relays/relay
group being accidentally plugged-in during replacement.

21.10.5 Removal or replacement of plug-in relays/relay groups from the relay racks during operation shall not cause any unsafe
conditions in the circuits.

21.10.6 As far as possible, all relays shall be housed in the relay room of the controlling cabin to achieve maximum centralization.

21.10.7 Where feasible all relays except track relays, shall have 10% of working contacts as spare subject to a minimum of one front
and one back to facilitate addition and alteration to the circuits at a later date. Extra space to accommodate repeater relays shall be
provided in the relay rack to cater for future expansion.
21.10.8 Mercury type or any other approved type flasher shall be used.

21.10.9 Sequential proving of front and back contact shall be ensured where metal to metal contact relays are provided.

21.10.10 All relays, relay groups shall be sealed.

21.11 SIGNALS

21.11.1 The main running signals shall be of multi unit colour light type.

21.11.2 Shunt signals shall be of position light type.

21.11.3 Route indicators shall be either of the direction type or multi lamp unit type or of stencil type conforming to approved design.

21.11.4 'A' marker lights for semi-automatic signals shall be of approved type.

21.11.5 Roundels, glasses and lenses used in the colour light signals shall be of approved type.

21.11.6 The signal lamps used for different types of signals shall be of approved type.

21.12 POINTS

21.12.1 Electrical point machines shall be of an approved type and conform to appropriate specification indicated in Chapter VIII Para
8.13 unless otherwise, specially permitted.

21.12.2 Means shall be provided to cut off the motor feed in case of obstruction to the point movement after a predetermined time lag,
based on the type of point machine used.

21.12.3 The point operating control circuits shall have track circuit control, overload protection and cross protection.

21.12.4 Hand worked point switches shall be equipped with circuit controllers that are operated by the switches when closed. Keys
controlling such switches shall be electrically locked by the approach/time/back locking track circuit so that it's not possible to work them
in the face of an approaching train.

21.12.5 The crank handles shall be provided to facilitate operation of points in case of failure of point machines. For this purpose, if
necessary, the points in the yard may be divided into convenient groups and to distinguish particular groups, crank handles with different
wards shall be used. The crank handles may be provided in a suitable place near the group of points to which they refer. The slots in the
point machines provided to take the crank handles would also be suitably made to take only the crank handle applicable to the group.
The crank handles shall, however, normally be locked. It shall be possible to release them for use in point machine by releasing a control
from the panel. With the crank handle released, it shall not be possible to set up any of the relevant routes and clear the signal for the
same. The interlocking of crank handle can also be achieved by using NX key of different wards.

21.12.6 In AC traction area, the point machine shall be immune to the effects of Electro-magnetic induction. These should be installed
within the range to which these are immune to the effects of AC electrification.

21.13 TRACK CIRCUITS

21.13.1 Provisions of chapter on track circuits shall be generally followed.

21.13.2 Track circuits of an approved design shall be used unless otherwise specially permitted.

21.13.3 Axle counters of an approved design can be used in lieu of track circuits.

21.13.4 The track circuits shall be so designed and installed that in the case of a failure of block joints, the adjacent track circuit feed
shall not wrongly energize the next track circuit relay.

21.13.5 A DC track circuit shall not be fed directly from AC supply using transformer and rectifier. A storage battery must be connected
with battery charger and the connection is so made that if battery is disconnected the battery charger is also disconnected.

21.13.6 DC track relays can be centralized in location/relay room only by using separate 2 core cable of adequate cross section and not
through multi-core cables.

21.13.7 At stations where points and signals are operated from an Assistant Station Master's office at a central place, track circuiting of
the entire station section including all lines where direct reception is provided shall be done.

21.14 CABLES

21.14.1 Provisions of chapter on Cables & Overhead lines shall be generally followed.

21.14.2 At least two cores of cable shall be provided between two ends of the yard to cater for telephone communication for
maintenance purposes in non RE areas. Where the yard is extending over a large area, the location boxes may be grouped and one
socket may be provided in one of the location boxes in the group so that telephone communication are conveniently available for co-
ordination with the cabin during maintenance or rectification of failures of various ground equipments. Where such groups are situated in
different directions from the cabin, a separate pair of conductors shall be used for each direction connected to the cabin. In RE area,
provision shall be made for telephone communication through a telecommunication cable if already available or a separate telecom cable
shall be laid for the purpose.

21.14.3 Earth leakage detectors of approved type may be provided to detect any leakage to earth in cable conductors.

21.15 WIRING AND RELAY RACKS

21.15.1 The wiring used in various equipment shall comply with the requirements laid down in IRS specification No. S 23.

21.15.2 All wiring in the cabin and locations shall be done in a neat manner so that the wiring does not in any way prevent the proper
functioning over working parts and is easily accessible for maintenance.
21.15.3 All wiring in the cabin and location shall be terminated on approved type terminal blocks/tag blocks unless otherwise specially
permitted.

21.15.4 At all locations and cabins, wire entrance of adequate size, conveniently located for ease of approach to terminals and other
equipment so arranged as to protect the wires from mechanical injury, shall be provided. Such wire entrance shall be plugged and sealed
with suitable compound after the wiring is completed.

21.15.5 The internal wiring of relay rack in locations and cabin shall be generally carried out with plain annealed copper conductors; PVC
insulated unarmoured flame retarding type of 1100V grade unless otherwise specially permitted. The size of the conductors can be as
follows:-

i) Single core size - 1 mm

ii) Multi core each core of size - 1 mm

iii) Multi core each core of size - 0.6 mm

iv) Flexible insulated wire size - 16/0.20 mm

v) Flexible multi-strand wire size - 3/0.737 mm

21.15.6 Rack to rack wiring shall be generally carried out with multi core cable having plain annealed copper single core conductor of
size 1/0.6 mm or multi-strand 16/0.2 mm as per approved specification for indoor cables.

21.15.7 Following practice shall be adopted for internal wiring. The connecting wires shall be terminated on eyelets/lugs/receptacles
unless otherwise specially permitted.

a) All connections to plug-in non-proved type relays flexible wire of 16/0.20 mm shall be used.

b) All connections to proved typed relays shall be done with 0.6/1 mm single strand multi core cable.

c) For all connections from cable terminations to tag blocks and indicators etc. shall be done with the help of 1 mm single strand wires.

d) For all connections to circuit breakers, lever locks etc. single strand wire of 1.5/1.6 sq. mm size shall be used.

21.15.8 Relay to Relay wiring on the same rack should be as far as possible direct without intermediatries like tag block/terminals.

21.15.9 Identification Marker for identifying the terminals and tags shall be provided to each terminal to identify the circuits for which it
is used.

21.15.10 Relay racks shall have sufficient capacity to take additional equipment to the extent of 15% of equipment provided to permit
additions and alterations.
21.15.11 Charts showing the position of relays on relay racks and contact analysis of relays indicating the spare and used contacts shall
be prepared and kept in the relay room.

21.15.12 For future expansion, provision shall be made to accommodate additional relays, relay groups & racks in the relay room.

21.16 FUSES, TERMINALS AND TERMINAL LINKS

21.16.1 Cartridge type fuses shall preferably be of N.D. type. Where screw cap cartridge type fuses are used, these shall be of different
colour codes for different current rating and these shall be non - interchangeable.

21.16.2 Fuses shall be so grouped that blowing of a fuse has minimum repercussion on train operation.

21.16.3 The fuses when blown off, shall preferably give a visual indication .

21.16.4 Each group of circuits shall be carefully protected by fuses in the cabins and in location to facilitate easy fault localization.

21.16.5 Fuses shall be so arranged that they can be easily replaced without causing interference or unsafe conditions to other circuits.

21.16.6 Cartridge fuse links shall be approved type.

21.16.7 The terminal block and tag blocks shall be of approved type unless otherwise specially permitted.

21.16.8 The terminal boards provided at the locations and other places shall be provided with suitable links to facilitate isolation of the
two sides of the circuits which are connected through the terminal links.

21.17 POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS

The power supply arrangements shall be as per details given in Chapter XVI on "Power Supply Arrangement".

21.18 GENERAL

21.18.1 In case of big yards and busy stations where a large number of trains/ shunting movements take place resulting in intensive
relay operations, relay room shall be air conditioned .

At way side stations where the traffic density is less, the provision of air conditioning is optional.

Relay rooms in areas which are prone to dust or in vicinity of chemical factories releasing injurious fumes or in areas with extreme
temperature may be air conditioned.

21.18.2 Fire fighting equipment shall be kept in the power supply equipment room. At major installation fire detection and alarm shall
preferably be provided in the relay room of relay interlocking installations.

21.18.3 Suitable standard earthing shall be provided for all operating panel, power supply, switch board, transformers, inverters etc.
21.18.4 At all Relay Interlocking Installations, Data Logger shall be provided.

21.18.5 Communication between the SM's panel room, relay room, equipment room and locations shall be provided.

21.18.6 Panel shall be operated by Station Master/Panel Operator who shall possess a panel competency certificate issued jointly by
Traffic Inspector and Section Engineer (Signal) of the section duly countersigned by assistant officer of Traffic and Signal Department.

B. ELECTRONIC INTERLOCKING

— (Section left blank) —

CHAPTER XXII
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF SIGNALLING IN 25KV AC ELECTRIFIED AREA
22.1 General
22.2 Signal structure
22.3 Visibility of signals
22.4 Cables and Cable Laying
22.5 Signaling and Interlocking Circuits
22.6 Line circuits
22.7 Signal feed Circuitry
22.8 Point operation and Detection
22.9 Block working
22.10 Track circuits
22.11 Power Supply
22.12 Axle counter
22.13 ATP system
22.14 Earthing
22.15 Rules for Protection of Staff working on Signal & Telecommunication Installation Extracts of Para 20.5 of Appendix
1 of ACTM Vol. II, Part II
Annexure 31 Detailed Instructions for measurement of stray Direct Current before installation of DC Single Rail Track Circuits
Annexure 32 Provisions of Part 'J' of Permanent Way Manual
Annexure 33 RE Drawing from 22.1 to 22.16

CHAPTER XXII

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF SIGNALLING IN 25 KV AC ELECTRIFIED AREA

22.1 General

22.1.1 The objectives of the special precautions taken with signalling equipment in AC electrified areas are:

a) to ensure that interference from the traction system cannot, under any circumstances, cause the Signalling system to exhibit false
clear indications, or in any other way imperil the safe operation of trains. This objective must be achieved even if the traction or
Signalling system is in a faulty or anomalous condition.

b) to ensure that signalling equipment continues to function normally in the presence of traction current.

c) to minimise danger to life from electric shock derived from the traction system.

22.1.2 Signalling is affected due to following in AC Electrified area

a) Visibility of signals due to OHE structure

b) Electrical clearances of signals due to live OHE close by

c) Traction rail-return current

d) Electrostatic and Electro-magnetic Induction

22.1.3 Visibility of Signals is taken care by the proper implantation of OHE structures during the design stage of OHE. Where electrical
clearances are not possible to maintain, suitable protective shields for signal structures shall be provided.

22.1.4 The electrostatic induction is practically eliminated by transferring a circuit into underground cables protected by a metal sheath.
The electromagnetic induction causes various currents and voltages to develop in conductors parallel to the track. These include the rails,
traction return conductors where provided, cable sheath, any other conductors in the vicinity, and signalling and telecommunication
circuits. The voltages that occur in the conductors appear as potential gradients. In addition, there are potential differences between
various points along the conductors and the adjacent Earths. The value of this induced voltage depends on various factors, such as -

a) Length of parallelism between the cable conductors and the electrified track;
b) Soil conductivity;

c) Screening efficiency of the cable sheath where existing;

d) Return current through the rails and return conductor where provided;

e) Mutual inductance between catenary and the cable conductors;

f) Separation between catenary and cable;

g) The current carried by the catenary, etc.

22.2 Signal structure

22.2.1 Colour light signal shall only be used in electrified area.

22.2.2 On electrified sections, the masts, insulators, wires and supports obstruct the visibility of Signals. In addition, the Signals have to
be so erected that they maintain a minimum clearance from the live parts of the O.H.E. The instructions in this section shall be strictly
followed in so far as the electrical clearance is concerned. These instructions may be taken as a rough guide in determining the location
of signals, which would afford the best visibility to the drivers of approaching trains. However, the actual visibility shall in all cases, be
checked by a Signal Sighting Committee and action to improve the visibility taken on the recommendations of the Committee.

22.2.3 The location of signals and the protection required shall be worked out from the following signal clearance diagram.

Drg. No. 22.1 For tangent tracks & tracks with super elevation less than 60 mm.
Broad Gauge Drg. No. 22.2 For curved tracks with super elevation 60mm to 140 mm.
Drg. No. 22.3 For curved tracks with super elevation 140 mm to 185 mm.
Drg. No. 22.4 For uncompensated O.H.E for straight track.
Metre Gauge
Drg. No. 22.5 For uncompensated O.H.E for track on curve.

22.2.4 In these diagrams the un-shaded portion shown above the standard moving dimensions is the area into which a signal post or
any of its fittings shall, under no circumstances, be allowed to infringe. The shaded envelope around this is the area into which a signal or
its fittings shall not normally be allowed to infringe. If due to unavoidable reasons, a portion of the signal post or its fittings has to
infringe into this shaded area, special protective measures as detailed in para 22.2.6 shall be taken. The dotted outline in Drawing Nos.
22.1,2,3 for Broad Gauge and 22.4 and 22.5 for Metre Gauge tracks is applicable when there are two sets of catenary and contact wires
parallel to each other in the same span, viz. insulated and un-insulated overlap locations. It is to be noted that these diagrams are not
applicable to (i) anchor spans, (ii) turnouts, (iii) 3 meters on either side of masts, and (iv) in loco sheds and inspection pits. The
diagrams are also not applicable when there is a feeder line running along with masts or where booster transformers and return
conductors are provided.
22.2.5 The normal height of the contact wire is 5.60 meters at supports. The normal height of the catenary at its highest point is 7.05
meters. In tunnels as well as underneath bridges, where clearances are limited, the contact wire may be as low as 4.58 meters for Broad
Gauge and 4.02 meters for Metre Gauge and the catenary is also lowered suitably or terminated at the face of Bridges or Tunnels. The
clearance diagrams have, however, been drawn to suit the extreme positions of the catenary and the contact wire. In addition, the
diagrams make allowances for the stagger as well as displacement of wires by wind.

22.2.6 In the matter of electrical clearances, the fundamental rule to be observed is that no one is allowed, under normal conditions, to
approach closer than 2 meters from the extreme positions of the live parts of the O.H.E. The following protective measures shall,
therefore, be adopted.

22.2.6.1 If any portion of a signal post or its fittings where signalling staff have to work, falls within 2 meters of a 25 kV live conductor,
or any metal part electrically connected to this conductor such portion shall as far as practicable be protected by an iron screening of
approved design solidly connected to the structural work.

22.2.6.2 If for any reason it is not practicable to provide the protective iron screening as given in para 22.2.6.1 above, a Caution Board
of approved design shall be provided on the signal post at a height of 3 metres above the rail level, to caution the signal staff.

Note: Technical personnel shall exercise particular care to protect themselves while working on signal posts not provided with protective
screens. If there is any likelihood of any part of their tools or equipment coming within 2 metre of live equipment, they shall take a power
block as detailed in Chapter VI of the Manual of AC Traction- Volume II (Part-I). The same precautions are also required in the vicinity of
return conductors, which should be treated as live.

22.2.6.3 The SSE/SE/JE (Signal) shall explain these instructions to the staff working under them and ensure that they are correctly
complied with.

22.2.7 Drg. Nos 22.6 and 22.7 illustrate the location of signals on the left-hand side and right hand side of Broad Gauge track and the
figures indicate the minimum heights and distances of Signal from the track to avoid electrical infringements.

22.2.8 Location of neutral section

22.2.8.1 Neutral section shall be located away from stop signals, level crossing.

22.2.8.2 If neutral section is provided after a stop signal, the distance* between signal and neutral section shall be such that after
stopping, the train shall be able to pick up enough speed to coast through the neutral section without any risk of stalling.

22.2.8.3 If neutral section is provided before a stop signal, the distance* between neutral section and signal shall be such that the train
shall not cross the signal in an effort to coast the neutral section.

*Note: The distance should be preferably 1600 meter away on section with gradient upto 1 in 300 and 2500 meter with higher gradient
upto 1 in 200, if unavoidable. If PTFE type short neutral section has been used this distance can be reduced to at least 400 meter after
the stop signal and 200meter before the stop signal. Where, however, modifications require to comply with these guide lines are difficult
or entail heavy investment, the Chief Electrical Engineer of the Railway may direct any other arrangement to be followed consistent with
safety and reliability.
22.3 Visibility of signals

22.3.1 Normally, all signals should be located on the left side of the track for which it refers. In exceptional cases the signals may be
located on the right side.

To ensure adequate visibility of signals the OHE masts should be implanted as per the ACTM. In case it is not possible, off set brackets
may be used for signal units without affecting the schedule of dimensions. Further the following steps should be taken to achieve
adequate visibility.

a) The distance between the signal post and traction mast shall be as large as possible. In case the traction mast is located in front of the
signal post, the distance between the traction mast and signal post should not be less than 30 metres. In addition, it should be ensured
that no traction mast is located in advance of the signal post at a distance less than 10 metres.

b) The signal post should be sufficiently high so as to be seen clearly.

c) On tangent tracks it is desirable that the signal should be located within the OHE structure, i.e. the implantation of the signal from the
track centre shall be less than the implantation of the OHE mast from the track centre. The setting of OHE masts in the vicinity of the
colour light signals shall be as per para 20.5 of Appendix-I of the AC Traction Manual, Vol-II (Part-II). Relevant extracts as in Annexure-
31.

d) On curved track or in areas, where other obstructions such as buildings, trees etc. exist, the site should be individually examined by
the 'signal sighting committee' for deciding the most appropriate location of the signal.

22.3.2 No portion of a post or fittings of a colour light signal shall infringe with the schedule of dimensions from the centre line of the
nearest track.

22.3.3 Signals without Junction Indicators outside tracks

22.3.3.1 Setting distance of OHE masts shall be in accordance with Drg..No. 22.8

22.3.3.2 The signal units shall be so fixed that the height of the centre line of the red signal shall be approximately 3.65 meters above
rail level. No part of Signal without a route indicator shall normally be higher than 5.2 meters above rail level.

22.3.4 Signals without Junction Indicators between tracks

22.3.4.1 If signals are located between tracks no OHE structures shall be provided in the same track space for at least 600 m in rear of
the signals.

22.3.4.2 Portal drop arms shall not normally be located in the track space where signals are located at least for a distance of 600 metres
before the signal.

22.3.4.3 If a portal drop arm has to be unavoidably located in rear of signal itself, the signal shall be mounted on an offset bracket. In
addition special study shall be made in each case to see whether the portal drop arm should also be offset from the centre line of the
track space in the direction opposite to the offset of the signal. This special study shall be made for at least three portal drop arms in rear
of the signal and shall also cover the possibility of shortening the portal drop arm.

22.3.5 Signals with Junction Indicators outside tracks

22.3.5.1 Setting distances of OHE masts shall be in accordance with Drg..No. 22.9

22.3.6 Signals with Junction Indicators between tracks

22.3.6.1 Precautions and parameters for location of portal drop arms shall be as specified under Para 22.3.4

22.3.6.2 For details of drawings, illustrating the above principles for Colour Light Signals, reference may be made to Drawing No.22.10.

22.3.7 The visibility of the signal shall be checked by day as well as by night by the Official in charge (Signal) of the section after each
phase of the O.H.E work, i.e. erection of masts, provision of brackets, wiring, etc. If at any stage the official feels that the visibility is not
adequate, he shall impose suitable speed restrictions and take such steps as are required to improve the visibility.

22.4 Cables and Cable Laying

22.4.1 Only unscreened cable shall be used.

22.4.2 Screened signalling cable may be used on signalling installations where screened cable is already in use and site condition
demand its further use.

22.4.3 PVC insulated PVC sheathed and armoured unscreened cable to an approved specification (IRS-63) shall be used for carrying
signalling circuits. Only approved type (IS-1554) power cable shall be used for signalling purposes.

22.4.4 The screened cable, if used, shall be PVC insulated, armored and to an approved specification IRS S-35.

22.4.5 The cable shall be so laid that it is not less than one meter from the nearest edge of the mast supporting the catenary or any
other live conductor, provided the depth of the cable does not exceed 0.5 meters. When the cable is laid at a depth greater than 0.5
meters, a minimum distance of 3 meters between the cable and the nearest edge of the O.H.E structure shall be maintained. If it is
difficult to maintain these distances, the cable shall be laid in concrete / heavy duty HDPE/Ducts or any other approved means for a
distance of 3 meters on either side of the Mast. When so laid, the distance between the cable and the mast may be reduced to 0.5
meters. These precautions are necessary to avoid damage to the cable in the event of the failure of an overhead insulator.

22.4.6 In the vicinity of traction sub stations and feeding posts, the cable shall be at least one metre away from any metallic part of the
O.H.E and other equipment at the sub station, which is fixed on the ground, and at least one metre away from the sub station earthing.
In addition, the cable shall be laid in concrete or heavy-duty HDPE pipes/ Split RCC pipes or other approved means for a length of 300
meters on either side of the feeding point. As far as possible, the cable shall be laid on the side of the track opposite to the feeding post.

22.4.7 In the vicinity of the switching stations, the cable shall be laid at least one metre away from any metallic body of the station,
which is fixed in the ground, and at least 5 meters away from the station Earthing. The distance of 5 meters can be reduced to one metre
provided the cables are laid in concrete pipes/ heavy-duty HDPE pipes /ducts or any other approved means.

22.4.8 Where an independent Earth is provided for an OHE structure, i.e. where the mast is connected to a separate Earth instead of
being connected to the rail, the cables shall be laid at least one metre away from the Earth.

22.4.9 Where there are O.H.E structures along the cable route, the cable trenches shall as far as possible, be dug not less than 5.5
meters away from the centre of the Track.

22.4.10 In a cable run, the number of circuits carrying 300V at any given instant shall not exceed three. Note : 300 V feed system shall
not be used in future installations.

22.5 Signalling and Interlocking Circuits

22.5.1 As a rule, no aerial circuits shall be retained in the electrified zone. The only exception may arise in the case of Block Circuits
coming in from a non-electrified zone. However, in each such case, it shall be ensured that the Block Wires are terminated in a suitable
lead in cable upto a distance of 50 meters from the electrified track at right angle to track. In every such case, the length of parallelism
and the distance of Block Wires from the nearest electrified track shall be checked to ensure that the maximum induced voltage does not
the exceed 60 volts the limits prescribed by CCITT. Paras 505(e), 508(b) and 549(a) of Indian Railway Telecommunication manual (old)
shall be considered for design and precautions.

22.5.2 Barring block-instrument circuits, no other earth-return circuit shall be permitted on A.C electrified territory. The Block
instruments, however, shall be suitably protected by a filter of approved design as stipulated in para 22.9.5

22.5.3 The following electrical signalling equipment are not safe to withstand AC induced voltage. The coils of these equipment can only
be used inside a cabin or a location box or internal circuits only. The coils of these equipment shall be worked from a separate battery
and this battery shall not be connected to any external circuits going outside the cabin/ location box:

a) Luminous Indicators;

b) Telephone type relays;

c) Electrical Lever Locks;

d) Door Coil of IRS Block Instrument;

e) 250 Ohm D.C. neutral Line Relay;

f) Rotary Key Transmitter; &

g) D.C. Neutral Polar Relays.

22.5.4 All Batteries and the wiring in the equipment, location box or cabin shall be well insulated from the ground. PVC insulated wires to
an approved specification (IRS-S-76) shall be used for wiring in location boxes and cabins.

22.5.5 Separate Batteries shall be provided for external and internal circuits.

22.5.6 When more than one cable is laid between two locations or cabins, it shall be ensured that as far as possible, all wires pertaining
to any individual circuit are within the same cable.

22.5.7 Polarised Relays using permanent magnet shall not be used in any external circuit in 25 KV AC electrified areas as the permanent
magnet in the relay tends to lose its magnetic properties due to continuous application of induced voltages. Competent authority shall
authorise any exception in specific cases.

22.5.8 The relays, which release an interlocking, shall be slow acting so that the interlocking is not released inadvertently by voltage
variations of short duration. Time delay may be of the order of 0.6 to 0.8 seconds.

22.5.9 No external circuit shall work in A.C. electrified area with out double cutting.

22.6 Line circuits

22.6.1 The length of any signalling line circuit must be limited to ensure that the induced voltage from the traction system does not
exceed 400 Volts under normal conditions. If necessary, line circuits must be sectionalized. Where line circuits leave lineside enclosures
or buildings in different directions, this could give rise to a continuous circuit of such length that the limits of induced voltage above could
be exceeded. In such cases a sectionalized power supply unit should be provided for each direction.

22.6.2 Maximum length of parallelism

22.6.2.1 The induced voltage in the underground-Unscreened cable shall be reckoned as 116 volts/km on single line and 95 volts/km on
Double Line.

22.6.2.2 When such circuits are terminated on relays/equipment their immunity shall not be less than 400 V AC. Length of feed cable
terminated on relay shall be suitably reduced depending upon its AC immunity.

22.6.2.3 The induced voltage in the underground Screened cable may be reckoned as 35 V/km under normal conditions with a catenary
current of 300 Amps on Single Line and 600 Amps on Double Line.

22.6.2.4 Maximum length of parallelism permitted on screened cable is 3.5 Km. Note: In future, screened cable shall not be used.

22.6.2.5 The length of DC Track Circuits terminated on Line Relays with unscreened cable shall be restricted to:-

Type of relay AC immunity level in volts Maximum permissible length on *


. . Single Line Double Line
AC immunized 750 2.1 Km 2.8 Km
Shelf Type
QNA1 1000 2.1 Km 2.8 Km
K50B1 170 1.0 Km 1.2 Km
K50 130 750 meters

*Maximum permissible induced voltage is restricted to 400V for human safety and factor of safety 1.5 has been considered.

22.7 Signal feed Circuitry

Signal feed system shall be of the 110V 50Hz type. 300 V signal feed system where already working may continue. 110 V feed system
can replace 300V feed system as per the site requirements or when it has out lived its life.

22.7.2 The distance between the signal control relays and the signal must not exceed the prescribed limits in electrified zone, measured
along the line of way. This will ensure that the voltage induced in the circuit will be inadequate to illuminate the lamps, even under the
most adverse circumstances and with one or more earth faults present.

22.7.3 Maximum permitted length of direct feed of signal in various configuration shall be as per tabulation below:
Type of cable 110V volts feed system 300 V feed system
Single track Double track Single track Double track
Screened 600 m 600 m - -
Unscreened 180 m 220 m 500 m 600 m

22.7.4 When a signal is located at a distance greater than that specified in para 22.7..3 the signal shall be fed locally by controlling
relays located at the location. Such signals may also be remotely fed from the cabin by using a corresponding relay at the location.
Typical circuit is given in Drg. No. 22.11.

22.7.5 It shall be ensured that the power transformer for feeding circuits as per section 22.7.2 shall be different from the transformer
feeding longer circuits.

22.8 Point operation and Detection

22.8.1 Point can be operated electrically or mechanically by rodding. Mechanical operation of point will require special measures for the
protection of operating staff. Electric operation shall have restriction on maximum length between point control relays and point machine
depending upon their immunity level.

22.8.2 Electric Operation of point

22.8.2.1 Point detection and point detection repeat circuits shall use ac-immunized relay.
22.8.2.2 The maximum permissible length for various types of commonly used Point Machines is as under:-

Type of Machine AC immunity level in volts Maximum permissible parallelism in meters between
Point Contactor and Point Motor
. . Single Line Double Line
IRS-24 160 910 1100
SGE110V 250 1435 1750
GRS5E 90 515 630
STYLE 63 130 745 910
M3 200 1150 1400
M5 70 400 490
Siemens IA 160 910 1100
Siemens IR 300 1650 2100
Siemens 1A 400 2200 2800
LM-55 160 910 1100

Factor of safety is 1.5

22.8.2.3 CSTE may authorize where necessary, longer permissible separation between point contacter and point machine when screened
cable is used.

22.8.2.4 3 phase point machine is inherently immune to induced voltage and therefore can be used for operating point to any length
subject to its own operating limitation.

22.8.3 Rod Runs

22.8.3.1 The point rods in A.C electrified areas are subject to a certain amount of induced voltage. In addition since the rods are in
contact with the rails at some point or other, the rail voltage, which can be quite high in case of faults, is transmitted through them to the
lever frame. Insulators shall, therefore, be provided on the rodding as per instructions in section 22.8.4 for protecting the Operating Staff
from the effects of these voltages.

22.8.4 Insulated Rod Joints

22.8.4.1 The insulated rod joints shall be as per approved drawings.

22.8.4.2 Each rod shall be provided with an insulator in the lead out as close to the cabin as possible. While providing this insulator, it
shall be ensured that there is no possibility of a contact between the insulated portion of one rod and the un-insulated portion of another
rod or signal wires, the rail or O.H.E mast.
22.8.4.3 An additional insulator shall be provided between the last adjustable crank and the point or the lock bar. The purpose of this
insulator is to prevent the rail voltage being passed on to the main run of rods.

22.8.4.4 If the distance between the two insulators at either end is greater than 300 meters, additional insulators shall be provided on
each rod, so that the distance between two consecutive insulators on the same rod is not greater than 300 meters.

22.8.4.5 Each Point, Trap indicator and lockbar operated by rodding shall be electrically isolated from the track.

22.8.4.6 All insulators in a run shall be provided between the same two sets of rollers and guides, so that there is no possibility of the
insulated portion of one rod coming into contact with the uninsulated portion of another rod.

22.8.4.7 The clearance between the insulator and the adjacent rod roller shall be adequate to permit normal movement of the rod.

22.8.4.8 When a rod crosses the track, the top of the rod shall not be less than 40mm from the bottom of the rail. When steel or C.I
sleepers are used, the distance between the rod and the sleeper shall also be not less than 40 mm. Similarly, the distance between any
O.H.E mast and the point rods shall not be less than 40 mm.

22.8.4.9 The operating rod of locally worked points on all electrified lines and of similar points taking off from two non-electrified track
adjacent to the last electrified line shall also be provided with an insulator so that the point lever or point box is insulated from the rail.

22.8.4.10 When the Engineering department provides the point lever or point box, Engineering department shall provide the insulator on
the operating rod.

22.9 Block working

22.9.1 In 25 KV electrified line only following type of block instrument shall be used :

Single Line :

Neal's token instrument


Daido's Tokenless block Instrument
Block working with Axle Counter

Double Line :

SGE Block Instrument


Block working with Axle Counter

Push button type block instrument may be used on non electrified section taking off from electrified section if length of parallelism does
not exceed 1.5 Kms.

22.9.2 If any other block instrument is to be used, prior approval of Railway Board shall be obtained.
22.9.3 Block instruments may use special PVC insulated quads in the aluminum-sheathed cable/ 4 or 6 quad jelly filled
telecommunication cable or other suitable communication means, like OFC and radio, for their working.

22.9.4 When quad cable is used for the working of block instruments, Block Telephone and Block Bell circuits shall be worked through a
transformer utilizing the two pairs of block quad. The Block circuits shall be worked on the phantom pair or by other suitable means.

22.9.5 Protective Devices of approved type consisting of two chokes connected in series with a four terminal condenser connected across
the junction between two chokes and earth shall be used. A rare gas arrestor shall also be provided across the condenser to absorb
surges under faulty conditions. The arrangement is illustrated in Drg. No. 22.12

22.9.6 The Block Bell shall be worked through Block Bell equipment of approved type.

22.9.7 Separate line battery or DC-DC converter shall be used for each block instrument. This battery shall feed only the block
instruments and not any other circuit.

22.9.7.1 Two different earths shall be provided for Discharger and Block. :

22.9.8 When OFC, Radio or other communication means are used for block working, fail-safe block interface (FSBI) of approved design
shall be used. FSBI shall be installed in communication room and which may not be always close to the place where block instruments
are installed. In case the distance between FSBI and block instrument is more than 500 metres, block filter and block bell and telephone
shall be inserted in cable pairs connecting them.

22.9.9 Single Line Token Instruments

22.9.9.1 Where earth return is used, the rest contact of the instrument shall be substituted by the contacts of a slow release relay. The
arrangement shall be such that the relay is energised during the operation of plunger but is dropped only after the condenser has
discharged to a safe limit. The circuit details are illustrated in drawing No. 22.13.

22.9.9.2 Whenever stray DC is present in the earth, metallic return is provided for block circuit. Metallic return should be used with a
modified filter circuit eliminating the condenser. The chokes and surge arrestors shall be retained and shunt resistors shall be provided
across the Galvo (150 ohms) and Polarised Relay (77 ohms). The resistors shall be of substantial rating so that they do not get open
circuited. The circuit details are illustrated in drawing No. 22.14. In this case, slow to release relay is not required.

22.9.9.3 Only Frequency Modulated Single Line Daido Token less Block Instrument is approved for installation in electrified sections.

22.9.10 Double Line Block Instrument

22.9.10.1 IRS type Block Instrument with Block filter shall be used for Double Line section electrified with 25 kV AC. The circuit details
are illustrated in Drawing No. 22.15.

22.9.10.2 The voltage of the Battery shall be sufficient to ensure not less than 18-ma and not more than 25-mA current through the
polarized relay. Needle coil resistance shall be modified to obtain this level of current
22.10 Track circuits

22.10.1 Track circuit on AC electrified section may use IRJs (Insulated Rail Joints) or ESJs (electrical separation joint) and may be
configured as single rail or double rail track circuit. Track circuit which use electric separation joint shall be configured only as double rail
track circuit.

22.10.2 Single Rail Track Circuit

22.10.2.1 With single rail track circuits, one of the rails is reserved for the traction return current. This rail is referred to as the un-
insulated rail. Any connection from the O.H.E. mast or other structure shall be made only to the un-insulated rail. Similarly, connections
for the return current at feeding points as well as from booster transformers and return conductors shall be made only to the un-
insulated rail.

22.10.2.2 As far as practicable, the rail adjacent to the O.H.E Mast shall be utilised as the un-insulated rail. However, this may not
always be possible, particularly in yards where there are a large number of points and crossings or where the O.H.E masts are not always
on the same side or where track circuits are staggered.

22.10.2.3 In single rail track circuits, in the event of a break in the uninsulated rail, very heavy current will flow through the track relay
as well as the equipment at the feed point. To avoid this the uninsulated rails of the adjacent tracks shall be cross-bonded at intervals of
not more than 100 Mts. In case the track circuit is less than 100 Mts. the cross bonding shall be provided on the uninsulated rail at either
end of the track circuit (ref Drg no 22.16).

22.10.2.4 In the case of adjacent track circuits, the return rail shall be staggered.

22.10.3 Double Rail Track Circuit

22.10.3.1 In double rail track circuits, since both rails are used for traction return current, impedance bonds shall be provided at the IRJs.

22.10.3.2 No O.H.E mast or any other structure shall be connected to either of the rails. The Electrical Department shall run separate earth wire
for earthing the O.H.E masts.

22.10.3.3 Connections at the feeding points and from booster transformers and return conductors shall be made to the center points of impedance
bonds.

22.10.4. DC Track Circuit

22.10.4.1 This track circuit can only be configured to work as single rail track circuit.

22.10.4.2 Interference Mechanism


With reference to fig. above traction return current flowing in the single traction return rails creates a longitudinal AC voltage along its
length, which is a function of the current value and the impedance of the traction return rail. A wheelset at the feed end will impress this
interfering voltage on the relay, whilst a wheelset at the relay end will similarly impress the interfering voltage on the feed set. The track
circuit equipment must be immune both to false operation and to damage from such impressed voltages.

22.10.4.3 Immunized D.C. Track Relays to British Standard Specifications No. 1659 shall be provided in A.C Traction areas. Such
immunized track relays shall satisfy the prescribed specifications so far as immunization is concerned in addition to provisions contained
in British Railway Specification No. 939-A and RDSO/SPN/84/88 can also be used in A.C Traction areas. The resistance of the immunized
Track Relay shall be 9 ohms.

22.10.4.4 Length of DC track circuit is restricted depending upon rail return current. With catenary current restricted to 300 ampere on
single track section and 600 amperes on double track section length of DC track circuits shall be restricted depending upon the use of
type of relay and sleeper.

22.10.4.5 The length of D.C single rail track circuit in AC electrified areas with AC immune 9 ohms shelf type relay shall not exceed 450
meters where wooden sleepers are used and 350 meters where concrete sleepers are used. The length of track circuit can be extended
upto 450 meters when QTA 2 plug-in relay is used.

22.10.4.6 Restriction on the track circuit length due to use of concrete sleeper can be relaxed upto 450 meters by CSTE of Railway if
adequate ballast resistance can be consistently obtained.

22.10.4.7 In view of the increased AC immunity due to the presence of biased magnetic arrangement, QBAT relays can be used upto a
maximum length of track circuit of 750 meters using one 'B' type choke at the relay end, under minimum ballast resistance of 2
ohms/km. Operation of track circuit with this type of relay will require four cells delivering 8.8V. QBAT relays shall be used in conjunction
with QSPA1 relays conforming to BRS 933A.

22.10.4.8 As an interim measure, length of DC track circuit may be retained at the existing level at higher catenary current of 800
Amperes on single-track section and 1000 Amp. on double track section by providing B type 120 ohms impedance choke in series with
track relay. Audio frequency track circuit shall be used on sections where catenary current exceeds 300 Amps, on single- track section
and 600Amps. on double track- section.

22.10.4.9 Before installation of single rail D.C track circuits in A.C Electrified areas, measurements of stray D.C currents shall be taken in
accordance with the instructions in Annexure 32. The total stray current as measured, shall not exceed:

i) 10 milli-amperes, if length of track circuit is less than 100 meters ii) 100 milli-amperes, if length of track circuit is 100 meters and
above

If measured value of current exceeds the specified limit as above, other type of track circuit suitable to work in A.C. traction area shall be
used.

22.10.4.10 To protect the equipment from the effects of the rail voltage, a choke coil of approved type shall be provided in series with
the feed resistance.

22.10.5 Audio frequency Track Circuit

22.10.5.1 Only approved type modulated Audio frequency Track Circuit shall be used.

22.10.5.2 Audio frequency track circuit shall be configured only as double rail track circuit and like any double rail track circuit it requires
both rails to be balanced with respect to earth and with respect to current flow in each rail.

22.10.5.3 Impedance bond shall be used where there is no provision in design of Audio frequency track circuit to balance the traction rail
return current.

22.10.5.4 Electric Traction Units shall be critically examined for harmonics generated by them before they are brought into service.

22.10.6. Impedance bonds

22.10.6.1 Impedance bonds used on 50 Hz electrified lines shall be of approved type.

22.10.6.2 The principles of operation of impedance bonds are equally applicable whether the traction return current is AC or DC. The
traction current rating of DC impedance bonds is usually much higher than those designed for AC traction systems. Thus, impedance
bonds designed for DC traction current can usually be used on AC traction systems, although their bulk and cost is greater than a
purposely designed AC impedance bond. Conversely, impedance bonds designed for AC traction systems are not suitable for use on DC
traction systems.

22.10.6.3 Generally, AC impedance bond shall be capable of supporting a current of 400A continuously (200A in each rail), with a peak
loading of 1000A for a period of up to five minutes, without suffering damage or overheating.

22.10.6.4 Leads between impedance bonds across IRJ on the same track shall be capable of carrying the traction current. It shall be PVC
sheathed cables, terminated by compression lugs of an approved type and bolted to the impedance bond termination.

22.10.6.5 The design and installation of impedance bonds should take into account the requirements for mechanised track maintenance
and should not be a hazard for men walking along the track.

22.10.6.6 The provision and maintenance of connections between rail and impedance bonds, and from one impedance bond to another
on the same track is the responsibility of the S&T department.

22.10.6.7 Cross bonds, earth wires, connections to sub-station current return busbars and connections to booster transformers must be
terminated on the centre tap of impedance bonds. The installation and maintenance of these connections is the responsibility of the
electrical department.

22.10.7 Maintenance and Installation of track circuits

22.10.7.1 There are no special methods used solely for the installation of track circuits on ac electrified areas, and reference should be
made to installation instructions given relevant in manual and / SEM chapters.

22.10.7.2 It is, however, important to recognize that the operation of track circuit is dependent upon the integrity of traction return
bonding. It is therefore important that attentions are given to the testing during installation and also during maintenance of traction
return bonding.

22.10.8 Track Bonding

22.10.8.1 The objectives of track bonding are :

i) To provide a path for traction return current, which ensures that no component of the track/traction return network rises above 25 V to
remote earth, under normal traction load conditions and 430V under traction short circuit conditions.

ii) To ensure that protective equipment operates satisfactorily,

iii) To minimize damage to installations due to traction short circuit,

iv) To maintain correct operation of track circuits.

22.10.8.2 Procedure of planning track bonding

22.10.8.3 When planning electrification schemes, base plans will be provided. The plans will be issued to the signal department showing
the track layout and proposed position of all electrification and associated structures.

22.10.8.4 The signal department will then indicate on these plans the proposed position of insulated joints, impedance bonds, signal
structures and track circuit bonding and in single rail track circuited areas, will identify the track circuit rail by marking with a thickened
line. In double rail track circuited areas S&T department shall specifically indicate the provision of earth wire for structure earthing.

22.10.8.5 The plans must then be returned to electrical department who will indicate the position of continuity bonds, cross bonds,
structure bonds and all earth connections to the traction system. The plans will then be returned to the signal department for his final
agreement and issue to concerned parties.

22.10.8.6 Bonding of Single Rail Track circuits

22.10.8.6.1 The track circuit rail must be series bonded in order to ensure that defective bonding cannot cause a wrong side failure of
the track circuit. Accordingly, the bonding arrangement of the track circuit rail must ensure that the conductive path between the track
circuit feed connection and the relay or receiver end connection is interrupted in the event of a disconnection.

22.10.8.6.2 Because of traction return considerations, it is not possible for the traction return rail to be series bonded. It is therefore
essential to avoid bonding disconnection to minimize the risk of loss of train shunt.

22.10.8.6.3 In single rail track circuits, in the event of a break in the un-insulated rail, very heavy current will flow through the track
relay as well as the equipment at the feed point. To avoid this, the un-insulated rails of the adjacent tracks shall be cross-bonded at
intervals of not more than 100 meters. In case the track circuit is less than 100 meters, the cross bonding shall be provided on the un-
insulated rail at either end of the track circuit.

22.10.8.6.4 On single line track circuited sections, a continuous earth wire is provided on the traction mast capable of carrying full
traction return current. The un-insulated rail shall be connected to each of the traction masts by a structure bond, which shall be riveted
at both ends. The arrangement for Double Line and Single Line Sections is as illustrated in Drawing No. 22.14.

22.10.8.6.5 Typical bonding examples with single rail track circuits are shown in figure.

22.10.8.7 Double Rail Track Circuits

22.10.8.7.1 No structure bonds, cross bonds or connections to earth wires or return conductors shall be connected to the running rails
where double rail track circuits are in use. If necessary, an impedance bond must be specially installed to provide a neutral point for
these connections.

22.10.8.8 Types of Bond and Responsibilities

22.10.8.8.1 Rail Joint Bonds : Rail joints in track-circuited areas shall be bonded using two 8SWG bare galvanized steel wires or copper
bonds/ steel wires or flats secured by means of channel pins or welding/riveting. The S&T department is responsible for the installation
and the maintenance of all rail joint bonds.

22.10.8.8.2 Rail bonds and Cross-bonds: Where rail bonds and cross bonds are required for traction return purposes they shall be
installed by and remain the responsibility of the electrical department.

22.10.8.8.3 The longitudinal bonding on a non-track-circuited track adjacent to a track circuit shall be extended for a distance of 50
meters beyond the track circuit.

22.10.8.8.4 In addition, the two rails of the non-track circuited track outside any track circuit or in between two track circuits shall be
bonded together immediately after the block joints.

22.10.8.8.5 Detailed instructions for bonding of track are given in the A.C Traction Manual.

22.10.8.8.6 It is essential that the traction return and track circuit bonding is maintained in its design condition. The Traction Foreman
and CSI of section will arrange for physical inspection at six months intervals to ensure conformity with approved Bonding Plan. In the
event of faulty connection or bond being found immediate remedial action will be taken to restore system Integrity. The results of the
joint inspections shall be entered in a register maintained by the Supervisory Signal Inspector and put up within a month for the scrutiny
of the Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer/Divisional Electrical Engineer (OHE). Responsibility of maintenance of traction
bonds is with electrical department.

22.11 Power Supply

22.11.1 In double line section power supply at stations including Block Huts, Intermediate Block Huts, Interlocked Level Crossings and at
such locations in Automatic Signalling Territory as required shall be provided by tapping both UP and Down OHEs with an automatic
change over switch. Uninterrupted Power Supply with inverter shall be provided if automatic change over switch between UP and Down
OHEs is not provided. Diesel generators shall be provided at junctions and important stations where frequent shunting is involved. Where
local power supply is reliable, the same may be utilized as standby. In single line electrified areas in addition to OHE supply standby
generators of adequate capacity shall be provided in conjunction with UPS and inverters.

22.11.2 Where power supply is drawn from Up and Down OHEs, supply shall be provided such that at least one power is available in the
event of power block in the station.

22.11.3 Signal department may provide a diesel generator set at large junction stations.

22.12 Axle counter

22.12.1 Axle counter used shall be of an approved design.

22.12.2 The wheel detector circuits used in axle counting system are galvanically decoupled from currents flowing in rails. As a result
higher degree of immunity to traction current is available.

22.12.3 Leakage fields from inductors on locomotives can produce disturbance if these are mounted close to the rail. Locomotive and
EMU shall be critically examined for the placement of inductor on the underframe.

22.13 ATP system

22.13.1 ATP system used shall be of approved design.

22.13.2 Balises used in ATP system are galvanically decoupled from currents flowing in rails. As a result higher degree of immunity to
traction current is available.

22.13.3 Leakage fields from inductors on locomotives can produce disturbance if these are mounted close to the rail. Locomotive and
EMU shall be critically examined for the placement of inductor on the underframe.

22.14 Earthing

22.14.1 Earthing of cables, equipment, buildings and structures is done for one or more of the following purposes:

a) To ensure effective and rapid operation of protective equipment in the event of earth fault currents in an electrical supply system
which might otherwise cause fire; and to protect against danger to life through shock due to non-current carrying equipment and metal
work being maintained at a dangerous potential relative to earth.

b) To provide an earth for telephone systems employing an earth return signalling circuit.

c) To provide a means for the earthing of metal screens of telecommunications cables and equipment for the purpose of reducing
interference.

d) To provide a direct connection with earth for discharge tubes, lighting protectors, etc.

e) To provide an earth to block instrument working on earth return.

22.14.2 Installations to be earthed

22.14.2.1 Separate earthings shall be provided for the following cases :-

i) The lever frame and other metallic frames of the cabin shall be connected together to a separate earthing.

ii) The earthing shall be provided at every location box where cables terminate.

iii) It is not necessary to earth the sheath and armouring of screened cables or armouring of unscreened cables when they are used as a
tail cables except in special cases where the length of the tail cable exceeds normal prescribed limits.

iv) Block circuits working on earth return through the respective Block filters,

v) The surge arrestors provided in block

vi) In case of signals falling within 2 meters from the electrified track, the protection screen shall be connected to an earth

22.14.2.2 There shall not be any possibility of simultaneous human contact with metallic bodies connected to different earths, where it is
not possible to provide suitable spacing or partition between various metallic objects referred to above, they shall be connected to a
common earth.

22.14.2.3 Limits of earth resistance: The maximum earth resistance specified is:

a) Earth for lightening discharger 10 ohms

b) Earth for equipment 10 ohms

c) Axle counter cable screen in ac electrified area 1 ohms 22.14.3 Installation of a standard Earth electrode system

The material required for a standard electrode system should be corrosion resistant.
If routine testing indicates that existing earth electrode system is not satisfactory, a new earth electrode system (or part of a system to
supplement the existing system) shall be provided.

22.15 Rules for Protection of Staff working on Signal & Telecommunication Installation

22.15.1 Railway personnel working on Signal & Telecommunication equipment on sections provided with 25 KV A.C traction are required
to take suitable precautions on account of the following: -

a) Proximity to live conductors;

b) Presence of returns currents in the rails;

c) Induction in all metallic bodies situated near the overhead equipment.

22.15.2 Proximity of a Live Conductor: - Any contact direct or indirect, with the 25KV conductors is dangerous and shall be strictly
avoided.

22.15.3 Pressure of Return Current in Rail

The flow of return current in the rails will give rise to a potential difference: -

a) between adjacent rails at an insulated joint of a track circuit or at an ordinary joint in case the fish plates and bonding are broken ;

b) between the ends of a fractured rail at the fracture;

c) between an insulated rail and the non-insulated rail used for the traction return current; &

d) between the rail and the surrounding mass of earth.

22.15.4 Wherever staff has to work on installations, which are in direct or indirect contact with the rails, they shall -

i) use tools (insulated and non-insulated) in accordance with approved instructions &

ii) observe the provisions of Section 'J' of permanent way manual reproduced as Annexure 33.

22.15.5 Induction in metallic bodies situated close to overhead electric equipment

22.15.5.1 Induced voltage may appear in Signalling and Telecommunication Circuits when the length of parallelism to the track is
appreciable. Even if there is no induced voltage in a circuit at the time of starting a work, precautionary measures listed below shall be
taken, as induced voltages may develop at any time on account of an increase in current in the traction lines. It is also to be noted that in
the case of equipment or circuits, which are earthed, a contact, which may normally be without danger, may give rise to an electric shock
in the case of a break in the circuit or in the earth connections. Consequently, when staff have to work on Signal and Telecommunication
Circuits on 25 KV A.C electrified lines, they shall take the following precautionary measures: -
a) They shall as a general rule, wear rubber gloves and use tools with insulated handles;

b) When the work to be done is of such a nature that rubber gloves cannot be used conveniently, special precautions shall be taken by
spliting the circuits into sections or earthing them. In special cases, both the steps shall be taken simultaneously. If these protective
measures cannot be applied, staff must insulate themselves from the ground by using rubber mats, etc. ;

c) The cable conductors pertaining to the block instruments are likely to develop heavy induced voltages and every time the staff handles
the terminals of Block Circuits, they must rigidly observe the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) above. These cable terminals shall be
printed RED to remind the Maintenance staff of the danger. The Maintenance Inspectors shall explain the meaning of this painting to the
maintenance staff and ensure that they correctly understand it.

22.15.6 Before any work is undertaken on Signalling or Railway Telecommunication cables, the staff shall take the following
precautionary measures :-

a) Reduce the length of the circuit as much as possible;

b) Use Rubber gloves as far as possible or alternatively use insulated rubber mats; &

c) Before cutting the armour or the metal sheath of the cable or the wires in the cables, an electrical connection of low resistance shall be
established between the two parts of the armour, the Sheathing and wires that are to be separated by cutting.

22.15.7 Staff who have to work on electrical circuits shall be equipped with insulated tools such as box spanners, pliers, screwdrivers,
etc. They shall, in addition, be supplied with rubber mats and rubber gloves. In regard to staff who have to work on equipment directly
connected to the rails, tools with insulated handles may be supplied as far as possible and as far as practicable. A plastic sleeve on the
handle will be sufficient in most cases.

22.15.8 Staff shall make themselves familiar with the instructions for treatment of persons suffering from electric shocks. Instruction
Boards in English and in the regional languages describing the methods to be adopted for treatment of electric shock shall be clearly
displayed in all Inspectors' offices.

22.15.9 In the event of break of catenary/contact wire of the overhead electrical equipment, the following precautions shall be taken for
the safe working of the signalling equipment: -

i) The Train Controller, on receipt of an advice of a break in Traction Overhead Lines or confirmation of such an advice from the Traction
Power Controller, shall immediately advise by the quickest possible means, to all the staff responsible for the maintenance and operation
of the signalling equipment of the section where the catenary/contact wire has broken.

ii) The staff responsible for the operation of the Signalling equipment of the section shall immediately check whether the block and other
signalling equipment are working normally. If an abnormal working of any equipment is noticed, its working shall be immediately
suspended and necessary action under the Rules shall betaken.

iii) On receipt of this intimation, the staff responsible for the maintenance of Signalling of the section shall immediately proceed to the
site and test all circuits and allied equipment paying particular attention to the external signalling gear to ensure that no damage to it has
taken place. An authorised representative of the Signal Department shall submit Certificate that every thing is working all right and send
it to his superiors alongwith a detailed test report as soon as possible.

22.15.10 2.2kV charging as an Anti-Theft measure

22.15.10.1 Guidelines for anti-theft charging pertaining to S&T works as prescribed in Appendix VII of ACTM Vol-II Part II shall be
followed.

22.15.10.2 Besides, any specific works pertaining to specific section, the following S&T work shall be completed before issue of
certificate for 2.2 kV charging

a) Provisions of wire mesh screen on the working platform of existing semaphore signals in case the requisite electrical working clearance
of 2 metres is not available. No portion of signal post or it fittings shall be less than 700 mm from the live conductor.

b) Replacement of existing DC track relays and DC line relays by AC immunized relays

c) Supply of insulated tools to maintenance staff

d) Conversions of all overhead track crossings of BSNL and Railway into cables and removal of overhead wires thereof.

e) Certificate of clearance from BSNL regarding 2.2 kV anti theft energisation.

22.15.11 An approved checklist of the works to be completed as per provisions of this chapter shall be issued by Chief Signal and
Telecom Engineer to the field offices. Compliance of this checklist shall be insured by the nominated officers responsible for issue of
certificate before OHE is charged at 25 kV.

Annexure 31
Para 22.3.1 (C)

Extracts of Para 20.5 of Appendix-1


Manual of AC Traction - Volume II (Part-II)

20.5 Masts near signals

The visibility of should be kept in mind while deciding the setting up masts in their vicinity. The following principles should be observed
for deciding the setting of masts near signals.

20.5.1 Colour light signals located outside all tracks.

a) Colour light signals without route indicators :


i) Where no approach signal is provided

The minimum settings of mast before should be 3.25, 3.10,3.05,2.90 and 2.75 m for distance upto 80m, beyond and upto 110m, beyond
and upto 190m, beyond and upto 270m and beyond and upto 400m respectively.

ii) Where approach signal is provided and for signals other than distant signals

The minimum setting of masts before the signal should be 3.25, 3.10, 3.05, 2.90 and 2.75m for distance upto 50m, beyond and upto
70m, beyond and upto 115m, beyond and upto 160m and beyond and upto 240m respectively.

b) Colour light signal with route indicators :

i) With horizontal route indicator

The minimum setting of masts before the signal should be 3.72, 3.50, 3.25, 3.05, 2.90 and 2.75m for distances upto 60m, beyond and
upto 125m, beyond and upto 170m, beyond and upto 215, beyond and upto 250m, beyond and upto 310m respectively.

ii) With other than horizontal route indicator

The minimum setting of masts before the signal should be 3.50, 3.25, 3.05, 2.90 and 2.75m for distance upto 70m, beyond and upto
130m, beyond and upto 170m, beyond and upto 215m and beyond and upto 280m respectively.

Note : 1. See Drg. No. ETI/OHE/G/00112 also. The setting may be reduced in special cases, conforming to Figs. 6 to 9 of ibid.

Note: 2. Setting distance may be reduced for starter signals of loop lines and yard lines.

20.5.2 Colour light signals located between tracks

a) Signals without route indicators :

No. OHE mast should, as far as possible be located in the same lane as the signal for a distance of at least 600m before a signal. Drop
arms of portals should also not normally be located in the lane where signals are located at least for a distance of 600m before the signal.

Where this is not possible, for any reason, the signal should be mounted on an off-set bracket. In addition, a special study should be
made in each such case in respect of three drop arms before the signal, to see whether the drop arms can be off-set from the center line
of the lane in a direction opposite to the off-set of the signal or alternatively, whether it is possible to shorten the drop arms. Reduction in
the signal's height may also be examined.

b) Signals with route indicators :

The principles mentioned under para 20.5.2 (a) should be observed in these case also.
Note: 1. No. part of a colour light signal without a route indicator should, as far as possible be higher than 5.2m above rail level. Great
care should be exercised in deciding the locations of colour light signals with route indicators so that the necessary minimum clearances
are available between the signals and live out of run conductors, or pantogaphs way zone.

2. On signal-line sections, signals (colour light as well as semaphore) should, as far as possible be located on the side of the track
opposite to the OHE masts.

20.5.3 For semaphore signals located outside the track

The minimum settings of masts before the signal should be 3.05,2.90 and 2.75m for the first, second and next three masts respectively.

Note: For details see Drg. No. ETI/OHE/G/00112.

Annexure 32
Para 22.10.4.9

Detailed Instructions for measurement of stray Direct Current before installation of D.C. Single Rail Track Circuits.

1.0 Before installing a D.C. Track Circuit in areas, which are to be A.C. Electrified, stray Direct Current tests shall be carried out so as to
ensure that D.C. Track Relays shall not operate with the stray currents.

2.0 These Tests shall be carried out only on non-electrified sections.

3.0 If there are already existing track circuits in the area, these shall be disconnected to safeguard against false readings being recorded
in case of leakage of Block Joints.

4.0 The length of the track required being track circuited should be insulated by means of Block Joints on either end of the rails. The rail
joints in the track-circuited length may or may not be bonded for purpose of these tests.

5.0 electing a suitable earth, which shall not exceed 5 ohms in resistance, test shall be carried out.

6.0 A suitable type of milli-volt meter and milli-ammeter shall be used for recording voltages.

7.0 These stray current and rail earth voltage measurements shall be recorded in accordance with the diagram for measurements
indicated below: -

FIG. 1 - Measurement of Stray current


Note :- For measurement of stray current set up the circuit as shown above and measure the current simultaneously.

FIG.2 - Measurement of Rail -Earth Voltage


Note :- Where 9 ohms, 4 ohms or 2.25 ohms relays are used, use 9 ohms, 4 ohms or 2.25 ohms resistance and measure the voltage
once at 'X' and next at ' XV.

8.0 These measurements shall be recorded at different periods of the day - one in the morning, one in the afternoon and one in the
evening. These tests shall be extended for three days.

9.0 Where stray current/voltages are observed, the length of the Direct Current track circuit shall be cut down so as not to exceed the
following limits for each length of Track Circuit: -

a) The Rail-Earth voltage as measured across 9 ohms, 4 ohms, or 2.25 ohms shall not exceed 0.1 volt.

b) The total stray current as measured shall not exceed 100 mA. Where all track circuits to be installed on the line are less than 100
metre long, the highest acceptable figure of stray current is 10 mA.

Annexure 33
Para 22.15.4

PROVISIONS OF PART 'J' OF PERMANENT WAY MANUAL


PART 'J'
Maintenance in Electrified areas
282 General Instructions to Staff : -

1) General knowledge of Engineering Staff

a) Every Engineering official working in electrical traction area shall be in possession of a copy of rules framed for the purpose of the
operation of the Traction Power Distributions System pertaining to Engineering Department and ensure that staff working under him are
also acquainted with the rules. He will ensure that rules pertaining to carrying out engineering works are strictly observed.

b) All electrical equipment, every power line or cable shall be regarded as being 'live' at all times. No work shall be commenced adjacent
to any electrical equipment except on authority issued in writing by a competent official of the Electrical Department to the effect that the
equipment has been made dead and earthed.

2) Defects in Overhead Equipment:- Defects or break downs in the overhead equipment including track and structure bonds noticed
by the Engineering staff shall be reported immediately to the Traction Power Controller. When defects in the overhead equipment that are
likely to cause damage to pantographs or trains are noticed, and it is not possible to convey information to Station Masters or Signal men
to enable them to issue caution orders, the line shall be protected by the staff noticing such defects according to General Rule 3.62.

3) Traction Bonds: - In electrified areas the return current fully or partially flows through the rail. To ensure a reliable electrical circuit
continuity and also to ensure proper earthing in case of leakage of current, various types of traction bonds as described below are
provided at suitable places and maintained by the Electrical Traction Department: -

a) Longitudinal Rail Bonds: - In the case of D.C. traction system, practically the whole return current flows through the rail. Therefore,
two flexible copper bonds offering minimum resistance to the flow of current are provided at each rail joint under the fishplates. Two solid
lugs at the two ends of the copper bonds are inserted in holes drilled at the two rail ends between the fish bolt holes and are pressed by
using a bend press to rivet them firmly to the rails. On points and crossings and at junction fishplates where continuity bonds of the
above type cannot be provided due to space constraints, continuity of return current path is achieved by using mild steel straps or G.I.
wire ropes.

Absence of such bonds may cause unsafe working condition and in extreme cases may damage the rail ends.

b) Cross Bonds (D.C): Cross bonds are provided between adjacent tracks at regular intervals to reduce resistance of the current to the
minimum. Such cross bonds are also known as transverse bonds.

c) Structure Bonds:- All structures supporting overhead equipment either in AC or D.C. track circuited areas are connected to the
running rails for ensuring good earthing. Failure of insulator or leakage of current switches off the supply from the sub station so that
men coming in contact with supporting structure etc., do not get electric shock. Removal or tampering of such bonds can, therefore,
result in unsafe conditions. Since the structure are grouted in concrete, they are likely to become charged in case such bonds are kept
disconnected. Similarly, other steel structures such as foot-over bridges, sheds, etc., in the vicinity of O.H.E lines are also connected to
rails through similar structure bonds.

283 Special Instructions to Staff working in Traction area: -


1) Need for Precautions: - Precautions are required to be taken on account of following: -

a) Proximity of a Live Conductor: - The risk of direct contact with live O.H.E is ever present while working in electrified sections such
as for painting of steel work of through spans of bridges and platform cover.

b) Build up of potential due to return current in rails : - The return current in the rails may cause a potential difference :-

i) Between rail and the surrounding mass of earth;

ii) Between two ends of a fractured rail;

iii) Between the two rails at an insulated joint ;&

iv) Between earth and any other metallic mass.

2) The following precautions should, therefore, be taken while working in traction areas: -

a) No work shall be done within a distance of two meters from the live parts of the O.H.E without a' permit-to-work'.

b) For work adjacent to overhead equipment the Engineering Inspect or shall apply to the proper authority sufficiently in advance for
sanctioning the traffic and power block required. The Traction Power Controller through Traction Foreman will arrange to isolate and earth
the section concerned on the date and at the time specified in consultation with the Traffic Controller. He shall then issue 'Permit-to-work'
to the Engineering Inspector. On completion of the work the' Perm it-to-work' should be cancelled and Traction Power Controller advised,
who will then arrange to remove the Earth and restore Power supply.

c) No part of a tree shall be nearer than 4 meters from the nearest live conductor. Any tree or branches likely to fall on live conductors
should be cut or trimmed periodically to maintain this clearance. Authorized O.H.E staff should do cutting or trimming.

d) No fallen wire or wires should be touched unless power is switched off and the wire or wires suitably earthed. In case the wires drop at
a level crossing, the Gatekeeper shall immediately make arrangements to stop all road traffic.

e) Work on Station roofs and Signal Gantries: - Staff working on station roofs and signal gantries and similar structures adjacent to
live Overhead Equipment shall not use any measuring tapes, tools and materials when there is a possibility of their being dropped or
carried by wind on to the live overhead equipment.

f) Earth Work: - For excavation work adjacent to tracks, the following action is taken :-

i) In D.C. traction areas, intimation should be given in writing sufficiently in advance to the concerned Traction Distribution Officer to
enable him to depute the Traction Staff to be present in order to prevent possible damage in the traction underground feeder cables
which are always located near the running lines.

ii) In AC traction areas, intimation should be given to the concerned officers of the Electrical General Services and also S&T Department,
since all the S&T and Electrical lines are cabled on account of Electrical Induction.

In all AC and D.C. traction areas, the Traction Department provides cable markers showing location of cables. In addition, tiles and bricks
protect the cables and during excavation, if workmen come across such tiles or bricks in an arranged manner, they should at once report
the matter to the higher officials. Any further excavation should be carried out only in the presence of the authorized staff of Electrical
Traction and or S&T Department as the case may be.

g) The relative alignments of the centerline of the track with respect to the alignment of the contact wire must be maintained within the
specified tolerances. This applies to both horizontal and vertical clearances. Slewing or lifting of track must not be done outside the
agreed maintenance limits unless the position of the contact wire is altered at the same time. Adjustment of cant has a magnified effect
on the horizontal displacement of the centerline of the track with respect to the alignment of the contact wire.

Horizontal clearances to structures within the limits laid down in the Schedule of Dimensions must be maintained. For slewing or
alterations to track involving adjustment of contact wire (outside the agreed maintenance limits) sufficient notice should be given to the
traction staff so that that they arrange to adjust the overhead equipment.

h) Alterations to Track Bonding: - All bonds removed by the staff of the Engineering Department shall be replaced by the staff of the
Engineering Department and all such removals and replacements shall be reported to the Assistant Electrical Engineer, Traction
Distribution in charge, concerned without delay.

j) Working of Cranes:- No crane shall be worked except on the authorized 'permit-to-work'. In every case of working of a crane,
arrangement should be made for the presence of authorised overhead equipment staff to ensure that all safety precautions are taken.

k) Inspection of Tunnels: - For inspection of roofs and sides of a tunnel, the overhead equipment shall be rendered 'dead'. Special
insulated apparatus should be used if sounding the unlined portions to locate loose rock in the roof and sides, is required to be carried
out, when the overhead equipment is 'live'.

I) As far as possible closed wagons shall be used for material trains. In case open or hopper wagons are used, loading and unloading of
such wagons in electrified tracks shall be done under the supervision of an Engineering official not below the rank of a Permanent Way
Mistry, who shall personally ensure that no tool or any part of body of the worker comes within the' danger zone', i.e. within 2 meters of
OHE.

m) Steel tapes or metallic tapes with woven metal reinforcement should not be used in electrified tracks. Linen tapes are safer and,
therefore, should be used even though they are not accurate.

n) The top of foundation blocks in electrified structures should be kept clear of all materials.

284 Maintaining Continuity of Track: -

1) During maintenance or renewal of track, continuity of the rails serving electrified tracks shall invariably be maintained. For bridging
gaps, which may be caused during removal of fish-plates or rails, temporary metallic jumpers of approved design shall be provided as
under. The Electrical Department on requisition will provide the necessary jumper.
2) In case of rail fracture, the two ends of the fractured rail shall be first temporary connected by a temporary metallic jumper of
approved design (as shown in the sketch below). In all cases of discontinuity of rails, the two parts of the rail shall not be touched with
bare hands; Gloves of approved quality shall be used.
3) In the case of track renewals temporary connection shall be made as showed above.

4) In the case of defective or broken rail bond, a temporary connection shall be made as shown above.

5) Before fishplates are loosened or removed temporary connections shall be made as in sub section (3) above.

285 Catch Sidings : - Normally all catch sidings except those, which are sanded, shall be kept alive. On sanded catch siding, the rails
shall be kept clear of sand for a length of 21.5 meters, beyond the section insulators in the overhead lines and the switches controlling
the sanded catch sidings shall be kept in the neutral position. If an electric engine or single or multiple unit train runs into the sanded
length of a catch siding, it may possible be insulated from earth except through the buffers or couplings if connected to other vehicles,
therefore, these sidings shall not be made alive when an electric engine or single or multiple unit train or any vehicle coupled thereto are
standing in the sanded track until all staff have been moved away from positions where they are likely to make contact between the
permanent way formation and any part of the locomotive or single or multiple unit train or coupled vehicles. No person shall attempt to
enter, or leave or in any other way make contact between the permanent way formation and the electric engine or single or multiple unit
train or any vehicles coupled thereto while one overhead equipment of the sanded length of siding is alive.

286 Additional precautions in AC Traction Area: - The following additional precautions are required to be taken in AC traction areas
:-

1) Build-up of potential due to induction in metallic bodies situated close to O.H.E : - It is important to note that dangerous voltage may
be induced in metallic masses such as fencing posts in the vicinity of traction conductors. To avoid possibility of shock due to such
voltages, the metallic structures are bonded together and earthed.

2) Unloading of rails :- When unloading rails along tracks, care shall be taken to ensure that rails do not touch each other to form a
continuos metallic mass of length greater than 300 meters.

3) Permanent way staff are advised to keep clear of the tracks and avoid contact with the rails when an electrically hauled train is within
250 meters.

287 Fire in electrified areas : - The Permanent Way Officials noticing a fire likely to result in loss of life or cause damage to property
shall take all possible steps to prevent it from spreading and to extinguish it. In case the fire is on adjacent to any electrified equipment,
the permanent way official shall make no attempt to extinguish the fire but shall report the occurrence of fire to the nearest Station
Master by most expeditious means.

288 Permanent Way Tools :- Permanent Way tools (insulated and un-insulated) along with gloves shall be used in the manner as
approved by the Chief Engineer of the Railway.

289 Treatment of persons suffering from Electric Shock :- When persons receive electric shock, practically in every case, they can
be revived with the prompt application of First Aid.
Method of Resuscitation :- The method of resuscitation resorted to should be that known as artificial respiration.

Continuity of Treatment:- The efforts to restore breathing must be continued regularly and with perseverance, and must not be
discontinued until a Doctor has taken charge of the case.

290 Accident to power lines of outside bodies: - The Engineering Inspector shall be in possession of the name and address of the
officer-in-charge of each power line across Railway land to enable an immediate report of any defect or accident appertaining thereto
being made, under advise to the Assistant Engineer/Divisional Engineer.
Note
(1) All Dimensions gives are in millimetres.

(2) In applying the diagram to curves it should be inclined so that the axis of the diagram is normal to the track plane.

(3) The diagram is not applicable to turnouts.

(4) This diagram is not applicable to the Anchor span where the conductors are outside the track zone.

(5) The curves are drawn for the maximum cant applicable, therefore, for lesser cant it may be economical to decide the clearance at site
jointly with the Electrical department.

(6) Curves in full line are for tangent track and those in dotted line for curves track with SE.60.

SIGNAL CLEARANCE DIAGRAM TO SUIT 25 K.V., A.C. TRACTION


FOR TANGENT TRACKS AND CURVED TRACKS WITH SE. 60
SCALE 1 cm = 500mm
Drg. No. 22.1
Note

(1) All Dimensions gives are in millimetre.

(2) The diagram is not applicable to turnouts.

(3) The diagram is not applicable to the Anchor span where the conductors are outside the track zone.

(4) The curves are drawn for the maximum cant applicable, therefore, for lesser cant it may be economical to decide the clearance at site
jointly with the Electrical department.

SIGNAL CLEARANCE DIAGRAM TO SUIT 25 K.V., A.C. TRACTION


FOR CURVED TRACKS 60 TO 140 S.E.
SCALE 1 cm = 500mm

Drg. No. 22.2


Note:
(1) All Dimensions gives are in millimetre.

(2) This diagram is not applicable to turnouts.

(3) The diagram is not applicable to the Anchor span where the conductors are outside the track zone.

(4) The curves are drawn for the maximum cant applicable. Therefore, for lesser cant it may be economical to decide the clearance at
site jointly with the Electrical department.

SIGNAL CLEARANCE DIAGRAM TO SUIT 25 K.V., A.C. TRACTION


FOR CURVED TRACKS 140 TO 185 S.E.
SCALE 1 cm = 500mm
Drg. No. 22.3
SIGNAL CLEARANCE DIAGRAM TO SUIT 25 K.V. TRACTION FOR METRE GAUGE
TANGENT AND FLAT CURVED TRACKS (TENTATIVE)
Note
(1) All the dimensions are in mm, unless otherwise shown.

(2) The full outline is applicable to normal standard overhead equipment in other than overlap spans without allowance for track slewing.

(3) The dotted outline is applicable to overhead equipment in paralleling spans, insulated as well as uninsulated.

(4) The Diagram is applicable to tracks with small super elevation not exceeding 40mm, the axis of the diagram should be kept normal to
track plane while applying the Diagram to super elevated tracks.

(5) The Diagram is not applicable to (i) Anchor spans (ii) Turnouts (iii) Two metres on either side of the structure, and (iv) Loco sheds
and Inspection Pits.
Drg. No. 22.4
SIGNAL CLEARANCE DIAGRAM TO SUIT 25 K.V. TRACTION FOR METRE
GAUGE SHARP CURVES - (TENTATIVE)
Note :

(1) All the dimensions are in mm.

(2) The full outline is applicable to normal standard overhead equipment in other than overlap spans without allowance for track slewing.

(3) The dotted outline is applicable to overhead equipment in paralleling spans, insulated as well as uninsulated.

(4) The Diagram is applicable to curved tracks with super elevation between 40 and 100 mm.

(5) The Diagram is not applicable to (i) Anchor spans (ii) Turnouts (iii) Two metres on either side of the structure, and (iv) Loco sheds
and Inspection Pits.

Drg. No. 22.5

COLOUR LIGHT SIGNAL LEFT HAND OR RIGHT HAND


Broad Gauge (Tangent Track)
(4) With the standard signal fittings (Ladder width 600mm & signal unit width 440mm). The C of signal post shall be at 2.844m (9'-4")
from the C of track.

(3) If warranted by site conditions settings other than the recommended rationalised ones may be adopted provided these do not infringe
the minimum settings represented by the full line.

(2) The dotted line represents the recommended rationalised settings of the OHE structures.

(1) The full line represents the minimum settings of OHE structures.

Drg. No. 22.8


(4) With the standard signal fittings (Ladder width 600mm & signal unit width 440mm). The C of signal post shall be at 2.844m (9'-4")
from the C of track.

(3) If warranted by site conditions, settings other than the recommended rationalised ones may be adopted provided these do not
infringe the minimum settings represented by the full line.

(2) The dotted line represents the recommeded rationalised settings of OHE structures.

(1) The full line represents the minimum settings of the structures.
Drg. No. 22.9
LIST OF CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS

No. of Memo Date of Memo Date of Receipt Signature of Receipient Reference to Para and Page in
which correction or Addition has
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LIST OF CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS

No. of Memo Date of Memo Date of Receipt Signature of Receipient Reference to Para and Page in which
correction or Addition has been made
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