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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003

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Lightning Flashovers on 77-kV Systems: Observed Voltage Bias Effects and Analysis

Takamitsu Ito, Toshiaki Ueda, Hideto Watanabe, Toshihisa Funabashi, Senior Member, IEEE, and Akihiro Ametani, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—Twenty-nine backflashovers were recorded on a 77-kV double-circuit transmission line with single overhead groundwire. Twenty-six of these occurred on phases where power-frequency voltage bias was positive. EMTP analysis of the line shows that the multistory tower model, recommended by the Japanese Guideline of Insulation Design/Coordination against Lightning, suggests a stronger influence of phase position than was observed. Best simulation results were obtained with a simple tower model of constant surge impedance.

Index Terms—Flashover, lightning, surges, transient analysis.

I. INTRODUCTION

F OR an insulation design of an electric power system, it is essential to study lightning surge behavior. Especially, the

lightning overvoltage is a significant factor for the protection of power plant and substation equipment. A direct strike to a power transmission line is very rare, and most of the lightning strikes the top of a transmission tower. A lightning current to the tower top flows down to the bottom of the tower, and the tower voltage rises. By this rise, a back-flashover occurs across an archorn. Therefore, a transmission line/tower model is one of the most important factors for a lightning surge analysis in the electric power system, and a number of studies on the tower model have been carried out [1]–[3]. It is expected that calcu- lated results are quite different from each other depending on each model. A multistory tower model [1], composed of dis- tributed parameter lines with parallel R//L circuits, has been rec- ommended by the Japanese Guideline of insulation design/coor- dination against lightning [4], and is widely used for a lightning surge analysis in Japan. The multistory tower model was devel- oped based on measured results of archorn voltages on 500-kV vertical twin-circuit lines. Its accuracy, however, has not been sufficiently confirmed in comparison with measured results on

a transmission line other than the 500-kV line. The present paper investigates the characteristic of the multistory tower model on a lower-voltage transmission line, based on EMTP simulations of a lightning surge due to a back-flashover in comparison with field test results of the back-flashovers on a 77-kV transmission line for summer lightning. From a comparison of the EMTP simulation with the field test results, the applicability of the multistory tower

Manuscript received June 28, 2000; revised May 22, 2002.

  • T. Ito and T. Funabashi are with Meidensha Corporation, Tokyo, 103-8515,

Japan.

  • T. Ueda is with the Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Aichi, 459-8522, Japan.

  • H. Watanabe is with Meidensha Corporation, Shizuoka, Japan.

  • A. Ametani is with Doshisha University, Kyoto, 610-0321, Japan.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2003.809683

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 545 Lightning Flashovers on 77-kV

Fig. 1. Measurement results of phase voltages and phase angles at back flashover (total flashovers 29).

model is discussed, and a simple tower model composed only of distributed lines is recommended to obtain a better accuracy compared with the field test results.

II. FIELD TEST

Field tests were performed on a 77-kV transmission line in an area of a high IKL (approximately 33 thunderstorm days per year) [4], [5]. An archorn gap on a transmission tower is 650 mm, and the mean tower footing resistance is approximately

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 545 Lightning Flashovers on 77-kV
  • 10 . The measurements were carried out for four months from

June to September, summer in Japan. Measured results are sum- marized in Fig. 1, which shows an instantaneous ac voltage just before a back-flashover, corresponding to the back-flashover phase obtained from sensors installed in a substation. It is observed in the figure that 1LG (one line-to-ground fault) occurs at a nearly positive peak of a phase voltage. 2LG (two lines-to-ground fault) shown by the corresponding two phases occurs in the positive voltage region except for one data. 3LG (three lines-to-ground fault) occurs by an excessive rise of the tower voltage according to an excessive lightning current, and thus, independent from positive or negative voltage. The tendencies of the measured results are summarized by

1) most back-flashovers occur uniformly on each phase, in- dependently from the geometrical position of the phases. (nine flashovers on the upper, ten on the middle, and ten on the lower phase); 2) most back-flashovers concentrate in the positive voltage region.

The reason for the latter tendency is estimated that an ar- chorn voltage is higher in the positive source voltage region

0885-8977/03$17.00 © 2003 IEEE

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003

546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit

Fig. 2.

Equivalent circuit for a 77-kV transmission line.

546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit

Fig. 3.

Transmission tower configuration of 77 kV.

since almost all of the summer lightning currents have a neg- ative polarity.

III. SIMULATION CONDITIONS

EMTP simulations of a lightning surge due to a back-flashover are carried out on a 77-kV transmission line, of which a model circuit is illustrated in Fig. 2. An ac steady-state voltage is superposed. For the transmis- sion line is terminated with a multiphase matching resistance, there is no reflected traveling wave from the far ends of the transmission line, and thus, transmission line is regarded as an infinite line. Fig. 3 shows the configuration of a 77-kV trans- mission tower. A lightning strike hits number 3 tower top. A sophisticated model of an archorn flashover illustrated in Fig. 4 is adopted to carry out multiple flashovers of archorns [6]. This

flashover model can represent a wide-range V-t characteristic including a wave-tail flashover for sharing an archorn voltage with a nonlinear inductance and a nonlinear resistance. A gap length of an archorn is taken to be 650 mm and a tower footing resistance is 10 , based on measurement conditions. In a simulation, an ac source voltage on each phase is changed by every 15 of electrical angle for one cycle (i.e. from 0 to

546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit
546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit
546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit
546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit
  • 360 ), as an initial voltage of a transmission line for

.
.
546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit

Fig. 4.

Flashover model combined with nonlinear elements.

Fig. 5. Multistory tower model.
Fig. 5.
Multistory tower model.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS BY THREE TOWER MODELS

A. Multistory Tower Model

A multistory tower model illustrated in Fig. 5 is based on measured results of archorn voltages on a 500-kV vertical twin- circuit line, and consists of distributed parameter lines repre- senting the tower surge impedance and parallel R and L circuits representing an attenuation of a traveling wave along a tower [1]. Because the original parameters of R and L in the multistory tower model were developed specifically for the 500-kV trans-

mission line, these parameters are converted from 500 to 77 kV in Fig. 5 according to the geometrical dimension.

Fig. 6 shows EMTP simulation results by the multistory tower

model. It is expected that back-flashovers concentrate in a pos-

ITO et al.: LIGHTNING FLASHOVERS ON 77-kV SYSTEMS: OBSERVED VOLTAGE BIAS EFFECTS AND ANALYSIS

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ITO et al. : LIGHTNING FLASHOVERS ON 77-kV SYSTEMS: OBSERVED VOLTAGE BIAS EFFECTS AND ANALYSIS 547

Fig. 6.

Simulation results by the multistory tower model.

ITO et al. : LIGHTNING FLASHOVERS ON 77-kV SYSTEMS: OBSERVED VOLTAGE BIAS EFFECTS AND ANALYSIS 547
(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

Fig. 7.

Voltage waveforms by the multistory tower model. (a) Tower arm to

ground. (b) Across archorn.

ITO et al. : LIGHTNING FLASHOVERS ON 77-kV SYSTEMS: OBSERVED VOLTAGE BIAS EFFECTS AND ANALYSIS 547

Fig. 8.

Multistory tower model without parallel R//L circuits.

ITO et al. : LIGHTNING FLASHOVERS ON 77-kV SYSTEMS: OBSERVED VOLTAGE BIAS EFFECTS AND ANALYSIS 547

Fig. 9.

Simulation results by the multistory tower model without parallel R//L

circuits.

Since the phase angle of the ac source voltage at this simulation is 90 , the lower phase voltage is of the positive polarity as in Fig. 6. Therefore, the flashover ought to occur on the lower phase. However, the flashover (i.e. 1 LG, in Fig. 6) occurs on the upper phase. The negative peak voltage of the upper phase

Since the phase angle of the ac source voltage at this simulation is 90 , the

before the flashover is highest as in Fig. 7(a) and (b) for the geometrical position of the phase is highest, and thus, the upper phase flashover occurs in this case.

itive voltage region, because a lightning current is of a negative polarity. Fig. 6 by the multistory tower model shows the following tendencies.

1) Allof the back-flashovers occur on the upper phase, inde- pendently from the ac source voltage on each phase. 2) No back-flashover occurs at all on the lower phase.

The results are completely different from the measured results. Fig. 7 shows voltage waveforms by the multistory tower model. The figure indicates the reason for the above tendencies.

B. Multistory Tower Model without Parallel R//L Circuits

One of the reasons for the tendency of the upper phase flashover by the multistory tower model is estimated due to the parallel R//L circuits. Thus, a simulation using a simplified multistory tower model (i.e. with no parallel R//L circuit as illustrated in Fig. 8), is carried out. The surge impedance and the other parameters of the simplified model are the same as those of the multistory tower model in Fig. 5. Fig. 9 shows the simulation results by the simplified model. The following trend is observed in the figure.

548

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003

548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 (a) (b) Fig. 10.
(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

Fig. 10. Voltage waveforms by the multistory tower model without parallel R//L circuits. (a) Tower arm to ground. (b) Across archorn.

1) only two back-flashovers occur on the lower phase; 2) almost all of the back-flashovers on the upper and middle phases occur in the positive voltage region.

The latter trend corresponds to the measured results, but the distribution of the back-flashovers is not uniform on each phase. Fig. 10 shows voltage waveforms by the simplified model. The negative peak voltage across the archorn of the upper and lower phases is nearly equal in Fig. 10(b), and the flashovers occur on the upper and lower phases in this case.

C. Simple Distributed Line Model

Since the multistory tower model was developed for a 500-kV transmission line, the tower surge impedance (220 , 150 ) is specifically for the 500-kV transmission tower having about twice the height of the 77-kV transmission tower. Therefore, an investigation of the tower surge impedance is necessary. A number of surge impedance formulas of a transmission tower have been proposed [7]–[12]. A formula of a cone-shaped tower illustrated in Fig. 11 is simple and easy to apply [12]. Also, the formula shows close agreement with measured results of a tower surge impedance. The formula is given in the following form:

548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 (a) (b) Fig. 10.
548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 (a) (b) Fig. 10.
H Z (1) R
H
Z
(1)
R

where R

548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 (a) (b) Fig. 10.

H

548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 (a) (b) Fig. 10.
Fig. 11. Tower equivalent radius.
Fig. 11.
Tower equivalent radius.

Fig. 12.

Simple distributed line model.

Equivalent radius of a tower in the above equation is given by

r h
r
h

r R H

r

h

H

(2)

The tower surge impedance calculated by (1) is 133

R
R
548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 2, APRIL 2003 (a) (b) Fig. 10.

m . Thus, a simple distributed line model composed only of

a distributed line is proposed using the above surge impedance, as illustrated in Fig. 12. Fig. 13 shows simulation results by the simple distributed line model, and the following observation is made from the figure.

1) back-flashovers occur uniformly on each phase; 2) most back-flashovers concentrate in the positive voltage region.

The observations agree well with the measured results. Fig. 14 shows voltage waveforms by the simple distributed

line model. The negative peak voltage across the archorn of the lower phase is highest in Fig. 14(b), and the flashover occurs on

the lower phases in this case.

ITO et al.: LIGHTNING FLASHOVERS ON 77-kV SYSTEMS: OBSERVED VOLTAGE BIAS EFFECTS AND ANALYSIS

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ITO et al. : LIGHTNING FLASHOVERS ON 77-kV SYSTEMS: OBSERVED VOLTAGE BIAS EFFECTS AND ANALYSIS 549

surge impedance. Although the parallel R//L circuits are in- cluded for representing an attenuation of a traveling wave along a tower, the tower voltage of the upper phase becomes very high due to the parallel R//L circuits. Thus, it can be said that the parallel R//L circuits are not necessarily included in a tower model for a back-flashover analysis of a low-voltage transmis- sion line. Also, a tower surge impedance has to be evaluated for a given tower, or at least for a tower of each voltage level. For example, the surge impedance of a 500-kV transmission tower is , while that of a 77-kV tower is 133 as ex- plained in Section IV-C.

ITO et al. : LIGHTNING FLASHOVERS ON 77-kV SYSTEMS: OBSERVED VOLTAGE BIAS EFFECTS AND ANALYSIS 549
ITO et al. : LIGHTNING FLASHOVERS ON 77-kV SYSTEMS: OBSERVED VOLTAGE BIAS EFFECTS AND ANALYSIS 549

V. CONCLUSIONS

Fig. 13.

Simulation results by the simple distributed line model.

ITO et al. : LIGHTNING FLASHOVERS ON 77-kV SYSTEMS: OBSERVED VOLTAGE BIAS EFFECTS AND ANALYSIS 549

It has been found that the multistory tower model recom- mended by Japanese Guideline of Insulation Design is not an adequate model to analyze a back-flashover on a low-voltage transmission line from a comparison of simulation results with field test results for a summer lightning. The inadequate result by the multistory tower model comes from parallel R and L cir- cuits which increase an upper-phase tower voltage, and the value of the tower surge impedance which is specifically determined from a 500-kV line. Based on the observations mentioned before, the paper has proposed a simple tower model, consisting only of a distributed line of which the surge impedance is determined from a surge impedance formula of a cone-shaped tower. The proposed model gives a close agreement with the measured results which show a uniform occurrence of back-flashovers on every phase independently from the arm height, and the back-flashovers in

  • (a) a positive voltage region of a source ac voltage. As a further step of the work, the authors are investigating the IEEE FLASH Program to simulate the measured result in the paper.

REFERENCES

[1]

M. Ishii, T. Kawamura, T. Kouno, E. Ohsaki, K. Shiokawa, K. Murotani, and T. Higuchi, “Multistory transmission tower model for lightning surge analysis,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 6, pp. 1327–1335, July 1991.

[2] N. Nagaoka, “A development of frequency-dependent tower model,” Trans. Inst. Elect. Eng. Japan, vol. 111-B, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 1991.

[3]

T. Hara, O. Yamamoto, M. Hayashi, and T. Nagai, “Transmission tower

model for lightning surge analysis,” Trans. Inst. Elect. Eng. Japan, vol. 114-B, no. 6, pp. 595–600, 1994. [4] “Guide to Lightning Protection Design of Power Stations, Substations

ITO et al. : LIGHTNING FLASHOVERS ON 77-kV SYSTEMS: OBSERVED VOLTAGE BIAS EFFECTS AND ANALYSIS 549

Fig. 14.

  • (b) and Underground Transmission Lines,” (in Japanese), CRIEPI Rep. no. T40, 1995. [5] T. Ueda, M. Yoda, and I. Miyachi, “Characteristics of lightning surges observed at 77 kV substations,” Trans. Inst. Elect. Eng. Japan, vol. 116-B, no. 11, pp. 1422–1428, 1996. [6] T. Ueda, S. Neo, T. Funabashi, T. Hagiwara, and H. Watanabe, “Flashover model for arcing horns and transmission line arresters,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Power Syst. Transients, 1995, pp. 328–333.

Voltage waveforms by the simple distributed line model. (a) Tower

arm to ground. (b) Across archorn.

D. Discussions of Three Tower Models

A comparison of the simulation results by three tower models with the measured results has clearly indicated that the multi- story tower model gives a completely different result from the measured results and the simple distributed line model agrees best with the measured one. The reason for the tendency of the upper phase flashover by the multistory tower model is esti- mated to be caused by the parallel R//L circuits and the tower

[7]

C. A. Jordan, “Lightning computations for transmission lines with over- head ground wires part II,” G. E. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 180–186, Apr.

1934.

[8] C. F. Wagner, “A new approach to the calculation of the lightning per-

[9]

formance of transmission lines,” AIEE Trans., vol. 76, pp. 1233–1256, Dec. 1956. R. Lundholm, R. B. Finn Jr., and W. S. Price, “Calculation of transmis- sion line lightning voltages by field concepts,” AIEE Trans., vol. 77, pp. 1271–1283, Feb. 1958.

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[10] M. A. Sargent and M. Darveniza, “Tower surge impedance,” IEEE Trans. Power Apparat. Syst., vol. PAS-88, pp. 680–687, May 1969.

[11] A. Ametani, Y. Kasai, J. Sawada, A. Mochizuki, and T. Yamada, “Fre- quency-dependent impedance of vertical conductors and a multicon- ductor tower model,” in Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol. 141, July 1994, pp. 339–345.

[12]

T. Yamada, A. Mochizuki, J. Sawada, E. Zaima, T. Kawamura, A. Ametani, M. Ishi, and S. Kato, “Experimental evaluation of a UHV tower model for lightning surge analysis,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 10, pp. 393–402, Jan. 1995.

Takamitsu Ito was born in Japan on January 21, 1973. He graduated in 1995 and received the M.Sc. degree in 1997 from the Department of Information En- gineering at Niigata University, Niigata, Japan. Currently, he is with Meidensha Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, engaged in re- search on power system analysis. Mr. Ito is a member of the IEE of Japan.

Hideto Watanabe was born in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, on January 29, 1965. He received the B.S. degree from Nihon University, Tokyo, Japan, in 1987. Currently, he is with Meidensha Corporation, Shizuoka, Japan, and has been engaged in research, development, and design of surge arresters. Mr. Watanabe is a member of the IEE of Japan.

Toshihisa Funabashi (M’90–SM’96) was born in Aichi, Japan, on March 25, 1951. He graduated from the Department of Electrical Engineering at Nagoya University, Aichi, Japan, in 1975, and received the Ph.D. degree from Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan, in 2000. Currently, he is Manager of the Power System Analysis Section of Meidensha Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. He joined Meidensha Corporation in 1975 and has engaged in research on power system analysis. Dr. Funabashi is a senior associate of IEE and a member of IEE of Japan.

Toshiaki Ueda was born in Japan on June 18, 1962. He graduated in 1985 and received the M.Sc. degree from the Department of Electrical Engineering, To- hoku University, Miyagi, Japan, in 1987. He received the Ph.D. degree from Nagoya University, Aichi, Japan, in 1998. Currently, he is with Chubu Electric Power Co., Aichi, Japan, where he has been since 1987. He has been involved in research on lightning surge analysis of power systems and substation equipment. Dr. Ueda is a member of the IEE of Japan.

Akihiro Ametani (M’71–SM’84–F’92) was born in Nagasaki, Japan, on Feb- ruary 14, 1944. He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from Doshisha Univer- sity, Kyoto, Japan, in 1966 and 1968, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from University of Manchester, U.K., in 1973. Currently, he is Professor at Doshisha University. His teaching and research responsibilities include electromagnetic theory, transients, power system, and computer analysis. Dr. Ametani is a Fellow of IEE, a member of CIGRE and IEE of Japan, and is a Chartered Engineer in the U.K.