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Research aptitude full

notes
1. What is research

To search for facts in any branch of knowledge

- An attitude of inquiry.

- An attempt to elicit facts

- A systematic and scholarly application of the scientific method

- A state of mind

Watch the video for detail understanding:

The purpose of research:

To discover answers to questions through application of scientific

procedures

2. Characteristics of Research
1. It is a scientific investigation. Research (research)

means to "search again". It connotes patient study

and scientific investigation.

2. It develops concepts and the theories. One reason

for conducting research is to develop and evaluate

concepts and the theories.

3. It expands the limits of knowledge. The basic or

pure research attempts to expand the limits of

knowledge. It is conducted to verify the

acceptability of a given theory or to know more

about a certain concept.

4. It cannot be implemented immediately. It does not

directly involve the solution to a particular

problem; its findings generally cannot be

implemented immediately.

5. It is an essential tool for good decision

making. The task of educational research is to


make the information used in decision making

more accurate.

6. Educational research is a managerial tool that

provides information essential for good decision

making. Research in teaching, training, organizing,

or management areas of an institution are within

the scope of training research.

7. Educational research reduces the risk of making

wrong decisions. It is an aid to management

judgment, not a substitute for it.

3. Aims and Objectives of Research

Its main aim is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not

been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own

specific purpose, research objectives may fall into a number of

following broad groupings: ·


1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or

to achieve new insights into

it. (Exploratory or formulating research

studies)

2. To portray accurately the characteristics

of a particular individual, situation or a

group. (Descriptive research studies)

3. To determine the frequency with which

something occurs or with which it is

associated with something

else. (Diagnostic research studies)

4. To test a hypothesis of a causal

relationship between

variables (hypothesis-testing research

studies)

Why you decided to do research???

Possible motives or desires:


Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits

To face challenge in solving unsolved problems

To get intellectual joy of doing some creative work

To act as service to society

To get respectability

Tip to remember forever:

Treat your Research as your own child and nurture it


4. Types of Research

Click here to watch video & understand in detail

i. Classification - I General Classification

a) Fundamental Research/Pure Research/Basic Research:

 It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without

any intention to apply it in practice.

 This research helps in developing theories by

discovering broad generalization and principles.

 It is organized through different procedures of

research like sampling, hypothesizing facts, etc. It

can experiment in a psychological laboratory.

 Research concerning some natural

phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics,

research studies concerning human behavior

carried on with a view to making generalizations


about human behavior are examples of

fundamental research.

 Used when developing theories, generalizations,

and principles

- Methods: Sampling, Hypothesizing, and

laboratories

b) Applied Research

 Utilizes principles made by fundamental

research to know the problems with best possible

manner

- Undertaken to solve an immediate problem

 Aims at finding a solution for an immediate

problem facing a society or an industrial/business

organization.

 Solve the practical problem of the modern world,

rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge

sake.
 Marketing research is an example of applied

research.

c) Action Research

 Its aim is an immediate application but not any

development of theory.

 It is research either initiated to solve the

immediate problem or if the researcher finds any

problem during the course of his field

investigation and observation he applies it.

d) Exploratory Research

 It is a preliminary study of an unfamiliar

problem about which researcher has little or no

knowledge.

 The objective of exploratory research is

the development of hypothesis rather than their

testing.
(e) Descriptive study

 Includes surveys and fact findings inquiries of

different kinds.

 The major purpose of descriptive research is

a description of the state of affairs, as it exists at

present.

 In social science and business research, the term

often used is ex-post fact research.

 The researcher has no control over the variables,

he can only report what has happened or what is

happening.

(f) Evaluation Study

 It is a type of applied research.


 It is made for assessing and taking stock of

effectiveness of social or economic programs.

 For example Family planning scheme, Irrigation

project.

(g) Diagnostic Study

 Similar to descriptive study but with a different

focus, which is directed towards discovering what

is happening? Why is it happening and what can

be done about it?

 It aims at identifying the causes of problems and

possible solutions for it.

ii. Classification - II- Comparative classification

Descriptive Analytical
Description of the state of affairs as it Has to use facts that are readily available
exists
Also known as Ex post facto research Facts analyzed to make a critical
evaluation
Researcher has no control over the
variables
Used to discover causes when variables
cannot be controlled
Fact finding inquiries and field surveys
Method of research: Survey

Applied Fundamental
Find solution for immediate problem Generalizations and formulation of a
theory
Research is aimed at a solution Concerns natural phenomenon or math
Solution to some pressing practical Finding information that has a broad base
problem of application
Adds to the existing body of scientific
knowledge

Quantitative Qualititative
Phenomena that can be quantified Used in behavioural sciences
Used when studying human behavior
Projective techniques used
Phenomena involves quality or kind

Conceptual Empirical
Based on some ideas on theory Relies on experience or observation
Used by philosophers and thinkers Data-based research
Experimental research

Sr. No. Pure Research Applied Research

1. Studies a problemusually from Several disciplinescollaborate for


the focus of one discipline. solving the problem.
2. Aims to illuminate the Aims to solve a problem by
theory by enriching the basic enriching the field of application of
of a discipline. a discipline.
3. Seeks generalizations Often studies individual
cases without the objective to
generalize
4. Studies why things happen Studies how things can be changed

5. Reports is in technical Report is in common language


language

One time research: Confined to a single time period

Longitudinal research: Research carried over several time periods

Field Setting Research or Laboratory Research: Depending on the

environment

Clinical or Diagnostic Research: Goes deep into the causes of

events or things
Exploratory or Formalized: Development of hypothesis/ Testing

hypothesis

Historical: Uses historical resources to study events or ideas of

the past

Problem-oriented research: To look for solutions to the problem

Decision-oriented: Done for the need of the decision maker.

Operational: Example of decision-making research. Provides a

quantitative basis for taking up a decision

5. Research requirements

i. Planning
- Definition and Classification or purpose and scope of

operations

- Analysis to determine the meaning of facts

- Planning helps in bringing a good result in the conclusion

ii. Guidance

- Helps researcher concentrate on problems

- Concerned with the selection of problems

iii. Experts

- Knowledge in the area being studied

- Must be able to guide properly and formulate a well-

planned project for research

iv. Training

- They know how to plan, organize and maximize educational

output

v. Finance
- Problems taken for study require financial help from the state

vi. References

- Well planned project

- Preliminary work done helps while investigating the problem

vii. Library

- Provides materials through books which enhance the quality and

quantity of the research

viii. Research Journals

- Provides studies and research done nationally and

internationally

. Steps of Research
11 Formulating the research problem

-Maybe related to states of nature or relationships between

variables

A researcher must single out problem to study and must decide the

aura of interest

-Feasibility of a particular solution has to be considered before

working on the problem


-Two steps in formulating a research problem: Understanding the

problem thoroughly and Rephrasing the same into meaningful

terms

-Discuss the problem with experts

Examine available literature both conceptual and empirical

-Reevaluate the problem and focus on its specifics

-Make sure the problem can be defined unambiguously

-State the objective

-Pertinent terms in relation to the problem must be defined

2. Extensive Literature Survey

- Brief summary of the problem after the problem is formulated

- Write a synopsis of the topic and submit it to the committee

or research board

- Literature survey by abstracting journals and reading up

bibliography

3. Development of working Hypothesis


- It’s made so as to draw out and test its logical or empirical

consequences

- Discuss with work colleagues and experts about the problem

- Examine past data and records

- Review similar studies in that area

- Personally, investigate the problem with interested parties

The following are the functions of a hypothesis:

A. The hypothesis guides the researcher by

delimiting the area of research and to keep him

on the right track.

B. It sharpens his thinking and focuses attention

on the more important facets of the problem.

C. It also indicates the type of data required and

the type of methods of data analysis to be used.

4. Preparing the research design

- Means of obtaining the information


- Ability and skill of the researcher and staff

- Explaining the way in which selected means of obtaining

information will be organized and the reasoning leading to

selection

- Time available for research

- Cost factor relating to research

The following are the main types of research designs:

A. Exploratory. A flexible research design which

provides an opportunity for considering many

different aspects of a problem is considered

appropriate if the purpose of the

research study.

B. Descriptive. An accurate description of a

situation or of an association between variables,

the suitable design will be one that minimizes


bias and maximizes the reliability of the data

collected and analyzed.

C. Diagnostic. An attempt to detect and discover

nuances of a problem by way of series of

clinical, laboratory and field tests and trials

which aim to shed more light on the nature of a

given problem.

D. Experimental. A series of tests and trials is

performed on a set of given variables which are

either controlled or experimental in order to

determine a better solution or outlook based on

the results obtained.

5. Determining Sample Design

- the items selected constitute what is called a sample


- Sample design is a plan determined before any data are actually

collected for obtaining a sample from a given population

- Samples can either be:

Probability Sample - Each has an element of being included in

the sample and are based on Random, Systematic,

Stratified, Cluster/Area Sampling.

Non-Probability Sample - Based on Consciences Sampling,

Judgement Sampling and Quota Sampling

- Some of the important sample designs are:

(i) Deliberate Sampling

 Purposive or deliberate selection of particular

units of the universe for constituting a sample that

represents the universe.


 When population elements are selected based on

access it's known as convenience sampling

 Judgment sampling is when

a researcher's judgment is used to select items he

considers to be representative of the population

(ii) Simple Random Sampling

 Each and every item in the population has an

equal chance of inclusion in the sample and each

one has the probability of being selected.

(iii) Systematic Sampling

 An element of randomness is usually introduced

into this kind of sampling by using random

numbers to pick up the unit with which to start.

 Useful when sample frame is in form of a list

 Selection process starts by picking some random

point on the list and then every nth element is

selected until the desired number is secured

(iv) Stratified Sampling


 If the population from which a sample is to be

drawn doesn't constitute a homogeneous group,

then stratified sampling technique is applied so as

to obtain a representative sample

 The population is stratified into a number of non-

overlapping subpopulations or strata and sample

items are selected from each stratum.

 If the items selected from each stratum is based

on simple random sampling, the entire procedure,

first stratification and then simple random

sampling is known as stratified random sampling.

(v) Quota Sampling

 When interviewers are simply given quota to be

filled from different strata, the actual selection of

the items for sample being left to the

interviewer's judgment

 Size of quota is proportionate to size of stratum in

the population

 A form of non-probability sampling.


(vi) Cluster sampling

 Grouping of population and then selecting the

groups or the groups or the clusters rather than

individual elements for inclusion in the sample

 Sample size must often be larger than the simple

random sample to ensure the same level of

accuracy as in cluster sampling there is a chance

of various biases and error

 However, this procedure is relatively easier than

others and can be used in the case of personal

interviews

(vii) Area Sampling

 Area is divided into smaller non-overlapping areas

= geographical clusters and a number of these

smaller areas are randomly selected

 Field interviewing is made more efficient through

this technique and when there's no list of the

population

(viii) Multi-stage Sampling


 Meant for large geographical areas like an entire

country

(ix) Sequential Sampling

 Ultimate size of the sample is determined as the

survey progresses

6. Collecting the data

 Various ways - experiment or survey

 Survey methods include - observation, personal

interviews, telephone interviews, mailing of

questionnaires, schedules

7. Execution of the project

 It's necessary to collect adequate and dependable

data in a systematic manner and in time

 Careful watch on uncontrollable factors

 Survey must be under statistical control

 Must deal with non-respondents

8. Analysis of Data
 Categorize raw data

 Coding to transform categorized data to symbols -

editing can also be done at this stage

 Tabulation is done to put classified data in form of

tables

 Statistical inferences are drawn with the

assistance of computers

9. Hypothesis testing

 Chi-square, t-test, f-test

 Either accepts the hypothesis or rejects it

10. Generalization and Interpretation

 If hypothesis is tested and upheld its easy to build

a theory

 Triggers new questions in the hypothesis

11. Preparation of the report/ thesis

 Introduction
 Summary

 Main Report

 Conclusion

 Bibliography

Finally, the researcher has to prepare the report of what has been

researched. Writing of report must be done with great care

keeping in view the following parts:

A. Preliminaries. This part contains the

introductory/formality part. This contains the:

i. Title page

ii. Endorsement page

iii. Acceptance page

iv. Acknowledgment

v. Dedication

vi. Table of Contents

vii. Abstract
B. Content. This part contains the main part of the

research study. This contains the:

i. Chapter 1. The Problem and its Background

ii. Chapter 2. Conceptual and Theoretical

Framework

iii. Chapter 3. Operational Framework

iv. Chapter 4. Presentation, Analysis, and

Interpretation of Data

v. Chapter 5. Summary of Findings,

Conclusions, and Recommendations

C. End matters. This part presents the mandatory

references and attachments such as:

i. Bibliography

ii. Appendices

iii. Attachment
7. Methods of Research

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 Provide new and useful information in an orderly

and precise manner.

A. Experimental Method

 Matter of logic not location

 Special laboratories to control conditions

 Labs are generally located in universities or a

research institute

1. Laboratory

 Control conditions and take measurements of

variables in an orderly manner


2. Variables

 Independent Variable - Independent of what

subject does

 Dependent Variables - Variable affected by

changes (measure of subject behavior)

3. Degree of Control

 Use of precision instruments to control unseen

variables

4. Value of an experiment

B. Observational Method

 Observation in natural environment

C. Survey Method - Field Studies

 Either through the use of questionnaires or

interviews

D. Case Studies

 Scientific Biographies

 Reconstruction of a person's life events

 Used in Longitudinal studies


E. Test Method

 Measures all kinds of abilities, interests, attitudes,

and accomplishments

 Subjects are presented with a uniform situation to

a group of people who vary in aspects relevant to

the situation

MCQs on Research Aptitude

1.The main purpose of research in education is to _________

a) Help in the personal growth of an individual

b) Help the candidate become an eminent educationist


c) Increase job prospects of an individual

d) Increase social status of an individual

2.Sampling is advantageous as it ________

a) Helps in capital-saving

b) Saves time

c) Increases accuracy

d) Both (a) and (b)

3.Tippit table refers to ____________

a) Table of random digits

b) Table used in sampling methods

c) Table used in statistical investigations

d) All the above


4._________ is a preferred sampling method for the population

with finite size.

a) Area sampling

b) Cluster sampling

c) Purposive sampling

d) Systematic sampling

5._______ refers to inferring about the whole population based

on the observations made on a small part.

a) Deductive inference

b) Inductive inference

c) Pseudo-inference

d) Objective inference
6.Random sampling is helpful as it is __________.

a) An economical method of data collection

b) Free from personal biases

c) Reasonably accurate

d) All the above

7.The data of research is ______

a) Qualitative only

b) Quantitative only

c) Both (a) and (b)

d) Neither (a) nor (b)

8.The longitudinal approach of research deals with _________.

a) Horizontal researches
b) Long-term researches

c) Short-term researches

d) None of the above

9.A researcher divides the populations into PG, graduates and 10 + 2 students and using the random digit table he selects some of
them from each. This is technically called

A.stratified sampling
B.stratified random sampling
C.representative sampling
D.none of these
10.A researcher divides his population into certain groups and fixes
the size of the sample from each group. It is called
A.stratified sample
B.quota sample
C.cluster sample
D.all of the above
11.Field study is related to
A real life situations
B experimental situations
C laboratory situations
D none of the above

12. Attributes of objects, events or things which can be measured are


called
A qualitative measure
B data
C variables
D none of the above
1- B, 2- D, 3- D This table was first published by L.H.C Tippett in

1927.

4- D, 5-B, 6-D, 7- C Qualitative data deals with descriptive data

and quantitative data deals with numbers.

8- B, 9-B Division of population on the basis of class, income,

education level etc is called stratification and every member of

each stratum has equal chance of being selected by the

researcher. In this way characteristics of various strata are

identified and studied.

10- B, 11- A, 12- C

Next Topic:

Research Ethics
Test by Nav Classes there are 40 questions & you have 20 minutes to
answer

1 Which of the following options are the main tasks of research in


modern society?
(I) to keep pace with the advancement in knowledge.
(II) to discover new things.
(III) to write a critique on the earlier writings.
(IV) to systematically examine and critically analyse the
investigations/sources with objectivity.

निम्ननिखित में से कौि सा निकल्प आधुनिक समाज में अिु संधाि के मुख्य
कार्य हैं ?
(I) ज्ञाि में प्रगनत के साथ तािमेि रििे के निए
(II) िई चीज ं क ि जिे के निए
(III) पहिे के िेिि पर एक आि चिा निििे के निए।
(चतुथय) निष्पक्षता के साथ जां च / स्र त ं क व्यिखथथत रूप से जां चिे और
गं भीर रूप से निश्ले षण करिे के निए।
(A) IV, II and I
(B) I, II and III
(C) I and III

(D) II, III and IV June 2006


Answer: (A)

2 The depth of any research can be judged by:

(A) title of the research.


(B) objectives of the research.
(C) total expenditure on the research.
(D) duration of the research. June 2006

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Answer: (B)

3 Research can be classified as:


(A) Basic, Applied and Action Research
(B) Quantitative and Qualitative Research
(C) Philosophical, Historical, Survey and Experimental Research
(D) All the above Dec 2006

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Answer: (D)

4. The first step of research is:


(A) Selecting a problem
(B) Searching a problem
(C) Finding a problem
(D) Identifying a problem Dec 2006

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Answer: (D)

5 Fundamental research reflects the ability to:


(A) Synthesize new ideals
(B) Expound new principles
(C) Evaluate the existing material concerning research
(D) Study the existing literature regarding various topics June 2007

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Answer: (B)

6 The study in which the investigators attempt to trace an effect is


known as:
(A) Survey Research
(B) 'Ex-post Facto' Research
(C) Historical Research
(D) Summative Research June 2007

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Answer: (B)

7. The experimental study is based on:


(A) The manipulation of variables
(B) Conceptual parameters
(C) Replication of research
(D) Survey of literature Dec 2007

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Answer: (A)
8. The main characteristic of scientific research is:
(A) empirical
(B) theoretical
(C) experimental
(D) all of the above Dec 2007

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Answer: (D)

9. Authenticity of a research finding is its:


(A) Originality
(B) Validity
(C) Objectivity
(D) All of the above Dec 2007

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Answer: (D)

10. Which technique is generally followed when the population is


finite?
(A) Area Sampling Technique
(B) Purposive Sampling Technique
(C) Systematic Sampling Technique
(D) None of the above Dec 2007

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Three Probability Sampling Techniques


When each entity of the population has a definite, non-zero
probability of being incorporated into the sample, the sample is
known as a probability sample. Probability samples are selected
in such a way as to be representative of the population. They
provide the most valid or credible results because they reflect
the characteristics of the population from which they are
selected.

Probability sampling techniques include random sampling,


systematic sampling, and stratified sampling.
It is saying that population is finite but it can be finite n large no.
Of population so we can easily go for systematic sampling with
no cons but if population size is small n finite then it may create
some disadvantages to use systematic
Answer: (C)

11 Generalised conclusion on the basis of a sample is technically


known as:
(A) Data analysis and interpretation
(B) Parameter inference
(C) Statistical inference
(D) All of the above Dec 2007

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Answer: (C)

12 The process not needed in experimental research is:


(A) Observation
(B) Manipulation and replication
(C) Controlling
(D) Reference collection Dec 2009

प्रर् गात्मक अिु संधाि में प्रनिर्ा की आिश्यकता िहीं है :


(ए) अिि कि
(बी) हे रफेर और प्रनतकृनत
(सी) निर्ं त्रण
(डी) संदभय संग्रह
Answer: None of above because: experimental research uses all of
above another question can be :-

The experimental study is based on :


(A) The manipulation of variables (B) Conceptual parameters
(C) Replication of research (D) Survey of literature
Answer: (A)
The experimental method
is a systematic and scientific approach to research in which the
researcher manipulates one or more variables, and controls and
measures any change in other variables.
Experimental research is commonly used in sciences such as
sociology and psychology, physics, chemistry, biology and
medicine etc.
It is a collection of research designs which use manipulation and
controlled testing to understand causal processes. Generally, one or
more variables are manipulated to determine their effect on a
dependent variable Experimental Research is often used where:
There is time priority in a causal relationship (cause precedes effect)
1. There is consistency in a causal relationship (a
cause will always lead to the same effect)
2. The magnitude of the correlation is great.
The word experimental research has a range of definitions. In the
strict sense, experimental research is what we call a true experiment.
This is an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable,
and control/randomizes the rest of the variables. It has a control
group, the subjects have been randomly assigned between the
groups, and the researcher only tests one effect at a time. It is also
important to know what variable(s) you want to test and measure.
A very wide definition of experimental research, or a quasi experiment,
is research where the scientist actively influences something to
observe the consequences. Most experiments tend to fall in between
the strict and the wide definition.
A rule of thumb is that physical sciences, such as physics, chemistry
and geology tend to define experiments more narrowly than social
sciences, such as sociology and psychology, which conduct
experiments closer to the wider definition.

Aims of Experimental Research

Experiments are conducted to be able to predict phenomenons.


Typically, an experiment is constructed to be able to explain some
kind of causation. Experimental research is important to society - it
helps us to improve our everyday lives.
13 A research problem is not feasible only when:
(A) it is researchable
(B) it is new and adds something to knowledge
(C) it consists of independent and dependent variables

(D) it has utility and relevance Dec 2008

कक ककक कककककक कककक ककक कककक कककक कक कक: (क) कक


ककक ककककक कक (कक) कक ककक कक कक ककककक कक ककक ककक
कककककक कक (कक) ककककक कककककककक कक कककककक कक
ककककक ककक (कक) ककककक कककककककक कक ककककककककककक
कक
Answer: (C)

14 Which of the following is classified in the category of the


developmental research?
(A) Philosophical research
(B) Action research
(C) Descriptive research
(D) All the above June 2009

निम्ननिखित में से कौि से निकास अिु संधाि की श्रेणी में िगीकृत नकर्ा
गर्ा है ?
(ए) दार्य निक अिु संधाि
(बी) एक्शि ररसचय
(सी) िणय िात्मक अिु संधाि
(डी) सभी उपर क्त
Answer: (D)

15. We use Factorial Analysis:


(A) To know the relationship between two variables
(B) To test the Hypothesis
(C) To know the difference between two variables
(D) To know the difference among the many variables June 2009

कक कककककककककक कककककककक कक ककककक कककक ककक: (क)


कक कक कक ककक ककककक ककककक कक ककक (कक) कककककककककक
कक ककककककक कककक कक ककक (कक) कक कक कक ककक कककक
ककककक कक ककक (कक) कक कक ककक कककक ककककक कक ककक
Factor analysis is related to principal component analysis (PCA),
but the two are not identical.
Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability
among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower
number of unobserved variables called factors.
The key concept of factor analysis is that multiple observed variables
have similar patterns of responses because they are all associated
with a latent (i.e. not directly measured) variable. their association with
an underlying latent variable, the factor, which cannot easily be
measured.
Answer: (C)

16 The research which is exploring new facts through the study of the
past is called
(A) Philosophical research
(B) Historical research
(C) Mythological research

(D) Content analysis Dec 2009

कककककककक कक कककक कक कककककक कक कककककक कक कक


कककककक कक ककक कक ककक कक, कककककक ककक कककक कक (क)
कककककककक कककककककक (कक) कककककककक कककककककक (कक)
ककककककक कककककककक (कक) ककककककक कककककककक

Answer: (B)

17. Which correlation co-efficient best explains the relationship


between creativity and intelligence?
कककककककककक कक ककककककककककक कक ककक कक कककककक
कक ककक-कक ककककककक कककक ककककक ककककक कक?
(A) 1.00
(B) 0.6
(C) 0.5

(D) 0.3 Dec 2009

Answer: (A) The weakest linear relationship is indicated by


a correlation coefficient equal to 0. A positive correlation
means that if one variable gets bigger, the other variable tends to get
bigger. A negative correlation means that if one variable gets bigger,
the other variable tends to get smaller.

18 Research is
(A) Searching again and again
(B) Finding solution to any problem
(C) Working in a scientific way to search for truth of any problem
(D) None of the above June 2010

कककककककक कक (क) ककक-ककक ककककक (कक) कककक कक


कककककक कक कककककक कककककक (कक) कककक कक कककककक कक
कककककक कक ककक ककककककककक ककककक कक ककक कककक (कक)
ककककककक ककक कक ककक कक कककक
Answer: (C)

19 A common test in research demands much priority on


(A) Reliability
(B) Useability
(C) Objectivity
(D) All of the above June 2010

अिु संधाि में एक आम परीक्षा के निए बहुत प्राथनमकता की मां ग है


(ए) निश्वसिीर्ता
(बी) उपर् नगता
(सी) उद्दे श्य
(D। उपर क्त सभी
Answer: (D)

20 Which of the following is the first step in starting the research


process?
(A) Searching sources of information to locate problem.
(B) Survey of related literature
(C) Identification of problem
(D) Searching for solutions to the problem June 2010

ककककक ककक कक ककक कक ककक ककककककककक कककक कककक


ककक कककक ककक कक? (क) कककककक कक ककक ककककक कक ककक
ककककककक कक ककककककक कक ककक ककककक (कक) ककककककक
ककककककक कक ककककककककक (कक) कककककक कक ककककक (कक)
कक कककककक कक कक कककक कक ककक कककककक
Answer: (C)

21. If a researcher conducts a research on


finding out which administrative style contributes more to
institutional effectiveness ? This will be an example of
(A) Basic Research
(B) Action Research
(C) Applied Research
(D) None of the above June 2010

ककक ककक कककककककक कक ककक ककककक कक कक ककक


ककककककककक कककक ककक कककककककक ककककककककककक कक
कककक कककककक कक? कक कक कक कककककक कककक (क) ककककक
कककककक (कक) ककककक कककककक (कक) ककककककक कककककक
(कक) ककककककक ककक कक ककक कक कककक
Answer: (C)

22 Which of the following phrases is not relevant to describe the


meaning of research as a process?
(A) Systematic Activity
(B) Objective Observation
(C) Trial and Error

(D) Problem Solving Dec 2010

कककककककककक कककककककककक ककक कक ककक कक


ककककककककक कक ककक ककक कककककककक कक कककक कक
ककककक कककक कक ककक ककककककककक कककक कक? (क)
ककककककककक ककककककक (कक) कककककककक कककककक (कक)
ककककककक कक कककककक (कक) कककककक ककककककक

Answer: (B)

23 Which of the following is not an example of a continuous variable?


(A) Family size
(B) Intelligence
(C) Height
(D) Attitude Dec 2010

कककककककककक ककक कक ककक कक कककककक कक कक कककककक


कककक कक? (क) कककककक कक कककक (कक) कककककककककक (कक)
ककककक (कक) ककककक
Continuous variables can have an infinite number of different values
between two given points. Discrete variables can have only a certain
number of different values between two given points. For example, in
a family, there can be one, two, or three children, but there cannot be
a continuous scale of 1.1, 1.5, or 1.75 children. A variable such as a
person's height can take on any value in a range.
Answer: (A)

24 Which of the following variables cannot be expressed in


quantitative terms?
(A) Socio-economic Status
(B) Marital Status
(C) Numerical Aptitude
(D) Professional Attitude Dec 2010

निम्न में से कौि सा चर मात्रात्मक र्ब् ं में व्यक्त िहीं नकर्ा जा सकता
है ?
(ए) सामानजक-आनथय क खथथनत
(बी) िैिानहक खथथनत
(सी) न्यूमेररकि एप्टीट्यूड
(डी) व्यािसानर्क दृनिक ण
Answer: (D)

25 A doctor studies the relative effectiveness of two drugs of dengue


fever. His research would be classified as
(A) Descriptive Survey
(B) Experimental Research
(C) Case Study
(D) Ethnography Dec 2010

एक डॉक्टर डें गू बु िार की द दिाओं के सापेक्ष प्रभािर्ीिता का अध्यर्ि


करता है । उिके र् ध क िगीकृत नकर्ा जाएगा
(ए) िणय िात्मक सिेक्षण
(बी) प्रार् नगक अिु संधाि
(सी) केस स्टडी
(डी) िृ िंर्निज्ञाि
Answer: (B)

26 The term ‘phenomenology कककक’ is associated with the process


of
(A) Qualitative Research
(B) Analysis of Variance
(C) Correlational Study

(D) Probability Sampling Dec 2010

र्ब् 'phenomenology' की प्रनिर्ा के साथ जु डा हुआ है


(ए) गु णात्मक अिु संधाि
(बी) निचरण का निश्ले षण
(सी) क रे िैििि स्टडी
(डी) संभाव्यता िमूिाकरण
Answer: (A)

27 A research paper is a brief report of research work based on


(A) Primary Data only
(B) Secondary Data only
(C) Both Primary and Secondary Data
(D) None of the above June 2011

कक ककक कककक कककककक ककक ककककक कक कक ककककककककक


ककककककक कक (क) कककककककक कककक कककक (कक)
कककककककक कककक कककक (कक) ककककक कककककककक कक
कककककककक कककक (कक) ककककककक ककक कक ककक कक कककक
Answer: (C)

28. Newton gave three basic laws of motion. This research is


categorized as
(A) Descriptive Research
(B) Sample Survey
(C) Fundamental Research
(D) Applied Research June 2011

न्यूटि िे गनत के तीि बु निर्ादी कािू ि नदए इस र् ध क इस प्रकार


िगीकृत नकर्ा गर्ा है
(ए) िणय िात्मक अिु संधाि
(बी) िमूिा सिेक्षण
(सी) मौनिक अिु संधाि
(डी) एप्लाइड ररसचय
Answer: (C)

29. Field-work based research is classified as:


(A) Empirical
(B) Historical
(C) Experimental
(D) Biographical June 2008

फील्ड-काम आधाररत र् ध क निम्नािु सार िगीकृत नकर्ा गर्ा है :


(ए) अिु भिजन्य
(बी) ऐनतहानसक
(सी) प्रार् नगक
(डी) जीििी
Answer: (A)

30. Which of the following sampling method is appropriate to study the


prevalence of AIDS amongst male and female in India in 1976, 1986,
1996 and 2006?
(A) Cluster sampling
(B) Systematic sampling
(C) Quota sampling
(D) Stratified random sampling June 2008

1 9 76, 1 9 86, 1 99 6 कक 2006 ककक कककक ककक ककककक कक


ककककक कक ककक कककक कक कककककक कक कककककक कककक कक
ककक ककककक ककककक कककककक ककक कक ककक कक ककककककक
कक? (क) ककककककक ककककक (कक) ककककककककक ककककक (कक)
कककक कककककककक (कक) कककककककक ककककककककक ककककक
Systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling method in
which sample members from a larger population are selected
according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. This
interval, called the sampling interval, is calculated by dividing the
population size by the desired sample size.
Stratified random sampling is used when the researcher wants to
examine subgroups within a population. Researchers also use this
technique when they want to observe relationships between two or
more subgroups, or when they want to examine the rare extremes of a
population.
Answer: (B)
31 The research is always -
(A) verifying the old knowledge
(B) exploring new knowledge
(C) filling the gap between knowledge
(D) all of these Dec 2008

कककककककक ककककक कककक कक - (क) कककककक ककककक कक


कककककक कककक (कक) कक ककककक कक ककक (कक) ककककक कक
ककक कककक कक कककक (कक) ककककक कक ककक
Answer: (D)

32 The research that applies the laws at the time of field study to draw
more and more clear ideas about the problem is:
(A) Applied research
(B) Action research
(C) Experimental research
(D) None of these Dec 2008

कककककककक कक कककककक कक कककक ककक कक कककक कककककक


ककककककक कक ककककककक कककक कक ककक ककककककककक
कककककक कक ककक ककककक कककक कककक कक: (क) ककककककक
कककककक (कक) ककककक कककककक (कक) ककककककककक
कककककककक (कक) ककककक कक ककक कककक
Answer: (C)

33. Arrange the following steps of research in correct sequence :


1. Identification of research problem
2. Listing of research objectives
3. Collection of data
4. Methodology
5. Data analysis
6. Results and discussion
(A) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6
(B) 1 – 2 – 4 – 3 – 5 – 6
(C) 2 – 1 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6
(D) 2 – 1 – 4 – 3 – 5 – 6 Dec 2012

ककक ककककककक ककक कककककककक कक कककककककककक


ककककक कक ककककककककक कककक: 1. कककककककक कककककक कक
ककककक 2. ककक कककककककककक कक कककक 3. कककक कक
कककककक 4. कककककककककक 5. कककक कककककककक 6. कककककक
कक ककककक
Answer: (B)

34. Identify the incorrect statement:


(A) A hypothesis is made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting
point for further investigations.
(B) A hypothesis is a basis for reasoning without any assumption of its
truth.
(C) Hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
(D) Scientific hypothesis is a scientific theory. Dec 2012

ककक ककककककक कक ककककक कककक: (क) कक ककककककककक


ककककक कककक कक कककक कक ककक कक कककक कक ककक
ककककककककक ककककक कक ककक ककक कककक कक ककक (कक) कक
कककककक कककक कककककक कक कककक कक ककककक कक कककक
कककक कक ककक कक कककक ककक (कक) कककककककककक कक कककक
कक ककक कक कककककककककक कककककककककक ककक (कक)
ककककककककक ककककककक कक ककककककककक कककककककक ककक
Answer: (D)

35. The variable which impacts the relationship between an


independent variable and a dependent variable is known as
(A) antecedent variable
(B) precedent variable
(C) predictor variable
(D) control variable Sep 2013

ककककककक कक कक कक कककककककक कक कक कक कककककक कक


कक ककक ककककक कक कककककककक कककक कक, कक ककक ककक
कककक कककक कक (क) कककककककककक कक (कक) ककककक
कककककककक (कक) ककककककककककक कक (कक) कककककककक कक
Answer: (D)

36. Which one of the following is a non probability sampling method ?


(A) Simple Random Sampling
(B) Stratified Sampling
(C) Cluster Sampling
(D) Quota Sampling Sep 2013

ककककक ककक कक ककक कक कक ककक ककककककक ककककक


कककककक कक? (क) कककककक ककककककककक कककककककक (कक)
कककककककक कककककककक (कक) ककककककक कककककककक (कक)
कककक कककककककक
Answer: (D) Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique where
the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the
individuals in the population equal chances of being selected.

Quota sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the


assembled sample has the same proportions of individuals as the
entire population with respect to known characteristics, traits or
focused phenomenon.
ककक-ककककककककक कककककककक कक ककककक ककककक कक
कककक ककककक कक ककककककककक ककक कककककक ककक कककक
ककक कक कककककककक ककक ककक कककककककककक कक ककककक
कककक कक कककक ककककककक कककक ककककक कककक
कककककककक कक ककक-ककककककककक कककककककक ककककक कक
कककककक कककककक ककककक कककककककककक कक कककक
कककककक ककक ककककककक ककककक ककककककककक,
ककककककककक कक कककककककक कककक कक ककककक ककक कककक
ककककक कक ककक ककक ककक

37. The sequential operations in scientific research are


(A) Co-vaiation, Elimination of Spurious Relations, Generalisation,
Theorisation
(B) Generalisation, Co-variation, Theorisation, Elimination of Spurious
Relations
(C) Theorisation, Generalisation, Elimination of Spurious Relations,
Co-variation
(D) Elimination of Spurious Relations, Theorisation, Generalisation,
Co-variation. Dec 2013

ककककककककक ककक ककक कककककक ककककककककककक ककक (क)


कक-कककककक, कककक ककककककक कक ककककककक,
ककककककककककक, कककककककक (कक) ककककककककककक, कक-
ककककककक, कककककककक, कककक ककककककक कक ककककककक
(कक) कककककककककक, ककककककककककक, कककक ककककककक कक
ककककककक, कक-ककककककक (कक) कककक ककककककक कक
ककककककक, कककककककक, ककककककककककक, कक-ककककककक
Answer: (A)

38. In sampling, the lottery method is used for


(A) Interpretation
(B) Theorisation
(C) Conceptualisation
(D) Randomisation Dec 2013

कककककककक ककक, ककककक कककक कक ककककक कककक ककक


कककक कककक कक (क) कककककककक (कक) कककककककककक (कक)
कककककककककककककक (कक) ककककककककककक
Answer: (D)

39. Which is the main objective of research?


(A) To review the literature
(B) To summarize what is already known
(C) To get an academic degree
(D) To discover new facts or to make fresh interpretation of known
facts Dec 2013

कककककककक कक ककककक कककककककक ककक कक कक? (क)


ककककककक कक ककककककक कककक कक ककक (कक) कककक कककक
कक कक कककक कककक कक ककककककक कककक कक ककक (कक) कक
ककककककक कककककक ककककककक कककक कक ककक (कक) कक
कककककक कक ककककक कक ककककक कककककक कक कककक
कककककककक कककक
Answer: (D)

40. Sampling error decreases with the


(A) decrease in sample size
(B) increase in sample size
(C) process of randomization
(D) process of analysis Dec 2013

कककककककक कककककक कक ककक कक कककक कक (क) ककककक


कककक ककक ककक (कक) ककककक कककक ककक कककककक (कक)
ककककककककककक कक ककककककककक (कक) कककककककक कक
ककककककककक
Answer: (B)

Test By Nav Classes on Teaching & Research Aptitude 37


questions You have 20 minutes to answer

1 Which one of the following is the most important elements in


teaching?

a) Relationship between teachers and students


b) Subject matter
c) Teaching techniques and aids used
d) Student's knowledge

नननननननननन ननन नन ननन नन नननननन ननन नननन


नननननननननन नननन नन? न) नननननननन नन ननननननन नन
ननन ननननन नन) नननन ननननन न) नननननन ननननननन नन
नननन नन नननननननन नननन न) ननननन नन ननननन
Answer A Relationship between teachers and students

Improving students' relationships with teachers has important,


positive and long-lasting implications for students' academic and
social development.

2 Arrange the following teaching process in order


(i) relating the present knowledge with the previous knowledge
(ii) evaluation
(iii) reteaching
(iv) formulating objectives
(v) presentation of materials

निम्न निक्षण प्रनिया को व्यवस्थित करें


(i) निछले ज्ञाि से वतत माि ज्ञाि से सं बंनित
(ii) मू ल्ांकि
(iii) रीएन ंग
(iv) उद्दे श्य तै यार करिा
(v) सामनियों की प्रस्तु नत

A.

(i), (ii), (iii), (iv)


B.

(ii),(i) (iii), (iv),( v)


C.

( v), (iv),(iii),(i) , (ii)


D.

(iv),(i) ,( v), (ii),(iii)

3 Which of the following is the most important single factor in


underlying the success of beginning a teacher ?
A.

scholarship
B.
communicative ability
C.

personality and its ability to relate to the class and to the pupils
D.

organisational ability

निम्ननलस्ित में से कौि सा निक्षक एक निक्षक की िुरुआत में सबसे महत्विूणत


कारक है ?

ए। छात्रवृनि

बी सं ार क्षमता

सी। व्यस्ित्व और कक्षा और नवद्यानितयों से संबंनित होिे की इसकी क्षमता

डी संगठिात्मक क्षमता
4 The field of education is permeated by conflicts and
misconception because
A.

problems in education call for subjectivity of interpretation


B.

problems encountered in teaching are not amenable to rigorous scientific


investigation
C.

there are not good teaching methods and procedures


D.

teachers are not worthy of doing rigorous scientific investigation

निक्षा के क्षेत्र में नववाद और गलत िारणा से व्याप्त है क्ोंनक


ए। व्याख्या में व्यस्ििरकता के नलए निक्षा कॉल में समस्याएं

बी निक्षण में आिे वाली समस्याओं को कठोर वैज्ञानिक जां के मुतानबक िही ं
नकया जा सकता है

सी वहााँ अच्छे निक्षण नवनियों और प्रनियाएं िही ं हैं

डी निक्षक कठोर वैज्ञानिक जां करिे के योग्य िही ं हैं


5 The most appropriate meaning of learning is
A.

inculcation of knowledge
B.

modification of behaviour
C.

personal adjustment
D.

acquisition of skills

ननननन नन नननन नननन नननन नन न ननननन नन ननननन नन


ननननननन नन नननननन नन ननननननननन ननननननन नन
नननन नन नननननननन

6 While dealing with juvenile delinquents a teacher should


A.

play them with filthy sex jokes


B.

talk with them frankly and guide and channelize their potentialities in con-
structive ways
C.

complain to the principal against them


D.

none of the above

6 नकिोर delinquents के साि व्यवहार करते समय एक निक्षक


ानहए

ए उन्हें गंदे से क्स मजाक के साि िेलते हैं

बी उिके साि स्पष्ट रूि से बात करें और उिकी क्षमताओं को सह-


सं र िात्मक तरीकों में मागतदिति करें

सी उिके स्िलाफ प्रा ायत से निकायत करते हैं

डी इिमे से कोई भी िही ं

7
The professional requirements of a teacher as explained in the
UNESCO publication is/are
A.
mastery over the subject and competency for teaching
B.
Innovativeness in approach and teaching strategies
C.
justice to the profession
D.
All of the above
8 If a student becomes unconscious in the class what will you do
first ?
A.
Rushing to the principal's office and convassing for help impatiently
B.
Telephoning student's parents and waiting for them
C.
Giving first aid to him and trying to contact any nearby doctor
D.
making arrangement to send him to his home

यनद कोई छात्र कक्षा में बेहोि हो जाता है तो आि िहले क्ा करें गे ?

ए।
नप्रंनसिल के कायातलय से नमलिे और मदद के नलए कमाि संभालिे के नलए

बी
छात्र के माता-निता को टे लीफोि करिा और उिके नलए इं तजार करिा

सी।
उसे प्रािनमक उि ार दे िा और नकसी भी िास के न नकत्सक से संिकत करिे का
प्रयास करिा

डी
उसे अििे घर में भेजिे की व्यवथिा कर रही है

9 A teacher exploits students in your school. In this situation,


what you will do?
Options:
A) Report the matter to the principal.
B) Not interfere in this matter.
C) Guide the teacher please stop this activity.
D) Go on Satyagraha against the teacher.
10 which of the following statements regarding motivation is
correct?
A.
Freewill, intellect and reason are the motivating factors according to Plato
B.
Inborn, unlearned tendencies, called instincts are the motivating forces
according to James Burt
C.
Curiosity and level of aspiration are the motivating factors according to
Berlyne
D.
All of the above

11 A new comer teacher who is maltreated in his class will deal


with the students by
A.
applying punitive measures
B.
improving his qualities and expressing it before them in a good way
C.
changing his class after consultation with the principal
D.
giving them a threat of expulsion

12 Suppose you are teaching in a minority college where castism


and narrow mindedness victimize you, for better adjustment
there you should

A.
uplift the humanistic values beyond these narrow wall and develop scientific
temper in your students
B.
be submissive there and save your job at all costs
C.
rebel against such attitudes as it is against the norms of the Indian society
D.
none of the above

माि लीनजए नक आि एक अल्पसंख्यक कॉलेज में अध्यािि कर रहे हैं जहां


जानतवाद और संकीणत मिोदिा आिको िीऩित करती है , बेहतर समायोजि के नलए
आिको ानहए

ए।
इि संकीणत दीवार से िरे मािवीय मूल्ों को आगे बढाएं और अििे छात्रों में
वैज्ञानिक स्वभाव का नवकास करें

बी
वहााँ नविम्र हो और अििी िौकरी हर कीमत िर ब ाएं

सी।
ऐसे व्यवहार के स्िलाफ नवद्रोह क्ोंनक यह भारतीय समाज के मािदं डों के
स्िलाफ है

डी
इिमे से कोई भी िही ं

13 A successful teacher is one who is

A.
Compassionate and disciplinarian
B.
Quite and reactive
C.
Tolerant and dominating
D.
Passive and active

14 The most important quality of a good teacher is


A.
Sound knowledge of subject matter
B.
Good communication skills
C.
Concern for student's welfare
D.
Effective leadership qualities

15 When some students are deliberately attempting to disturb the


discipline of the class by making mischief, what will be your role
as a teacher?

A.
Expelling those students
B.
Isolate those students
C.
Reform the group with your authority
D.
Giving them an opportunity for introspection and improve their behaviour

16 A teacher is said to be fluent in asking questions, if he can ask

A.
Meaningful questions
B.
As many questions as possible
C.
Maximum number of questions in a fixed time
D.
Many meaningful questions in a fixed time

17 Below are given two seat – research methods (Set-I) and data
collection tools (Set-II). Match the two sets and indicate your
answer by selecting the correct code:
Set-I Set-II

A Experimental method i Using primary and secondary s

B Ex post-facto method ii Questionnaire

C Descriptive survey method iii Standardized tests

D Historical method iv Typical characteristics tests

Answer codes

Codes A B C

1 ii i iii

2 iii iv ii

3 ii iii i

4 ii iv iii

In descriptive survey method- we’ve to use questionnaires


(Because it’s ‘survey). So c-ii. Automatically the answer is -2. but
let’s consider other sets as well:

 Historical method- we have to use primary and


secondary sources.
 In experimental method- we can collect data in
a way that permit standardized tests.
 Unable to find any specific thing on ex post-
facto method’s research tools. But all in all, 2
seems to be the appropriate choice.

18 Attributes of objects, events or things which can be measured


are called

A.
qualitative measure
B.
data
C.
variables
D.
none of the above

19 A statistical measure based upon the entire population is


called parameter while measure based upon a sample is known
as
A.
sample parameter
B.
inference
C.
statistic
D.
none of these

When we study about an event by taking a sample from the


population it is called statistic and a group of statistical
measures is called statistics.
20 Which of the following is a non-probability sample ?
A.
Quota sample
B.
Simple random sample
C.
Purposive sample
D.
(a) and (c) both

21 Independent variables are not manipulated in


A.
normative researches
B.
ex-post facto researches
C.
both of the above
D.
none of the above

In normative researches only data are collected from the survey


and after 'analysing them results are declared. Thus there is no
need of manipulating independent variables. In ex-post facto-
research effects are already known and researcher studies the
causes lying behind these r effects. Here too independent
variable are not manipulated.
22 Survey study aims at:
(i) knowing facts about the two existing situation
(ii) comparing the present status with the standard norms
(iii) criticising the existing situation
(iv) identifying the means of improving the existing situation

ननननन नननननन नन नननननन नन: (i) नन नननननन नननननन


नन नननन ननन नननननन नन ननननन (ii) नननन नननननननन
नन ननन ननननननन नननननन नन ननननन नननन (iii) नननननन
नननननन नन नननननन (iv) नननननन नननननन ननन ननननन
नन नननननन नन ननननन नननन
A.
(i) and (ii) only
B.
(i), (ii), and (iii)
C.
(i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)
D.
(ii) and (iii) only

23 The validity and reliability of a research will be at stake when


A.
The author who is the source of information is biased, incompetent or
dishonest
B.
The incident was reported after a long period of time from that of its
occurrence
C.
The researcher himself is not competent enough to draw logical
conclusions
D.
All of the above

24 The review of the related study is important while undertaking


a research because
A.
it avoids repitition or duplication
B.
it helps in understanding the gaps
C.
it helps the researcher not to draw illogical conclusions
D.
all of above

25 Bibliography given in a research report


A.
helps those interested in further research and studying the problem from
another angle
B.
makes the report authentic
C.
Both (a) & (b)
D.
none of the above

26 Collective psychology of the whole period is a theory which

A.
can explain all phase of historical development
B.
means the psychology of the whole society
C.
means psychological approach of data collection
D.
all of the above

27 The experimental study is based on the law of


A.
single variable
B.
replication
C.
occupation
D.
interest of the subject

28 Area (cluster) sampling technique is used when

A.
population is scattered and large size of the sample is to be drawn
B.
population is heterogeneous
C.
long survey is needed
D.
(a) and (c)

29 Of the following learning theories, the one that embodies the


idea that the learning takes place through insight is known as

ननननन ननननननन नननननननननन ननन नन नन, नन नन


ननननन नन नननननन नन नन ननननननननननन नन नननननन
नन ननननन नन, ननन ननननन नन
A) Gestalt
B) Stimulus-Response
C) Connectionist
D) Pragmatic
When long survey is being done and population is being
scattered over a large area then researcher selects various
groups from the whole area. The selection of these groups is
based on the discretion of the researcher.
29 Definition and Meaning
Gestalt psychology introduced by Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka
and Wolfgang Kohler in 1922. It is revolt against Stimulus
Response approach to learning. It pointed out two weakness in
the theory of conditioning.
1. Conditioning reduces complex human
behavior to an accumulation of simple
conditioned response.
2. Stimulus response theorists attribute
learning to reduction of basic organic
drives.
The Gestalt School made a strong attack on Thorndike’s theory
of trial and error and asserted learning was not stamping-in of
correct responses through trials and errors.
The behaviorist approach to learning was also not acceptable to
Gestaltists as they wanted to study behavior as a whole and
learning in its totality.
It is primarily concerned with the nature of perception.
According to it an individual perceives wholes and not parts.
Learning is viewed as a purposive, exploratory, imaginative and
creative enterprise in which the total situation is taken into
account by the learners. Kohler and Koffka conducted many
experiments on chimpanzees and brought out a book “Mentality
of Apes” in 1925 (which is the result of these experiments
conducted during 1913-17. These experiments show that learning
was not the result of trial and error but of insight and the ability
to see relationship between various factors involved in a
situation.
The fullest and most systematic treatment of learning from the
Gestalt view point is found in Koffka’s “Principles of Gestalt
Psychology” 1935. He suggested that the laws of perception
were equally applicable to learning. A learning situation is a
problem situation and the learner has to see the problem as a
whole and find its solution by insight. The law of organization of
perception as applicable to learning is the law of Pragnaz and
four laws of organization subordinate to it the laws of similarity,
proximity, closure and good continuation.
What is Insight Learning?
1. It occurs with any reparations of trial
2. It aware the association of causes and
effects
3. It occurs when information gathered
Important Principles of Gestalt Theory
1. Students should be encouraged to find out
the relation of factors lead to a problem.
2. There are three stimuli in the learning
process disturbances, gaps and
incongruities
3. Teaching strategies should rely on law of
organization
Problems of Learning
The Gestalt field theory has a number of problems of learning.
Which are:

1. Capacity. Learning depends upon natural


capacity of the learner.
2. Practice. Repetitions bring to light new
relationships and consolidate trace system
3. Motivation. Law of effect is recognized in
motivation
4. Understanding. The relationship between
parts and wholes and means and ends are
emphasized
5. Transfer. Generalized principles, common
patterns or relationships are transferred.
6. Forgetting. Forgetting takes place because
of changes in the traces. Traces may
completely disappear or they may not be
available at the particular time.
30 Chi-square test is an example of

(A) Parametric test


(B) Non-Parametric test
(C) Descriptive test
(D) Survey test

31. Phenomenological Research is a

(A) Qualitative Research


(B) Quantitative Research
(C) Trend Research

(D) Descriptive Research


The focus of phenomenologic inquiry is what people experience
in regard to some phenomenon or other and how they interpret
those experiences. Aphenomenological research study is
a study that attempts to understand people's perceptions,
perspectives and understandings of a particular situation (or
phenomenon).

32 Research ethics do not include


A Honesty
B Subjectivity
C Objectivity
D Integrity

33. Which research paradigm is based on the pragmatic view of


reality?

वास्तनवकता के व्यावहाररक दृनष्टकोण िर कौि सा िोि प्रनतमाि


आिाररत है
a. quantitative research
b. qualitative research
c. mixed research
d. none of the above
A pragmatic theory of truth is a theory of truth within the
philosophies of pragmatism and pragmaticism. Pragmatic
theories of truth were first posited by Charles Sanders
Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. The common features of
these theories are a reliance on the pragmatic maxim as a means
of clarifying the meanings of difficult concepts such as truth; and
an emphasis on the fact that belief, certainty, knowledge,
or truth is the result of an inquiry.

34 The correlation between intelligence test scores and grades


is:

a. Positive
b. Negative
c. Perfect
d. They are not correlated
35 A researcher studies achievement by children in poorly
funded elementary schools. She develops a model that posits
parent involvement as an important variable. She believes that
parent involvement has an impact on children by increasing their
motivation to do school work. Thus, in her model, greater parent
involvement leads to higher student motivation, which in turn
creates higher student achievement. Student motivation is what
kind of variable in this study?

a. Manipulated variable
b. Extraneous variable
c. Confounding variable
d. Mediating or intervening variable

एक िोिकतात िराब नवि िोनित प्रािनमक नवद्यालयों में बच्ों द्वारा


उिलस्ि का अध्ययि करता है । वह एक मॉडल नवकनसत करती है जो
माता-निता की भागीदारी को एक महत्विू णत र के रूि में िे ि करती
है । उिका माििा है नक माता-निता की भागीदारी का स्कूल के काम
करिे के नलए उिकी प्रे रणा बढाकर बच्ों िर असर ि़िता है । इस
प्रकार, उिके मॉडल में , अनिक से अनिक माता-निता की भागीदारी में
उच् छात्र प्रे रणा होती है , जो बदले में उच् छात्र उिलस्ि िै दा करती
है । छात्र प्रे रणा इस अध्ययि में नकस तरह का र है ?

ए। ालाकी से र
ि। अथिायी र
सी। िरस्पर र
घ। मध्यथि या र में अंतर

36 Which scientific method focuses on testing hypotheses


developed from theories?
a. Deductive method
b. Inductive method
c. Hypothesis method
d. Pattern method

37 Generalized conclusion on the basis of a sample is technically


known as
A.
statistical , inference of external validity of the research
B.
data analysis and interpretation
C.
parameter inference
D.
all of the above

1 a 2 D, 3 C, 4 B, 5 B, 6 B, 7 D, 8 C, 9 C, 10 D, 11 B, 12 A, 13 A, 14
B, 15 D, 16 D, 17 2, 18 C, 19 C, 20 D, 21 C, 22 B, 23 D, 24 D, 25 D,
26 A, 27 A, 28 D, 29 A, 30 B, 31 A, 32 B, 33 C, 34 A, 35 D, 36 A, 37
A

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CBSE UGC NETMCQMCQs on Research AptitudeResearchResearch aptitude


LABELS: CBSE UGC NETMCQMCQS ON RESEARCH APTITUDERESEARCHRESEARCH
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1.
Aanchal's CookBook18 March 2018 at 23:18

mam,is this material sufficient to clear net exam...??

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2.
Aanchal's CookBook18 March 2018 at 23:19

mam,is this material sufficient to clear net exam with a good percentage??

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Some= 50, 50

Example: Some men are car

No= 100, 100

Example: No men are car


Some not= 50, 100

Example: Some men are not car

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner 5) Direct Relation

Example: Statement- All Pens are Pencils

Conclusion
1 Some Pens are Pencils

2 All Pens are Pencils

3 No Pens are Pencils

4 Some Pencils are Pens

ReStatement

If the same statement repeats in conclusion then, that conclusion

is not valid, hence not follows.

InDirect Relation
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Study Plan for CBSE UGC
NET JRF 8 July 2018 Paper 1,
Three Months plan With Best
Books
March 24, 2018

Practice all topics subject wise: Watch all Playlist:Click here

Best Coaching for CBSE UGC NET 8 July

2018https://goo.gl/i34Npu Complete Course for CBSE UGC NET Paper 1

Study Material In PDF for paper 1, 2 to Download Click

followings:

Free Books:

Peoples & Environment Click here to download PDF

UGC NET Paper 1 Combo book Notes + MCQs Click here to

download pdf

Commerce objective question bank Click Here to Download PDF


2006 to 2017 Solved ques & 6000 MCQs Click Here to Download

PDF

Free Book for commerce & management Click Here to

Download PDF

Summary of paper 1 UGC NET Click Here to Download PDF

Blue Book Paper 1Click Here to Download PDF

Buy Books online:


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2004 to 2017 MCQs on


Higher Education System,
Governance, Polity &
Administartion
October 04, 2017
2004 to 2017 Questions:Best Coaching for CBSE UGC NET 8 July

2018https://goo.gl/i34Npu Complete Course for CBSE UGC NET

Paper 1

MCQs on Higher Education System, Governance, Polity &

AdministartionDecember 2004

1. In which year the University Grants Commission was

established? (A) 1948 (B) 1944 (C) 1953 (D) 1960 Answer c

Download PDF click Here

2. Another name of Basic Education or Nai Talim is : (A)

Compulsory Education (B) New Education Policy (C) Wardha

Education Plan (D) Sarva Shikshya Abhiyan Answer c

5. The “Report on Currency and Finance” for each of the financial

year in India is published by : (A) Reserve Bank of India (B)

Ministry of Finance(C) Planning Commission (D) Central

Statistical Organization Answer A


6. The idea of ‘Democratic Decentralisation’ in India was
popularised by:(A) A.D. Gorwala Committee, 1951 (B) Paul H.

Appleby Committee, 1953(C) B.R. Mehta Committee, 1957 (D)

Ashok Mehta Committee, 1978Answer C The Balwant Rai Mehta

Committee was a committee appointed by the Government …


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General awareness CBSE UGC


NET important topics and
MCQs
March 25, 2018

In this blog I will keep updating General awareness important

topics and MCQs for CBSE UGC NET on regular basis


Best Coaching for CBSE UGC NET 8 July

2018https://goo.gl/i34Npu Complete Course for CBSE UGC NET

Paper 1

Subscribe NAV CLASSES Click here

Download PDF click Here1) In a major move in the education sector,


the University Grants Commission (UGC) on Tuesday 20 March

2018 granted autonomy to as many as 60 institutions for higher

education in the country. The list of the institutions that would be

given autonomy include five central universities, 21 state universities,

24 deemed universities, two private universities and eight autonomous

colleges.

An announcement in this regard was made on Tuesday by Union HRD

Minister Prakash Javadekar, who said that “the government is striving

to introduce a liberalized regime in the education sector and emphasis

is on linking autonomy with quality.”

Under the UGC for grant of graded autonomy regulations 2018,


Universities are categorized into thre…
SHARE

POST A COMMENT
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People and Environment all


notes | CBSE UGC NET |
Paper 1
September 28, 2017

Meaning and Definition:Best Coaching for CBSE UGC NET 8 July

2018http://bit.ly/navjuly2018 Complete Course for CBSE UGC

NET Paper 1

The term environment has been derived from a French word

“Environia” means to surround. It refers to both abiotic (physical

or non-living) and biotic (living) environment. The word

environment means surroundings, in which organisms live.

Environment and the organisms are two dynamic and complex

component of nature. Environment regulates the life of the


organisms including human beings. Human beings interact with
the environment more vigorously than other living beings.

Ordinarily environment refers to the materialsand forces that

surrounds the living organism.Environment is the sum total of

conditions that surrounds us at a given point of time and space.

It is comprised of the interacting systems of physical, biological

and cultural elements which are interlinked both individually and

collectively. Environment is the sum total of conditions in which


an or…
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Information and
communication technology all
notes | CBSE UGC NET | ICT
July 25, 2017

There will be minimum 5 question based on ICT in Paper1,CBSE

UGC NET

Best Coaching for CBSE UGC NET 8 July

2018https://goo.gl/i34Npu Complete Course for CBSE UGC NET

Paper 1
Here I am providing all notes for Information and communication

technology- Computer Aptitude

To Download PDFClick here

Watch Video click Here:

• AGP –>Accelerated Graphic Port

• PC –>Personal Computer

• EPROM –>Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

• BIOS –>Basic Input and Output System

• HDD –>Hard Disk Drive

• PCI –>Peripheral Component Interconnect

• UNIVAC –>Universal Automatic Computer

• GUI –>Graphic User Interface

• USB –>Universal Serial Bus

• VGA –>Visual Graphic Adaptor

• MAN –>Metropolitan Area Network

• ASCII –>American Standard Code for Information Interchange


• WAN –>Wide Area Network
• EBCDIC –>Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

• LAN –>Local Area Network

• EEPROM/EAPROM –>Electrical Erasable/Alterable

Programmable Read Only Memory

• CPU –>Central Process…


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Higher education in India all


notes | CBSE UGC NET |
Paper 1
September 12, 2017

Introduction to higher education:-

Best Coaching for CBSE UGC NET 8 July


2018https://goo.gl/i34Npu Complete Course for CBSE UGC NET

Paper 1

Download PDFClick Here


Higher educationprovides people with an opportunity to reflect

on the critical, social

economical, cultural moral and spiritual issues facing humanity.

It contributes to the national development though dissemination

of specialized knowledge and skills. It is therefore, a crucial

factor for survival. Being at the apex of the educational pyramid,


it also has a key role in producing teachers for the educational

system Higher Education is a key element is demographic

dividend and also that it intends to make optimum utilization of

human resources specifically in age group of 15-95 years.

Formal education system can be categorized into three, namely

primary, secondary

and tertiary education. Tertiary education is a wider term it is

higher education plus

vocational education. According to the perspective of the UGC

NET paper I focus is…


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Communication all notes for
CBSE UGC NET
October 26, 2017

Introduction to communication

Communication is defined as “the process of passing

information and understanding from one person to another, it is

essentially a bridge of meaning between people” All

communication is essentially sharing of information or some

message. Communication is the most important of our social

activities.
We can classify communication as interpersonal, intrapersonal,

group communication, Meta communication, upward, downward,

lateral, diagonal, formal, informal, oral, written or non verbal

communication.

Download PDF Click Here


In terms of Business “Communication is an important

requirement of every business. A businessman participates in

the process of communication in many ways. For instance, he

informs the consumer about his product, he motivate them to do

the work or collects information about the progress of business

etc.”

ननननन नन ननननन
ननननन नन "नन ननननननन नन ननननन ननननननन नन

ननननननन नन ननननन नन ननननननननन" नन ननन ननन

नननननननन नननन ननन नन, नन नननननननन नन…


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Teaching Aptitude and its


aspects with MCQs on
Teaching Aptitude full notes
June 23, 2017

Definition of teaching
Teaching includes all the activities of providing education to

other. The person who provides education is called a teacher.

The teacher uses different methods for giving best knowledge to

his students. He tries his best to make understand students. His

duty is to encourage students to learn the subjects.

Teaching means interaction of teacher and students. They

participate for their mutual benefits. Both have their own

objective and target is to achieve them.

Many great teachers of the world define teaching in a different

way and we can say that teaching is just to train the students so

that they can stand on their own foot in society.

In teaching, three main aspects comes in our front

1st is teacher
2nd is students
3rd is education

Nature and characteristics of teaching

1. The main character of teaching is to provide guidance and

training.
2. Teaching is an interaction between teacher and students.

3. Teaching is an art to giving knowledge to students with

effective way.

4…
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Syllogism 100 50 Rule No


Venn Diagram with MCQs
May 24, 2017

Here I am providing Detailed notes on Syllogism 100-50 Rule No

Venn Diagram

To Download PDFClick Here


Watch Video for detailed explanation:
English Video:

Rules-

1) If Statement is Positive then Conclusion must be Positive

Example:

Statement- All pens are pencils

2) If Statement is Negative then Conclusion must be Negative

Example:

Statement- No Pens are Pencils

3) +ve plus +ve = positive Conclusion

+ve plus -ve = Negative Conclusion

-ve plus -ve = No Conclusion

4) ALL = 100, 50

Example:All men are car


Some= 50, 50

Example:Some men are car

No= 100, 100

Example: No men are car

Some not= 50, 100

Example: Some men are not car

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner 5) Direct Relation

Example:Statement- All Pens are Pencils

Conclusion

1 Some Pens are Pencils

2 All Pens are Pencils

3 No Pens are Pencils

4 Some Pencils are Pens

ReStatement
If the same statement repeats in conclusion then, that conclusion
is not valid, hence not follows.

InDirect Relation
SHARE
2 COMMENTS
READ MORE

Study Plan for CBSE UGC


NET JRF 8 July 2018 Paper 1,
Three Months plan With Best
Books
March 24, 2018

Practice all topics subject wise: Watch all Playlist:Click here

Best Coaching for CBSE UGC NET 8 July

2018https://goo.gl/i34Npu Complete Course for CBSE UGC NET Paper 1

Study Material In PDF for paper 1, 2 to Download Click

followings:

Free Books:

Peoples & Environment Click here to download PDF


UGC NET Paper 1 Combo book Notes + MCQs Click here to

download pdf

Commerce objective question bank Click Here to Download PDF

2006 to 2017 Solved ques & 6000 MCQs Click Here to Download

PDF

Free Book for commerce & management Click Here to

Download PDF

Summary of paper 1 UGC NET Click Here to Download PDF

Blue Book Paper 1Click Here to Download PDF

Buy Books online:


SHARE
POST A COMMENT
READ MORE
2004 to 2017 MCQs on
Higher Education System,
Governance, Polity &
Administartion
October 04, 2017

2004 to 2017 Questions:Best Coaching for CBSE UGC NET 8 July

2018https://goo.gl/i34Npu Complete Course for CBSE UGC NET

Paper 1

MCQs on Higher Education System, Governance, Polity &

AdministartionDecember 2004

1. In which year the University Grants Commission was

established?(A) 1948(B) 1944(C) 1953 (D) 1960Answer c

Download PDF click Here


2. Another name of Basic Education or Nai Talim is : (A)
Compulsory Education(B) New Education Policy(C) Wardha

Education Plan(D) Sarva Shikshya AbhiyanAnswer c

5. The “Report on Currency and Finance” for each of the financial

year in India is published by : (A) Reserve Bank of India (B)

Ministry of Finance (C) Planning Commission(D) Central

Statistical OrganizationAnswer A

6. The idea of ‘Democratic Decentralisation’ in India was


popularised by: (A) A.D. Gorwala Committee, 1951(B) Paul H.

Appleby Committee, 1953(C) B.R. Mehta Committee, 1957(D)

Ashok Mehta Committee, 1978Answer CThe Balwant Rai Mehta

Committee was a committee appointed by the Government …


SHARE
POST A COMMENT
READ MORE

General awareness CBSE UGC


NET important topics and
MCQs
March 25, 2018

In this blog I will keep updating General awareness important

topics and MCQs for CBSE UGC NET on regular basis


Best Coaching for CBSE UGC NET 8 July

2018https://goo.gl/i34Npu Complete Course for CBSE UGC NET

Paper 1

Subscribe NAV CLASSES Click here

Download PDF click Here1) In a major move in the education sector,


the University Grants Commission (UGC) on Tuesday 20 March

2018 granted autonomyto as many as 60 institutions for higher

education in the country. The list of the institutions that would be

given autonomy include five central universities, 21 state universities,

24 deemed universities, two private universities and eight autonomous

colleges.

An announcement in this regard was made on Tuesday by Union HRD

Minister Prakash Javadekar, who said that “the government is striving

to introduce a liberalized regime in the education sector and emphasis

is on linking autonomy with quality.”


Under the UGC for grant of graded autonomy regulations 2018,

Universities are categorized into thre…


SHARE
POST A COMMENT
READ MORE

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