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General Certificate of Education June 2005 Advanced Level Examination

BIOLOGY (SPECIFICATION B)

Unit 6 Section B Applying Biological Principles Unit 7 Section B Applying Biological Principles Unit 8 Section B Applying Biological Principles

BYB678/B

Friday 24 June 2005

1.30 pm to 3.45 pm

In addition to this paper you will require:

• Section A;

• a ruler with millimetre measurements. You may use a calculator.

Time allowed: The total time for Section A and Section B of this paper is 2 hours 15 minutes.

Instructions

• Use blue or black ink or ball-point pen.

• Fill in the boxes at the top of this page.

• Answer all the questions in Section B in the spaces provided. All working must be shown.

Section A and Section B will be marked by different examiners. You must ensure that any supplementary sheets are fastened to the appropriate question paper answer book.

• Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want marked.

Information

• The maximum mark for Section B is 50.

• Mark allocations are shown in brackets.

• You are reminded that all questions in this Section B are synoptic (indicated by the letter S). You must use your knowledge of different parts of the specification when answering this section.

• You are advised to spend 1 hour 15 minutes on Section B.

• You are reminded of the need for clear presentation in your answers. All answers should be in good English and should use accurate scientific terminology.

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BYB678/B

2

SECTION

B

Answer all questions in the spaces provided.

S

1

Urease is an enzyme which hydrolyses urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. The ammonia produces an alkaline solution.

In an experiment, a solution of urease was placed in tubing made from a partially permeable membrane. This tubing was put into a large test tube containing urea solution, as shown in the diagram. A control was set up with urease solution in the tubing and water outside.

set up with urease solution in the tubing and water outside. Large test tube Partially permeable

Large test tube

Partially permeable tubing

Urea solution

Urease solution

After 5 minutes, samples were taken from inside and outside the tubing in each of the test tubes. The samples were tested with an indicator that is yellow below pH 8.0 and blue above pH 8.0. The results are shown in the table.

Tube

Contents

Colour with indicator after 5 minutes

Inside tubing

Outside tubing

Inside tubing

Outside tubing

A

Urease solution

Urea solution

Blue

Yellow

B

Urease solution

Water

Yellow

Yellow

(a) Explain the result for tube A.

(3 marks)

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(b)

The solutions inside and outside the tubing in tube B were tested after 30 minutes for the presence of protein.

(i)

Describe how the presence of protein in a sample of a solution could be detected.

 

(2 marks)

 

(ii)

What results of the tests for protein would you expect for tube B? explain your answer.

In each case

 

Inside the tubing

Outside the tubing

 

(2 marks)

(c)

Describe how you would carry out an investigation to find the optimum temperature for the activity of urease.

 

(3 marks)

 

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S

2

In an investigation by a student into the responses of maggots, the bottom of a large box was marked with six coloured segments, as shown in the diagram.

Yellow Black Green Red White Blue
Yellow
Black
Green
Red
White
Blue

30 maggots were placed on each segment in the box. A transparent cover was put on the box and light bulbs were positioned so that the segments were evenly illuminated. The positions of the maggots were recorded after one hour. The intensity of the light reflected by each segment was measured.

The experiment was repeated three more times. The total number of maggots in each segment from the four experiments is shown in the table.

Colour of segment

Intensity of reflected light /arbitrary units

Total number of maggots

Black

4

154

Red

25

229

Blue

10

178

White

44

47

Green

25

48

Yellow

40

64

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(a)

Give one conclusion about the responses of maggots which is supported by these results.

Give the evidence from the table for your conclusion.

(2 marks)

(b)

The chi-squared test was used to analyse the data. For the results obtained, suggest one null hypothesis which might be analysed by a chi-squared test.

(1 mark)

(c)

It was suggested that the movement of the maggots might have been influenced by the Earths magnetic field. Suggest one simple way of repeating the investigation which would avoid this possibility.

(1 mark)

TURN OVER FOR THE NEXT QUESTION

 

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S 3 The diagram shows a single-celled organism called Chlamydomonas. Flagellum Light-sensitive Cell wall eyespot
S
3
The diagram shows a single-celled organism called Chlamydomonas.
Flagellum
Light-sensitive
Cell wall
eyespot
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Chloroplast
Starch store
(a) Chlamydomonas lives in fresh-water ponds. It uses its flagella to swim towards light of
moderate intensity but away from very bright light.
Using information in the diagram, explain the advantage of this behaviour.
(2 marks)

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(b)

A Chlamydomonas cell has two flagella. These flagella contain a single sort of protein.

A flagellum consists of a bundle of 242 filaments. Each filament consists of 7500 protein

molecules. Each protein molecule contains 900 amino acid units.

(i)

(ii)

What would be the minimum number of nucleotides in the coding region of the mRNA used to synthesise this protein?

(1 mark)

In an investigation, a culture of Chlamydomonas was treated in a way that caused them to lose their flagella without any other damage to the cells. The flagella grew back to their original length in 60 minutes.

How many amino acid molecules would be incorporated into each growing flagellum per minute? Show your working.

Answer

(2 marks)

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(c) The researchers investigated the rate at which the flagella grew in three different media.

1. A medium containing actinomycin D, which prevents transcription by binding to the guanine in DNA

2. A medium containing puromycin, which prevents translation by attaching to ribosomes

3. A control medium

The results are shown in the graph.

 

2.0

1.5

Rate of growth of flagella / µm per minute

1.0

0.5

Key With actinomycin D With puromycin Control
Key
With
actinomycin
D
With
puromycin
Control

10

20

30

Time / minutes

40

50

60

0.0 0

(i) Describe how the rate of growth was affected by puromycin.

(2 marks)

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(ii)

The researchers concluded

1. that the cells used mRNA that is already present in the cytoplasm for the regrowth of the flagella;

2. that some of the regrowth uses protein molecules already present in the cell.

Explain the evidence for each of these conclusions.

1

2

(4 marks)

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4

Write an essay on one of the topics below.

EITHER

(a)

Negative feedback in living organisms

(25 marks)

OR

(b)

Mean temperatures are rising in many parts of the world. The rising temperatures may

result in physiological and ecological effects on living organisms. Describe and explain

(25 marks)

these effects.

In the answer to this question you should bring together relevant principles and concepts from different parts of the specification. Your essay will be marked not only for its scientific accuracy, but also for the selection of relevant material. The essay should be written in continuous prose.

The maximum number of marks that can be awarded is:

Scientific content

16

Breadth of knowledge

3

Relevance

3

Quality of Written Communication

3

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END OF QUESTIONS

For Examiner’s use only

 

Mark

Comment

S

   

B

 

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Q

 

Copyright © 2005 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

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