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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018

ISSN 2278-6856

Site Suitability For Sewage Treatment Plant

T.Subramani 1 , S.Sekar 2 , J.Kotteswaran 3 , I.Bosco 4 , Geo.J.Anand 5

1 Professor & Dean, Department of Civil Engineering, VMKV Engineering College, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem, TamilNadu,India.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, VMKV Engineering College, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem, TamilNadu,India.

3,4,5 UG Students,Department of Civil Engineering, VMKV Engineering College, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem, TamilNadu,India.

Abstract: Site suitability evaluation for waste management is becoming a major criteria for defending the environmental degradation. If proper location for the treatment plant is not selected then it may lead to soil degradation and ground water pollution. Textile processing units in Erode, Karur, Salem and Tirupur districts of Tamilnadu, India generates chemically toxic waste water there by polluting sub-soil and surface water of water bodies in particular River Cauvery. Erode district, a model Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) was promoted by State Industrial Promotion Corporation of Tamilnadu Ltd., at Perundurai with 14 textile units as stake holders. Waste water from textile processing units contains a complex mixture of dyes, which are highly resistant to conventional treatment technology. Waste water from textile processing units contains a complex mixture of dyes, which are highly resistant to conventional treatment technology. As the characteristics of wash water effluent and dye bath effluent are variable, various physical, chemical and biological treatment methods are adopted for the treatment. Most of the perennial rivers in Tamilnadu have less surface flow water and dried during summer season. Potential sites for the treatment plant are evaluated using suitability score based on planning and design constraints, including ground slope, landuse pattern, and distance to river and roads. Ground control point (GCP) collected by ground point survey (GPS) and topographical map of the study area. The maps were prepared by overlay and suitability analysis of geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing techniques and multi criteria analysis methods. The final suitability map was prepared by overlay analyses on Arc map and levelled as high, moderate, less suitable, and unsuitable regions of the study area were determined. Hence, the capacity to use GIS and remote sensing technology for the effective identification of suitable solid waste dumping site will minimize the environmental risk and human health problems.

Keywords: Site, Suitability, Sewage, Treatment, Plant

1. INTRODUCTION

Sewage is the wastewater from residential areas and it generally consists of wastewater from kitchens, toilets and bathrooms. It is necessary to collect, treat and safely dispose off the sewage, because if it is let into the environment without treatment it will be naturally drained by the existing ground slope and will reach the nearby water bodies such as lakes and rivers. The organic waste present in the sewage will undergo decomposition in the water bodies causing depletion of dissolved oxygen in it

and causing unhygienic condition leading to the spreading of water borne diseases. Sewage carry pathogenic organisms that transmit diseases to human. It contains organic matter that causes odour and nuisance problems. Textile Sewage is the wastewater from residential and in industrial areas and it generally consists of wastewater from materials, kitchens, toilets and bathrooms. It is necessary to collect, treat and safely dispose of the sewage, because if it is let into the environment without treatment it will be naturally drained by the existing ground slope and will reach the nearby water bodies such as lakes and rivers. The organic waste present in the sewage will undergo decomposition in the water bodies causing depletion of dissolved oxygen in it and causing unhygienic condition leading to the spreading of water borne diseases. Sewage carries pathogenic organisms that transmit diseases to human. It contains organic matter that causes odour and nuisance problems.

The raw water quality available in India varies significantly, resulting in modifications to the conventional water treatment scheme consisting of aeration, chemical coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The backwash water and sludge generation from water treatment plants are of environment concern in terms of disposal. Therefore, optimization of chemical dosing and filter runs carries importance to reduce the rejects from the water treatment plants. Also there is a need to study the water treatment plants for their operational status and to explore the best feasible mechanism to ensure proper drinking water production with least possible rejects and its management. With this backdrop, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), studied water treatment plants located across the country, for prevailing raw water quality, water treatment technologies, operational practices, chemical consumption and rejects management. Surat has more than 45 lacs population. Total eight sewage treatment plants are designed, out of which six are treating wastewater and two are under construction phase. The prime usage of water is for agriculture, domestic and industrial. For all the above mentioned usages, the required water should be of the different and specific quality. These plants are designed and constructed with an aim to manage

quality. These plants are designed and constructed with an aim to manage Volume 7, Issue 2,
quality. These plants are designed and constructed with an aim to manage Volume 7, Issue 2,

Volume 7, Issue 2, March – April 2018

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Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018

wastewater so as to minimize and/or remove organic matter, solids, nutrients, disease-causing organisms and other pollutants, before it reenters a water body.

ISSN 2278-6856

Erode District (previously known as Periyar District) is a district in the Kongu Nadu region (western part) of

the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It was the largest district by

 

area

in

the

state

before

the

Formation

of Tirupur

Proper collection and safe disposal of the sewage are legally recognized as a necessity in an urbanized, industrialized society. Globally around 90% of wastewater produced remains untreated causing widespread water pollution especially in low income countries. Geographic Information System (GIS) can be used as a decision support tool for planning waste management. The manual methods adopted for the analysis of many factors would be a tedious and lengthy work. Also the possibilities of errors increase when merging the spatial and non-spatial data. But in case of GIS, as the work is carried out in layers, the chances of error will be less and the system is capable to coordinate between spatial and non-spatial data.

District and the headquarters of the district is Erode. It is

divided

into

two

revenue

divisions

namely Erode and Gobichettipalayam and

 

further

subdivided

into

9

taluks.

Periyar

district

was

a

part

of Coimbatore

District before

its

division

into

two

on

September 17, 1979 and was renamed as Erode District in 1996. As of 2011, the district had a population of 2,251,744 with a sex-ratio of 993 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.

1.1 Aim and Objective

Analysing the characteristics of the study area through field survey and visual interpretation of satellite images.

Preparation of various thematic maps such as landuse map, slope map, road map.

Preparation of suitability map by overlaying the thematic maps with suitable weightage.

2. METHODOLOGY

Figure 1. Shows the methodology adopted in this study

Figure 1. Shows the methodology adopted in this study Figure 1 Methodology 3.STUDY AREA Figure 2.

Figure 1 Methodology

3.STUDY AREA

Figure 2. Shows the Erode district map which is adopted in this study

Shows the Erode district map which is adopted in this study Figure 2 Erode district map

Figure 2 Erode district map

Figure 3. Shows the Tirupur district map which is adopted in this study

the Tirupur district map which is adopted in this study Figure 3 Tirupur district map Volume

Figure 3 Tirupur district map

map which is adopted in this study Figure 3 Tirupur district map Volume 7, Issue 2,
map which is adopted in this study Figure 3 Tirupur district map Volume 7, Issue 2,

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Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018

Erode district had a population of 2,251,744 with a sex- ratio of 993 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. [2] A total of 195,213 were under the age of six, constituting 99,943 males and 95,270 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 16.41% and .97% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 66.29%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. [2] The district had a total of 658,071 households. There were a total of 1,195,773 workers, comprising 173,376 cultivators, 331,414 main agricultural labourers, 48,960 in house hold industries, 557,301 other workers, 84,722 marginal workers, 4,794 marginal cultivators, 38,798 marginal agricultural labourers, 5,362 marginal workers in household industries and 35,768 other marginal workers.

3.1 Industries and Trade

40.32 percent of population depending on non-agricultural sector. Industries that flourished in early days in the area were handloom weaving, carpet manufacturing, cart manufacturing, oil-pressing, brass vessel manufacturing etc. Though these industries flourished well in the early days, the advent of modern times changed the fate of some of these well-established ancient industries. However, the industry still survives here and load carrying carts are still manufactured. Erode, Chennimalai etc. still hold their way and the district is noted for its handloom products, which include cotton sarees, bed-spreads, towels, furnishing fabrics etc. Two other important production centers are Bhavani and Jambai. The cotton textile industry in Coimbatore and handloom industry in Erode district have encouraged the growth of various ancillary industries to meet the needs of the textile mills.

The table denotes that there are 70 different types of large scale industries functioning in Erode district. Textile industries accounting for 57 out of 70 industries make up about 82% of total industries in Erode.

3.2 Effluent from Textile Industry

Erode district happens to be the hub of textile industries, but it is the same industries that cause major environmental pollution to the nearby streams. Even though, Erode district has done the industry proud is dominating in this sector, there is a big setback to the city due to the effluent discharged from these industries causing pollution and health problems to the 5 society. Hence, the effluents from textile industries are to be treated effectively to save the environment and to protect public health. The environmental impact of the textile industry is associated with its high water consumption as well as by the colour, variety and amount of chemicals which are released in the wastewater. Synthetic dyes including several structural varieties such as acidic, reactive, basic disperse, azo, diazo, anthraquinone-based and metal-complex dyes are widely used as colouring agents in textile industries.

4. ABOUT SOFTWARE

4.1 GIS

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A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-

based tool for mapping and analysing feature events on earth. GIS technology integrates common database operations, such as query and statistical analysis, with maps. GIS manages location-based information and provides tools for display and analysis of various statistics, including population characteristics, economic development opportunities, and vegetation types. GIS allows you to link databases and maps to create dynamic displays. Additionally, it provides tools to visualize, query, and overlay those databases in ways not possible with traditional spreadsheets. These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems, and make it valuable to a wide range of public and private enterprises for explaining events, predicting outcomes, and planning strategies.

4.2 Remote Sensing

Remote sensing is the examination or the gathering of

information about a place from a distance. Such

examination can occur with devices (e.g. - cameras) based

on the ground, and/or sensors or cameras based on ships,

aircraft, satellites, or other spacecraft. Today, the data

obtained is usually stored and manipulated using computers. The most common software used in remote sensing is ERDAS Imagine, ESRI, MapInfo, and ERMapper with the background treatise on remote sensing we have made so far, it would now be easier make an

analysis of the different stages in remote sensing. Origin

of electromagnetic energy.

Transmission of energy

Intervening of energy or self-emission

Detection of energy

Transmission or coding of the sensor output

Collection of ground truth

Data analysis and interpretation

4.3

Remote Sensors

The instrument used to measure electromagnetic radiation

reflected or emitted by the radiation either emitted or reflected from the earth is called passive sensors, sensors which carry electromagnetic radiation to illuminates the earth’s surface are called active sensors.

4.4 Platforms

Sensor system need to be placed on suitable observation platforms and need to be a pre-defined altitude .Platforms can be stationary or mobile depending on the needs of the observation mission and the constraints. Geostationary, which are about 3600km above earth second is sun synchronous satellites which are nearer to earth.

4.5 Digital Processing Techniques

Digital facilitates quantitative analysis, make use of full

spectral information and avoid individual bias. Simultaneous analysis of multi-temporal and multi sensor facilitated in digital methods. The computer analysis the signature, so as to associates each pixel with a particular feature of imagery.

so as to associates each pixel with a particular feature of imagery. Volume 7, Issue 2,
so as to associates each pixel with a particular feature of imagery. Volume 7, Issue 2,

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Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018

4.6 Generation of Dem and Slope Slope map was generated using the elevation information derived from ancillary topographical and GIS techniques. ARCGIS's TOPOGRID functions were used to generate DEM and slope maps. A sampling method was used to extract representative points to build a surface model that approximates the actual surface. The contour map, was prepared from the SOI topographic.

SEWAGE

TREATMENT PLANT

Primary treatment systems are usually physical processes. Primary treatment alone will not produce an effluent with an acceptable residual organic material concentration. Almost invariably biological methods are used in the treatment systems to effect secondary treatment for removal of organic material. In biological treatment systems, the organic material is metabolized by bacteria. Depending upon the requirement for the final effluent quality, tertiary treatment methods and/or pathogen removal may also be included. Today majority of wastewater treatment plants use aerobic metabolism for the removal of organic matter. The popularly used aerobic processes are the activated sludge process, oxidation ditch, trickling filter, and aerated lagoons. Stabilization ponds use both the aerobic and anaerobic mechanisms. In the recent years due to increase in power cost and subsequent increase in operation cost of aerobic process, more attention is being paid for the use of anaerobic treatment systems for the treatment of wastewater including sewage. Recently at few places the high rate anaerobic process such as up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor followed by oxidation pond is used for sewage treatment. The different treatment methods used in wastewater treatment plant are classified in three different categories as:

5.

OPERATIONS

OF

Primary

Treatment:

operations.

Refers

to

physical

unit

Secondary Treatment: Refers to chemical and biological unit processes.

Tertiary Treatment: Refers to any one or combination of two or all three i.e., physical unit operations and chemical or biological unit processes, used after secondary treatment.

5.1 Important Parameters 5.1.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (Bod) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (Cod) In practice two properties of almost all organic compounds can be used: (1) organic compound can be oxidized; and (2) organic compounds contain organic carbon. In environmental engineering there are two standard tests based on the oxidation of organic material: 1) the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and 2) the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests. In both tests, the organic material concentration is measured during the test. The essential differences between the COD and the BOD tests are in the oxidant utilized and the operational conditions

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imposed during the test such as biochemical oxidation and chemical oxidation.

5.1.1.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) The BOD of the sewage is the amount of oxygen required for the biochemical decomposition of biodegradable organic matter under aerobic conditions. The oxygen consumed in the process is related to the amount of decomposable organic matter. The general range of BOD observed for raw sewage is 100 to 400 mg/L. Values in the lower range are being common under average Indian cities.

5.1.1.2 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) The COD gives the measure of the oxygen required for chemical oxidation. It does not differentiate between biological oxidisable and non-oxidisable material. However, the ratio of the COD to BOD does not change significantly for particular waste and hence this test could be used conveniently for interpreting performance efficiencies of the treatment units.

5.2 Turbidity Water that is not clear but is “dirty,” in the sense that light transmission is inhibited, is known as turbid water. Many materials can cause turbidity, including clays and other tiny inorganic particles, algae, and organic matter. Turbidity is measured using a turbid meter. Turbid meters are photometers that measure the intensity of scattered light. Opaque particles scatter light, so scattered light measured at right angles to a beam of incident light is proportional to the turbidity. Formazin polymer is currently used as the primary standard for calibrating turbid meters, and the results are reported as nephelometric turbidity units (NTU).

5.3 pH The pH of a solution is a measure of hydrogen (H+) ion. The hydrogen ion concentration expressed as pH, is a valuable parameter in the operation of biological units. The pH of the fresh sewage is slightly more than the water supplied to the community. However, decomposition of organic matter may lower the pH, while the presence of industrial wastewater may produce extreme fluctuations. Generally the pH of raw sewage is in the range 5.5 to 8.0.

5.4Solids

Wastewater treatment is complicated by the dissolved and suspended inorganic material it contains. In discussion of water treatment, both dissolved and suspended materials are called solids. The separation of these solids from the water is one of the primary objectives of treatment.

The sewage solids may be classified into dissolved solids, suspended solids and volatile suspended solids. Knowledge of the volatile or organic fraction of solid, which decomposes, becomes necessary, as this constitutes the load on biological treatment units or oxygen resources of a stream when sewage is disposed off by dilution. The estimation of suspended solids, both organic and inorganic,

dilution. The estimation of suspended solids, both organic and inorganic, Volume 7, Issue 2, March –
dilution. The estimation of suspended solids, both organic and inorganic, Volume 7, Issue 2, March –

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Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018

gives a general picture of the load on sedimentation and grit removal system during sewage treatment. Dissolved inorganic fraction is to be considered when sewage is used for land irrigation or any other reuse is planned.

6. TEXTILE INDUSTRY

The textile industry or apparel industry is primarily concerned with the design and production of yarn, cloth, clothing, and their distribution. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry. The textile dyeing industry consumes large quantities of water and produces large volumes of wastewater from different steps in the dyeing and finishing processes. Wastewater from printing and dyeing units is often rich in colour, containing residues of reactive dyes and chemicals, and requires proper treatment before being released into the environment. The toxic effects of dyestuffs and other organic compounds, as well as acidic and alkaline contaminants, from industrial establishments on the general public are widely accepted. Increasing public concern about environmental issues has led to closure of several small- scale industries. Interest in ecologically friendly, wet- processing textile techniques has increased in recent years because of increased awareness of environmental issues throughout the world. Consumers in developed countries are demanding biodegradable and ecologically friendly textiles. Cotton provides an ecologically friendly textile, but more than 50% of its production volume is dyed with reactive dyes. Unfortunately, dyes are unfavourable from an ecological point of view, because the effluents generated are heavily coloured, contain high concentrations of salts, and exhibit high biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD/COD) values. In dyeing textiles, ecological standards are strictly applied throughout processing from raw material selection to the final product.

There are three ways to reduce pollution: (1) use of new, less polluting technologies; (2) effective treatment of effluent so that it conforms to specified discharge requirements; and (3) recycling waste several times over before discharge, which is considered the most practical solution. The objective of this review is to discuss the various processing stages in the textile industry and the methodologies adopted for treating textile wastewater. A variety of water treatment techniques are discussed from an environmental point of view. Conventional and novel techniques discussed include electro-oxidation, biological treatment, photochemical processing, ion-exchange, and a variety of membrane techniques.

6.1 Types of Textiles and Textile Industries The word textile means to weave which was adopted from the Latin word ‘Texere’. Textiles can be woven by both hand and machines. The raw materials for textiles are natural and synthetic fibers. The sources of natural fibers are minerals, animals and plants. With the advancement of technology, fibers can now be extracted from chemicals. However, plant sources yield a large amount of fibers than those obtained from animal and mineral sources. Most of

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the textiles produced are as a result of spinning of fibers from the yarns. The textile industries are classified on the basis of the types of textile fiber they use. These are cellulose fibers, protein fibers and synthetic fibers. Cellulose

6.2 Desizing

The presence of sizing ingredients in the fabric hinders processes, such as dyeing, printing, and finishing. For example, the presence of starch can hinder the penetration of the dye into the fiber, which necessitates removal of starch prior to dyeing or printing. Starch is removed or converted into simple water soluble products either by hydrolysis (by enzymatic preparations or dilute mineral acids) or by oxidation.

6.3 Mercerization

In order to impart luster, increase strength, and improve dye

uptake, cotton fiber and fabric are mercerized in the gray state after bleaching. Essentially, mercerization is carried out by treating cotton material with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide (about 18–24%) and washing-off the caustic after 1 to 3 min, while holding the material under tension. Cotton is known to undergo a longitudinal shrinkage upon impregnation with this solution. This can be prevented by stretching it or holding it under tension. The material acquires the desired properties of luster, increased strength, dye uptake, and increased absorbency. The large concentrations of NaOH in the wash water can be recovered by membrane techniques. Use of ZnCl2 as an alternative method leads to an increase in the weight of fabric and in dye uptake, and allows easy recovery of NaOH. Moreover, the process is ecologically friendly and does not require neutralization by acetic or formic acid.

6.4 Neutralization

According to Bradbury et al. (2000), replacement of acetic acid by formic acid for neutralization of fabric after

scouring, mercerizing, bleaching, and reduction processes is effective, economical, and environment-friendly. The

procedure also allows a sufficient level of neutralization in

a short period of time, needs low volumes of water, and results in low levels of BOD.

6.5 Environmental Impacts of Textile Effluent

The characteristics of textile effluents vary and depend on the type of textile manufactured and the chemicals used. The textile wastewater effluent contains high amounts of agents causing damage to the environment and human health including suspended and dissolved solids, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), chemicals, odour and colour. Most of the BOD/COD ratios are found to be around 1:4, indicating the presence of non- biodegradable substances. Typical characteristics of textile effluent are shown in Table. The textile effluents contain trace metals like Cr, As, Cu and Zn, which are capable of harming the environment. Dyes in water give out a bad colour and can cause diseases like haemorrhage, ulceration of skin, nausea, severe irritation of skin and dermatitis

ulceration of skin, nausea, severe irritation of skin and dermatitis Volume 7, Issue 2, March –
ulceration of skin, nausea, severe irritation of skin and dermatitis Volume 7, Issue 2, March –

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.They can block the penetration of sunlight from water surface preventing photosynthesis. Dyes also increase the biochemical oxygen demand of the receiving water and in turn reduce the reoxygenation process and hence hamper the growth of photoautotrophic organisms.

7. EFFLUENT TREATMENTS

Dyes in wastewater can be eliminated by various methods. The wastewater from the dye house is generally multi- coloured. The dye effluent disposed into the land and river water reduces the depth of penetration of sunlight into the water environment, which in turn decreases photosynthetic activity and dissolved oxygen (DO). The adverse effects can spell disaster for aquatic life and the soil. A flow diagram for treatment of cotton textiles, and the water and COD balance are depicted. Many dyes contain organic compounds with functional groups, such as carboxylic (– COOH), amine (–NH2), and azo (–N=N–) groups, so treatment methods must be tailored to the chemistry of the dyes. Wastewaters resulting from dyeing cotton with reactive dyes are highly polluted and have high BOD/COD, coloration, and salt load. For example, this ratio for Drimaren HF (a cellulosic product from Clariant Chemicals, India) is constant and around 0.35 for each dyeing step (bleaching step BOD: 1850 mg/l; bleaching step COD: 5700 mg/l; neutralization step BOD: 290 mg/l; neutralization COD: 830 mg/l; dyeing step BOD: 500 mg/l; dyeing step COD: 1440 mg/l; soaping step BOD: 310 mg/l; soaping step COD: 960 mg/l). Because aquatic organisms need light in order to develop, any deficit in the light reaching the aquatic life due to water coloration results in an imbalance in the ecosystem. Moreover, river water meant for human consumption that is coloured will increase treatment costs. Obviously, when legal limits are specified (although not in all countries), they are justified.

7.1 Primary And Secondary Treatment

The conventional treatment systems like physico-chemical treatment and physoco-chemical treatment followed by biological treatment system are installed in majority of textile industries.Selection of appropriate coagulants and doses of chemicals are determined on the basis of treatability study of effluent samples. The chemical treatment helps in reduction of colour and suspended solids. A significant reduction in BOD and COD values is also observed. This physico-chemical treatment is followed by biological treatment process, with settling which further reduces BOD and COD values. The textile process houses which undertake chemical processing, do not have much organic load in their effluents. In such cases, the recent trend is to set up an activated adsorption system or an ozonation unit instead of biological treatment process.

7.2 Advance Methods for Treatment

7.2.1 Adsorption The adsorption process is used to removes colour and other soluble organic pollutants from effluent. The process also removes toxic chemicals such as pesticides, phenols,

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cyanides and organic dyes that cannot be treated by conventional treatment methods. Dissolved organics are adsorbed on surface as Waste water containing these is made to pass through adsorbent. Most commonly used adsorbent for treatment is activated carbon.

Table 1: Properties of typical activated carbon

carbon. Table 1: Properties of typical activated carbon It is manufactured from carbonaceous material such as

It is manufactured from carbonaceous material such as wood, coal, petroleum products etc. A char is made by burning the material in the absence of air. The char is then oxidized at higher temperatures to create a porous solid mass which has large surface area per unit mass. The pores need to be large enough for soluble organics compounds to diffuse in order to reach the abundant surface area.

7.3 Membrane Filtration 7.3.1 Reverse Osmosis The process of reverse osmosis is based on the ability of certain specific polymeric membranes, usually cellulose acetate or nylon to pass pure water at fairly high rates and to reject salts. To achieve this, water or waste water stream is passed at high pressures through the membrane. The applied pressures has to be high enough to overcome the osmotic pressure of the stream, and to provide a pressure driving force for water to flow from the reject compartment through the membrane into the clear water compartment Reverse osmosis can be used as end-of-pipe treatment and recycling system for effluent. After primary, secondary and/or tertiary treatment, further purification by removal of organics and dissolved salts is possible by use of reverse osmosis. RO membranes are susceptible to fouling due to organics, colloids and microorganism. Scale causing constituents like hardness, carbonate. Silica, heavy metals, oil etc. has to be removed from the feed. As the membranes are sensitive to oxidizing agents like chlorine or ozone, they should also be absent. Reverse osmosis membranes are available in different configurations. In spiral wound system, membrane and supporting material are placed in alternate layers, rolled into a cylindrical shape and in housed in tube of suitable martial. The support material is porous and serves as transport medium for permeate. Tubular systems are available in which the membrane and its support are wound to fit inside a containment tube. Permeate is withdrawn from the support medium, while reject passes through the core of the membrane. Hollow fiber membranes are extremely small tubes. These fibres can be suspended in the fluid without the use of support medium. The feed water is usually on outside of fibre, while the permeate is withdrawn through the centre.

7.3.2 Ultrafiltration

while the permeate is withdrawn through the centre. 7.3.2 Ultrafiltration Volume 7, Issue 2, March –
while the permeate is withdrawn through the centre. 7.3.2 Ultrafiltration Volume 7, Issue 2, March –

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This process is similar to reverse osmosis. The difference between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration is primarily the retention properties of the membranes. Reverse osmosis membranes retain all solutes including salts, while ultrafiltration membranes retain only macro molecules and suspended solids. Thus salts, solvents and low molecular weight organic solutes pass through ultrafiltration membrane with the permeate water. Since salts are not retained by the membrane, the osmotic pressure differences across ultrafiltration membrane are negligible. Flux rates through the membranes are fairly high, and hence lower pressures can be used.

8. ANALYSIS RESULTS

Figure 4. Shows the location map of the study.

RESULTS Figure 4. Shows the location map of the study. Figure 4 Location map Figure 5.Shows

Figure 4Location map

Figure 5.Shows the geology and structures of the study

map Figure 5.Shows the geology and structures of the study Figure5 Geology and structures Figure 6.

Figure5Geology and structures

Figure 6. Shows the Geomorphological features of the study

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the Geomorphological features of the study ISSN 2278-6856 Figure6 Geomorphological features Figure 7. Shows the FCC

Figure6Geomorphological features Figure 7. Shows the FCC of IRS P6 LISS III Satellite data of the study

Shows the FCC of IRS P6 LISS III Satellite data of the study Figure 7 FCC

Figure 7FCC of IRS P6 LISS III Satellite data

Figure 8. Shows the SRTM DEM image of the study

data Figure 8. Shows the SRTM DEM image of the study Figure8 SRTM DEM Image Figure

Figure8SRTM DEM Image

Figure 9. Shows the slope angle of the study

study Figure8 SRTM DEM Image Figure 9. Shows the slope angle of the study Volume 7,
study Figure8 SRTM DEM Image Figure 9. Shows the slope angle of the study Volume 7,

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Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018

Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018 Figure9 Slope angle Figure 10. Shows the slope

Figure9Slope angle Figure 10. Shows the slope aspect in the study

Slope angle Figure 10. Shows the slope aspect in the study Figure10 Slope aspect Figure 11.

Figure10Slope aspect

Figure 11. Shows the drainage map of the study

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11. Shows the drainage map of the study ISSN 2278-6856 Figure 11 Drainage map Figure 12.

Figure 11Drainage map

Figure 12. Shows the road network of the study

Drainage map Figure 12. Shows the road network of the study Figure12 Road network Figure 13.

Figure12Road network

Figure 13. Shows the soil order of the study

study Figure12 Road network Figure 13. Shows the soil order of the study Volume 7, Issue
study Figure12 Road network Figure 13. Shows the soil order of the study Volume 7, Issue

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Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018 Figure 13 Soil order 8.1 Thematic Maps Figure

Figure 13 Soil order

8.1 Thematic Maps Figure 4. shows the land use/ land cover of the study

Maps Figure 4. shows the land use/ land cover of the study Figure 14 Land use

Figure 14 Land use / Land cover

Figure 15. Shows the slope reclasses of the study

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15. Shows the slope reclasses of the study ISSN 2278-6856 Figure 15 Slope reclasses Figure 16.

Figure 15 Slope reclasses Figure 16. Shows the road proximity of the study

reclasses Figure 16. Shows the road proximity of the study Figure 16 Road proximity Figure 17.

Figure 16Road proximity

Figure 17. Shows the drainage density of the study

16 Road proximity Figure 17. Shows the drainage density of the study Volume 7, Issue 2,
16 Road proximity Figure 17. Shows the drainage density of the study Volume 7, Issue 2,

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Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018

Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018 Figure 17 Drainage density 8.2 Criterion Table for

Figure 17Drainage density

8.2 Criterion Table for Identifying Suitable Site Table 2 shows the criterion table for identifying suitable site

Table 2: Criterion table for identifying suitable site

site Table 2: Criterion table for identifying suitable site 8.3 Area of Different Categories of Sewage

8.3 Area of Different Categories of Sewage Treatment Plant Site Table 3. Shows the area of different categories of sewage treatment plant site

Table 3: Area of different categories of sewage treatment plant site

Area of different categories of sewage treatment plant site Figure 18. Shows the site suitability map

Figure 18. Shows the site suitability map of the study

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Shows the site suitability map of the study ISSN 2278-6856 Figure 18 Site suitability map 9.

Figure 18Site suitability map

9. CONCLUSION

Cleaner production is an attractive approach to tackle environmental problems associated with industrial production and poor material efficiency. A waste water treatment plant with Activated Sludge Process as biological treatment method has been considered for performance evaluation. The overall performance of the existing was satisfactory. The removal efficiency as per SMC Data of BOD was found to be 94.84% and that of TSS was 90.75%. BOD and TSS removal efficiencies of the primary clarifier are 57.38% and 53.42% respectively. BOD and TSS removal efficiencies of the activated sludge plant (Aeration tank + Secondary clarifier) are 87.90% and 86.50% respectively. The removal efficiency as per the sample tested in laboratory of BOD was found to be 93.42% and that of TSS was 90.61%. Thus with comparing the data with SMC and the sample tested in laboratory the plant is working satisfactory and the individual units is also working well. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resource sat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all water bodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out to find out the site suitability for water treatment plant in Salem Corporation with extra accuracy. The method of applying software in analyzing the site suitability is most advance and detailed which is adopted in future technology with time consuming.

References

[1].

T.Subramani,

Digestion of Aerobic Pretreated Organic Waste”, International Journal of Modern Engineering

S.PonKumar ,“Anaeribic

and

Research,Vol.2, No.3, pp 607- 611, 2012.

S.PonKumar ,“Anaeribic and Research,Vol.2, No.3, pp 607- 611, 2012. Volume 7, Issue 2, March – April
S.PonKumar ,“Anaeribic and Research,Vol.2, No.3, pp 607- 611, 2012. Volume 7, Issue 2, March – April

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Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018

[2]. T.Subramani,,“Application of Eco-Friendly

Geotextiles for Landslide Mitigation in a Part of Ooty Hills, TamilNadu”, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research,Vol.2, No.3, pp 579 -585,2012. [3]. T.Subramani,,andD.Haribalaji.D.,“Biodegradation of Tannery Effluent and Designing the Reactor for Clarifier and Activated Sludge Process”, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research,Vol.2, No.3, pp 774 - 781,2012. [4]. T.Subramani,, “Study of Pollution Prevention Strategies For Reclamation and Waster Management of Lake in Tourism Place”, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research,Vol.2, No.3, pp 763-

773,2012

andP.K.Kumaresan.,

“Study of Ground Water Quality with GIS Application for Coonur Taluk In Nilgiri District.”,

International Journal of Modern Engineering

Research,Vol.2, No.3, pp 586-592, 2012. [6]. T.Subramani,. “Experimental Investigations on Coir Fibre Reinforced Bituminous Mixes” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol.2, Issue.3, pp 1794-1804, 2012. [7]. T. Subramani., P.Krishnamurthi., “Geostatical Modelling For Ground Water Pollution in Salem by Using GIS”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ,Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.165-172, 2014. [8]. T.Subramani.,K.Prasath.,P.Velmurugan., V.Baskaran., “Impacts of Irrigation and Drought on Salem Ground Water”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 3), pp.117-122, 2014. [9]. T.Subramani., T.Manikandan., “Analysis Of Urban Growth And Its Impact On Groundwater Tanneries By Using Gis”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.274-282, 2014. [10]. T.Subramani. ,M.Chandrasekaran., “Saline Ground Water and Irrigation Water on Root Zone Salinity”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications,Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.173-179,

[5]. T.Subramani,,S.Krishnan

2014.

[11]. T.Subramani. , P.Someswari., “Identification And Analysis Of Pollution In ThirumaniMuthar River Using Remote Sensing”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.198-207, 2014. [12]. T.Subramani., P.Anitha, S.Sekar., “Health-Care Waste Management System”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.255-258, 2014. [13]. T.Subramani. , D.Kavitha., R.Tiyagu., “Treatment Of Municipal Waste Water In Salem City”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.259-263, June 2014. [14]. T.Subramani. , R.Umarani., S.K.Bharathi Devi., “Sustainable Decentralized Model For Solid Waste Management In Urban India”, International Journal of

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Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue

6( Version 2), pp.264-269, 2014. [15]. T.Subramani. ,M.Mangaiyarkarasi., C.Kathirvel., “ Impact Of Sewage And Industrial Effluent On Soil Plant Health Act On Environment”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.270-273, 2014. [16]. T.Subramani. ,V.Vishnumanoj., “Land Use and Land Cover Change Detection and Urban Sprawl Analysis of Panamarathupatti Lake, Salem”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.117-127, 2014. [17]. T.Subramani. , S.Badrinarayanan., K.Prasath., S.Sridhar., “Performanance Evaluation of the Cauvery Irrigation System, India Using Remote Sensing and Gis Technology”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.191-197, 2014. [18]. T.Subramani., J.Akela. “Onsite Waste Water Treatment System”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Volume. 4, Issue. 6 (Version 5), pp 154 - 162, 2014. [19]. T.Subramani., C.Arulsankar., S.Badrinarayanan., “Effect Of Sewage Farming On Ground Water”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Volume.4, Issue. 6 (Version 5), pp 163

- 172.

[20]. T.Subramani.,N.Jayagobu. , “Microbial Analysis Of Drinking Water And Water Distribution System”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Volume. 4, Issue. 6 (Version 5), pp 183

- 193, 2014.

[21]. T.Subramani.,R.Murugan., “Generation Of Electricity

Using Solid Waste Management In KrishnagiriMunicipalty”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Volume. 4, Issue. 6 (Version 6), pp 222 -232, 2014. [22]. T.Subramani.,C.Rajadurai., K.Prasath. “Bio- Degradable Plastics Impact On Environment”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Volume. 4, Issue. 6 (Version 5), pp 194 -204, 2014. [23]. T.Subramani.,H.Ranjini Florence., M.Kavitha. “Climate Change Energy And Decentralized Solid Waste Management”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Volume. 4, Issue. 6 (Version 5), pp 205 - 216, 2014. [24]. T.Subramani.,D.Porkodi., J.Jayalakshmi.,“Sewage Treatment In Salem District, IOSR Journal of Engineering, Volume. 4, Issue. 6 (Version 3), pp 8 - 13, 2014. [25]. T.Subramani.,A.Subramanian.,, C.Kathirvel., S.K.Bharathi Devi., “ Analysis and Site Suitability Evaluation for Textile Sewage Water Treatment Plant in Salem Corporation, Tamilnadu Using Remote Sensing Techniques” , International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications , Vol. 4, Issue 8( Version 6), pp.90-102, 2014. [26]. T.Subramani., S.Krishnan., C.Kathirvel.,

6), pp.90-102, 2014. [26]. T.Subramani., S.Krishnan., C.Kathirvel., Volume 7, Issue 2, March – April 2018 Page
6), pp.90-102, 2014. [26]. T.Subramani., S.Krishnan., C.Kathirvel., Volume 7, Issue 2, March – April 2018 Page

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Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018

C.T.Sivakumar., “Identification And Investigation Of Solid Waste Dump In Salem District”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications Vol. 4, Issue 12(Version 5), pp.88-99, 2014 [27]. T.Subramani, M.Kumutha , " Sustainable Solid Waste Management In A Mountain Ecosystem" , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM) , Volume 4, Issue 5, pp. 123-133 , 2015 [28]. T.Subramani, ”Identification Of Ground Water Potential Zone By Using GIS”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (IJAER), Volume 10, Number 38, Special Issues, pp.28134-28138, 2015 [29]. T.Subramani, P.Narasimhan, “Waster Water Treatment And Its Return Journey To The Environment”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (IJAER), Volume 10, Number 38, Special Issues , pp.28223-28261, 2015 [30]. T.Subramani, S.K.Somasundaram , " A Case Study Of Occupational Hazards In Silk Industry " , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM) , Volume 4, Issue 5 , pp. 223-233 , 2015 [31]. T.Subramani, P.K.Revathi, “Production Of Activated Carbon From Agricultural Raw Waste”,IOSR Journal of Engineering, Volume 5, Issue 5, Version 3, pp 54-63, 2015 [32]. T.Subramani, T.Subramani, “Water Quality deterioration due to Sago Industries in Upper VasistaNadhi River Basin, TamilNadu, India”, Indian Journal of Geo- Marine Sciences, Accepted. Article placed in Q and considered for publication. [33]. T.Subramani, S.Praveen Kumar , " Generation Of Biogas From Organic Waste In Salem Tamil Nadu" , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM) , Volume 5, Issue 5, pp. 104-115 , 2016 [34]. T.Subramani, C.Kathirvel , " Water Shed Management For Erode District Using Gis " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 093-103 , 2016. [35]. T.Subramani, V.KanianPoonkundran , " Prefabricated Multistory Structure Exposure To Engineering Seismicity By Using SAP" , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM) , Volume 5, Issue 5, pp. 123- 131 , 2016 . [36]. T.Subramani, R.Kumar , " Irrigation Schedule Models For The Management Of Surface And Groundwater Resources In Erode District Tamilnadu" , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 104-113 , 2016. [37]. T.Subramani, A.Kumaravel , " Analysis Of Polymer Fibre Reinforced Concrete Pavements By Using ANSYS" , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM) , Volume 5, Issue 5, pp. 132-139 , 2016 .

ISSN 2278-6856

[38]. T.Subramani, S.Sounder , " A Case Study And Analysis Of Noise Pollution For Chennai Using GIS" , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 125-134 , 2016. [39]. T.Subramani, R.Praburaj , " Pushover Anaylsis Of Retrofitted Reinforced Concrete Buildings By Using SAP" , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM) , Volume 5, Issue 5, pp. 140-147 , 2016 . [40]. T.Subramani, K.Kalpana , " Ground Water Augmentation Of Kannankuruchi Lake, Salem, TamilNadu Using GIS – A Case Study " ,

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 210-221 , 2016. [41]. T.Subramani, C.Karthikeyan, S.Priyanka , " Impact Of Solid Waste In Open Dumping And Its Effects Of Groundwater And Soil " , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), Volume 6, Issue 5, May 2017

, pp. 251-262 , ISSN 2319 - 4847.

[42]. T.Subramani, S.Jayaraj, S.Priyanka , " Impact Of Temperature And Its Effects In Hydrology In

Yercaud Hill " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), Volume 6, Issue 3, May - June 2017 , pp. 138-147 , ISSN 2278-6856. [43]. T.Subramani, V.Rajkumar, S.Priyanka , " Treatment Of Dairy Waste Water From Salem Aavin Using Natural Coagulants " , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), Volume 6, Issue 5, May 2017

, pp. 263-273 , ISSN 2319 - 4847.

[44]. T.Subramani, M.P.Ravichandran, S.Priyanka , " Industrial Use Of Corbondioxide From Mineral Carbonation A Case Study From Magnesite From Salem " , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), Volume 6, Issue 5, May 2017 , pp. 285-293 , ISSN 2319 - 4847. [45]. T.Subramani, and R. Elangovan, “Planning Of A Ring Road Formation For Salem Corporation Using GIS”, International Journal of Engineering Research And Industrial Applications, Vol.5, No.II, pp 109-120, 2012 [46]. T.Subramani,,S.Krishnan. andP.K.Kumaresan , “Study of Ground Water Quality with GIS Application for Coonur Taluk In Nilgiri District.”, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research,Vol.2, No.3, pp 586-592, 2012. [47]. T.Subramani, and S.Nandakumar,,“National Highway Alignment Using Gis” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol.2, Issue.4, pp 427-436, 2012. [48]. T.Subramani, and P.Malaisamy,“Design of Ring Road For Erode District Using GIS”, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research,Vol.2, No.4, pp 1914 - 1919,2012.

Journal of Modern Engineering Research,Vol.2, No.4, pp 1914 - 1919,2012. Volume 7, Issue 2, March –
Journal of Modern Engineering Research,Vol.2, No.4, pp 1914 - 1919,2012. Volume 7, Issue 2, March –

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Volume 7, Issue 2, March - April 2018

[49]. T.Subramani.,P.Krishnamurthi., “Geostatical Modelling For Ground Water Pollution in Salem by Using GIS”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ,Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.165-172, 2014. [50]. T.Subramani., T.Manikandan., “Analysis Of Urban Growth And Its Impact On Groundwater Tanneries By Using Gis”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.274-282, 2014. [51]. T.Subramani., P.Someswari, “Identification And Analysis Of Pollution In ThirumaniMuthar River Using Remote Sensing”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 2), pp.198-207, 2014. [52]. T.Subramani.,S.Krishnan., C.Kathirvel. S.K.Bharathi Devi., “National Highway Alignment from Namakkal to Erode Using GIS” , International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ,Vol. 4, Issue 8( Version 6), pp.79-89, 2014. [53]. T.Subramani., A.Subramanian.,C.Kathirvel.,S.K. Bharathi Devi., “ Analysis and Site Suitability Evaluation for Textile Sewage Water Treatment Plant in Salem Corporation, Tamilnadu Using Remote Sensing Techniques” , International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications , Vol. 4, Issue 8( Version 6), pp.90-102, 2014. [54]. T.Subramani. C.T.Sivakumar., C.Kathirvel., S.Sekar., Identification Of Ground Water Potential Zones In Tamil Nadu By Remote Sensing And GIS Technique” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications , Vol. 4 , Issue 12(Version 3), pp.127-138, 2014. [55]. T.Subramani.,S.Sekar., C.Kathirvel. C.T. Sivakumar, “Geomatics Based Landslide Vulnerability Zonation Mapping - Parts Of Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu, India”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 12(Version 3), pp.139- 149, 2014. [56]. T.Subramani.,S.Sekar., C.Kathirvel. C.T. Sivakumar, ”Identification Of Soil Erosion Prone Zones Using Geomatics Technology In Parts Of North Arcot And Dharmapuri District”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 12(Version 3), pp.150-159, 2014 [57]. T.Subramani, R.Vasantha Kumar, C.Krishnan “Air Quality Monitoring In Palladam Taluk Using Geo Spatial Data”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (IJAER),Volume 10, Number 32, Special Issues pp.24026-

24031,2015

[58]. T.Subramani,”Identification Of Ground Water Potential Zone By Using GIS”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (IJAER), Volume 10, Number 38, Special Issues, pp.28134-28138, 2015 [59]. T.Subramani, M.Sivagnanam , " Suburban Changes In Salem By Using Remote Sensing Data" , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM) , Volume 4,

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Issue 5, May 2015 , pp. 178-187 , ISSN 2319 - 4847.

2015

[60]. T.Subramani, P.Malathi , " Drainage And Irrigation Management System For Salem DistTamilnadu Using GIS" , International Journal of Application or

Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM) , Volume 4, Issue 5, pp. 199-210 , 2015 [61]. T.Subramani, P.Malathi , " Land Slides Hazardous Zones By Using Remote Sensing And GIS" , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM) , Volume 4, Issue 5, pp. 211-222 , 2015 [62]. T.Subramani, D.Pari, “Highway Alignment Using Geographical Information System” , IOSR Journal of Engineering, Volume 5 ~ Issue 5 ,Version 3, pp 32-42, 2015 [63]. T.Subramani, G.Raghu Prakash , " Rice Based Irrigated Agriculture Using GIS" , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 114-124 , 2016. [64]. T.Subramani, E.S.M.TamilBharath , " Remote Sensing Based Irrigation And Drainage Management System For Namakkal District" , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 071-080 ,

2016.

[65]. T.Subramani, A.Janaki , " Identification Of Aquifer And Its Management Of Ground Water Resource Using GIS In Karur" , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science

(IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 081-092 , 2016. [66]. T.Subramani, C.Kathirvel , " Water Shed Management For Erode District Using Gis " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 093-103 , 2016. [67]. T.Subramani, A.Kumaravel , " Analysis Of Polymer Fibre Reinforced Concrete Pavements By Using ANSYS" , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM) , Volume 5, Issue 5, pp. 132-139 , 2016 . [68]. T.Subramani, S.Sounder , " A Case Study And Analysis Of Noise Pollution For Chennai Using GIS" , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 125-134 , 2016. [69]. T.Subramani, K.M.Vijaya , " Planning And Design Of Irrigation System For A Farm In Tanjavur By Using Remote Sensing" , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 135-146, 2016. [70]. T.Subramani, G.Kaliappan , " Water Table Contour For Salem District Tamilnadu using GIS" , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 147-158 , 2016. [71]. T.Subramani, K.Kalpana , " Ground Water Augmentation Of Kannankuruchi Lake, Salem,

K.Kalpana , " Ground Water Augmentation Of Kannankuruchi Lake, Salem, Volume 7, Issue 2, March –
K.Kalpana , " Ground Water Augmentation Of Kannankuruchi Lake, Salem, Volume 7, Issue 2, March –

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TamilNadu Using GIS – A Case Study " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) , Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 210-221 , 2016. [72]. T.Subramani, T.Dhanalakshmi, S.Priyanka , " Rainfall Screening Methodology For Salem Hill Using TRMM Method " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), Volume 6, Issue 3, May - June 2017 , pp. 118-125 , ISSN 2278-6856. [73]. T.Subramani, L Syed Sharukh, S.Priyanka , " Water Resource Planning And Implementation For Chennai Metro Using GIS " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), Volume 6, Issue 3, May - June 2017 , pp. 126-137 , ISSN 2278-6856 [74]. T.Subramani, S.Jayaraj, S.Priyanka , " Impact Of Temperature And Its Effects In Hydrology In Yercaud Hill " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), Volume 6, Issue 3, May - June 2017 , pp. 138-147 , ISSN 2278-6856. [75]. T.Subramani, K.K.VenkatachalaMoorthy, S.Priyanka , " Assessment Of Impact On Aquaculture Using Remote Sensing Data And Gis In Tiruchendur " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), Volume 6, Issue 3, May - June 2017 , pp. 157-166 , ISSN 2278-6856. [76]. T.Subramani, R.K.Sridhar, S.Priyanka , " Natural Fibre As Soil Stabilizer For Construction " , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), Volume 6, Issue 5, May 2017 , pp. 274-284 , ISSN 2319 - 4847. [77]. T.Subramani, M.A.Chitra, S.Priyanka , " Management Of Rainwater And Its Conjuctive Use In Kolli Hill Area Using Remote Sensing " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), Volume 6, Issue 3, May - June 2017 , pp. 167-175 , ISSN 2278-6856. [78]. T.Subramani, K.Sukumar, S.Priyanka , " Sugar Cane Modeling Using GIS And Remote Sensing For Perambalur District " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), Volume 6, Issue 3, May - June 2017 , pp. 208-218 , ISSN 2278-6856. [79]. T.Subramani, K.S.Balaji, S.Priyanka , " Assessment Of Ground Water Quality In And Around Thuraiyur Taluk By Using Remote Sensing " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), Volume 6, Issue 3, May - June 2017 , pp. 219-228 , ISSN 2278-6856. [80]. T.Subramani, K.Ashok Kumar, A.Ganesan, P.Senthil, G.Gunasekar , " Design And Management Of Mettur Dam By Predicting Seepage Losses Using Remote Sensing " , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM),

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Volume 6, Issue 5, May 2017 , pp. 327-336 , ISSN 2319 - 4847. [81]. T.Subramani, G.Thulasirajan, S.Priyanka , " Appraisal Of Kanjamalai Iron Ore Deposit Using Remote Sensing And Geographical Information System " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), Volume 6, Issue 3, May - June 2017 , pp. 229-240 , ISSN 2278-6856. [82]. T.Subramani, N.Ellavarasi , S.Priyanka , " Ring Road Alignment For Thuraiyur Using GIS " , International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), Volume 6, Issue 3, May - June 2017 , pp. 241-251 , ISSN 2278-6856.

AUTHOR

Prof.Dr.T.Subramani Working as a Professor and Dean of Civil Engineering in VMKV Engineering College, Vinayaka Missions Research Foundation (Deemed to be University),Salem,TamilNadu, India. Having more than 28 years of Teaching experience in Various Engineering Colleges. He is a Chartered Civil Engineer and Approved Valuer for many banks. Chairman and Member in Board of Studies of Civil Engineering branch. Question paper setter and Valuer for UG and PG Courses of Civil Engineering in number of Universities. Life Fellow in Institution of Engineers (India) and Institution of Valuers. Life member in number of Technical Societies and Educational bodies. Guided more than 420 students in UG projects and 300 students in PG projects. He is a reviewer for number of International Journals and published 201 International Journal Publications and presented more than 55 papers in International Conferences. Also presented more than 45 papers in National conferences and published 4 books.Prof.Dr.T.Subramani

S.Sekar Completed his Master of Technology (M.Tech) in the Branch of Remote sensing & GIS at Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Currently he is working as a Associate Professor at V.M.K.V. Engineering College at Salem- 308. Tamil Nadu, India. His work focuse specifically on the Remote sensing and GIS Mapping. His hobbies such as Listening Music, Playing volley Ball.

His hobbies such as Listening Music, Playing volley Ball. cycling. J. Kotteswaran is persuing B.E Under
His hobbies such as Listening Music, Playing volley Ball. cycling. J. Kotteswaran is persuing B.E Under

cycling.

J. Kotteswaran is persuing B.E Under graduate in the branch of Civil Engineering at V.M.K.V. Engineering College, Vinayaka missions University, Salem. His hobbies are playing Cricket, drawing , Swimming and

I. Bosco Completed his Diploma in Architecture at Thigrajar Polytechnic College, Salem, Tamil nadu. Currently he is persuing B.E Under graduate in the branch of Civil Engineering at V.M.K.V.Salem. His hobbies are playing Cricket, drawing , Swimming and Volume 7, Issue 2, March –

B.E Under graduate in the branch of Civil Engineering at V.M.K.V. Volume 7, Issue 2, March
B.E Under graduate in the branch of Civil Engineering at V.M.K.V. Volume 7, Issue 2, March

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Engineering College, Vinayaka missions University , Salem- Tamil nadu. His present activities such as Wind power generation and Emergency door rejecting system.

Wind power generation and Emergency door rejecting system. Geo.J.Anand is persuing B.E Under graduate in the

Geo.J.Anand is persuing B.E Under graduate in the branch of Civil Engineering at V.M.K.V. Engineering College, Vinayaka missions University, Salem. His hobbies is Listening Music, Cricket, Volley ball and Browsing internet.

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Music, Cricket, Volley ball and Browsing internet. ISSN 2278-6856 Volume 7, Issue 2, March – April

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