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40 SUBSEA CONTROL 41

How artificial intelligence can be used to minimise well shut-down through integrated fault ‘Over the last decade,
detection and analysis. By E Altamiranda and E Colina.
there has been a huge
increase in the application
of subsea production
systems for the
production of oil and gas
from subsea wells’
performed with procedures
While there might be
topside, there are currently
when the fault is already affec-
ting the system performance
CONTROL EQUIPMENT
no tools for early and, in most cases finding the
fault detection and
diagnosis in the subsea
root cause of the fault is not Topside the subsea production system.
control arena straight forward. This fact Topside control system Conventionally, subsea functions
affects subsea operations and equipment comprises a hydraulic include operation and control of:
does not provide any support power unit (HPU), an electrical down hole, safety valves, subsea
for maintenance plans. power unit (EPU) and a well chokes, production valves
Intelligent supervision, fault control panel or master control mounted on the x-mas tree and
detection and diagnosis station (MCS). The HPU provides utility functions such as monito-
techniques successfully applied high and low-pressure hydraulic ring of fluid characteristics,
to other oil industry related supplies and is usually powered pressure leakage, valve positions,
processes are perfectly by electric motors, although etc.
applicable to subsea technology. redundancy is sometimes
provided by air drives. The HPU Control System Configurations
SUBSEA PRODUCTION includes tanks, pumps, a Distances between top side
CONTROL contamination control system and production facilities and subsea
Over the last decade, there has hydraulic control valves. A installations have generally
been a huge increase in the programmable logic controller increased. Due to both multiple
application of subsea production PLC or PC – based EPU may be well developments and water
systems for the production of integrated with the platform depth, early methods using direct
oil and gas from subsea wells. control system or it may be a self- hydraulic control of subsea valves
The subsea system comprises contained unit. have become less feasible
a wellhead, valve tree (x-mas because of the operational
tree) equipment, pipelines, Umbilicals limitations and the size and cost of
structures and piping systems An umbilical is a conduit between multi-core umbilicals required to
among others. In many cases a the topside host facility and the provide hydraulic and power
number of wellheads have to subsea control system and is used transmission. This has led to the
be controlled from a single for chemical and/or hydraulic development of more advanced
location. The control system fluids, electric power and electric and complex control methods
provides operation of valves control signals. The hydraulic using piloted hydraulic systems,
and chokes on subsea comple- power control lines are individual sequential piloted systems and
tions, templates, manifolds and hoses or tubes manufactured electro-hydraulic systems (hard-
pipelines. The design of a from steel or thermoplastic wired and multiplexed). The
control system must also provide materials and encased by the complexity and performance
a means for safe shutdown on umbilical outer sheath. The characteristics of subsea control
failure of equipments or loss of electrical control cables supplying systems depend on the control
electrical/hydraulic control power and control can be either configuration used. The selection
from the topside (a platform or bundled with hydraulic lines or is associated predominantly with
floating facility) and other safety laid separately. technical factors like distance

intelligent subsea control


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE features that automatically between control points (offset
The use of artificial intelligence prevent dangerous events. Subsea distance between the platform
approaches such as neural The production control system and the trees), water depth,
networks, genetic algorithms FAULT DETECTION AND provides control of all functions of required response speed during
and fuzzy logic has been incre- DIAGNOSIS execution of subsea functions and
asing in the last few years. These An overall scheme of a type of subsea installations (single
approaches have potential for knowledge based integrated or multiple wellheads). The
THE NEED TO operate is presently supported by the situation management (ASM), The experience of the last developing reasoning strategies fault detection and diagnosis significant costs associated with
industrial plants in a smooth general availability of modern start up and shut down, 20 years has shown that earlier for applications such as fault system is presented in the the design, manufacture and
and sound manner to ensure hardware and software resou- controller performance fault detection can be reached detection, diagnosis, super- accompanying diagram. The installation of subsea control
compliance with technical rces in industrial processes. assessment and so on. by gathering information, espec- vision and decision-making main tasks can be subdivided in systems have provided incentives
specifications and safeguard More specifically the widespread In engineering, supervision ially by using the relationships among others. These techniques fault detection by analytic and to improve the existing systems
product quality is heightened in adoption of Distributed Control becomes more and more between several measurable have been successfully applied in heuristic symptoms generation and to invest in research for new
today’s increasingly competitive Systems (DCSs) allows for data important in order to improve quantities in terms of mathem- other oil industry related busin- and fault diagnosis systems. Some other trends still in
globalised economy. Competitive acquisition and control strategy reliability and safety. The atical process models (by using esses such as refinery and development are the subsea
advantage can be gained by implementation according to classical method is based on analytical redundancy). petrochemical where the proce- ANALYTIC SYMPTOMS powered autonomous remote
reducing raw material and plant design specifications. monitoring important measura- Heuristic information such sses and control systems GENERATION control systems (SPARCS) and the
energy consumption and energy One of the important ble variables followed by alarm as human operator observations involved have a very high The analytical knowledge on integrated control buoy. These
consumption costs, maximizing challenges facing control triggering if certain tolerances or process expert experience complexity. the process is used to produce reduce the overall cost of control
plant throughput and by meeting system engineers is how to are exceeded. This limit value is also very relevant for diagn- Presently there are no tools quantifiable, analytical systems by removing the need for
rigorous environmental design and implement based monitoring is simple and osis. A complete fault diagnosis for early fault detection and information based on measured umbilical and topside equipment
regulations. intelligent systems that may reliable but it does not solve therefore requires the systema- diagnosis in the subsea control process variables and data required for conventional
The need for superior econo- assist supervision and decision the task of early fault detection tic treatment of both analytical systems area. Troubleshooting processing. This information systems.
is used to generate first 
BP

mic control of plant operation making such as abnormal and diagnosis. and heuristic symptoms. and fault finding are normally

Control & Automation August/September 2007 www.theiet.org/control www.theiet.org/control August/September 2007 Control & Automation
40 SUBSEA CONTROL 41
How artificial intelligence can be used to minimise well shut-down through integrated fault ‘Over the last decade,
detection and analysis. By E Altamiranda and E Colina.
there has been a huge
increase in the application
of subsea production
systems for the
production of oil and gas
from subsea wells’
performed with procedures
While there might be
topside, there are currently
when the fault is already affec-
ting the system performance
CONTROL EQUIPMENT
no tools for early and, in most cases finding the
fault detection and
diagnosis in the subsea
root cause of the fault is not Topside the subsea production system.
control arena straight forward. This fact Topside control system Conventionally, subsea functions
affects subsea operations and equipment comprises a hydraulic include operation and control of:
does not provide any support power unit (HPU), an electrical down hole, safety valves, subsea
for maintenance plans. power unit (EPU) and a well chokes, production valves
Intelligent supervision, fault control panel or master control mounted on the x-mas tree and
detection and diagnosis station (MCS). The HPU provides utility functions such as monito-
techniques successfully applied high and low-pressure hydraulic ring of fluid characteristics,
to other oil industry related supplies and is usually powered pressure leakage, valve positions,
processes are perfectly by electric motors, although etc.
applicable to subsea technology. redundancy is sometimes
provided by air drives. The HPU Control System Configurations
SUBSEA PRODUCTION includes tanks, pumps, a Distances between top side
CONTROL contamination control system and production facilities and subsea
Over the last decade, there has hydraulic control valves. A installations have generally
been a huge increase in the programmable logic controller increased. Due to both multiple
application of subsea production PLC or PC – based EPU may be well developments and water
systems for the production of integrated with the platform depth, early methods using direct
oil and gas from subsea wells. control system or it may be a self- hydraulic control of subsea valves
The subsea system comprises contained unit. have become less feasible
a wellhead, valve tree (x-mas because of the operational
tree) equipment, pipelines, Umbilicals limitations and the size and cost of
structures and piping systems An umbilical is a conduit between multi-core umbilicals required to
among others. In many cases a the topside host facility and the provide hydraulic and power
number of wellheads have to subsea control system and is used transmission. This has led to the
be controlled from a single for chemical and/or hydraulic development of more advanced
location. The control system fluids, electric power and electric and complex control methods
provides operation of valves control signals. The hydraulic using piloted hydraulic systems,
and chokes on subsea comple- power control lines are individual sequential piloted systems and
tions, templates, manifolds and hoses or tubes manufactured electro-hydraulic systems (hard-
pipelines. The design of a from steel or thermoplastic wired and multiplexed). The
control system must also provide materials and encased by the complexity and performance
a means for safe shutdown on umbilical outer sheath. The characteristics of subsea control
failure of equipments or loss of electrical control cables supplying systems depend on the control
electrical/hydraulic control power and control can be either configuration used. The selection
from the topside (a platform or bundled with hydraulic lines or is associated predominantly with
floating facility) and other safety laid separately. technical factors like distance

intelligent subsea control


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE features that automatically between control points (offset
The use of artificial intelligence prevent dangerous events. Subsea distance between the platform
approaches such as neural The production control system and the trees), water depth,
networks, genetic algorithms FAULT DETECTION AND provides control of all functions of required response speed during
and fuzzy logic has been incre- DIAGNOSIS execution of subsea functions and
asing in the last few years. These An overall scheme of a type of subsea installations (single
approaches have potential for knowledge based integrated or multiple wellheads). The
THE NEED TO operate is presently supported by the situation management (ASM), The experience of the last developing reasoning strategies fault detection and diagnosis significant costs associated with
industrial plants in a smooth general availability of modern start up and shut down, 20 years has shown that earlier for applications such as fault system is presented in the the design, manufacture and
and sound manner to ensure hardware and software resou- controller performance fault detection can be reached detection, diagnosis, super- accompanying diagram. The installation of subsea control
compliance with technical rces in industrial processes. assessment and so on. by gathering information, espec- vision and decision-making main tasks can be subdivided in systems have provided incentives
specifications and safeguard More specifically the widespread In engineering, supervision ially by using the relationships among others. These techniques fault detection by analytic and to improve the existing systems
product quality is heightened in adoption of Distributed Control becomes more and more between several measurable have been successfully applied in heuristic symptoms generation and to invest in research for new
today’s increasingly competitive Systems (DCSs) allows for data important in order to improve quantities in terms of mathem- other oil industry related busin- and fault diagnosis systems. Some other trends still in
globalised economy. Competitive acquisition and control strategy reliability and safety. The atical process models (by using esses such as refinery and development are the subsea
advantage can be gained by implementation according to classical method is based on analytical redundancy). petrochemical where the proce- ANALYTIC SYMPTOMS powered autonomous remote
reducing raw material and plant design specifications. monitoring important measura- Heuristic information such sses and control systems GENERATION control systems (SPARCS) and the
energy consumption and energy One of the important ble variables followed by alarm as human operator observations involved have a very high The analytical knowledge on integrated control buoy. These
consumption costs, maximizing challenges facing control triggering if certain tolerances or process expert experience complexity. the process is used to produce reduce the overall cost of control
plant throughput and by meeting system engineers is how to are exceeded. This limit value is also very relevant for diagn- Presently there are no tools quantifiable, analytical systems by removing the need for
rigorous environmental design and implement based monitoring is simple and osis. A complete fault diagnosis for early fault detection and information based on measured umbilical and topside equipment
regulations. intelligent systems that may reliable but it does not solve therefore requires the systema- diagnosis in the subsea control process variables and data required for conventional
The need for superior econo- assist supervision and decision the task of early fault detection tic treatment of both analytical systems area. Troubleshooting processing. This information systems.
is used to generate first 
BP

mic control of plant operation making such as abnormal and diagnosis. and heuristic symptoms. and fault finding are normally

Control & Automation August/September 2007 www.theiet.org/control www.theiet.org/control August/September 2007 Control & Automation
42 SUBSEA CONTROL 43
‘Artificial intelligent
techniques such
as neural networks
and fuzzy logic
have been
successfully used for
fault classification’
 characteristic values by wledge in the form of heuristic Faults
1) Limit value checking of direct process models (qualitative Analytical knowledge Analytic Process
Observed variables
Heuristic
symptoms symptoms
measurable signals. models), fault symptoms, Analytical process generation Measured variables generation

Characteristic values are causalities and weighting of model Data Operator


Filtering processing observations
exceeded signal tolerances. effects different diagnostic estimation Characteristic values
2) Signal analysis of direct reasoning strategies can be Change detection Feature Process
classification extraction history
measurable signals, using signal applied. Features
Normal features
models like correlation Change detection Process
classification statistics
functions, frequency spectra, KNOWLEDGE Analytic symptoms Heuristic symptoms
autoregressive moving average REPRESENTATION Heuristic process
model Statistical United symptoms Integration of
symptoms
(ARMA). Characteristic values In most applications, a certain evaluation representation information
Fault symptoms
causalitics Unified symptoms
are, for example, variances, amount of knowledge about Fault
Weighting of Forward Backward Fault diagnosis
amplitudes, frequency or model the symptoms behaviour is effects chaining chaining decision (inference
reasoning)
parameters. present. This should be exploited Heuristic knowledge Diagnosed faults
3) Process analysis by using when a diagnostic system is
Fig 1: Integrated Fault Detection and Diagnosis Scheme
mathematical process models created. Even if exact values
together with parameter for thresholds are not known, Supervisory control level with the supervision of complex A discrete event system, on
estimation, state estimation there usually is some insight (Discrete control) dynamic processes are usually the other hand, represents a
and parity equation methods. about the process, such as Automaton related to multiple operational supervisor (automaton), which
Discrete control
Characteristic values are physical understanding of patterns
Events domains due to the presence of reacts in the presence of genera-
parameters, states variables or similar faults or similar effects nonlinear phenomena and ted events from the continuous
residuals. of faults on certain symptoms. Events unpredictable or partially time process in order to fulfil
Translator Continuous control detector
In some cases physical Furthermore, the selection patterns (Set points) known disturbances, which system specifications or support
features can be extracted from of the symptoms for the affect the process performance. decision making tasks.
characteristic values, such as diagnosis becomes a matter Regulatory control level In order to alleviate such It is considered the
(Continuous control) Regulatory
physical defined process of robustness. control
difficulties, it is important to supervisory control scheme
Deviations
coefficients or special filtered or The fault diagnosis, therefore, incorporate strategies for philosophy presented in which
transformed residuals. These must be based on the appropriate different operational domains. facilitates the decision making
features are then compared subset of all available sympt- Including adaptive capacities to task related to control actions
Process
with the normal features of the oms. Different faults can be Process variables information deal with uncertain situations in for improving the operation of
non-faulty process. For this, categorized into larger groups if order to allow the coordination complex dynamics processes
methods of change detection their effect on the process is Fig 2: Supervisory Control Scheme of distributed controllers and that may be composed of
and classification are applied. similar. It is then advantageous decision making support for a interconnected subsystems,
As analytic symptoms the to find a classification system Output variables satisfactory task assignment. A characterised by different
resulting changes (discrepa- for the larger groups first and Subsea process and control system large number of industrial operational conditions and
ncies) of the described direct later separate the faults within processes operate on a usually subjected to external
Hydraulic r1
measured signals, signal models them. This leads to the concept subsystem -+ continuous time base, and they disturbances.
model
or process models are of a hierarchical diagnosis are usually described in terms of The scheme is structured in
considered. system Communication r2 differential equations. two layers, named regulatory
Artificial intelligent Input subsystem -+ Other types of processes, control level and supervisory
variables model
HEURISTIC SYMPTOMS techniques such as neural of discrete time nature, may be control level. The regulatory
GENERATION networks and fuzzy logic have Electrical
subsystem -+
r3
represented using transition control level is related to the
In addition to the symptoms been successfully used for fault model systems, for example the seque- process dynamics and is in
generation with quantifiable classification. Neural networks Electronic r4 ntial operation in the automo- charge of generating direct con-
information, heuristic sympto- capabilities such as learning, subsystem -+ tive manufacturing, chemical trol action to be applied to the
model
ms can be produced from human adaptation and information processes where batch operation process. This level is governed
experts and operators, and distributed processing hybr- Instrumentation r5 is involved and changes in by a supervisor (automaton) in
subsystem -+
observations and inspections idized with the linguistic model operational regions related to a the supervisory level, which
The process history in the representation capabilities for Residuals continuous process are usually assigns discrete control patte-
form of performed maintenance, the description of a cause described as discrete systems. rns, based on generated process
Fig 3: Residuals Generation for Fault Detection Scheme
repair, former faults, life time, symptom relationship of fuzzy In transition systems based events.
load measures constitute a logic methods have provided models; the process under The events related to the
source of heuristic information. excellent potential to represent Managment level scrutiny is described in terms continuous level may indicate
Statistical data achieved from heuristic and analytical of discrete events. changes in the process behavi-
Discrete control patterns Supervisory level
Events
experience with the same or symptoms behaviour in an Supervisor (automaton) (Discrete event
domain)
The dynamic systems whose our or changes in the current
similar processes can be added. integrated way for this kind of Sequencing control behaviour depends on the operational region that could
Intelligent
applications. patterns
event detector
interaction between continuous impede the achievement of
FAULT DIAGNOSIS Fault tree methods have also time processes and discrete required process specifications.
The task of fault diagnosis been hybridized with intelligent Translator controllers are called hybrid The supervisory level contains
consists of determining the type, algorithms for hierarchical systems. In the process control a process representation based
size and location of the fault, diagnosis systems. Operational Integrated fault detection and diagnosis system Continuous area, the continuous time on operational regions and
decisions and process
as well as its time of detection warning messages level process of a hybrid system transitions among them.
based on the observed analytical INTELLIGENT for mantainance
tasks Subsea process and control system corresponds to the physical The event detector charact-
and heuristic symptoms. SUPERVISION process itself, which must be erises the process behaviour
With the aid of heuristic kno- Some difficulties associated Fig 4: Intelligent Supervisory System controlled. and evaluates the performance 

Control & Automation August/September 2007 www.theiet.org/control www.theiet.org/control August/September 2007 Control & Automation
42 SUBSEA CONTROL 43
‘Artificial intelligent
techniques such
as neural networks
and fuzzy logic
have been
successfully used for
fault classification’
 characteristic values by wledge in the form of heuristic Faults
1) Limit value checking of direct process models (qualitative Analytical knowledge Analytic Process
Observed variables
Heuristic
symptoms symptoms
measurable signals. models), fault symptoms, Analytical process generation Measured variables generation

Characteristic values are causalities and weighting of model Data Operator


Filtering processing observations
exceeded signal tolerances. effects different diagnostic estimation Characteristic values
2) Signal analysis of direct reasoning strategies can be Change detection Feature Process
classification extraction history
measurable signals, using signal applied. Features
Normal features
models like correlation Change detection Process
classification statistics
functions, frequency spectra, KNOWLEDGE Analytic symptoms Heuristic symptoms
autoregressive moving average REPRESENTATION Heuristic process
model Statistical United symptoms Integration of
symptoms
(ARMA). Characteristic values In most applications, a certain evaluation representation information
Fault symptoms
causalitics Unified symptoms
are, for example, variances, amount of knowledge about Fault
Weighting of Forward Backward Fault diagnosis
amplitudes, frequency or model the symptoms behaviour is effects chaining chaining decision (inference
reasoning)
parameters. present. This should be exploited Heuristic knowledge Diagnosed faults
3) Process analysis by using when a diagnostic system is
Fig 1: Integrated Fault Detection and Diagnosis Scheme
mathematical process models created. Even if exact values
together with parameter for thresholds are not known, Supervisory control level with the supervision of complex A discrete event system, on
estimation, state estimation there usually is some insight (Discrete control) dynamic processes are usually the other hand, represents a
and parity equation methods. about the process, such as Automaton related to multiple operational supervisor (automaton), which
Discrete control
Characteristic values are physical understanding of patterns
Events domains due to the presence of reacts in the presence of genera-
parameters, states variables or similar faults or similar effects nonlinear phenomena and ted events from the continuous
residuals. of faults on certain symptoms. Events unpredictable or partially time process in order to fulfil
Translator Continuous control detector
In some cases physical Furthermore, the selection patterns (Set points) known disturbances, which system specifications or support
features can be extracted from of the symptoms for the affect the process performance. decision making tasks.
characteristic values, such as diagnosis becomes a matter Regulatory control level In order to alleviate such It is considered the
(Continuous control) Regulatory
physical defined process of robustness. control
difficulties, it is important to supervisory control scheme
Deviations
coefficients or special filtered or The fault diagnosis, therefore, incorporate strategies for philosophy presented in which
transformed residuals. These must be based on the appropriate different operational domains. facilitates the decision making
features are then compared subset of all available sympt- Including adaptive capacities to task related to control actions
Process
with the normal features of the oms. Different faults can be Process variables information deal with uncertain situations in for improving the operation of
non-faulty process. For this, categorized into larger groups if order to allow the coordination complex dynamics processes
methods of change detection their effect on the process is Fig 2: Supervisory Control Scheme of distributed controllers and that may be composed of
and classification are applied. similar. It is then advantageous decision making support for a interconnected subsystems,
As analytic symptoms the to find a classification system Output variables satisfactory task assignment. A characterised by different
resulting changes (discrepa- for the larger groups first and Subsea process and control system large number of industrial operational conditions and
ncies) of the described direct later separate the faults within processes operate on a usually subjected to external
Hydraulic r1
measured signals, signal models them. This leads to the concept subsystem -+ continuous time base, and they disturbances.
model
or process models are of a hierarchical diagnosis are usually described in terms of The scheme is structured in
considered. system Communication r2 differential equations. two layers, named regulatory
Artificial intelligent Input subsystem -+ Other types of processes, control level and supervisory
variables model
HEURISTIC SYMPTOMS techniques such as neural of discrete time nature, may be control level. The regulatory
GENERATION networks and fuzzy logic have Electrical
subsystem -+
r3
represented using transition control level is related to the
In addition to the symptoms been successfully used for fault model systems, for example the seque- process dynamics and is in
generation with quantifiable classification. Neural networks Electronic r4 ntial operation in the automo- charge of generating direct con-
information, heuristic sympto- capabilities such as learning, subsystem -+ tive manufacturing, chemical trol action to be applied to the
model
ms can be produced from human adaptation and information processes where batch operation process. This level is governed
experts and operators, and distributed processing hybr- Instrumentation r5 is involved and changes in by a supervisor (automaton) in
subsystem -+
observations and inspections idized with the linguistic model operational regions related to a the supervisory level, which
The process history in the representation capabilities for Residuals continuous process are usually assigns discrete control patte-
form of performed maintenance, the description of a cause described as discrete systems. rns, based on generated process
Fig 3: Residuals Generation for Fault Detection Scheme
repair, former faults, life time, symptom relationship of fuzzy In transition systems based events.
load measures constitute a logic methods have provided models; the process under The events related to the
source of heuristic information. excellent potential to represent Managment level scrutiny is described in terms continuous level may indicate
Statistical data achieved from heuristic and analytical of discrete events. changes in the process behavi-
Discrete control patterns Supervisory level
Events
experience with the same or symptoms behaviour in an Supervisor (automaton) (Discrete event
domain)
The dynamic systems whose our or changes in the current
similar processes can be added. integrated way for this kind of Sequencing control behaviour depends on the operational region that could
Intelligent
applications. patterns
event detector
interaction between continuous impede the achievement of
FAULT DIAGNOSIS Fault tree methods have also time processes and discrete required process specifications.
The task of fault diagnosis been hybridized with intelligent Translator controllers are called hybrid The supervisory level contains
consists of determining the type, algorithms for hierarchical systems. In the process control a process representation based
size and location of the fault, diagnosis systems. Operational Integrated fault detection and diagnosis system Continuous area, the continuous time on operational regions and
decisions and process
as well as its time of detection warning messages level process of a hybrid system transitions among them.
based on the observed analytical INTELLIGENT for mantainance
tasks Subsea process and control system corresponds to the physical The event detector charact-
and heuristic symptoms. SUPERVISION process itself, which must be erises the process behaviour
With the aid of heuristic kno- Some difficulties associated Fig 4: Intelligent Supervisory System controlled. and evaluates the performance 

Control & Automation August/September 2007 www.theiet.org/control www.theiet.org/control August/September 2007 Control & Automation
44 SUBSEA CONTROL
‘The subsystems are highly
interconnected and a fault
generated in one of them can be
propagated to other subsystems
affecting the whole control
system performance, subsea
operation and production’
 of the regulatory control
system monitoring the
deviations between process
variables and assigned set points
for basic controllers. This
information is translated to the
automaton in terms of discrete
events in order to yield discrete
control patterns, which will be
codified by a translator to the
regulatory control system in
terms of appropriate set points
for basic controllers, alarms and
messages to operators.

SUPERVISION, DETECTION
AND DIAGNOSIS
Conventional subsea production
control systems, with multipl-
exed electro-hydraulic confi-
guration can be subdivided into
the main following subsystems:
 Electrical subsystems.
Comprising the power supply
and electrical distribution
system; the hydraulic
subsystem including the
hydraulic supply, hydraulic
distribution and the subsea
hydraulic sub process inside
the subsea control modules; making and maintenance INTELLIGENT block will translate the discrete
the electronic subsystem tasks. SUPERVISION control patterns in specific
comprising the electronic  Diagnostic models. The proposed supervision decisions and messages for
within the subsea control Corresponding to the nominal scheme is based on the philos- subsea operation and mainten-
modules and surface control conditions for each subsystem ophy presented however, for this ance tasks. The supervisory
equipment, the communi- have to be achieved to genera- application, that the discrete system must interact with
cation subsystem which te the analytical symptoms. control patterns will provide management levels to be able to
comprises all the variables Cross interactions among information to support approp- update the operational regions
that determine the commun- subsystems must be included riate decision making for subsea in accordance with management
ication quality which are to obtain a reliable multivar- operations and warning messa- priorities.
mainly connected with the iable model. Fig 3 represents a ges to support troubleshooting
electrical subsystem when residuals generation scheme and maintenance tasks. Fig 4 CONCLUSION
communication on power is for fault detection incorpor- illustrates the integrated The above approach provides
used and the instrumentation ating the different subsystems supervision scheme. decision making support for
system including the external and the main interaction The continuous process level subsea operations and
and internal sensors and between them. represents all the production maintenance tasks (preventive
actuators on the x-mas trees control system which interacts maintenance) and also provides
and the control modules FAULT DIAGNOSIS with the fault detection and more efficient mechanisms
respectively. The heuristic symptoms diagnostic system to generate for troubleshooting when faults
These subsystems are highly generation considers process the faults identification when and events are generated. It
interconnected and a fault observation from experts and they are produced. This suggests the incorporation of
generated in one of them can operators, process history and information is processed by an each subsystem (hydraulic,
be propagated to other subsy- process data. Then analytical intelligent event detector, which electrical, electronic, communic-
stems affecting the whole and heuristic symptoms are allows mapping the identified ation and instrumentation) with
control system performance, integrated according to the faults in discrete events. The the corresponding interactions
subsea operation and produ- scheme presented in Fig 1. discrete events are used in the for the diagnostic models in the
ction. Hence the importance A fault diagnosis task will supervisory system in order to fault detection and diagnostic
of developing integrated fault consider the heuristic knowle- generate the appropriate discr- scheme.
detection, diagnosis methods dge and the unified symptoms ete control patterns for suppor- Information from managem-
and appropriate supervision according to the diagram ting troubleshooting, decision ent levels is also highly valuable
tools to be able to perform presented in Fig 1. Intelligent making and maintenance tasks. to ensure the supervisor can
in a more efficient manner, techniques have to be incorp- These patterns have to be generate the appropriate
troubleshooting and fault orated for classification and sequenced since it is a multiva- discrete patterns according to
identification to support fault identification as was riable process with several operational and management
subsea operation decision mentioned earlier. subsystems. The translator priorities. 

Control & Automation August/September 2007 www.theiet.org/control