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RADIUSOFDIUINAGE EQUATION
FOR
PRESSURE BUILDUP
by
ABSTRACT
.—— ——— —
derived from pressure buildup analysis for a single well. The first boundary
the effect of the boundary was felt were graphically determined, and then
correlation was made to arrive at equations for the radius of drainage. The
RADIUSOFDRAINAGE EOUATION
FOR
PRESSURE BUILDUP
Introduction
show that for some flow time the pressure drop is very small, and it approaches
zero at some distance from the well bore. Even though it appea?s that for
a specific flow time the pressure change has a value of zero at some distance
away from the well bore, this is only relative. According to the diffusivity
pressure changes in the well bore. It was this apparent constancy of the
pressure at some point out in the reservoir that led to the concept of “radius
of drainage.”
Kern (1964) and van Poollen (1964). The equations developed by these authors
condition has been reached. Horner (1961), Davis and Hawkins (1963),
state conditions with short shutin time. A drillstem test, where the sum
of flow time and shutin time is usually in the order of half an hour to two
porosity? or permeability.
Equations Used
paper, the solution to the diffusivity equation which is frequently used has
solution is:
(1)
A. Case 1
are applied
When the principle of superposition and the method of images
equation
to the above solution for Case 2, the following pressure buildup
resultS:
(2)
I .
When the dimensionless time and dimensionless pressure droQ are Introduced,
2 2
. r r
w ‘1 +Ei ———— 1
(AP)D= Eic.
a2 (t+ O)D~ ! a2 ;D ~
(3)
 Ei [ (t+%l + ‘%$]
L ‘IJJ L
Where
4k (t + ~) 4kt
(t + O)D = , and t:)= —
$ LICa2 f/IPC a2
B. Case 2
,m— *L.
WFl~Jl ...,.
.nnmnantl
LIl~halllc
c.,,,,* is fnllowed for Case ?, the followin,c,
.Ju.. pressure
(AP)D= Ei~
~a2 ‘r:
(t + @)D ) “i[l ‘E+=d
(4)
Method of Iiivestifgatim
presentedby Hurst, Haynie, and Walker (1961). Using equations (3) and (4)
for Case 1 and Case 2 respectively, theoretical pressure buildup curves are
plotted (see Figs. 1, 2, 3 & 4). For different dimensionless flow times
is plotted whereby the ordinate is dimensionless pressure drop (AP)D and the
[)
t+e
abscissa is the logarithm of the dimensionless time ratio ~ . A
total of 26 different values is assumed for the dimensionless flow time. Flow
times range from 10 to 10,000. The distance to the boundary is then varied
curves are essentially identical for each boundary condition, only sample
curves are shown in this paper. These curves have been photographically
Analvsis of Results
behavior. It is seen that for early shutin times (for large values of
7
t+o
0 1the curves follow the logarithmic approximation to the point source
solution and form straight lines. As soon as the effect of the outer boundary
is felt by the well, the curves start deviating from the straightline form.
It+(y
When the ratio of — approaches one, i.e., when shutin times are very
\ G
)
large compared to flow times, all the curves converge towards a zero pressure
drop.
For each type of boundary, and within the range of distances considered
in this study, it is seen that the curves virtually coincide for corresponding
flow times regardless of the distance to the boundary. A very slight deviation
t+o
occurs at very large values of ~ . This deviation is noticeable only
()
when curves for small distances are superimposed on curves for very large
distances. Such small deviation can be seen, for instance, when Figures 1 and
2 on the original 15by20in. grid are superposed and put on a light table.
line, for corresponding dimensionless flow times, occur at the same values
Oft+o
Due to the inherent inaccuracy in determining such points
%”
()
graphically, readings were taken from all the curves (see sample curves in
Figs. 1, 2, 3, & 4). For each case of boundary condition, the readings were
flow times. This difficulty is mainly due to the scale of the drawing.
Correlation of Results
scale (see Fig. 5). It can be seen that the points fall approximately on a
‘t + ~\ deviatiOn
= 1.13 ~ (5)
‘D 1/
4kt
~ by definition (6)
‘D = $pca
(7)
Examples:
Two examples
equations.
Data:
4 1
k= 590 md, u = 0.60 Cp, c = 7.35 x 10 atm. ,
The dkt~il~~:
t+e
From Fig. 2 for tD = 200 — dev. = 155
Q
()
f 1/2
kt
a = 1.88; t+o
i+ lJc(~) 1
1/2
“(0.59) (8.3) (3600)
= 1.88 = 2130 cm.
~70.2) (0.60) (7.35 x lo+) (155
d
cnllvc.e
  ,
tt@
()
~ev
1/2
. 11/2
= ~ .88[(0.~9) (8s3) (3600J I a A,
1097 em.
“...
~(0.2) (0.6) (7.35 X 104) (190) 1
Conclusion
l.
~Qr the two beundary conditions considered in this paper, approximate
k= permeability in darcies
= porosity; a dimensionless fraction
$
= viscosity in centipoise
B
1
c= compressibility in atmospheres
h= i%rmation +hi~~ness
s...... in centimeters
I..
References
n..:
lkivLa,
“ E. c
and Hawkins, M. F., 1963, Linear Fluid Detection by Well
“. ,
Pressure Measurements: Jour. Petroleum Technology, Oct., p. 107779.
Horner, D. R., 1951, Pressure BuildUp in Wells: Proc. Third World Petroleum
Congress, the Hague, p. 50321.
Tek, M. R., Grove, M. L., and Poettmann, F. H., 1957, Method for Predicting
BackPressure Behavior of LowPermeability NaturalGas Well: Trans. AIME,
210  302, 1957.
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J FIGURE U THEoIWTICAL
FOR A WELL
pRESSURE SO
Iw
. .,,. L.. .’., ..’
a o
OIKNSIWESS TH RATIO
T+ e’”” “ ‘
i
Q
10’
10
‘D
=1.13
() t+e
~ dev.
+
‘D
+ CASE I
o CASE2
Ic
FIGURE
5 FLCY1’
OF DIMENSIONL5S TTME
‘nm:;us
VALUES
OF $+2 ON
BUILD UP CURVTS ‘Oii?fiE
DEVIATION
FROM STRN(WT LTN E OCCUR.. .
II ‘4
2 103 I
(w de?”.
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