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Gender Equity and Diversity Workshop Report

May 12 – 14, 2008


Care International in Afghanistan

Facilitator:
Madhuri Narayanan
Senior Advisor, Gender Equity and Diversity, CARE USA

Co facilitator and translation support:


Abdul Raouf Nazhand
Human Resources Manager, CARE Afghanistan

Additional Support:
Milly Kayango, Senior Technical Advisor for Maternal Health, CARE USA
Jamie Terzi, Assistant Country Director, CARE Afghanistan
CARE Afghanistan Training Department
1. Why this GED workshop? What are the objectives?

The workshop started with opening remarks from the Country Director of CARE in
Afghanistan that reinforced the importance of gender equity and diversity (GED) for
achieving CARE’s mission of ending poverty and social injustice. Further, GED is one of
the Strategic directions in the current strategic plan for CARE Afghanistan. This
workshop is seen as the first in a series of workshops to build a basic common
understanding among all staff about what is GED and how we could promote it in our
programming and in how we work within the organization. The specific objectives of the
workshop were:
1. Strengthen awareness of basic concepts of gender and diversity and why it is
important to CARE

2. Exploring how our differences and similarities impact our organizational life

3. Learning new skills and making personal and collective commitments to function
differently to promote gender equity and diversity

The workshop agenda is provided in as Annex 1. The workshop was attended by 48


participants representing the Kabul and field offices. (Annex 2)

2. What is diversity? What is the diversity in CARE? What is the


link between gender and diversity?

As part of introduction of the participants and the topic, each one was asked to approach
two other participants who they perceived as Box 1
being different from themselves and talk about the
 Physical experience – height,
differences. This resulted in new knowledge of
spectacles
difference that existed in the group and the
 Language
diversity factors identified through this exercise
are provided in Box 1:  Age
 Religion
This exercise was followed by an activity to  Nationality
further explore the diversity of identity and  Marital status
meaning. Through this group could visually see  Home and work location
the extent of presence and absence of certain  Department
diversity in the group. Some of key observations  Profession
were that:  Ideas and opinions

Each one of us carry multiple identities and have membership to multiple groups, some
which forms the majority in CARE or in Afghanistan and others which place you in a
minority. For example all the participants worked for CARE and the majority of the
group were from Afghanistan, worked in Programs, followed Islam, were Pashtuns and
right-handed. In contrast no one had English as their native language, only two men were
single. The participants were encouraged to think about what it means in terms of who is

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included in CARE Afghanistan and whether this represents the diversity that exists in
Afghanistan; how we experience and feel when we are part of the majority or minority;
whether being in majority always means being in the dominant group.

The next activity explored the diversity of thoughts and worldviews using three topics –
time, communication and views about an initiative to ban an Indian Soap Opera in
Afghanistan because of its negative impact on religious values and culture. This activity
demonstrated the diversity that exists beyond what is visual and tangible but equally
defines who we are and what our attitudes and beliefs are that shapes our behaviors and
relationships. This also demonstrated that all women and men are not homogenous in
their backgrounds, experiences, and views.

Diversity means...

“Collectively, CARE’s partners and staff embody the richness of diversity found in the
socioeconomic and cultural environments in which we work.”

Valuing, respecting and fully benefiting from each individual’s unique qualities and
abilities in order to fulfill and strengthen our vision and mission”

Among other characteristics, diversity includes “gender, race, nationality, ethnicity,


religion, sexual orientation, age, disability, as well as diverse perspectives that uphold
CARE’s core values.”

Therefore, while gender is a factor of diversity that cuts across all other diversity factors,
there is diversity within gender that needs to be recognized and taken into consideration.

Box 2 – Gender and Diversity

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3. Why is GED important to CARE?

Finally, it was highlighted that diversity and differences are a given in any context and
despite all the differences all of us in CARE work towards the achievement of a common
vision and mission. It is important for us understand our diversity and differences and
find ways of using it as a positive force to advance our vision.
 We need a variety of perspectives to inform relevant and responsible choices
about our program design and management
 Success depends on our ability to learn and innovate
 To increase capacity within the communities, we need to build partnerships with
people who have similarities and differences
Social Justice, Tolerance, Dignity and Security are in the center of CARE International
vision and enshrined in the six programming principles. The objective of Gender Equity
and Diversity Initiative is to support the critical processes for achieving that vision and is
specifically aimed at holding ourselves accountable to these principles in all that we do.

4. What do we mean by the different commonly used terms?

In CARE, different terms such as gender, gender equity, gender equality, diversity, sexual
and gender based violence (SGBV) and sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) are used
widely but not all staff have a common understanding of what these terms mean. In an
interactive session different statements about men and women (Annex 3) were discussed
to define the terms ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ and related concepts. (Annex 4). Further, by
discussing some scenarios (Annex 5 and Annex 6), we clarified the terms sexual
harassment, sexual exploitation and abuse and sexual and gender based violence and how
hey relate to each other.
SH, SEA, SGBV – How do they
relate to each other?

Physic
al,
Sexual
Sexual Sexual
Sexual Exploita and
Harassment tion and Gender
Emoti based
onal Abuse
Violence

Verbal,
Visual External,
In the workplace; Protect
Beneficiaries within wider
by employer,
from staff society
among employees
misconduct

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5. How do we experience the diversity of power? How can we be
better at understanding the experiences of subordinate group
memberships?

The facilitator shared some key elements of dominant and subordinate group
memberships and why it is an important part of our exploration of diversity of power.

Then participants were given an opportunity to share their personal experiences of


subordination and practice the skills of seeking and understanding others’ experiences
without judging, interrupting or advising. The exercise helped participants to understand
the power dynamics between dominant and subordinate group membership and the
effects these dynamics have on relationships. It also provided an opportunity for
participants to give voice to their subordinate group membership experiences in a safe
space.

Dominant +

1. Define reality, “truth” 1. This dynamic occurs all


2. Sets rules, standards over the world;
3. Seen as normal
2. It is not directly related
to numerical majority (e.g.
South African apartheid
where whites were clearly
4. Follows rules
in the minority yet held
5. Expected to fit in power);
6 Seen as less than 3. We all have some
experience with both
dominant and subordinate
group membership
Subordinated -
because of our multiple
identities.

It is important to remember what we see of


each other in the workplace is only The Iceberg
behaviors and appearances and there is a lot
of feelings and emotions hidden under the Behavior and
surface that affects our interactions and Appearance
relationships. It was highlighted that
recognizing these differences in experience
and mindsets can deepen our understanding
of power dynamics and its impact on
Assumptions, Beliefs, Biases,
relationships. Simple steps such as listening, Hopes & Dreams, Feelings,
seeking and observing can be powerful in History (personal and
collective), Wounds, Cultural
WorldView

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deepening one’s ability to find solutions, and opportunities to strengthen relationships.
We each have a role to challenge and shift this dynamic that exists in society as we seek
to advance diversity.

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6. Why Gender Equality? What are benefits?
The participants worked in small groups to complete the gender equality statements
assigned to them and discuss the benefits of such a gender equal world for men, women,
children and the wider society. The summary of the exercise outputs are presented below:

IF MEN SHARED SOME OF THE HOUSEHOLD AND CHILD CARE


RESPONSIBILITIES THEN,
 Men will feel a sense of responsibility at home; Will come closer to their children and
can help them in studies and moral character building; Will decrease the workload on
women; The women will be able to think for more betterment of their home and
children; The children will grow up with love and will acquire a balanced character
and be better citizens to the society

IF WOMEN ENJOY THE FREEDOM TO MOVE OUTSIDE HOME WITHOUT FEAR


THEN,
 Women will increase their knowledge; Will have self confidence; Will have more
experience; Will take part in decision making; Will support her husband
economically; Will have the capacity to manage her family environment with the
good planning; Will share all big responsibilities with her husband; Will be a good
advisor for her husband; Provide better health and education facilities for her
children; Prepare better family environment for her children; Have a good part in
fulfilling their children’s wishes; Will contribute to the society and development
process as an active unit of change

IF WOMEN STOPPED DYING DURING CHILD BIRTH THEN,


 Since women take care of household responsibilities especially child care, men’s
responsibilities increases when their wives die and this will stop; More chances of
living longer helps them realize their dreams; Mothers play instrumental role in
development of children’s attitudes, behaviors and personality and more children will
enjoy their mothers’ care; More women will contribute to the formation of an ideal
society

IF WOMENS’ OPINIONS AND VIEWS ARE EQUALLY VALUED THEN,


 Men and women will have equal roles and responsibilities; Women will enjoy their
roles and rights; Children will be raised well and well mannered in the society;
Society will move and grow towards less war and focus more on development

IF GIRLS ARE NOT FORCED TO MARRY AT A VERY YOUNG AGE THEN,


 Girls will get good education and good health; There will be good mutual
understanding with partners after marriage; Children, both boys and girls will enjoy
freedom of choice; There will be gender equity

IF MEN ARE ALLOWED TO EXPRESS THEIR EMOTIONS (CRY) THEN,

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 Women will know their men better than before; Men will attract sympathy of women;
Men will feel relief and less pressured; There will be less violence by men; Children
may feel afraid and disappointed

IF MEN WERE LESS BURDENED AS PRIMARY BREAD WINNERS FOR THE


FAMILY THEN,
 Mothers attention will get less on children; Men will not be able to live more happily;
Since women work at home they have the responsibilities to keep children then they
are being used fairly; Since men have more ability then women, the number of
workers will be decrease and society will become weak

IF A GIRL CHILD GOT EQUAL HEALTH CARE AND NUTRITION THEN,


 Father will feel relax and happy for child; Being healthy will lead to playing perfect
role in society; Mother will get more advantage for having healthy child who will
help her in house work; Girls will think have equal rights with male members of
family; Society will have healthy children with the low rate of malnutrition children

IF WOMEN HAVE EQUAL REPRESENTAITON IN PARLIAMENT THEN,


 They will make good decisions; Responsibilities will be divided equally between
male and female all people will be aware of difficulty of women; Children will have
bright future, if female and male know their responsibilities so equality will be
implemented in society and society will develop without discrimination

IF WOMEN HAVE EQUAL SHARE IN PROPERTY THEN,


 Women will feel more responsibilities and power and take more interest in the
economics; Women will enjoy a better status in the family and society; Men and
women will get more respect; there will be an increase in awareness and decrease in
poverty; Children will get more facilities; there will be further development

This exercise forced participants to unpack what we really mean when we say we want to
promote gender equality and that a gender equal society will benefit not only women but
men, children and society at large. However, the exercise also demonstrated that our
social conditioning and definition of a “good” man is so deep-rooted that it is often
difficult to think of the benefits of men not having the pressure to be the bread-winners or
not to show emotions in public that may project them as vulnerable.

7. What are the privileges and pressures of being a man or a woman


in Afghan society?
In order to deepen our understanding of the gender inequalities that exist in the society,
Participants were asked to list the privileges and pressures of being a man or a woman in
gender segregated small groups. Later participants from the other gender group were
requested to review and add to the list of privileges and pressures. The full list generated
by the groups is given as Annex 8. However, the important point to note is that both men
and women enjoy privileges based on gender and also the pressures. However, in the
current social construct of gender, men enjoy many more privileges as compared to

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women and women experience many more pressures as compared to men. It is in the
interest of both men and women to work together to reduce the pressures and increase the
privileges for all.

8. How to integrate gender in our programs and within the


organization?
To facilitate participants’ application of some of the basic gender concepts in the
programming and organizational situations, they were asked to work in small groups to
discuss different case scenarios and identify the gender issues and recommend ways to
address those. The five cases used and the small group outputs are provided in Annex 9.
It would be important to continue such discussions and find ways to integrate gender
perspective in all program and organizational activities.

9. What is the framework for change? What has changed with


regard to gender?
First the Aikido model for dealing with change or difference was demonstrated. It was
highlighted that an individual has several ways to respond to something different:
1. Avoid
2. Resist
3. Collaborate – Aikido Model. In this model you first know where you are (self
awareness), then meet the other (dialogue with the other) and then see what we
can do together (action with the other).

Later, a three pronged change framework was introduced to emphasize that change needs
to happen at all three levels – personal, organizational and in the wider society through
our programming for promoting gender equality.
Programmatic or
Social Change

Organizational Personal
Change Change

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A discussion followed in small groups to identify some key changes that have been
experienced in the personal lives and within the organization and the changes that the
participants hope to see in the area of gender equity. Outputs presented in Annex 10.

10. What is the llink between gender and Islam? How does Islam
support Gender equality?

An external speaker, Mr. Abdul Wahed Zia Moballegh, Senior Project Officer, Rights in
Practice, from Afghanistan provided an overview of gender dioscourse in Islam. His full
presentation in the local language is made available to the particpants. He shared
examples from the Koran that treat men and women as equals and the possibilities that
exist to interpret Islam to support the process of achieving gender equality. Of course, the
presentation challenged the views on the topic held by some participants raised many
questions in the small groups discussions that followed. It was clarified that Islam is
interpreted in many different ways by scholars in different parts of the world and it is
healthy to explore different views and continue to seek answers to the questions. A staff
person was identified to compile the questions that remain and conitnue the exploration
to get answers and expand their individual and collective knowledge.

11. So what? What is the commitment for personal change based on


the learning experience?

In small groups, participants were encouraged to reflect on what they learned from the
experience during the workshop and identify one thing that they would change or do
differently as individuals either in their personal or work lives. This proved to be not so
easy for some but there were some good reflections and commitments for personal
change from a number of participants.

Finally, the workshop concluded with remarks from the Country Director and Assistant
Country Director and they also thanked those who played key roles in planning and
implementing the workshop for their contributions.

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Overall, participants thought that the topic was relevant to their work and there was new
learning. They also appreciated the different exercises used and the participatory style of
facilitation. The feedback is provided by the participants is provided in Annex 11.

12. What next?

A smaller team of senior staff met immediately following this workshop to discuss ideas
for developing a GED policy/strategy for the Country Office. It was also agreed that
similar workshops should be conducted for all staff in Kabul and in the provinces. To
facilitate the process of rolling out the training workshop to all staff, a Training of
Trainers will be organized in the first quarter of financial year 2009.

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Annex 1 - GED workshop Agenda
Agenda – Day 1

8:00 – 8:15 – Welcome/Objectives


8: 15 – 9:00 - Introductions
9:00 – 10:00 – Exploring our diversity of identity and meaning
10:00 – 10:30 – Exploring different worldviews
10:30 – 10:45 – Tea Break
10:45 – 12:30 – Clarification of key terms and importance of GED
12:30 – 1:30 – Lunch Break
1:30 – 3:30 – Exploring diversity of power (Triads)
3:30 – 3:45 – Wrap up

Agenda – Day 2

08:00 – 08:30 – Recap/reflections from Day 1


08:30 – 9:00 – Why gender equality?
09:00 – 10:30 – Privileges and pressures of gender and diversity
10:30 – 10:45 – Tea Break
10:45 – 12:30 – Gender in programs and the organization
12:30 – 1:30 – Lunch Break
1:30 – 3:30 – Framework for Change – what has changed?
3:30 – 3:45 – Wrap up

Agenda – Day 3

08:00 – 08:30 – Recap/Reflection from Day 2


08:30 – 10:30 – Gender and Islam
10:30 – 10:45 – Tea Break
10:45 – 12:00 – Personal commitments
12:00 – 12:30 – Workshop Closure

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Annex 2 – List of Participants - CARE International in Afghanistan
S
# EmpName Designation Department
1 JAMIE TERZI Assistant Country Director MANAGEMENT
2 ANU JHON Program Development Coordinator MANAGEMENT
3 MOHAMMAD NADIR M&E COORDINATOR M & E SECTION
4 A.R. IBRHIM NAZHAND HRD COORDINATOR HRD
5 SHAH WALI WAHAB ADMINISTRATION MANAGER ADMINISTRATION
6 AHMAD SHAH FORMULI CHIEF OF INTERNAL AUDIT INTERNAL AUDIT
7 ABDUL GHAFOOR LATIFI PROGRAM MANAGER ERRP
8 MOHAMMAD WAKIL PROGRAM MANAGER RAP
9 ZAINAB DEPUTY PROGRAM MANAGER HAWA
10 ZOHRA PROJECT SUPERVISOR HAWA
11 ENAYTULLAH TECHNICAL ADVISOR EDUCATION
12 RABIA SOCIAL ORGANIZOR HAWA
13 SHAFIQA MASTER TRAINER HAWA
HEALTH EDUCATORS/COMM MOBILZATION
14 ASIFA SUPERVISOR ERRP
15 MOHAMMAD H OSMAN FINANCE CONTROLLER FINANCE
16 SAHAR FROZAN SENIOR ACCOUNTANT FINANCE
17 SAYED FAZEL SHAH TRANSPORT UNIT SUPERVISOR ADMINISTRATION
18 AZIZA HR OFFICER HRD
19 MIRWAIS DISTRICT SUPERVISOR RAP
20 WAGMA BATOOR H.Z PROGRAM COORDINATOR EDUCATION
21 NADERA TRAINING & MONITORING SENIOR OFFICER RAP
22 MOHAMMAD NAEEM SOCIAL ORGANIZOR RAP
23 ROHULLAH SOCIAL ORGANIZOR RAP
24 MEENA TRAINING SUPERVISOR HAWA
25 MOHAMMAD AMIN TRAINING UNIT SUPERVISOR HRD
26 MOHAMMAD HAMID MASTER TRAINER RAP
27 ABDUL LATIF ZAZI SENIOR ACCOUNTANT FINANCE
28 SAMIRA ADMIN OFFICER ADMINISTRATION
29 ABDUL SAMAY BELAL PR & MEDIA UNIT SUPERVISOR PR & MEDIA
30 MOHAMMAD SHAKIR SOCIAL TRAINER RAP
31 SAYED ABDUL SHUKOOR ACCOUNTANT FINANCE
32 SAYED MOHAMMAD ZAHER INCOME GENERATION OFFICER HAWA
33 ISLAMUDDIN DANISH DEPUTY HRD COORDINATOR HRD
34 MOHAMMAD YUNUS SAJID SENIOR PR & MEDIA OFFICER PR & MEDIA
35 SHOAIB DANISH DATA MANAGEMENT OFFICER PACE-A
36 KHWAJA ABDUL JAMIL PROGRAM MANAGER RAP
37 AHMAD QAHIR SOCIAL TRAINER RAP
38 HANIFA SOCIAL TRAINER RAP
39 NAJIBULLAH COMM BASED EDUCATION ADVISOR PACE-A
40 ZOHRA AHMAD TECHNICAL ADVISOR EDUCATION
41 ZAKIRA RAHIMI SENIOR ADVISOR PACE-A
42 FROZAN ASSADI FIELD SUPERVISOR HAWA
43 NADIA NOORZAI TRAINING OFFICER HAWA
44 HALIMA DEPUTY PROJECT MANAGER VTAWP
45 RABIA COMMUNITY MOBILIZER VTAWP
46 SAYED ABDULLAH COMMUNITY MOBILIZER VTAWP
47 ZARGHONA WOMEN ACTIVITY FACILITATOR HAWA

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48 AHMAD WALI BRANCH SUPERVISOR MoFAD

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Annex 3 – Statements about men and women

1. Women give birth to babies, men don’t: This is a biological function which only
women can perform. Therefore, the difference can be attributed to sex.

2. Care of babies is the responsibility of women because they can breast feed babies:
The fact that women breastfeed babies is biological. However, the nurturing and caring
for children are tasks that can be performed by both women and men, as these are social
functions. Thus this statement reflects gender.

3. Men have moustaches: This is a biological characteristic and therefore attributed to


sex.

4. Women are scared of working outside their home at night: This is also reflective of
gender differentiation between women and men. There is no biological reason for women
being scared of working outside at night. However, given the unsafe environment for
women in society, which stems from the low position she occupies, she may be
vulnerable to physical attacks if she works outside her home at night.

5. Men’s voices break at puberty, women’s don’t: This is a biological characteristic of


men and can be explained by sex.

6. Women are emotional and men are rational: This has no relation with the biological
characteristics of women and men. This is how society perceives women and men to be.
It results in biases and is, therefore, reflective of gender.

7. Most of the women have long hair and men have short hair: Biologically, both men
and women can have long hair. However, society creates differentiations in terms of how
women and men should look, what they can wear and so forth. While women are
expected to have long hair, men are expected to have shorter hair. However, these
differences are culture specific. In certain religions, like Sikhism, men are required to
have long hair and wear a turban. Therefore it is a statement about gender.

8. Cooking comes naturally to women: How well a woman or man cooks has nothing to
do with their biological characteristics. By and large, women are expected to do the
household work, including cooking. However, the same activity becomes a man’s when it
is done outside the house and has monetary value attached to it.

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Annex 4 – Definitions of key Terms

GENDER is a term that describes certain attitudes, roles and responsibilities assigned
through a social process to males and females, and can often result in different
opportunities and behavior for both men and women. Gender is:
• determined by society
• varies within and between societies
• influenced by cultural, economic, political and environmental factors
• dynamic, not static

The term “gender” is used to make it clear that the gender identity and roles of men and
women are not biologically determined.

Practical gender needs and interests - needs and interests of women and men, girls and
boys relating to their different gender roles, activities and responsibilities. Broadly
speaking, meeting practical gender needs and interests can help to improve beneficiaries’
conditions without changing their social status. For instance, building wells to reduce the
amount of time women have to spend collecting water helps to meet their practical needs,
but does not directly improve their social status.

Strategic gender needs and interests - these are needs and interests of women and men,
girls and boys relating to unequal gender relations. Meeting strategic gender needs and
interests helps to tackle gender inequality by changing social relations. For instance,
changing the law to allow women to inherit land in their own right addresses women’s
strategic gender interests.

Gender Equity – it is defined as the condition of justice in relations among women and
men, leading to a condition in which women and men enjoy equal rights, opportunities
and status. The concept recognises that power relations between girls and boys, men and
women are unequal, and that such inequalities should be addressed. Gender equity now
is a step on the road towards gender equality in the future.

Gender Equality - In a gender-equal world, women and men, girls and boys would have
equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities in all spheres. This includes security and
health, a livelihood, social participation, the care of the home and dependants, and
participation in public life. In a society where the genders were equal, both women and
men would be recognised, respected and valued. Looked at another way, gender equality
is defined by the absence of gender discrimination.

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Annex 5 - Scenarios

1. A young girl in your program area is raped by the son of a powerful man in the
village when she is returning home after collecting water.

2. A village leader appointed by CARE to a monitoring committee to draw up the


list of beneficiaries for a CARE supported project includes the name of a widow
in the list only when she sleeps with him.

3. One of the women participants in a CARE program is beaten up by her husband


regularly.

4. A CARE construction supervisor in-charge of building shelters in the


rehabilitation program promises to build Mary’s house first if she allows him take
photographs of her naked. Mary gives in to his demand as she thinks she has no
choice.

5. While on field visits, an Assistant Country Director asks women field staff to
come to his hotel room after dinner for discussions while he enjoys his evening
drinks and shares some jokes with sexual content.

6. Anita gets promoted to a senior position that a few men had also applied for.
Some of her fellow colleagues, both men and women, are talking about it over
lunch. They pass derogatory and sexually coloured remarks about Anita, implying
that she was promoted not because she deserved it but because she obliged the
boss sexually. Shiela overhears their demeaning conversation and raises objection
to what is being said. They snap back saying it is none of her business and that
they are only having a harmless friendly conversation during lunch time.

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Annex 6 – Definitions

Sexual harassment (SH) - Any unwelcome, usually repeated and unreciprocated sexual
advance, unsolicited sexual attention, demand for sexual access or favours, sexual
innuendo or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature, when it unreasonably
interferes with work, is made a condition of employment or creates an intimidating,
hostile or offensive work environment

Sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA)


• Sexual exploitation - the abuse of a position of vulnerability, differential power,
or trust for sexual purposes; this includes profiting monetarily, socially or
politically from the sexual exploitation of another.
• Sexual abuse - the actual or threatened physical intrusion of a sexual nature,
including inappropriate touching, by force or under unequal or coercive
conditions.

Sexual and Gender-based violence (SGBV) is violence that is directed against a person
on the basis of gender or sex. It includes acts that inflict physical, mental, or sexual harm
or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion and other deprivations of liberty. While
women, men, boys, and girls can be victims of gender-based violence, women and girls
are the main victims.

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Annex 7 - Benefits of a gender-equal society…

1. If women have equal share in property then, …


2. If men were less burdened to be primary bread winners for the family,
then…
3. If girl child gets equal health care and nutrition, then…
4. If women stop dying during child birth, then…
5. If girls get equal access to education, then…
6. If women have equal representation in parliaments, then…
7. If men are not compelled to participate in wars, the…
8. If women enjoy the freedom to move outside home without fear, then…
9. If men equally shared household and child care responsibilities, then…
10. If women’s opinions and views are equally valued the, then,…
11. If girls are not forced to marry at a very young age, then …
12. If men are allowed to express their emotions, then…

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Annex 8 - Pressures and privileges of being men and women
PRIVILIGES OF BEING MEN: PRESSURES OF BEING WOMEN
1. Property, Ownership 1. Boys are preferred more than girls
2. Decision making authority 2. Not equal education opportunities
3. Leading role 3. No work opportunities
4. Right of having more wires 4. They are forced to marry not to take
5. Right of selection in marriage decision No right to say yes or no
6. Right of heritages 5. Too much expectation (too much work at
7. Freedom of movement the same time
8. Responsive to social affaires 6. Selling female for money, giving
9. Income and expense daughter as BAD
10. Freedom of working every where 7. Exchanging women BADAL
11. Access to higher Education 8. No money for their needs
12. Participation in all kind of ceremonies 9. Islam says only CHADAR but men say
13. Access/participation in politics BURQA
14. Expressing views freedom 10. Men laughs at women to discourage them
15. Choice of having more children (going out, opinion )
16. Right of divorce 11. No right to take decision
17. praying in mosque 12. Polygamy’s wrong interpretation men
18. Driving take advantages
19. Access to sports/physical activities 13. Family (in-law) interference
20. Right of daughters engagement 14. No acknowledgment or reward for the
21. Right to beat wife work
22. Freedom of working in every situation 15. Women do inside and outside the home
23. Freedom to have more luxury (to have (work)
female friend) 16. No opportunities for self care including
24. No cultural barriers nutrition, heavy work load, health care
25. Being powerful 17. The opinions of women are not
26. Being dominate group in Afghan context considered important
27. Noting left for women privileges ( all rights 18. Everyone tells you what u should
captured by male) do/think//behave
28. People automatically respect men’s opinion 19. Women holds honors of family
and right to lead 20. They pay for men’s guilt
29. Men are raised with a sense of entitlement 21. Domestics violence
that women are not 22. Force to give more births
23. No freedom of movement
24. Pressure do joint family system
Responsible for child care
PRIVILEGES OF BEING WOMEN PRESSURES OF BEING MEN
1. Having secure environment 1. Is the only bread winner for family
2. Not participating in war 2. All labor/heavy works to be don by them
3. Not responsible to feed family 3. Should defend their country/family
4. Not responsible for wedding exp 4. Should do all outdoor activities
5. Don’t need to wait in lines 5. Should head the household
6. Widely respected all over the country 6. Should pay all marriage expenses
7. Not performing labor/heavy works 7. Being aware for long time from family
8. Inherits from two sources 8. Involved in military service They are under
9. Have manner days to celebrate Ministry of pressure (mentally, physically)
Women Affairs 9. They have the main responsibilities of a
10. Are encouraged to apply for vacancies within family (as decision maker); E.g. if their
NGOs wives die they have to collect money for 2nd
marriage
10. They are forced to marry the widow (her
brothers wife)
NOTE: by ignoring women’s rights men are under

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all these pressures

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Annex 9 – Program and organizational scenarios/case studies

Scenario 1: OMID Project


CARE- Afghanistan’s OMID project operates in the districts 7&8 of Kabul to improve maternal
and newborn health. One of the main interventions within the project is to influence behavior and
practices for improved maternal health outcomes. A key component of the health education is
educating women and their families on the key danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth. Some of
the danger signs include Bleeding; Fitting; Headaches
 Blurring of vision
 Abnormal presentation during childbirth etc.

Women and their families are encouraged to make plans to visit the health facility in the event
that they witness one of more of these signs.

Questions for exploration and responses:


1. What might stop a woman from expressing her own health needs and getting the support
she needs?
 lack of courage; shy; fear; economic barriers; lack of attention to the women
and their health; restricted/poor access to health care centers

2. Does restricted mobility of women affect their access to health services?


 yes

3. Why is the mobility of women restricted?


 family barriers (violence); security issues; economic
problems/transportation; Poor access to health care centers; more household
responsibilities

4. What might you do differently as part of the project interventions to address this specific
challenges?, i.e. how would you promote or support a more gender sensitive approach in
this programming example?
 awareness of males (Gender); women empowerment (saving)

Scenario 2: Nutrition Programming

Brief description
Many programs in Afghanistan promote nutrition programs with a focus on improving the health
and wellbeing of families and communities. Within the OMID project for example, community
surveillance conducted by the CBEs indicates that poor maternal nutrition , both before
pregnancy and during pregnancy , is a major contributing factor to poor perinatal health-low birth
weight babies and high miscarriage rates.

The current OMID approach is to provide information to women on the benefits of adequate and
correct nutrition during pregnancy. But is this approach complete in addressing the key barriers
that influence this problem?

Questions for exploration:

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1. Can you describe some of the gender issues that might affect women’s nutrition in general and
especially during pregnancy?
 Traditionally women don’t get enough food even for herself during
pregnancy; lack of awareness within society & family about prefect diet for a
pregnant

2. Discuss some of social norms/ taboos related to feeding and pregnancy?


 pregnancy is considering as a shame according to some traditional issues,
therefore a pregnant can’t ask extra/fair food

3. Given your discussion, how might a program like this address the challenges described?
 awareness with the women, decision makers in the family & other family
members; link to health facilities.

Scenario 3
A senior staff in your province always makes jokes about women in the project
and uses biased languages to describe women and men staff. He often gives
important assignments to men and expects them to work late while encouraging
women staff to take it easy and go home early. A new female staff finds the
attitude offensive. The rest of the staff are used to him and say he means no
harm. One day he gets upset because she tried to challenge his and he pointed
out that things had always been that way, and that until she came along, there
were no complaints and they had been one big happy family. He suggests that if
she cannot fit in, she should not work here.

1. What are gender issues in this case?


 Gender harassment

2. Why is the senior staff behaving this way?


 Lack of awareness
 Discrimination

3. What would you do to address this situation?


 Development of policy to give equal opportunities to all staff
 Conducting training (for staff)
 To ensure all staff implement or not

4. What are the implications for each course of action?


 Ensure that according to the policy every one knows their responsibility roles
& accountability

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Scenario 4
Salim applies for a job, but ultimately doesn’t get the job. He feels strongly that he is the right
person and is especially upset because the position was filled by Zarina, who has been with
CARE only for one year. The hallway talk confirms his feelings that the position was anyway
“reserved” for Zarina. He is very upset about this decision and is thinking about filing an HR
complaint.

Zarina comes to know about this and is disappointed that Salim does not appreciate her abilities
and is afraid that Salim will create problems for her in the new job

1. What are the gender issues in this case?


 The experience or skills of women are not always valued he assumes she
does not deserve job, but she thinks she has capacity.
 Affirmative action sometimes means that men feel like jobs are reserved
for women and not on married

2. Why are Salim and Zarina thinking this way?


 Salim thinks that criteria should be length of employment
 Zarina is scared of repercussions if men feed she does not deserve job
 Salim may see this practice in other organizations and assume the same
reasons apply
 Zarina may not understand employment rights and what she can do if
problems happen because of this
 May be both of them do not understand recruitment process, criteria, was
it transparence?

3. What would you do to address this situation?


 Would explain employment rules and regulations to both
 Explain recruitment process and criteria transparency
 Sit with them in separate meetings and together to explain above , this
gives people chance to complain or raise issues
 Introduce all to GED workshop

4. ·What are the implications for each course of action?


 Awareness of employment rule regulation
 Salim may choose to leave CARE
 Time need to be taken to do the above
 If Zarina remains worried/afraid, she may leave job
 Zarina may lose self-confidence
 Both Zarina and Salim understand process and are both happy and work
well in future.
 If after all the above steps, Salim does not understand or agree, he may
have negative influence

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Scenario 5
In a remote village there is water scarcity due to drought and women have to spend near 2 hours
every day to collect water for their homes. A government official came to a village to discuss the
water problems and only met the men of the dominant culture. A community worker challenged
him and insisted that women and marginal groups be given positions on the community water
committee. This has happened but the women and marginal group representatives do not say
anything at the meetings. They arrive alone and leave alone and the men have made no effort to
make them feel welcome. When the Government official learns about this he says, “didn’t I tell
you that women are stupid and do not know anything about water issues.”

1. What are the gender and diversity issues in this case?


 Bringing water from remote area was the responsibilities of women in
that community
 Women are not able to express their feelings and ideas in front of the
men
 Women didn’t take part in decision making
 Women are under the pressure of men
 Women are ignored

2. Why are the women, men and the Government officials behaving this
way?
 Men are dominate, women are subordinate
 Lack of awareness from women rights and gender issues
 The government has no representative of women

3. What would you do to address this situation?


 Enhance the awareness of the village and government official
 Inclusion of women in decision making
 Capacity building of men and women
 All should be accountable & responsible

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Annex 10 – Changes identified in programs, within the organization and in personal
lives

OBSERVED PROGRAM CHANGE PROGRAM CHANGE NEEDED

 Increased access to quality  Creation of save environment for


education for girls education girls/boys
 Access for the women in  Capacity building and women’s
enterprise for the job training representation in different layer
job placement family/community/gov
 Increasing of women shares  Advocacy and job opportunities
 expanding of project for women empowerment
development of women’s
personal awareness and capacity
(in case of their rights and skills)
 participation of male staff at
male share in the community

OBERVED CHANGE IN ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE


ORGANIZATION NEEDED
 Should have a gender policy
 Increase of female staff in care (informed/updated regularly)
senior positions  Increased number of female staff
 Increase supportive (through recruiting move female
opportunities to female staff interns) train them over the
 Increase of staff awareness in internship period)
regard to gender  Cascading training into field level
( development of roll-out plan for
the trainings next level)

OBSERVED PERSONAL CHNAGES NEEDED IN GENDER IN


CHANGES AND GENDER PERSONAL LIFE

 Working with female staff  Improvement of co-Education


 Women travelling out side the  Women empowerment
country marketing/enterprising
 In my own family now women  Freedom of expressing opinions
can get vaccine when the time
arrived, but before they can not
go alone or without permission
 Increased girls education
coverage in my family

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Annex 11 – Participant Evaluation and Feedback

Evaluation by the participants

Name of Workshop: Gender Equity and Diversity. Date: from May, 12,
2008 to: May, 14, 2008
No of Participants: 48 Venue: ASSA 2
No of Evaluation forms Received: 36

1. Time of the workshop in view of the participants:


1. Too little =27% 2. Just enough=73% 3. Too
much=0.00%

2. Relationship of the workshop’s topics to their job:


1. Not related=2.7% 2. Somewhat related=11% 3. Closely
related=86.3%

3. In your opinion, what more topics need to be added to the contents of this course?
1. Gender in light of Islamic teachings should be explained in detail 12Participants
2. Gender issue in view point of Islam by a religious scholar 2 Participants
3. Topics concerning Women improvement Gender improvement, Gender 1 participant
Relationship, Gender implementation challenge
4. Social Justice, Human Rights 1 participant
5. Some images pictures which best describe how are men or women under 1 participant
pressure, also limitation and heavy load of works on females
6. Gender issues in Afghanistan context 1 participant

4. In your opinion, what topics need to be omitted from the contents of this course/workshop?
1. Discrimination 2Participant

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5. Comments:
a) In your opinion what were the strong points of this course/
workshop?
1. Good Facilitation and presentation 6 Participants
2. Working in Groups 9 Participants
3. Facilitation by a female 1 participant
4. Practical e exercise about diversity and change 3 participant
5. Provision of handouts 2 participants
6. Friendly sharing of ideas and open discussion 5 participants
7 Unnoticeable change in ideas 2 participant
8. Information regarding gender equity and diversity, Sexual Harassment, Sexual 2participant
exploitation
9. Diversity and equity in programming 1 participant
10. Gender and gender’s Islamic perception 4 participants
11. Practical Teaching Methods, Live examples, Role play and exercise 6 participants
12. Good management and translation throughout the session 1 participant
13. Objectives of GED, framework for change clarification of terms and importance of 1 participant
GED and how to change personal, organization and program change
14. Why gender equality is important 1 participant
15. Understanding how to respect the rights of others 1 participant

b) In your opinion what were the weak points of this course/ workshop?

1. Late coming of participants and going late to have tea and lunch 1Participant
Limited time 3 participant
2. No handouts in Dari 1 Participant
3. No certificates 3 Participants
4. Ventilation Problem of the room 1 Participant
5. Lack of time for discussion 9 Participants
6. Handouts were not distributed on time and they were not complete 1 participant
7. Poor knowledge of facilitator on Islam and Gender 1 participant
8. Not respecting the time in some cases 2 participants
9. Wrong translation of the verses from Holy Quran regarding no. of wives 1 participant

6. Skill and quality of Facilitator (S)


Skills and Qualities of the facilitator are given below, please choose the option which best
reflects her/his skills / qualities:

Name of Facilitator ↓ We Fai Go Ver Excelle Facilitation Yes/ No


Madhuri Narayanan ak r od y nt Method / Style yes
Go
od
1 Training skills 9.3 43. 46.78 Totally Lecture 5
8 75 participants
2 Knowledge of 12. 59. 28.12 Class 16
the subject 6 37 Discussion participants
3 Communication 21. 34. 43.76 Small Group 16
skills 87 37 Discussion participants
4 Questioning 6.2 15. 43. 34.37 Brainstorming 11
/answering 5 62 76 participants
skills

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5 Relation with 12. 52 37.5 Mix Method 14
participants 5 % participants
6 Interest towards 16 42 42%. No Group 5
the job % % Work participants
7 Respecting 12. 9.3 40. 37.5 No Class 5
given scheduled 6 7 62 Discussion participants
time

7. In your opinion, is there any other staff that should attend such a course/ workshop? Yes ( ) No
( )
Yes
28 Participants
No
2 Participants
No remarks
6 participants

8. Please write your other training needs, Name of Trainings?


1. Confidence resolution in a community and behaviour workshop 2 participants
2. Project and office management 3 Participants
3. Leader ship and Management 3Participants
4. Gender in Islam 2Participants
5. Community Mobilization and Gender Awareness 4participants
6. PRA and RBA 4 participants
7. Health Management 2 participants
8. Finance, Procurement, HR, Audit, and programs related training 1 participant
9. Media training 1 participant
10. Basic and Office management workshop 1 participant
11. Self-Confidence and behaviour (attitudes) 1 participant

9. Please provide below your kind comments on the Training Unit for its further improvement.
Also what more can training
Unit do for you?

1. To conduct the same GED workshop for the sub and site offices staff 3 participants

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