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International Journal of Current Trends in Science and Technology

Journal of Current Trends in Science and Technology Online ISSN: 0976-9730 Print ISSN: 0976-9498 Section:

Online ISSN: 0976-9730 Print ISSN: 0976-9498

Section: Zoology

ISSN: 0976-9730 Print ISSN: 0976-9498 Section: Zoology A Preliminary Assessment of Avifaunal Diversity within the

A Preliminary Assessment of Avifaunal Diversity within the Vivekananda College Campus, Kolkata, West Bengal

Dr. Malabika Bhattacharjee

Department of Zoology, Vivekananda College, Thakurpukur, Kolkata-700063 Email id: malabika.bhattacharjee07@gmail.com

Accepted 2018-04-10

http://currentsciences.info/10.15520/ctst.v8i04.428.pdf Introduction: Biodiversity assessment applying short span

Introduction:

Biodiversity assessment applying short span studies are becoming widespread and in this regard, preparation of checklists of birds on a broader scale has been given much importance [1]. In the recent past, avian diversity has been studied by some researchers in different parts of West Bengal [2-4]. Urban biodiversity has received very little attention from conservation biologists as compared to natural and protected ecosystems [5]. Educational premises are the hotpots for urban biodiversity as they are devoid of any developmental activities and pollution. Although educational grounds occupy less than 5% of the total urban area, such areas may harbour up to half the biodiversity of the urban biota due to undisturbed natural vegetation. Vivekananda College, Thakurpukur, (22.4643N and 88.3079E) is located in a sub-urban belt having a well-wooded campus amidst a mosaic of concrete buildings. The campus is spread over an area of 3.5 acres with lush green vegetation having large trees, bushy shrubs and long grasses that provide feeding, nesting and breeding sites for birds.

The College campus is surrounded by residential apartments, hospital, office buildings and large and small scale industries. The campus is flanked by roads with continuous vehicular movements. There is also a pond with rich aquatic vegetation within the college premises. The study area experiences a sub-tropical climate with hot summers from late March to early June (Temperature range: 25 °C-40 °C), the humid monsoon season from mid-June to late September and a cool dry winter from late November to early February (Temperature range: 12 °C-25°C). Humidity is generally very high during summer and the area receives an average rainfall of 170 mm. The present study is focused not only on preparing the checklist of birds, but also to find out their status, feeding habit as well as to create awareness for their conservation. In addition, the study aims at providing a baseline data regarding bird diversity of the sprawling Campus of Vivekananda College, Thakurpukur.

Dr. Malabika Bhattacharjee / A Preliminary Assessment of Avifaunal Diversity within the Vivekananda College Campus, Kolkata, West Bengal

Materials and Methods:

The findings presented here are based on random surveys carried out from July, 2016 to June, 2017. The total college campus was surveyed from morning 7.00 a.m. till 4.30 p.m. Occasional sightings of birds during nonbirding trips were also included in these studies. Birds were initially observed with the help of a Olympus 8 x 40 DPSI Field binocular and photographs were taken with a Canon PowerShot SX420 IS, Canon eos 1300d and Sony DSC-W210. In some occasions, birds’ calls were also noted. All identifications were based according to Grimmett et al. (1998) [6] and Ali, S (2002) [7]

Foraging groups were classified as: insectivorous (I), frugivorous (F), nectarivorous (N), grainivorous (G), carnivorous (CV) and omnivorous (OM) on the basis of feeding and foraging habits of the bird species according to our observation and as described by Ali and Ripley (1987) [8].

Results and Discussion:

The present study represented the avian community structure of Vivekananda College College Campus al. This is the first record of avifauna of Vivekananda College campus which depicted the presence of 32 species of birds belonging to 9 orders and 21 families (Table.1 and Table 2).

Table.2: List of Bird Orders observed in the premises of Vivekananda College, Thakurpukur from 1 st July, 2016 to 30 th June, 2017

Sl. No.

Order

Family

Common Name

 

Scientific Name

1.

Piciformes

Ramphastidae

 

Coppersmith Barbet

 

Megalaima haemacephala

2.

 

Blue-throated Barbet

 

Megalaima asiatica

3.

 

Picidae

Lesser Goldenback

 

Dinopium benghalense

4.

Coraciformes

Alcedinidae

 

White Throated Kingfisher

Halcyon smyrnensis

5.

Meropidae

 

Green Bee Eater

 

Merops orientalis

6.

Cuculiformes

Cuculidae

 

Greater Coucal

 

Centropus sinensis

7.

 

Indian Cuckoo

 

Cuculus micropterus

8.

Psittaciformes

Psittaculiodae

 

Alexandrine Parakeet

 

Psittacula eupatria

9.

 

Rose-Ringed Parakeet

Psittacula krameri

10.

Columbiformes

Columbidae

 

Spotted Dove

Stigmatopelia chinensis

11.

 

Eurasian Collared Dove

Streptopelia decaocto

12.

Yellow Footed Green Pigeon

Treron phoenicopterus

13.

Common Pigeon

 

Columba livia

14.

Falconiformes

Accipitridae

 

Crested Serpent Eagle

Spilornis cheela

15.

Suliformes

Phalacrocoracidae

Little Cormorant

 

Phalacrocorax niger

16.

Pelicaniformes

Ardeidae

Cattle Egret

Bubulus ibis

17.

 

Indian Pond Heron

 

Ardeola grayii

18.

Passeriformes

Corvidae

Rufous Treepie

 

Dendrocitta vagabunda

19.

 

House Crow

Corvus splendens

20.

 

Oriolidae

Black Hooded Oriole

 

Oriolus xanthornus

21.

Campephagidae

Large Cuckoo Shrike

 

Coracina macei

22.

Dicruridae

 

Black Drongo

Dicrurus macrocercus

23.

Muscicapidae

 

Oriental Magpie Robin

Copsychus saularis

24.

 

Indian Robin

Saxicoloides fulicatus

25.

 

Sturnidae

Asian Pied Starling

 

Sturnus contra

26.

 

Common Myna

 

Acridotheres tristis

27.

 

Pycnonotidae

 

Red Whiskered Bulbul

Pycnonotus jocosus

28.

 

Red Vented Bulbul

 

Pycnonotus cafer

29.

 

Sylviidae

 

Common Tailorbird

 

Orthotomus sutorius

30.

Timaliidae

 

Jungle Babbler

 

Turdoides striatus

31.

Nectariniidae

 

Purple Sunbird

 

Nectarina asiatica

32.

Laniidae

 

Brown Shrike

 

Lanius cristatus

Dr. Malabika Bhattacharjee / A Preliminary Assessment of Avifaunal Diversity within the Vivekananda College Campus, Kolkata, West Bengal

Order Passeriformes represented by 15 species belonging to 11 families contribute to about 46.85 % of the total avifaunal species richness (Figure.1).

% of the total avifaunal species richness ( Figure.1 ). Among the nonpasserines, maximum richness was

Among the nonpasserines, maximum richness was represented by the order Columbiformes (5 species) and order Piciformes (3 species) followed by Pelicaniformes, Cuculiformes Coraciformes (2 species of each) and Psittaciformes (Table 2; Figure.1). The family Columbidae also shows the highest species richness (5 species) within the campus. (Table 2; Figure 2).

( 5 species) within the campus. ( Table 2; Figure 2 ). International Journal of Current

Dr. Malabika Bhattacharjee / A Preliminary Assessment of Avifaunal Diversity within the Vivekananda College Campus, Kolkata, West Bengal

Among the foraging groups, omnivores (33.33%) dominated the bird community followed by carnivores (24.24%), frugivores (18.81%), granivores(12.12%) insectivores (9.09%), and nectarivores (3.03%) (Figure.3). Nectarivorous (3.03%) birds were the least representative group.

(3.03%) birds were the least representative group. The study of bird diversity besides office, residential

The study of bird diversity besides office, residential buildings, large parks and reserves in urban areas where humans interact with the nature on a daily basis may support high species diversity because these protected areas are the habitat fragments of highly diverse ecosystems. The various landscapes serve as a balancing reservoir for sustaining native flora and fauna. The study area, despite small in size, appears to support an extremely rich and diverse bird community because the dimension of the green space and the amount of tree cover are critical factors supporting avian ecological diversity in urban environments. The diverse feeding habit of the avifauna suggests that the study area provides a rich source of a variety of food resources. However, anthropogenic interference, developmental activities, sound pollution, feral dogs and trimming of plants during reeding season were identified as some of the threats to avifaunal diversity in the college campus. The distribution and occurrence of avifauna correlate well with the vegetation pattern of the area. The flora in our campus is a mixed type with trees, herbs and shrubs comprising the vegetation.

Conclusion:

The findings of the present study underline the importance of institutional campuses as a preferred habitat for birds. If the landscaping and vegetation pattern are well maintained, the diversity of birds may increase in our college campus providing a rich ground for avifauna conservation as well as for research. This study will also add to our future attempts in understanding the complex nature of mutualistic interaction between birds and flowering plants that is essential for continuity of ecosystem services. This is the first effort in exploring and documenting the avifaunal wealth of Viviekananda College Campus. The present list of bird species is not conclusive and exhaustive and future exploration needs to be continued to update the checklist obtained during this work.

Dr. Malabika Bhattacharjee / A Preliminary Assessment of Avifaunal Diversity within the Vivekananda College Campus, Kolkata, West Bengal

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