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Alejandro Garces, Member IEEE Carlos Adrian Correa, Member IEEE Ricardo Bolaños

Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Operation Coordination Direction

Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira Universidad de La Salle XM Filial de ISA

Pereira, Colombia Bogota, Colombia Medellin, Colombia

alejandro.garces@utp.edu.co carcorrea@unisalle.edu.co rabolanos@xm.com.co

Abstract—This paper presents an algorithm for the optimal any similar approach to the problem despite its practical appli-

scheduling of distributed energy storage units from the system cability. The main advantage of using non-linear programming

losses standpoint. An exact model based on Lagrange relaxation approaches is the additional information that Lagrange multi-

is proposed. Simulation results on the IEEE 37-bus test feeder

demonstrate that an energy storage system can be used for min- pliers or dual variables can give about the optimal operation

imizing transmission losses in a distribution system by reshaping of the system. This information is used for determining the

the load curve. optimal placement and size of the DESU. Other objectives

The main contribution of this approach is the objective such as minimal operative cost and power smoothing can be

function and the optimization algorithm. Lagrange multipliers also studied using the proposed methodology. Contrary to what

are used for determining optimal placement and sizing of the

energy storage units. A discussion about the impact of energy is expected, these objectives are not completely equivalent. In

storage units on the distribution planning is also presented. some cases, the maximum spot price does not coincide with

Index Terms—Energy storage, Optimization, Power distribu- the maximum load in the section of the distribution feeder that

tion systems is under study. In those cases, the optimization algorithm can

give different solutions according the objective function.

I. I NTRODUCTION The paper is organized as follows: First, the model of the

Distributed energy storage units (DESU) have demonstrated DESU is described, followed by the proposed optimization

to be an efficient solution in low and medium power applica- model for minimal losses based on Lagrange relaxation. After

tions with high variability in load and/or generation [1]–[3]. that, simulation results on the IEEE 37-Bus test distribution

They contribute to flatten the power curve and to increase the feeder are presented. Finally, the impact of energy storage on

stability in systems with high penetration of wind [4], [5], the planning of distribution systems is discussed, followed by

photo-voltaic [6], [7], and/or wave energy [8] among other conclusions.

renewable resources.

Different techniques have been proposed for optimal II. M ODEL OF THE DESU

scheduling of DESU. In most of the cases, discrete models A clear disadvantage of electric energy is the difficulty of

and heuristic approximations have been suggested due to storing for future needs. This has lead to research of different

the complexity of the problem. The optimization algorithms energy storage technologies such as electrochemical, flywheel,

used in those applications include dynamic programming [9], compressed air, and superconducting coil.

particle swarm [10] and genetic algorithms [11]. Different A distributed energy storage unit consists of a bank of bat-

objective functions such as cost reduction, power smoothing teries integrated to the distribution grid by a power electronics

and spinning reserve have been proposed [12]. However, inverter and transformer, as shown in Fig. 1.

energy storage systems for minimizing transmission losses The present approach considers electrochemical batteries

have not been studied. DESU can be used as compensator for storing energy. The main Rechargable electrochemistries

from the energy point of view. In other words, the objective available today are lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal

is to minimize energy losses instead of power losses as in a hidride, lithium-ion, lithium-polymer and zinc-air. The first

conventional optimal power flow. In addition, the optimization type of battery is more often used due to its reduced cost.

algorithm can take advantage of the three-phase converter that Nickel-cadmium in spite of being a mature technology has

is required for controlling the DESU, which can be used for been subject of critics from the environmental point of view.

reactive power compensation. An inverter is required for controlling the charge and

This paper proposes a new optimization model for optimal discharge of the battery and for converting from DC to three-

scheduling of DESU from the losses standpoint. In contradis- phase AC. This inverter can also compensate reactive power

tinction to heuristic approaches, the proposed algorithm uses and reduce harmonic distortion. These two alternatives are

a Lagrange relaxation and a backward/forward sweep-based not studied in this article. A transformer is used for galvanic

load flow. To the best of the author’s knowledge there is not isolation and for raising the voltage. Distributed energy storage

978-1-4799-6251-8/14/$31.00
2014

c IEEE

GRID

Pb(t) ≤ Pb(max) (6)

Transformer

where Rk is the resistance of the k-th distribution line, Ik(t)

is the current in the line k at the time t, and Eb(t) is the

energy stored in each DESU. The decision variable Pb(t) is

AC

DC the power delivered by the DESU b in the time t. If this value

is negative then the energy storage unit is charging, otherwise

it is discharging. Ωb represents the set of the DESU installed

in the distribution system while Ωl is the set of branches of

Battery the system.

Let us consider first a reduced problem with only the total

energy constraint (3). There is one of these constraints for

Fig. 1. Detail of a distributed energy storage unit each DESU placed in the system. Therefore, the Lagrangian

function requires one Lagrange multiplier for each DESU as

given in (7):

devices up to 4 MW have been reported [13]. Therefore,

the proposed methodology fully agrees with the technology 24

X X 24

X

available in the market. L= f (t)∆t + λb Pb(t) (7)

There are different models for the DESU. In this case, a 0 b∈Ωb 0

simplified energy model is used. This model will be discussed The optimality conditions are obtained by derivation of L

in detail in the next section. as function of Pb(t) and λb as given in (8) and (9).

III. O PTIMIZATION FOR M INIMAL L OSSES 24

∂L X ∂f (t)

Let us define f (t) as the total active power loss in a = + λb =0 (8)

∂Pb(t) 0

∂Pb(t)

distribution feeder in the time t. This power loss changes

according to the power Pb(t) injected or extracted by each 24

∂L X

energy storage system. The objective is to minimize the total = Pb(t) = 0 (9)

∂λb 0

energy losses in one day as given in (1). The total energy

supplied or absorbed by each DESU in a complete period Equation (8) implies the optimal operation is achieved if

must be zero as given in (3). This means the load profile the derivative of f respect to Pb is time invariant as given in

is approximately the same every day. This approximation is (10):

valid in some cases, for example in equatorial countries in

which seasons do not affect the power demand. In a more ∂f

λb = − ∀t (10)

general case, the total energy stored at the end of one period ∂Pb(t)

is given by a first stage of long term optimization. On the Therefore, the optimal operation can be determined by an

other hand, the internal model of the battery imposes some algorithm that iteratively approach this condition maintaining

additional constraints related to the power transmission rate constraint (9).

and the state of charge. These constraints are given in 5 and One challenge for this methodology is to calculate the

6. The complete optimization model is as follows: derivative of the transmission losses in Eq (10). It could be

24 calculated from the Jacobian result of the load flow. Neverthe-

less, Newton-Raphson based methods are not convenient for

X

M in f (t) (1)

0

studies in distribution systems due to the low ratio between x

and r. Therefore, a backward/forward sweep-based load flow

subject to is used for the losses calculation [14]. The value of λb(t) in (8)

X is then calculated by numerical differentiation as given in (11).

2

f (t) = Rk Ik(t) (2) A load flow for a small variation of the power Pb(t) + ∆Pb(t)

k is required in order to calculate this derivative. This load flow

24

X is initialized with the voltages for Pb(t) and therefore it only

Pb(t) = 0 (3) requires one or two additional backward/forward iteration.

0

PL (Pb(t) ) − PL (Pb(t) + ∆Pb(t) )

t λb(t) ≈ (11)

X ∆Pb(t)

Eb(t) = Emin + Pb(t) (4)

0 The value of Pb(t) is initialized in such a way that constraint

(3) is met. It is expected that the final optimal operation will

Emin ≤ Eb(t) ≤ Emax (5) charge the DESUs during the first hours in the morning in

Initialize

0, Pb(t) ≤ Pb(max)

g(Pb ) = P − Pb(t) , Pb(max) > Pb(t) (15)

t = t+1 b(max)

Pb(t) − Pb(max) , Pb(t) < −Pb(max)

where β is a tunning parameter and g is the penalization

function.

Power Flow IV. E FFECT OF E NERGY S TORAGE IN THE D ISTRIBUTION

Pb(t) + ∆P

P LANNING

Calculate λb(t) = ∂PL Energy losses in the distribution feeder are directly related

∂Pb

to load limits in transmission lines. As energy losses reduce,

maximum currents are also reduced. Therefore, a highly

loaded transmission line can be relieved by placing DESUs

t ≥ 24? Yes Calculate λmean , ∆λ along the primary feeder. Consequently, energy storage units

could have impact on the distribution system planning. New

No Pb = Pb + ∆λ transmission lines may not be required as a consequence of

reshaping the load curve seen from the substation. It should

be noted that energy planning and power planning, although

related, are usually considered independently. Transmission

t = 0 ∆λmax ≤

and distribution expansion planning models are usually built

No

using a power approach which does not consider the load curve

Yes but only the maximum power. This approach is suitable for

conventional distribution systems in which the new transmis-

END sion system must be capable of safely transmit power during

hours of peak demand. However, these hours represent less

Fig. 2. Algorithm for optimal scheduling of distributed energy storage units than 10% of the whole operation of the system. By an energy

approach, the distribution planning could be improved. The

proposed algorithm re-arranges the load in such a way that

order to be discharged during the day. Therefore, a possible the peak of one load is not coincident with the other loads

initial condition of power is given by (12). and the whole system is relieved.

On the other hand, the proposed objective function is

−Pb(max) t ≤ 12 different than the conventional load reshaping model. In that

Pb(t) = (12)

Pb(max) t > 12 model, the total cost of the energy is minimized. That is

suitable from the final user standpoint but not from the

Once λk is determined for each time t, the new value

distribution system operator standpoint, particularly, in some

of Pb(t) is calculated as given in (13) where ψ is a tuning

market schemes where the spot price is unified in the whole

parameter.

transmission system. In general, it is expected that peak load

corresponds to maximum price. However, since the price is

Pb(t) ← Pb(t) + ψλb(t) (13) unified, this peak load is the sum of all load in the system.

Notice Peak load in a particular feeder could happen to be at different

P that constraint (3) is met during all the algorithm time than aggregated demand according to the type of load

since ∆λb(t) = 0. The complete algorithm is shown in Fig

2. (residential, commercial or industrial). Therefore, the market

On the other hand, the power capacity of the DESU is approach gives a different solution than the proposed energy

determined by using this reduced problem since constraints (5) losses approach.

and (6) are not taken into account yet. This information is used V. R ESULTS

for optimal placement of the DESU in the power distribution

system as presented in the results. The proposed algorithm was tested on the IEEE 37-bus test

The inequality constraints can be effortlessly included in the distribution feeder which was modified by adding two DESUs

optimization algorithm by adding a penalization factor in the in nodes 29 and 12 as shown in Fig 3. Parameters of the feeder

objective function. This penalization factor is proportional to for balanced operation are given in Table I for a SBASE =

the difference between the actual power and the violated limit 1000 kW and VBASE = 4.8 kV. The voltage regulator placed

as given in (14) and (15) in the slack node is maintained in 1 p.u. in order to determine

the effect of the DESU on the voltage profile. It is assumed that

f (t) =

X

2

Rk Ik(t) + βg(Pb(t) ) (14) the system has two types of loads: residential and industrial.

k

The load curves corresponding to each of those type of loads

are depicted in Fig 4 where nodes 25 to 34 are industrial loads TABLE I

and the remaining nodes are residential loads. PARAMETERS OF THE IEEE 37 N ODES D ISTRIBUTION F EEDER

Na Nb R X B/2 P Q

1 34 1 2 0.0080 0.0320 0.0000 0.6300 0.3150

tap=1 2 3 0.0060 0.0016 0.0005 0.0000 0.0000

3 4 0.0083 0.0022 0.0007 0.0000 0.0000

36 2 33 32 4 5 0.0111 0.0051 0.0002 0.0850 0.0400

5 6 0.0037 0.0017 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000

6 7 0.0018 0.0362 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

37 35 3 25 26 29 6 8 0.0111 0.0051 0.0002 0.0850 0.0400

6 9 0.0059 0.0027 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000

DESU2 9 10 0.0082 0.0033 0.0001 0.0420 0.0210

24 22 21 4 27 30 9 11 0.0059 0.0027 0.0001 0.0850 0.0400

11 12 0.0104 0.0048 0.0002 0.0420 0.0210

12 13 0.0118 0.0055 0.0002 0.1400 0.0700

23 5 28 31 13 14 0.0074 0.0034 0.0001 0.1260 0.0620

14 15 0.0074 0.0034 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000

15 16 0.0051 0.0021 0.0001 0.0850 0.0400

15 17 0.0074 0.0034 0.0001 0.0420 0.0210

10 9 6 8 12 18 0.0133 0.0054 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000

18 19 0.0328 0.0134 0.0003 0.0420 0.0210

18 20 0.0051 0.0021 0.0001 0.0850 0.0400

19 11 7 4 21 0.0062 0.0025 0.0001 0.0420 0.0210

21 22 0.0052 0.0024 0.0001 0.0420 0.0210

22 23 0.0051 0.0021 0.0001 0.1260 0.0630

18 12 16 22 24 0.0072 0.0029 0.0001 0.0420 0.0210

3 25 0.0067 0.0031 0.0001 0.0850 0.0400

DESU1 25 26 0.0096 0.0045 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000

20 13 14 15 17 26 27 0.0021 0.0008 0.0000 0.0380 0.0180

27 28 0.0133 0.0054 0.0001 0.0850 0.0400

26 29 0.0148 0.0068 0.0003 0.0850 0.0400

Fig. 3. IEEE37 test distribution feeder with two distributed energy storage 29 30 0.0111 0.0051 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000

units (DESU1 and DESU2) 30 31 0.0072 0.0029 0.0001 0.0420 0.0210

29 32 0.0236 0.0096 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000

The total power losses with and without energy storage are 32 33 0.0031 0.0013 0.0000 0.1610 0.0800

32 34 0.0195 0.0079 0.0002 0.0420 0.0210

shown in Fig 5. The power losses in the distribution system 3 35 0.0103 0.0042 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000

are highly reduced during peak hours while they increase 35 36 0.0062 0.0025 0.0001 0.0850 0.0400

during low demand hours due to the charge of the DESUs. 35 37 0.0082 0.0033 0.0001 0.0930 0.0440

Nevertheless, the total energy loss is decreased by 5.3%.

The reduction in terms of peak power losses is even more 15

Power Losses [%]

reduction of 41.42%. 10

The power exchanged between each DESU and the distri-

bution grid is depicted in Fig 6. Since DESU1 is placed in a

5

residential zone, its power profile is similar to the load curve

for residential loads. The maximum required power capability

is less than 400 kW which is a value available with the state 0 5 10 15 20 25

Time [h]

of the art of the technology.

Inequality constraints where also considered in the algo- Fig. 5. Total power losses for the operation in one day. ( ) without energy

rithm. The maximum power capability of the DESUs was storage. ( ) with optimal operation of DESUs

0.4

1

0.2

Pb(t) [pu]

0.8

P [pu]

0.6 0

0.4 −0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

Time [h] Time [h]

Fig. 4. Load curves used for the simulation. ( ) load curve for residential Fig. 6. Battery charging/discharging profile for each DESU. ( ) DESU1.

loads. ( ) load curve for industrial loads. ( ) DESU2

0.2 11 10 8 5

12 4

13

6

4 14 3

Pb(t) [pu]

17

Pmax 15 19

9

16

7

0 20

−Pmax 21

24

2

3 18 25

22

26

28 23

−0.2 34

0 5 10 15 20 25 31

32 29 27

35

30 36

Time [h] 2 33

Fig. 7. Battery chargin/discharging profile for each DESU considering 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

inequality constrains. ( ) DESU1. ( ) DESU2 Required Power Capacity [pu]

1

0.95

VI. C ONCLUSIONS

V [pu]

energy storage units from the losses standpoint was proposed.

0.85 The algorithm considers the main constraints of this type of

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 devices and permits real time operation if the load curve

Node

is accurately predicted. Simulation results on the IEEE 37

Fig. 8. Voltages profile in t = 20h. ( ) without DESU. ( ) with nodes test system demonstrate the advantages of the proposed

DESU methodology.

Lagrange multipliers are used as sensitivity factor for deter-

mining the size and optimal placement of distributed energy

limited to 0.2 pu. The battery charging and discharging profile storage units.

for this case is shown in Fig 7. The problem could be analyzed as a multi-objective opti-

mization with two conflicting objectives: minimum transmis-

In contradistinction to transmission systems, voltage profile

sion losses and minimum power capability. The impact of

in distribution systems is dependent on the active power. The

distributed energy storage units in the expansion planning was

reason behind this behavior is the close relation between r

also discussed.

and x in each distribution line. This effect is depicted in Fig 8

The impact on the distribution system was clearly shown,

where the voltage profile with and without distributed energy

and becomes evident that allows a more efficient operation by

storage units is presented for t = 20h which is the peak hour.

reshaping the load curve. If there is massive implementation

The maximum reduction in terms of power losses is deter- of DESUs, it could also impact electricity prices, as well as

mined by using the reduced problem (see Section III-A). In investment cost of new equipment to reinforce distribution

addition, the required power capacity can be determined by systems.

using the information given by the Lagrange multipliers. Fig After showing the positive impacts, there should be adjust-

9 shows the total energy reduction in percentage as function ments in the regulation and policies to stimulate real imple-

of the required power capacity for placement of one DESU in mentation of DESUs, which is often one of the difficulties to

different nodes. Energy losses reduction is different according make these projects a reality.

to the node where the DESU is placed. For example, by By reshaping the load curve when using storage technolo-

placing a DESU in Node 3 the maximum reduction of energy gies, conventional generation resources are optimized, leading

losses is 3.8% and requires a capacity of 0.51 pu. Almost the to mitigation of CO2 emissions, which is also an issue of great

same reduction can be achieved placing a DESU in Node 14 concern nowadays.

with a required capacity of 0.31 pu. Nodes too close to slack

bus such as Node 2 or 3 as well as nodes too far as Node 34

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