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LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE/EPS Fundamentals Course

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Architecture LTE/EPS Fundamentals Course For public use – IPR applies 1 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Architecture LTE/EPS Fundamentals Course For public use – IPR applies 1 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1

Nokia Siemens Networks Academy

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Module Objectives

After completing this module, the participant should be able to:

Briefly explain the Network Architecture evolution from HSPA to LTE.

Identify the major subsystems on an LTE/EPS network

Name the defined Network Elements in an LTE network.

List the key functionalities for every LTE Network Element.

Name the standardised interfaces for LTE and understand the protocol stack implemented in each of them.

Discuss the different Roaming cases in LTE

Underline the inter-working principles of LTE with 2G/3G networks,

Explain the inter-working with non-3GPP networks, in particular cdma2000 HRPD

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Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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System Architecture Evolution (SAE) in 3GPP

The 3GPP system architecture evolution (SAE) framework is concerned with the evolved packet core network architecture. Targets for System Architecture Evolution:

Optimization for PS services, No longer CS Core network Support for higher throughput (more capacity, higher data rates) Decrease the response time for activation and bearer set- up (Control plane latency) Decrease packet delivery delay (User plane latency) Architecture simplification when comparing with existing cellular networks Inter-working with 3GPP access networks Inter-working with other wireless access networks

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Network Architecture Evolution

User plane

Control PlaneNetwork Architecture Evolution User plane HSPA Direct tunnel I-HSPA LTE HSPA R6 HSPA R7 HSPA R7

HSPA Direct tunnel I-HSPA LTE HSPA R6 HSPA R7 HSPA R7 LTE R8
HSPA
Direct tunnel
I-HSPA
LTE
HSPA R6
HSPA R7
HSPA R7
LTE R8
GGSN
GGSN
SGSN
SGSN
RNC Node B (NB)
RNC
Node B
(NB)
R6 HSPA R7 HSPA R7 LTE R8 GGSN SGSN RNC Node B (NB) For public use

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GGSN
GGSN
SGSN
SGSN
RNC Node B (NB)
RNC
Node B
(NB)
7 © Nokia Siemens Networks GGSN SGSN RNC Node B (NB) CT81922IT01GLA1 GGSN SGSN Node B

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GGSN
GGSN
SGSN
SGSN
Node B + RNC Functionality
Node B +
RNC
Functionality
SGSN RNC Node B (NB) CT81922IT01GLA1 GGSN SGSN Node B + RNC Functionality SAE GW MME/SGSN
SAE GW MME/SGSN Evolved Node B (eNB)
SAE GW
MME/SGSN
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
SGSN RNC Node B (NB) CT81922IT01GLA1 GGSN SGSN Node B + RNC Functionality SAE GW MME/SGSN
SGSN RNC Node B (NB) CT81922IT01GLA1 GGSN SGSN Node B + RNC Functionality SAE GW MME/SGSN

Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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What is EPS?

EPS architecture is driven by the goal to optimize the system for packet data transfer.
EPS architecture is driven by the goal to
optimize the system for packet data transfer.

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The Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

The EPC provides access to external packet IP networks and performs a number of CN
The EPC provides access to external
packet IP networks and performs a
number of CN related functions (e.g. QoS,
security, mobility and terminal context
management) for idle (camped) and
active terminals

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The Evolved UTRAN (eUTRAN)

•The eUTRAN performs all radio interface related functions
•The eUTRAN performs all radio
interface related functions

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Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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LTE/EPS Network Elements

Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.:

TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

X2 Evolved Node B (eNB) cell LTE-Uu
X2
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
cell
LTE-Uu
HSS MME: Mobility Management Entity S6a PCRF:Policy & Charging Rule Function MME Gx or S7
HSS
MME: Mobility Management Entity
S6a
PCRF:Policy & Charging Rule Function
MME
Gx or S7
Rx
S1-MME
PCRF
S11
S1-U
S5/S8
SGi
IMS/PDN
Serving
PDN
Gateway
Gateway
SAE
Gateway

LTE-UE

IMS/PDN Serving PDN Gateway Gateway SAE Gateway LTE-UE For public use – IPR applies 13 ©

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Evolved Node B (eNB)

LTE-UE

LTE-Uu cell
LTE-Uu
cell

Evolved

Node B

(eNB)

Node B (eNB) LTE-UE LTE-Uu cell Evolved Node B (eNB) •It is the only network element
Node B (eNB) LTE-UE LTE-Uu cell Evolved Node B (eNB) •It is the only network element
•It is the only network element defined as part of EUTRAN. •It replaces the old
•It is the only network element defined as
part of EUTRAN.
•It replaces the old Node B / RNC
combination from 3G.
•It terminates the complete radio interface
including physical layer.
•It provides all radio management functions
•An eNB can handle several cells.
• To enable efficient inter - cell radio
management for cells not attached to the
same eNB, there is a inter-eNB interface
X2 specified (optional). It will allow to
coordinate inter-eNB handovers without
direct involvement of EPC during this
process.

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eNB Functions Radio Resource Management (RRM) Radio Bearer Control: setup, modifications and release of Radio
eNB Functions
Radio Resource Management (RRM)
Radio Bearer Control: setup, modifications and
release of Radio Resources
Connection Mgt. Control: UE State Mgmt. MME-UE
Connection
Radio Admission Control
eNode B Measurements
Collection and evaluation
Dynamic Resource
Allocation (Scheduler)
IP Header Compression/ de-compression
Access Layer Security: ciphering and integrity
protection on the radio interface
MME Selection at Attach of the UE
User Data Routing to the SAE GW.
Transmission of Paging Message coming from MME
Transmission of Broadcast Info (System info, MBMS)

Mobility Management Entity (MME)

Evolved HSS MME S1-MME Node B S6a (eNB) S11 S1-U Serving Gateway
Evolved
HSS
MME
S1-MME
Node B
S6a
(eNB)
S11
S1-U
Serving
Gateway
• It is a pure signaling entity inside the EPC. • SAE uses tracking areas
• It is a pure signaling entity inside the EPC.
• SAE uses tracking areas to track the position of idle UEs.
The basic principle is identical to 2G/3G LA or RA.
• MME handles attaches and detaches to the EPS system,
as well as tracking area updates.
• Therefore it possesses an interface towards the HSS
(Home Subscriber Server) which stores the subscription
relevant information and the currently assigned MME in its
permanent data base.
• A second functionality of the MME is the signaling
coordination to setup transport bearers (SAE bearers)
through the EPC for a UE.
• MMEs can be interconnected via the S10 interface.
• It generates and allocates temporary ids for UEs.
• VLR-like functionality
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MME Functions Control plane NE in EPC Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) Signalling Idle State Mobility Handling Tracking
MME Functions
Control plane NE in EPC
Non-Access-Stratum (NAS)
Signalling
Idle State Mobility Handling
Tracking Area updates
Subscriber attach/detach
Signaling coordination for
SAE Bearer Setup/Release & HO
Security (Authentication,
Ciphering, Integrity protection)
Trigger and distribution of
Paging Messages to eNB
Roaming Control (S6a interface
to HSS)
Inter-CN Node Signaling
(S10 interface), allows efficient
inter-MME tracking area updates
and handovers
to HSS) Inter-CN Node Signaling (S10 interface), allows efficient inter-MME tracking area updates and handovers

Serving SAE Gateway (S-GW)

PCRF MME Gxc S1-MME (PMIP S5/S8) S11 S1-U S5/S8 PDN Serving SAE Gateway Gateway
PCRF
MME
Gxc
S1-MME
(PMIP S5/S8)
S11
S1-U
S5/S8
PDN
Serving SAE
Gateway
Gateway

Evolved

Node B

S5/S8 PDN Serving SAE Gateway Gateway Evolved Node B (eNB) Serving Gateway Functions Local Mobility Anchor

(eNB)

PDN Serving SAE Gateway Gateway Evolved Node B (eNB) Serving Gateway Functions Local Mobility Anchor Point:
Serving Gateway Functions Local Mobility Anchor Point: Switching the User plane to a new eNB
Serving Gateway Functions
Local Mobility Anchor Point:
Switching the User plane to a new
eNB in case of Handover
Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPP
mobility. This is sometimes referred
to as the 3GPP Anchor function
Packet Buffering and notification to
MME for UEs in Idle Mode
Packet Routing/Forwarding
between eNB, PDN GW and SGSN
It support Lawful Interception and
Charging functionalities
It support Lawful Interception and Charging functionalities •The S-GW and PDN Gateway provide the user plane
•The S-GW and PDN Gateway provide the user plane connectivity between the access network and
•The S-GW and PDN Gateway provide the user plane
connectivity between the access network and the external
packet data network (PDN)
• It connects towards the eNB via the S1-U interface
• The S-GW has some kind of distribution and packet
data anchoring function within EPC.
• It relays the packet data within EPC via the S5/S8
interface to or from the PDN gateway.
• A serving gateway is controlled by one or more MMEs
via S11 interface.
•At a given time, the UE is connected to the EPC via a
single Serving-GW

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Packet Data Network (PDN) SAE Gateway (P-GW)

Gx Rx MME PCRF S6a S11 S5/S8 SGi IMS/PDN Serving PDN SAE Gateway Gateway
Gx
Rx
MME
PCRF
S6a
S11
S5/S8
SGi
IMS/PDN
Serving
PDN SAE
Gateway
Gateway
•The PDN gateway (or P-GW or PDN-GW) provides the connection between the EPC and a
•The PDN gateway (or P-GW or PDN-GW) provides
the connection between the EPC and a number of
external data networks.
• It is comparable to GGSN in 2G/3G networks.
• A major functionality provided by a PDN gateway is
the QoS coordination between the external PDN and
EPC.
• Therefore the PDN gateway has to be connected
via S7 to a PCRF (Policy & Charging Rule Function).
• If a UE is connected simultaneously to several
PDNs this may involved connections to more than
one PDN-GW

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PDN Gateway Functions Mobility anchor for mobility between 3GPP access systems and non-3GPP access systems.
PDN Gateway Functions
Mobility anchor for mobility between
3GPP access systems and non-3GPP
access systems. This is sometimes
referred to as the SAE Anchor function
Policy & Charging Enforcement (PCEF)
Per User based Packet Filtering (i.e.
deep packet inspection)
Charging Support
Lawful Interception support
IP Address Allocation for UE
Packet Routing/Forwarding between
Serving GW and external Data Network
Packet screening (firewall functionality)
for UE Packet Routing/Forwarding between Serving GW and external Data Network Packet screening (firewall functionality)

Policy and Charging Rule Function (PCRF)

Rx MME PCRF Gxc S6a Gx (PMIP S5/S8) S11 S5/S8 SGi IMS/PDN Serving PDN SAE
Rx
MME
PCRF
Gxc
S6a
Gx
(PMIP S5/S8)
S11
S5/S8
SGi
IMS/PDN
Serving
PDN SAE
Gateway
Gateway
•The PCRF major functionality is the Quality of Service (QoS) coordination between the external PDN
•The PCRF major functionality is the Quality of
Service (QoS) coordination between the external
PDN and EPC.
• Therefore the PCRF is connected via Rx+ interface
to the external Data network (PDN)
• This function can be used to check and modify the
QoS associated with a SAE bearer setup from SAE
or to request the setup of a SAE bearer from the
PDN.
•This QoS management resembles the policy and
charging control framework introduced for IMS with
UMTS release 6.

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PCRF: Policy & Charging Rule Function QoS policy negotiation with PDN Charging Policy: determines how
PCRF: Policy & Charging
Rule Function
QoS policy negotiation with PDN
Charging Policy: determines how
packets should be accounted
PCRF to provide Policy & Charging
Control (PCC) rules every time a
new bearer has to be set up.
should be accounted PCRF to provide Policy & Charging Control (PCC) rules every time a new

Home Subscriber Server (HSS)

HSS HSS Functions Permanent and central subscriber database Stores mobility and service data for every
HSS
HSS Functions
Permanent and central subscriber
database
Stores mobility and service data for
every subscriber
Contains the Authentication Center
(AuC) functionality.
Contains the Authentication Center (AuC) functionality. MME S6a •The HSS functionality was already introduced by
MME
MME

S6a

•The HSS functionality was already introduced by UMTS release 5. • With LTE/EPS the HSS
•The HSS functionality was already introduced by
UMTS release 5.
• With LTE/EPS the HSS will get additionally data per
subscriber for mobility and service handling.
•Some changes in the database as well as in the
HSS protocol (DIAMETER) will be necessary to
enable HSS for LTE/EPS.
•The HSS can be accessed by the MME via S6a
interface.
• The HSS knows where the attached subscribers are
located (MME accuracy)

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Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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LTE/EPS Network Interfaces

User planeLTE/EPS Network Interfaces Control Plane Control Plane + User plane Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core

Control PlaneLTE/EPS Network Interfaces User plane Control Plane + User plane Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core

Control Plane + User planeLTE/EPS Network Interfaces User plane Control Plane Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC) HSS LTE-UE

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

HSS

LTE-UE

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC) HSS LTE-UE cell LTE-Uu Evolved Node B (eNB) X2

cell

LTE-Uu

(E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC) HSS LTE-UE cell LTE-Uu Evolved Node B (eNB) X2 MME: Mobility

Evolved

Node B

(eNB)

X2

Core (EPC) HSS LTE-UE cell LTE-Uu Evolved Node B (eNB) X2 MME: Mobility Management Entity S6a

MME: Mobility Management Entity

S6a MME
S6a
MME

S11

S10 MME
S10
MME

S1-MME

Gxc

S5/S8
S5/S8
S5/S8

S5/S8

S5/S8
S5/S8
S5/S8
S5/S8

S1-U

Rx PCRF Gx SGi
Rx
PCRF
Gx
SGi

PDN

Serving

Gateway

SAE

Gateway

PDN

Gateway

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LTE Radio Interface and the X2 Interface

Control Plane (CP) User Plane (UP) TS 24.301 NAS Protocols User PDUs TS 36.331 (E)-RRC
Control Plane (CP) User Plane (UP)
TS 24.301
NAS Protocols
User PDUs
TS 36.331
(E)-RRC
TS 36.323
PDCP
TS 36.322
RLC
TS 36.300
TS 36.321
MAC
TS 36.2xx
LTE-L1 (FDD/TDD-OFDMA/SC-FDMA)
LTE-Uu •Air interface of EUTRAN •Based on OFDMA in downlink and SC- FDMA in uplink
LTE-Uu
•Air interface of EUTRAN
•Based on OFDMA in downlink and SC-
FDMA in uplink
•FDD and TDD duplex methods
•Scalable bandwidth: from 1.4 up to 20 MHz
•Data rates up to 100 Mbps (DL), 50Mbps
(UL)
X2-CP X2-UP (Control Plane) (User Plane) User PDUs TS 36.423 X2-AP GTP-U TS 29.281 SCTP
X2-CP
X2-UP
(Control Plane)
(User Plane)
User PDUs
TS 36.423
X2-AP
GTP-U
TS 29.281
SCTP
UDP
TS 36.422
TS 36.424
IP
IP
TS 36.421
L1/L2
L1/L2
TS 36.421
TS 36.424 IP IP TS 36.421 L1/L2 L1/L2 TS 36.421 TS 36.420 [X2 general aspects &

TS 36.420

[X2 general aspects & principles)

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X2

Inter eNB interface

Handover coordination without involving the EPC

X2AP: special signaling protocol

During HO, Source eNB can use the X2 interface to forward downlink packets still buffered or arriving from the serving gateway

to the target eNB.

This will avoid loss of packets during inter- eNB handover.

arriving from the serving gateway to the target eNB. • This will avoid loss of packets

S1-MME & S1-U Interfaces

TS 36.410

[S1 general aspects & principles]

Interfaces TS 36.410 [S1 general aspects & principles] TS 24.301 S1-MME (Control Plane) NAS Protocols S1-MME

TS 24.301

S1-MME

(Control Plane)

NAS Protocols
NAS Protocols
S1-MME •Control interface between eNB and MME •MME and UE will exchange non-access stratum signaling
S1-MME
•Control interface between eNB and MME
•MME and UE will exchange non-access
stratum signaling via eNB through this
interface.
•E.g.: if a UE performs a tracking area
update the TRACKING AREA UPDATE
REQUEST message will be sent from UE
to eNB and the eNB will forward the
message via S1-MME to the MME.
•S1AP:S1 Application Protocol
MME
MME
TS 36.413 S1-AP SCTP TS 36.412 IP L1/L2
TS 36.413
S1-AP
SCTP
TS 36.412
IP
L1/L2

TS 36.411

S1-U (User Plane) User PDUs GTP-U TS 29.281 UDP TS 36.414
S1-U
(User Plane)
User PDUs
GTP-U
TS 29.281
UDP
TS 36.414

TS 36.411

IP L1/L2
IP
L1/L2
PDUs GTP-U TS 29.281 UDP TS 36.414 TS 36.411 IP L1/L2 eNB Serving Gateway S1-U •

eNB

GTP-U TS 29.281 UDP TS 36.414 TS 36.411 IP L1/L2 eNB Serving Gateway S1-U • User

Serving

Gateway

UDP TS 36.414 TS 36.411 IP L1/L2 eNB Serving Gateway S1-U • User Plane interface between

S1-U

User Plane interface between eNB and serving gateway.

It is a pure user data interface

Which Serving GW a user’s SAE bearer will have to use is signaled from the MME of this user.

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TS 36.410

[S1 general aspects & principles]

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EUTRAN & EPC connected with S1-flex

2

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Several cases

eNB 1 Single S1-MME Single S1-U

eNB 2 Single S1-MME Multiple S1-US1Flex-U

eNB 3 Multiple S1-MMES1Flex Single S1-U

eNB 4 (Not shown in picture)

- Multiple S1-MMES1Flex

- Multiple S1-US1Flex-U

S1-MME  S1Flex Single S1-U eNB 4 (Not shown in picture) - Multiple S1-MME  S1Flex

S10 & S6a Interfaces

S10

(Control Plane)

TS 29.274 GTP-C MME UDP IP L1/L2
TS 29.274
GTP-C
MME
UDP
IP
L1/L2
S10 •Interface between different MMEs •Used during inter-MME tracking area updates (TAU) and handovers
S10
•Interface between different MMEs
•Used during inter-MME tracking area
updates (TAU) and handovers
•Inter-MME TAU: The new MME can
contact the old MME the user had been
registered before to retrieve data about
identity (IMSI), security information
(security context, authentication vectors)
and active SAE bearers (PDN gateways
to contact, QoS, etc.)
•Obviously S10 is a pure signaling
interface, no user data runs on it.

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S6a

(Control Plane)

S6a Appl. TS 29.272 DIAMETER MME HSS TCP/SCTP IP L1/L2
S6a Appl.
TS 29.272
DIAMETER
MME
HSS
TCP/SCTP
IP
L1/L2

S6a

Interface between the MME and the HSS

The MME uses it to retrieve subscription and authentication information from HSS (handover/tracking area restrictions, external PDN allowed, QoS, etc.) during attaches and updates

The HSS can during these procedures also store the user’s current MME address in its database.

and updates • The HSS can during these procedures also store the user’s current MME address

S11 Interface

MME S11 (Control Plane) TS 29.274 GTP-C UDP IP L1/L2 Serving Gateway
MME
S11
(Control Plane)
TS 29.274
GTP-C
UDP
IP
L1/L2
Serving
Gateway

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S11

Interface between MME and a Serving GW

A single MME can handle multiple Serving GW each one with its own S11 interface

Used to coordinate the establishment of SAE bearers within the EPC

SAE bearer setup can be started by the MME (default SAE bearer) or by the PDN

Gateway.

SAE bearers within the EPC • SAE bearer setup can be started by the MME (default

S5/S8 Interface (3GPP Candidate based on GTP)

S5/S8 3GPP Alternative

Control

User

Plane

Plane

User PDUs GTP-C GTP-U TS 29.281 UDP IP L1/L2
User PDUs
GTP-C
GTP-U
TS 29.281
UDP
IP
L1/L2

TS 29.274

Serving

Gateway

PDN

Gateway SGi PDN
Gateway
SGi
PDN
IP L1/L2 TS 29.274 Serving Gateway PDN Gateway SGi PDN S5/S8 (3GPP candidate) • Interface between

S5/S8 (3GPP candidate)

Interface between Serving GW and PDN GW

S5: If Serving GW and PDN GW belong to the same network (non-roaming case)

S8:If this is not the case (roaming case)

S8 = S5 + inter-operator security functions

Mainly used to transfer user packet data between PDN GW and Serving GW

Signaling on S5/S8 is used to setup the associated bearer resources

S5/S8 can be implemented either by reuse of the GTP protocol from 2G/3G or by using Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements.

For public use IPR applies

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Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements. For public use – IPR applies 27 © Nokia Siemens

S5/S8 Interface (IETF Candidate based on PMIPv6)

S5/S8 IETF Alternative

Control

User

Plane

Plane

User PDUs Serving MIPv6 PDN TS 29.275 Gateway TS 29.275 PMIPv6 Tunneling Gateway SGi Layer
User PDUs
Serving
MIPv6
PDN
TS 29.275
Gateway
TS 29.275
PMIPv6
Tunneling
Gateway
SGi
Layer (GRE)
PDN
IPv4/IPv6
IPv4/IPv6
L1/L2

S5/S8 (IETF candidate)

Interface between Serving GW and PDN GW

S5: If Serving GW and PDN GW belong to the same network (non-roaming case)

S8:If this is not the case (roaming case)

S8 = S5 + inter-operator security functions

Mainly used to transfer user packet data between PDN GW and Serving GW

Signaling on S5/S8 is used to setup the associated bearer resources

S5/S8 can be implemented either by reuse of the GTP protocol from 2G/3G or by using Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements.

For public use IPR applies

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Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements. For public use – IPR applies 28 © Nokia Siemens

Gx (or S7) & Gxc Interfaces

Gxc (Control Plane)

Gx (Control Plane)

Gx Application Gx Application TS 29.212 TS 29.212 PCRF DIAMETER DIAMETER SCTP SCTP IP IP
Gx Application
Gx Application
TS 29.212
TS 29.212
PCRF
DIAMETER
DIAMETER
SCTP
SCTP
IP
IP
L1/L2
L1/L2
SGi
IMS/PDN
S5/S8
S-GW
P-GW
Gxc •Interface between the S-GW and the PCRF (Policy and Charging Rule Function) • It
Gxc
•Interface between the S-GW and the PCRF
(Policy and Charging Rule Function)
• It is only needed in case the S5/S8 interface
is based on PMIP (IETF candidate)
•The reason is that only in this case the S-GW
will perform the mapping between IP service
flows in S5/S8 and GTP tunnels in the S1-U
interface. The information to do the mapping
comes from directly from the PCRF

For public use IPR applies

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Gx (Also referred as S7)

Interface between the PDN GW and the PCRF (Policy and Charging Rule Function)

It allows:

the PCRF to request the setup of a SAE bearer with appropriate QoS

the PDN GW to ask for the QoS of an SAE bearer to setup

to indicate EPC status changes to the PCRF to apply a new policy rule.

to ask for the QoS of an SAE bearer to setup  to indicate EPC status

Rx & SGi Interfaces

Rx

Interface between PCRF (Policy & Charging Rules Function) and the external PDN network/operators IMS (in general, towards the Service Domain)

Standardized in 3GPP TS 29.214: “ Policy and Charging Control over the Rx reference point (release 8)”

SGi

Interface used by the PDN GW to send and receive data to and from the external data network or Service Platform

It is either IPv4 or IPv6 based

This interface corresponds to the Gi interface in 2G/3G networks

Standardized in 3GPP TS 29.061:

“Interworking between the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) supporting packet based services and Packet Data Networks (PDN)

Rx (Control Plane)

RX Application DIAMETER SCTP PCRF IP L1/L2 SGi (User Plane)
RX Application
DIAMETER
SCTP
PCRF
IP
L1/L2
SGi
(User Plane)

TS 29.214

Application PDN UDP or TCP PDN IPv4/IPv6 Gateway TS 29.061 L1/L2
Application
PDN
UDP or TCP
PDN
IPv4/IPv6
Gateway
TS 29.061
L1/L2

For public use IPR applies

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PDN IPv4/IPv6 Gateway TS 29.061 L1/L2 For public use – IPR applies 30 © Nokia Siemens

Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

For public use IPR applies

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with Non-3GPP access technologies For public use – IPR applies 31 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1

LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture Case 1

HSS

Home PLMN hPLMN

Visited PLMN vPLMN

Evolved Node B (eNB) cell LTE-Uu
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
cell
LTE-Uu

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

PCRF
PCRF

SGi

Rx+

Gx

S6a

S6a

PDN

Gateway

IMS/PDN

S8

Case 1:

Home Routed Traffic

By connecting Serving GW in vPLMN to PDN GW in hPLMN GTP tunnel and MIPv6 options over the S8 interface Also called “Remote Breakout”.

MME

S11

S1-MME

S1-U

Serving

Gateway

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

For public use IPR applies

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Serving Gateway Evolved Packet Core (EPC) For public use – IPR applies 32 © Nokia Siemens

LTE/SAE Roaming Architecture Case 2

Case 2: “Local Breakout”

UE can access the PDN network directly from the vPLMN rather than traffic being routed through the hPLMN. Breakout should depend on the service:

i.e.: internet access local breakout i.e.: access to corporate VPN remote breakout S9: PCRF-to-PCRF interface: roaming controlled by hPLMN policies

HSS hPCRF S9
HSS
hPCRF
S9

S6a

Home PLMN hPLMN

by hPLMN policies HSS hPCRF S9 S6a Home PLMN hPLMN Visited PLMN vPLMN MME Rx+ vPCRF

Visited PLMN vPLMN

MME Rx+ vPCRF S1-MME S11 Gx S5 S1-U SGi IMS/PDN Serving PDN Gateway Gateway
MME
Rx+
vPCRF
S1-MME
S11
Gx
S5
S1-U
SGi
IMS/PDN
Serving
PDN
Gateway
Gateway
Evolved Node B (eNB) cell LTE-Uu
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
cell
LTE-Uu

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

For public use IPR applies

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Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

UTRAN (E-UTRAN) For public use – IPR applies 33 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1 Evolved Packet

S9 Interface

S9

(Control Plane)

S9 Application TS 29.215 DIAMETER SCTP vPCRF hPCRF IP L1/L2
S9 Application
TS 29.215
DIAMETER
SCTP
vPCRF
hPCRF
IP
L1/L2
S9 • Interfaces between the hPCRF and the vPCRF is used in roaming cases. •
S9
• Interfaces between the hPCRF and the vPCRF is used in roaming cases.
• It is used in the VPLMN for enforcement of dynamic control polices from the hPLMN.
• It is standardized in 3GPP TS 29.215: “ Policy and Charging Control over the S9
reference point (Release 8)”.

For public use IPR applies

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over the S9 reference point (Release 8)”. For public use – IPR applies 34 © Nokia

Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

For public use IPR applies

35 © Nokia Siemens Networks

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with Non-3GPP access technologies For public use – IPR applies 35 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1

LTE/EPS Interworking with 2G/3G Networks

Gb GERAN SGSN Iu-PS S4 S3 UTRAN
Gb
GERAN
SGSN
Iu-PS
S4
S3
UTRAN

Gn

GGSN

Gi
Gi

PDN

S6d: diameter Based Gr: MAP Based

HSS

S6a

Evolved Node B (eNB) cell LTE-Uu
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
cell
LTE-Uu

LTE-UE

S1-MME

S1-U

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

For public use IPR applies

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MME

S11

S5/S8

Gx Rx+ PCRF SGi
Gx
Rx+
PCRF
SGi

PDN

Serving

PDN

Gateway

Gateway

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

CT81922IT01GLA1 MME S11 S5/S8 Gx Rx+ PCRF SGi PDN Serving PDN Gateway Gateway Evolved Packet Core

S3 & S4 Interfaces

TS 29.274

S4

(Control Plane + User Plane)

S3

(Control Plane) User PDUs GTP-C TS 29.274 GTP-C GTP-U UDP UDP IP IP L1/L2 2G/3G
(Control Plane)
User PDUs
GTP-C
TS 29.274
GTP-C
GTP-U
UDP
UDP
IP
IP
L1/L2
2G/3G
L1/L2
SGSN
Serving
MME
Gateway
IP IP L1/L2 2G/3G L1/L2 SGSN Serving MME Gateway TS 29.281 S3/S4 • Interfaces between EPC

TS 29.281

S3/S4

Interfaces between EPC and 2G/3G packet switched core network domain

They would allow inter-system changes between EPS and 2G/3G

The S3 is a pure signaling interface used to coordinate the inter-system change between MME and SGSN

The S4 contains user plane and control plane interface and it is located between SGSN and Serving SAE GW.

These 2 interfaces are based on the Gn interface between the SGSN and the GGSN.

This would allow to either forward packet data from EUTRAN via Serving SAE GW to SGSN (and then to GGSN) or from 2G/3G RAN to SGSN to Serving SAE GW to PDN GW.

For public use IPR applies

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RAN to SGSN to Serving SAE GW to PDN GW. For public use – IPR applies

LTE/EPS Interworking with 2G/3G Networks

Gb GERAN SGSN Iu-PS S4 S3 UTRAN
Gb
GERAN
SGSN
Iu-PS
S4
S3
UTRAN

Gn

GGSN

Gi
Gi

PDN

S6d: diameter Based Gr: MAP Based

HSS

Direct Tunnels from Serving GW to RNC (User Plane)

S12

Evolved Node B (eNB) cell LTE-Uu
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
cell
LTE-Uu

LTE-UE

S1-MME

S1-U

S6a

MME

S11

S5/S8

Gx Rx+ PCRF SGi
Gx
Rx+
PCRF
SGi

PDN

Serving

PDN

Gateway

Gateway

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

For public use IPR applies

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Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

U T R A N ) For public use – IPR applies 38 © Nokia Siemens

S12 Interface

S12

(User Plane)

User PDUs TS 29.281 GTP-U UTRAN UDP IP L1/L2
User PDUs
TS 29.281
GTP-U
UTRAN
UDP
IP
L1/L2
Plane) User PDUs TS 29.281 GTP-U UTRAN UDP IP L1/L2 Serving Gateway S12 • Interfaces between

Serving

Gateway

S12

Interfaces between EPC and 3G Radio access network

It would allow inter-system changes between LTE and 3G

The S12 is the user plane interface used for tunneling user data directly between the Serving GW and the UTRAN.

This would allow to forward packet data from 3G RAN to Serving GW to PDN GW.

It is based on the Gn interface between the SGSN and the GGSN and therefore uses the GTP-U protocol.

For public use IPR applies

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GGSN and therefore uses the GTP-U protocol. For public use – IPR applies 39 © Nokia

Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

For public use IPR applies

40 © Nokia Siemens Networks

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with Non-3GPP access technologies For public use – IPR applies 40 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1

LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP Access Technologies

Inter-working with non-3GPP Access Networks (ANs) was one of the key design goals for LTE There is a separate architecture specification (3GPP TS 23.402: “Architecture enhancements for non-3GPP access

(Release 8)” to reach this goal.

There are 2 sets of LTE/EPS inter-working principles:

1.- Generic and loose Inter-working solution for any non-3GPP

Access Network (AN). 2.- Specific and tighter inter-working solution for cdma2000 HRPD

For public use IPR applies

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inter-working solution for cdma2000 HRPD For public use – IPR applies 41 © Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE/EPS Interworking with Non-3GPP Access

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

HSS The P-GW keeps the role of mobility anchor point S6a MME Gx S1-MME Rx+
HSS
The P-GW keeps
the role of mobility
anchor point
S6a
MME
Gx
S1-MME
Rx+
PCRF
S1-U
S11
S5
SGi
PDN
Serving
SAE
PDN
Gateway
Gateway
Gateway
S2a
S2b
Trusted
Un-Trusted
Non-3GPP
Non-3GPP
Access
Access

CT81922IT01GLA1

Non-3GPP Non-3GPP Access Access CT81922IT01GLA1 Evolved Node B (eNB) cell LTE-Uu • S2 interface
Evolved Node B (eNB) cell LTE-Uu
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
cell
LTE-Uu

S2 interface provides connectivity to a non-3GPP access network (e.g. WLAN, WiMAX, 3gpp2, Fixed,…)

For public use IPR applies

42 © Nokia Siemens Networks

S2a Interface

S2a based on:

Proxy Mobile(PM) IPv6

S2a based on:

Mobile IPv4 Foreign Agent (FA) Mode

User Plane Control Plane User Plane Control Plane User PDUs User PDUs IPv4/IPv6 IPv4/IPv6 IPv4
User Plane
Control Plane
User Plane
Control Plane
User PDUs
User PDUs
IPv4/IPv6
IPv4/IPv6
IPv4
Tunneling layer
PMIPv6
Tunnelling layer
UDP
IPv4/IPv6
IPv4
L1/L2
L1/L2

Trusted Non-3GPP Gateway

Serving

Gateway

(LTE)

L1/L2 Trusted Non-3GPP Gateway Serving Gateway (LTE) TS 29.275 S2a • It provides the user plane
L1/L2 Trusted Non-3GPP Gateway Serving Gateway (LTE) TS 29.275 S2a • It provides the user plane
L1/L2 Trusted Non-3GPP Gateway Serving Gateway (LTE) TS 29.275 S2a • It provides the user plane

TS 29.275

S2a

It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between trusted non- 3GPP IP access and the PDN Gateway.

S2a is based on Proxy Mobile IP.

To enable access via trusted non - 3GPP IP accesses that do not support PMIP, S2a also

supports Client Mobile IPv4 FA mode.

S2a is standardized in 3GPP TS 29.275: “ PMIP based Mobility and Tunneling Protocols (Release 8)”.

For public use IPR applies

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and Tunneling Protocols (Release 8)”. For public use – IPR applies 43 © Nokia Siemens Networks

SAE/EPS Interworking with cdma2000 HRPD AN

E-HRPD AN HSGW A10/A11 PDN PCF/ RNC BTS cdma2000 E-HRPD Network STa S101 S103 HSS
E-HRPD AN
HSGW
A10/A11
PDN
PCF/
RNC
BTS
cdma2000 E-HRPD Network
STa
S101
S103
HSS
SWx
3GPP
AAA
Server
MME
S6a
Gx
S1-MME
Evolved
Rx+
PCRF
Node B
(eNB)
S11
LTE-UE
S1-U
S5/S8
SGi
cell
PDN
LTE-Uu
Serving
PDN
Gateway
Gateway

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

For public use IPR applies

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Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

U T R A N ) For public use – IPR applies 44 © Nokia Siemens

S101 & S103 Interfaces

S101

(Control Plane)

E-HRPD S101-AP MME Access UDP Network IP L1/L2 TS 29.276
E-HRPD
S101-AP
MME
Access
UDP
Network
IP
L1/L2
TS 29.276

S103

(User Plane)

HSGW

(cdma2000)

User PDUs UDP GRE IP L1/L2
User PDUs
UDP
GRE
IP
L1/L2

Serving

Gateway

(LTE)

User PDUs UDP GRE IP L1/L2 Serving Gateway (LTE) TS 29.276 S101/S103 • Interfaces between EPC
User PDUs UDP GRE IP L1/L2 Serving Gateway (LTE) TS 29.276 S101/S103 • Interfaces between EPC
User PDUs UDP GRE IP L1/L2 Serving Gateway (LTE) TS 29.276 S101/S103 • Interfaces between EPC

TS 29.276

S101/S103

Interfaces between EPC and cdma2000 HRPD

They would allow inter-system changes between LTE and cdma2000

The S101 is a pure signaling interface used to coordinate the inter-system change between the MME and the PCF/RNC

The S103 is the user plane interface and it is located between the Serving GW and the

HSGW.

Both of them are standardized in 3GPP TS 29.276: “Optimized handover Procedures and Protocols between EUTRAN and cdma200 HRPA (Release 8)”.

For public use IPR applies

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EUTRAN and cdma200 HRPA (Release 8)”. For public use – IPR applies 45 © Nokia Siemens

SAE/LTE Interworking with cdma2000 Networks

A11 eHRPD HSGW Access PDN Network S103 S2a HSS S101 S6a MME Gx S1-MME Rx+
A11
eHRPD
HSGW
Access
PDN
Network
S103
S2a
HSS
S101
S6a
MME
Gx
S1-MME
Rx+
PCRF
S11
S1-U
S5/S8
SGi

PDN

Serving

PDN

Gateway

Gateway

Cdma2000 Network (eHRPD)

Evolved Node B (eNB) cell LTE-Uu
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
cell
LTE-Uu

LTE-UE

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

For public use IPR applies

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Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

U T R A N ) For public use – IPR applies 46 © Nokia Siemens