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The 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle):

an approach to sustainable solid


waste management

Janya Sang-Arun

Sustainable Consumption and Production Group


Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
(IGES)

3Rs in Asia

The 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle)

• An approach to minimise resource consumption in the


level that sufficient for basic need (reduce), use goods
and materials until it can’t be repaired or fixed to
perform its function (reuse), and reprocess the
materials that being discarded into new products
(recycle).
• An approach that increasing resource efficiency, and
contributing to sustainable consumption and
production, and millennium development goals, etc.
• An approach to minimise waste to final disposal site

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 2
3Rs in Asia

Waste flow under a conventional waste management

Waste discards from Landfill or


consumption and incineration
production

Waste flow under a 3R concept

Reduce Waste discards Waste


Incineration
from recovery/
consumption intermediate
Reuse treatment
and production

Landfill

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 3

3Rs in Asia

The 3R contribution to lifecycle material management

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 4
3Rs in Asia

How the 3Rs contribute to sustainable solid waste


management?
Problems of waste management in most countries
• The rate of waste generation is increasing greater than capacity of
local governments (skills and budget), especially in developing
countries.
• Increasing social resistance to new landfill and incineration projects.
• Increasing concerns on environmental impacts including greenhouse
gas emissions and resource depletion.

The 3Rs can contribute to reducing waste for collection and


transport to final disposal site.
Lifecycle environmental impacts from the 3Rs is much lower
than landfill of unsorted waste.
Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 5

3Rs in Asia

3Rs implementation in Japan

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 6
3Rs in Asia

The 3R implementation to establish a sound material


cycle society in Japan
• Introducing series of national laws and action plans
• Mandatory waste separation at source to facilitating efficient
recycling system
• Mandatory recycling for some types of products and waste

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 7

3Rs in Asia

Examples of regulation and policy that aligned with the


3Rs and sound material cycle society in Japan
Basic environment law Full enforcement 8/94

Fundamental law for establishing a sound material cycle society


Promulgated in 2001

Waste management and Law for the promotion of


public cleansing law effective utilisation of resources
Promulgated in 1971, last amendment in 2002 Promulgated in 1991, last amendment in 2000

Container and Home Food Construction Automobile


packaging appliance recycling material recycling
recycling law recycling law law recycling law law
Full enforcement 4/00 4/01 5/01 5/02 1/05

Law on promoting green purchasing

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 8
3Rs in Asia

Changes in MSW generations after introducing the 3Rs

15.6% reduction

16.1% reduction

1987

Source: MOEJ, 2012


Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 9

3Rs in Asia

Changes in residual lifetime of landfill in Japan

300,000 20

18
Residual capacity (thousand m3)

250,000
16
Residual numbers of years

14
200,000
164,937 160,347 12
152,503
144,816
150,000 138,259 132,976 10
130,359
122,015 121,842
116,044
8
100,000
6

4
50,000
2

0 0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Residual capacity Residual number of years

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 10
3Rs in Asia

Changes in recycling rate of municipal solid waste in Japan

25

20.3 20.3 20.5


19.6
20 19.0
17.6
16.8
15.9
15
14.3
Recycling rate (%)

15

10
Top recycling rate in 2009 was 80% in Osaki
town of Kagoshima Prefecture
5

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 11

3Rs in Asia

Changes in cost for MSW management in Japan

Total cost Cost per head Cost per


Year
(billion JPY )* (JPY/person/yr)* tonne (JPY)*

2,371 19,700 56,329


2000
(47.4) (394) (1,127)
1,934 15,200 36,236
2004
(38.7) (304) (725)
1,817 14,200 37,766
2008
(36.3) (284) (755)
* Values in (..) are Brazil Real

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 12
3Rs in Asia

3R implementation in Thailand (developing country)

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 13

3Rs in Asia

3R implementation for establishing a recycling society in


Thailand

• Announce national policy to promote implementation of the 3Rs,


but no legislation
• Implementation at local level by initiatives of municipalities
• Promoting community based recycling activities in collaboration
with waste buyers and recycling companies
• Achieving 23% recycling rate due mainly to recycling business
that operated by private (informal) waste management sectors
(waste pickers, waste buyers, recycling company)

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 14
3Rs in Asia

3R implementation for establishment of recycle society in


Phitsanulok, Thailand
• Based on a voluntary basis
• Reducing use of plastic bag by using
reusable containers for shopping and
carrying food
• Campaign to encourage residents separate
recyclables for sale
• Collaborating with waste buyers
• Promoting household organic waste
composting
• Implementing a mechanical-biological
treatment (MBT) and segregation of plastic
from MBT for pyrolysis (liquid fuel-diesel,
gasoline) Photo: Suthi Hantrakul
Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 15

3Rs in Asia

Changes in MSW generations after introducing the 3Rs


in Phitsanulok, Thailand
160 50
46.5
45.1
142 139 43.7
45
Waste for collection service (tonnes/day)

140 42.3 42.3 42.3


127 40.8 40.8 40.8
% of reduction compared to 1997

37.3 40
120
Saving 35
210,000 USD/yr
100
89 30
82 84 82 84 84 82
78 80
80 76 25

20
60
15
10.6
40
10
20
5
2.1
0 0 0
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife
3Rs in Asia

3R’s contribution to climate change mitigation

Sectors Climate co-benefits


Waste - Reduced methane emissions from landfill
- Reduced carbon dioxide emissions from burning of plastics
Energy and - Reduced emissions from energy use in the process of resource
transport extraction, agriculture, good production and distribution, and waste
transportation and treatment
- Reduced emissions from fossil fuels by using energy recovered from
waste
Industry - Reduced emissions from industrial processes by reducing product
demand
- Reduced emissions from chemical fertilizer production
Agriculture - Avoided nitrous oxide emissions from farmland by reducing use of
chemical fertilizer
- Increased soil carbon sequestration
Land use change - Reduced emissions from mining and deforestation
and forestry

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 17

3Rs in Asia

GHG emissions from different waste treatment technologies


in Thailand- LCA perspective

Baseline for mixed waste management is sanitary landfilling of mixed waste without gas recovery.
The baseline of organic waste utilisation is sanitary landfilling of organic waste without gas recovery
Source: Sang-Arun et al, 2012
Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 18
3Rs in Asia

GHG emissions from recycling activity in Thailand – LCA


perspective

GHG emissions GHG emissions Net emissions


GHG emissions from recycling*
avoidance from virgin avoidance from
Type of from recycling1
process1 sanitary landfill
recyclables (A) (D) = (A)-(B)-(C)
(B) (C)

(tCO2-eq/tonne of waste)
Paper 1.27 0.97 2.38 -2.08
Plastic 2.15 1.90 0 0.25**
Aluminium 0.39 12.47 0 -12.08
Steel 1.10 2.95 0 -1.85
Glass 0.57 1.03 0 -0.46

Remarks: 1Menikpura, 2011;


*Plastic recycling in Japan is more climate friendly than incineration.
Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 19

3Rs in Asia

Example of GHG emissions from integrated waste


management system in Muangklang Municipality
4000  36% emissions reduction (LCA)
3444
3500  12% emissions reduction in the
waste sector (avoided landfill
3000
GHG emissions (tCO2eq/yr)

emissions)
2500

2000

1500

1000 2715

500
103 1.3 -120
-94 -619
0
Transportation Front-end Sanitary landfill Animal feed Composting Anaerobic Net emissions
separation digestion
-500

-1000
Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 20
3Rs in Asia

The 3R policies in developing Asian countries

• 3Rs for Improved solid waste management policy


– National 3R strategies, integrated solid waste management
– Philippines, Malaysia, Viet Nam, China, Cambodia,
Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand, etc.
• 3Rs in climate change mitigation action policy
- Avoiding GHG emission from the waste sector
- China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, etc

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 21

3Rs in Asia

Keys to success

• Strong commitment of the leader and top decision maker


• Regular public communication and sharing information
including public consultation
• Begin with small scale and enlarge it later
• Continuity of the program
• Participation of all stakeholders (complete cycle/chain)
• Campaign and public events for mass participation
• Be Positive! Be creative!

Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 22
3Rs in Asia

Conclusion

• 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) is a sustainable approach that can


contribute to sustainable solid waste management and other global
issues such as sustainable consumption and production, resource
saving, climate change, poverty reduction, and so on.
• 3Rs is applicable to any country, however the level of
implementation could be varied depending on the readiness and
conditions of each locality.
• 3Rs is highly relevant with public participation, thus it would take
sometimes for campaign and raising awareness of the locals.
• 3R implementation could be on a voluntary basis or mandatory
basis depending on suitability of each country or city. In addition,
any stakeholders can take initiatives.
Janya Sang-Arun IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp BNDES seminar, 14 -16 May 2012, Recife 23