Sei sulla pagina 1di 55


(May 2017 – February 2018)

Table of Contents
3.1.1. National Council of Senior Citizens ____ 16
1. GENDER RELATED ISSUES _____________ 3 3.1.2. Policy Response to Aging ____________ 16
1.1. Misuse of Anti-Dowry Legislation ______ 3 3.2. Disabled _________________________ 17
1.2. Triple Talaq ________________________ 3 3.2.1. The Rights of Persons with Disability Act,
2016 _________________________________ 17
1.3. She-Box ___________________________ 4 3.2.2. Divyang Sarathi Mobile App __________ 18
1.4. Global Gender Gap Report 2017 _______ 4 3.3. Minority _________________________ 18
3.3.1. Garib Nawaz Skill Development Centres 18
1.5. Women Set to be Inducted in Territorial
3.3.2. Jiyo Parsi _________________________ 18
Army (TA) _____________________________ 4
3.4. Tribals ___________________________ 19
1.6. Schemes for Economic Empowerment of
3.4.1. Habitat Rights to PVTGS _____________ 19
Women ______________________________ 5 3.4.2. Eklavya Schools ___________________ 19
1.6.1. Kanyashree Prakalpa Scheme __________ 5
1.6.2. Pradhan Mantri Mahila Shakti Kendra 3.5. Other Issues ______________________ 20
(PMMSK) _______________________________ 5 3.5.1. Maharashtra Social Boycott Act _______ 20
1.6.3. 'SheMeansBusiness' Programme _______ 6 3.5.2. Manual Scavenging ________________ 20
3.5.3. Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood
1.7 Schemes in Context of Violence Against and Regulation of Street Vending) Act, 2017 __ 20
Women ______________________________ 6 3.5.4. Inclusive India Initiative _____________ 21
1.7.1. Swadhar Greh Scheme _______________ 6 3.5.5. 2016 Indian Exclusion Report (IXR) ____ 22
1.7.2. Nirbhaya Fund______________________ 6
4. EDUCATION _______________________ 23
1.8. Schemes to Deal with Son Preference &
Girl Child Discrimination _________________ 6 4.1. Primary & Secondary Education ______ 23
1.8.1. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao _____________ 6 4.1.1. Integrated School Education Scheme __ 23
1.8.2. Mission for Protection and Empowerment 4.1.2. National Achievement Survey ________ 24
for Women _____________________________ 7 4.1.3. The Right of Children to Free and
Compulsory Education (Amendment) Bill, 2017 25
1.9. Schemes Related to Women’s Health __ 8
1.9.1. Project Stree Swabhiman _____________ 8 4.2. Higher Education __________________ 25
1.9.2. Sub-Schemes Under ICDS _____________ 8 4.2.1. All India Survey on Higher Education ___ 25
4.2.2. Institutions of Eminence ____________ 26
1.10. Maternity Benefit Schemes__________ 9 4.2.3. Revitalization Infrastructure and Systems in
1.10.1. Vatsalya-Maatri Amrit Kosh __________ 9 Education _____________________________ 26
1.10.2. Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana 9 4.2.4. Technical Education Quality Improvement
1.10.3. Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 201710 Programme (TEQIP) _____________________ 26
1.11. Other Schemes ___________________ 10 4.2.5. Madhyamik and Uchchtar Shiksha Kosh 27
1.11.1. Online Portals ‘Nari’ and ‘E-Samvaad’ _ 10 4.3. Miscellaneous_____________________ 28
1.12. Developments Related to Transgender 11 4.3.1. Education Development Impact Bond __ 28
4.3.2. Creation of National Testing Agency ___ 28
2. CHILD RELATED ISSUES ______________ 12 4.3.3. Global Education Monitoring Report ___ 28
4.3.4. New Online Education Initiatives ______ 29
2.1. Child Labour ______________________ 12
5. HEALTH ___________________________ 30
2.2. Child Sex Abuse ___________________ 13
5.1. Healthcare Status in India ___________ 30
2.3. Safe Childhood Programme _________ 14
5.1.1. Healthy States, Progressive India Report 30
2.3.1. National Policy for Children 2013 ______ 15
5.1.2. Private Health Care ________________ 30
2.3.2. National Action Plan for Children, 2016 _ 15
5.1.3. Focus on Newborns ________________ 31
3. OLD AGE/DISABLED/VULNERABLE 5.1.4. Infant Mortality Rate _______________ 31
SECTIONS ___________________________ 16 5.1.5. Integrated Health Information Platform
(IHIP)_________________________________ 32
3.1. Elderly in India ____________________ 16
5.2. Nutrition _________________________ 32 5.5.3. Mental Healthcare Act ______________ 45
5.2.1. Global Hunger Index ________________ 32 5.5.4. Evin Project ______________________ 45
5.2.2. Global Nutrition Report 2017 _________ 33 5.5.5. Index for Tracking Performance of Hospitals45
5.2.3. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in 5.5.6. ECHO Clinic _______________________ 46
the World Report _______________________ 33 5.5.7. AMRIT Outlets ____________________ 46
5.2.4. Urban Nutrition in India _____________ 34 5.5.8. Janaushadhi Pariyojana _____________ 46
5.2.5. National Nutrition Strategy___________ 34
5.2.6. ‘Zero Hunger' Programme ___________ 36
6. MISCELLANEOUS ___________________ 48
5.2.7. Swasth Bachche, Swasth Bharat 6.1. Labour Ministry: Social Security Schemes48
Programme ____________________________ 36
5.2.8. Therapeutic Food __________________ 36 6.2. Indexes and Reports _______________ 48
6.2.1. Social Progress Index: State of India ___ 48
5.3. Family Planning ___________________ 37 6.2.2. Global Human Capital Index __________ 49
5.3.1. Fertility Trend in India _______________ 37 6.2.3. SDGS Index _______________________ 49
5.3.2. Mission Parivar Vikas _______________ 37
6.3. Programmes and Schemes __________ 50
5.4. Diseases _________________________ 38 6.3.1. Swatch Bharat Abhiyan _____________ 50
5.4.1. Global Burden of Disease Study _______ 38 6.3.2. Swacchta Hi Seva __________________ 50
5.4.2. India State Level Disease Burden Report 39 6.3.3. Arunachal Becomes Open Defecation Free
5.4.3. National Strategic Plan (2017-24) & Mission (ODF) ________________________________ 51
Sampark ______________________________ 40 6.3.4. India Youth Development Index and Report
5.4.4. National Strategic Plan for Malaria 2017 _________________________________ 51
Elimination ____________________________ 41 6.3.5. Vidyarthi Vigyan Manthan ___________ 52
5.4.5. Pictorial Warning on Tobacco Products _ 42 6.3.6. LPG Panchayat ____________________ 52
5.4.6. India Health Fund __________________ 42 6.3.7. Utkrisht Impact Bond _______________ 53
5.4.7. Joint Monitoring Programme 2017 _____ 42 6.3.8. National Rural Drinking Water Programme53
5.5. Government Schemes ______________ 43 6.3.9. Swajal Yojana _____________________ 53
6.3.10. World Inequality Report____________ 54
5.5.1. NHPS ____________________________ 43
5.5.2. Mission Indradhanush ______________ 44

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LEGISLATION Why in news?
Why in News? The two recent developments related to triple
Supreme Court has ordered a number of talaq are:
safeguards to prohibit the misuse of the anti- • Recently, constitution Bench set aside the
dowry provisions, under section 498a of IPC. practice of instant triple talaq (talaq-e-bid’a)
Anti Dowry Act 1961 in Shayara Bano case.
• It prohibits the giving and taking of dowry. • Also, Lok Sabha passed ‘The Muslim Women
• It had consolidated the anti-dowry laws which (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2017’.
had been passed in certain states.
• It defined dowry as any property or valuable
• In 2002 case, a two-judge bench of the Apex Court
security given or agreed to be given in
had delegitimised this instant talaq (Shamim Ara
connection with the marriage.
case). However, it was invalid only when it was
• It does not apply for the presents given at the
not properly pronounced and not preceded by
time of wedding.
attempts at reconciliation.
Changes by Supreme Court • This latest ruling completely and unconditionally
invalidates talaq-e-bid’a
• It called for involvement of civil society and • The Koranic procedure of talaq is the only way by
sensitisation of investigation officers. which Muslim husband will be able to divorce his
• The court ordered setting up of Family wife from now on.
Welfare Committees (to be set up by District
The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on
Legal Services Authorities) in every district to
Marriage) Bill, 2017
look into complaints related to Section 498a
of IPC. • It makes all declaration of talaq, including in
• No arrest should normally be affected until written or electronic form, to be void and
the committee submits its report on the illegal. It defines talaq as talaq-e-biddat or
matter. any other similar form of talaq pronounced
• There must be a designated officer to by a Muslim man resulting in instant and
investigate such complaints who should be irrevocable divorce. Talaq-e-biddat refers to
cautious in matters of bail. the practice under Muslim personal laws
• The court also made it clear that these where pronouncement of the word ‘talaq’
directions will not apply in offenses in which thrice in one sitting by a Muslim man to his
there is tangible physical injury or death. wife results in an instant and irrevocable
Related Provisions of IPC • Offence and penalty- It makes declaration of
• Section 498A- Whoever, being the husband talaq a cognizable and non-bailable
or the relative of the husband of a woman, offence. A husband declaring talaq can be
subjects such woman to cruelty shall be pun- imprisoned for up to three years along with a
ished with imprisonment for a term which fine.
may extend to three years and shall also be • Allowance- A Muslim woman, against whom
liable to fine. It is separate from the Anti talaq has been declared, is entitled to seek
Dowry Act. subsistence allowance from her husband for
• Section 304B relates to Dowry Deaths. herself and for her dependent children. The
amount of the allowance will be decided by a
First Class Magistrate.
• Custody of minor children will be determined
by the Magistrate.

Why in News?
Recently government launched an online Why in news?
platform, SHe-Box, which enables women Recently, World Economic Forum released the
employees to file complaints related to sexual Global Gender Gap Report.
harassment at the workplace.
Global Gender Gap Report
Highlights of SHe-box
• It seeks to ensure effective implementation of the • The report was introduced by the World
Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Economic Forum in 2006 as a framework for
(Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 capturing the magnitude of gender-based
[SHW ACT]. disparities and tracking their progress over
• Once a complaint is submitted to the portal, it will time.
be directly sent to the ICC/LCC of the concerned • It captures four dimensions Economic
authority having jurisdiction to take action into Participation and Opportunity, Educational
the matter.
Attainment, Health and Survival and
• Both, Ministry of Women & Child Development
Political Empowerment.
Ministry as well as complainant, can monitor the
progress of inquiry. Findings of the Report
• Users of SHe-Box also have the option of
interacting with Ministry of WCD through this • According to the latest report, about 32% of
portal, with an assured time-bound response. the gender gap still remains to be closed as
compared to 31.7% in 2016.
Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace • Iceland was ranked 1st in the list of 144
(Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, countries.
• A significant feature of the 2017 report is that
• It defines sexual harassment at the work it analyses the dynamics of gender gaps
place and creates a mechanism for redressal across industry talent pools and occupation.
of complaints. It also provides safeguards It found that men were distinctively under-
against false or malicious charges. represented in Education and Health sector
• It includes all women both from organised where as women in Engineering,
and unorganised, public or private sectors, Manufacturing Construction and IT etc.
regardless of hierarchy. The domestic
Gender Gap in India
workers are also included within its ambit.
• Every employer is required to constitute an • India has closed its gender gap by 2 per cent
Internal Complaints Committee (ICC) at each in a year but slipped 21 ranks to 108.
office or branch with 10 or more • India’s greatest challenge lies in the
employees. The District Officer is required to economic participation and opportunity
constitute a Local Complaints Committee pillar where it ranked 139 and health and
(LCC) at each district, and if required at the survival pillar where it ranks 141.
block level. • India ranked 15th in terms of political
• The Complaints Committees have the participation and 112 in terms of education
powers of civil courts for gathering evidence. attainment.
They are required to provide for conciliation
before initiating an inquiry, if requested by 1.5. WOMEN SET TO BE
• Penalties have been prescribed for employers
for non-compliance of the act and repeated
violations. Why in news?
Delhi High court has paved way for induction of
women into TA units by quashing Centre’s
notification barring the same.

• India was named first in the Asia-Pacific
group for the category: ‘Reaching the Poorest
and Most Vulnerable through Inclusive
Services and Participation’.
About Kanyashree Prakalpa Scheme
• It seeks to improve the status and wellbeing
of girls, specifically those from socio-
economically disadvantaged families through
Conditional Cash Transfers aimed at
incentivizing for continuing education and
disincentivizing marriage till the age of 18.


Why in news?
Recently the Government introduced a new
scheme ' Pradhan Mantri Mahila Shakti Kendra'
Details (PMMSK) under the umbrella scheme "Mission
• Section 6 of the Territorial Army Act,1948 for Protection and Empowerment for Women"
lays down rules on who is eligible for of the Ministry of Women and Child
enrolment in the Territorial Army, which is Development.
also known as the second line of defense More about PMMSK
after the regular Army.
• As per the rules, TA recruited only gainfully • It will act as -
employed men and thus barring women’s o One-stop convergence support service
entry in infantry units in army. for empowering rural women with
• The two judge High Court bench held that opportunities for skill development,
policy of restriction on enrolment of women digital literacy, health and nutrition and
ultra vires Articles 14, 15, 16 and 19(1)(g) of employment.
the Constitution of India. o Way to improve declining child sex ratio
Current Status of women in Defense forces o An interface for rural women to approach
• The Indian Army, the Indian Navy and the IAF government for getting their
allow women in various courses but till entitlements.
recently restricted their entry into combat o It is envisaged to work at various levels.
roles. While, National level (domain-based
• Indian Airforce and Indian Navy in 2015 and knowledge support) and State level (State
Indian Army in 2017 allowed women in Resource Centre for Women) structures
combat roles. will provide technical support to the
respective government on issues related
1.6. SCHEMES FOR ECONOMIC to women, the District and Block level
EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN Centres will provide support to MSK and
also give a foothold to BBBP in 640
1.6.1. KANYASHREE PRAKA LPA districts to be covered in a phased
SCHEME manner.
o Student volunteers will provide an
Why in news? interface for rural women to approach
• West Bengal Government’s Kanyashree the government for availing their
Prakalpa scheme has won the United Nations entitlements.
Public Service Award.

1.6.3. 'SHEMEA NSBUSI NESS' • 3 such schemes are- ‘One Stop Centre’,
PROGRAMME ‘Universalisation of Women Helpline’ and
‘Mahila Police Volunteer’.
• Recently Odisha Government launched • Central Victim Compensation Fund has been
SheMeansBusiness program to train women created under Nirbhaya, which is a corpus
entrepreneur and Self Help Groups (SHGs). fund to support States/UTs for their Victim
• Under the Scheme, 25,000 women Compensation Scheme. This helps in ensuring
entrepreneurs and Self Help Groups will be adequate and timely support for women
provided training on Digital Marking skills survivors of crime and violence.
within next one year free of cost.
• Facebook will also develop a database of 1.8. SCHEMES TO DEAL WITH
entrepreneurs and track their growth, SON PREFERENCE & GIRL
turnover and profit after one year.
• This is a joint venture between MSME
Department, Directorate of Mission Shakti 1.8.1. BETI BACHAO BETI PADHAO
and Facebook.
Why in news?
Mission Shakti
• It is one of the key initiatives undertaken by • Recently, The Ministry of Women and Child
government of Odisha for women empowerment Development (WCD) had claimed an increase
• It promotes women’s SHGs with a specific aim of in sex ratio under BBBP scheme.
economic empowerment.
Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB): is the number of girls born
1.7 SCHEMES IN CONTEXT OF per 1,000 boys.

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Child Sex Ratio: is the number of girls per 1,000 boys
between 0-6 years of age. In India it is 919 females per
1000 males.
Other Initiatives to augment the BBBP outcomes
• It targets the women victims of difficult • ‘Sukanya Samriddhi Account: is a small deposit
circumstances (including the victims of sexual scheme for the girl child with a higher interest rate
harassment) who are in need of institutional of 9.1 per cent and income-tax benefit. It is also a
support for relief and rehabilitation, so that part of BBBP.
they could lead their life with dignity. • Selfie with daughter: An initiative with the aim to
• Ministry of Women and Child Development motivate society to feel proud to be parents of a
girl child.
is administering the scheme, focusing on
• Balika Manch- under BBBP to encourage girl
establishing one Swadhar Greh in each
students’ participation and improve awareness
district. related to gender issues.
• It is incumbent upon the State/UTs to setup
the Swadhar Grehs in their State/UTs. Background
• The trend of decline in the Child Sex Ratio
(CSR), defined as number of girls per 1000 of
• The Ministry of Finance, Government of India boys between 0-6 years of age, has been
had set up a dedicated fund called Nirbhaya unabated since 1961.
Fund in 2013, for implementation of • The decline from 945 in 1991 to 927 in 2001
initiatives aimed at enhancing the safety and and further to 919 in 2011 is alarming.
security for women in the country. • The decline in the CSR is a major indicator of
• It is a non-lapsable corpus fund. women disempowerment. CSR reflects both,
• Various schemes and programmes, related to pre-birth discrimination manifested through
security of women, are being implemented gender biased sex selection, and post birth
under the fund by the Ministry of Women discrimination against girls.
and Child Development along with various Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme
other ministries.
• Launched in 2015 at Panipat, Haryana to
address the declining Child Sex Ratio (CSR)

and related issues of women empowerment • Registration of births
over a life-cycle continuum. Ministry of Human Resource Development
• It is a tri-ministerial effort of Ministries of • Universal enrolment of girls
Women and Child Development, Health & • Decreased drop-out rate
Family Welfare and Human Resource • Girl Child friendly standards in schools
Development. • Strict implementation of Right to Education
• The objectives of this initiative are: • Construction of Functional Toilets for girls.
o Prevention of gender biased sex selective
About PCPNDT Act, 1994
o Ensuring survival & protection of the girl • At the national level the Act was enacted on
child September 20, 1994. This act came into force
o Ensuring education and participation of in the year 1996.
the girl child • It was amended in 2003 to improve
• The scheme has no provision for individual regulation of technology capable of sex
cash transfer component or Direct Benefit selection.
Transfer scheme. • The main purpose of enacting the PC & PNDT
• The efforts include; (prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994 has
o Enforcement of Pre-Conception & Pre- been to:
Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) o Ban the use of sex selection techniques
Act, 1994 before or after conception
o Nation-wide awareness and advocacy o Prevent the misuse of pre-natal
campaign and multi-sectoral action in diagnostic techniques for sex selective
select districts (low on CSR) in the first abortions
phase. o Regulate such techniques
o Emphasis on mindset change through • All bodies under the Act cannot function
training, sensitization, awareness raising unless registered.
and community mobilization on ground. • It prohibits sex selection before or after
• Help from grass root participants like, ANM conception and misuse of pre-natal
(Auxiliary Nurse Midwife) and ASHA diagnostic techniques for determination of
(Accredited Social Health Activists) is the sex of the foetus and also advertisements
prescribed to ‘encourage’ the community and in relation to such techniques for detection
its members to promote girls’ education, or determination of sex.
nurture their health, etc. • The Act and Rules deal elaborately with the
• It is mandatory to display gender maintenance and preservation of proper
disaggregated data related to birth of girls records.
and boys through the ‘Guddi-Gudda’ boards • The Appropriate Authorities are empowered
which are to be displayed at prominent public with the powers of Civil Court for search,
places like Panchayats, Anganwadi Centres, seizure and sealing the machines,
etc. equipments and records of the violators of
The scheme is a collaborative initiative under-
law including sealing of premises and
commissioning of witnesses.
Ministry of WCD
• Promote registration of pregnancies in first 1.8.2. MISSION FOR PROTECTION
trimester in Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) AND EMPOWERMENT FOR WOME N
• Undertake training of stakeholders
• Community mobilization & sensitization Why in news?
• Involvement of gender champions Recently, Cabinet approved the expansion of
• Reward & recognition of institutions & frontline
Mission for Protection And Empowerment for
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare
• Monitor implementation of Pre-Conception and About Mission for Protection and Empowerment
Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCP&DT) Act, for Women
• It is a social sector welfare schemes for care,
• Increased institutional deliveries
protection and development of women.
• It aimed at improving the declining Child Sex Common Services Centers (CSCs) are ICT enabled
Ratio; ensuring survival & protection of the kiosks with broadband connectivity for delivery of
girl child; ensuring her education and essential public utility services, social welfare
empowering her to fulfill her potential. schemes, healthcare, financial, education and
agricultural services, apart from host of B2C services
About National Mission for empowerment of Women to citizens in rural and remote areas of the country.
• Aim: To achieve holistic empowerment of women
through convergence of schemes/programmes of • The product will be sold under local brand
different Ministries/ Department of Government name and marketed by village level
of India as well as State Governments. entrepreneurs.
• It provides expert and technical support in • Each facility will employ 8-10 women to
o Poverty alleviation economic empowerment, educate women of their society to overcome
o Health and nutrition, this social taboo.
o Gender budgeting & Gender mainstreaming, • It also has a menstrual hygiene related
o Gender rights gender based violence & law awareness generation component and is also
expected reduce drop out rates in girls on
o Empowerment of vulnerable & marginalised
reaching puberty.
o Social empowerment & education. Other related schemes
o Media and advocacy and Menstrual Hygiene Scheme (MHS)
o Information technology • Being implemented by Health Ministry as part of
• Nodal agency: Ministry of Women and Child Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram.
Development (MWCD) • It provides subsidized sanitary napkins among
• Coverage area: All State/UTs will be covered under adolescent girls residing primarily in rural areas.
this Scheme through the State Resource Centre for • Aim: to reach 15 million girls aged 10 to 19 and in
Women (SRCWs). 152 districts across 20 states
• Implemented through the States/UTs and Menstrual Hygiene Management National
Implementing Agencies. Guidelines, 2015
• Issued by Ministry of Drinking Water &
1.9. SCHEMES RELATED TO Sanitation.
WOMEN’S HEALTH • It covers the aspects of providing adolescent girls
with menstrual hygiene management choices and
1.9.1. PROJECT STREE SWA BHIMAN menstruation hygiene management infrastructure
in schools and the safe disposal of menstrual
Why in news? waste.
Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan
Recently, Ministry of Electronics and Information • Under this centrally sponsored scheme of
technology (MeITY) announced a project Stree Ministry of Human Resource Development,
Swabhiman. sanitary pads are provided in schools and girls
About the project hostels.

• It aims to create a sustainable model for 1.9.2. SUB-SCHEMES UNDER ICDS

providing adolescent girls and women
Why in news?
affordable sanitary products in rural areas.
• According to health ministry data, only 12% Recently, Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs
of India’s 355 million women use sanitary approved the continuation of the sub-schemes
napkins while remaining resort to unsanitary under ICDS.
alternatives due to which 70% of these Supplementary Nutrition Programme (ICDS)
women suffers from the incidents of • Designed to bridge the gap between the
reproductive tract infection. Recommended Dietary Allowance (FDA) and the
• Under this project, sanitary napkin micro Average Daily Intake (ADI).
manufacturing units (semi-automatic and • Provide Take Home Ration (THR) in the form of
manual process production unit) are being Micronutrient Fortified Food and/or energy-dense
set up at Common Service Centres across food marked as ‘ICDS Food Supplement’ for
India, particularly those operated by women various age groups of children.

Integrated Child Development Scheme
• It is a flagship government scheme which SCHEMES
aims to improve the nutrition and health
status of children in age group of 0-6 years 1.10.1. VATSALYA-MAATRI AMRIT
and lays foundation of psychological, physical KOSH
and social development of the child.
• It was launched to reduce the incidence of Why in News?
mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school • National Human Milk Bank and Lactation
dropout among children. Counselling Centre (Vatsalya – Maatri Amrit
• It provides an integrated package of six Kosh) has been set up at Lady Hardinge
services which include i) Supplementary Medical College Delhi.
nutrition programme (ii) Immunization (iii) • It is established in collaboration with the
Health check-up (iv) Referral services (v) Pre- Norwegian government, Oslo University and
school non-formal education and (vi) Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI).
Nutrition & health education.
• It involves 5-tier monitoring and review MAA (Mothers Absolute Affection)
mechanism at National, State, District, Block • Flagship programme to ensure that adequate
and Anganwadi Levels. awareness is generated among masses,
• It also aims to enhance the capability of especially mothers and related family of
mothers to take care of the health and newly born child, about the benefits of
nutritional needs of the children. breastfeeding.
• In 2016-17, government had rationalised • To enhance optimal breastfeeding practices.
some schemes such as Anganwadi Programme will focus on initiation of
Services, Scheme for Adolescent Girls, Child breastfeeding within an hour of birth,
Protection Services and National Crèche exclusive breastfeeding for the first six
Scheme and brought them under Umbrella months, and continued breastfeeding for at
ICDS as its sub-schemes. These schemes have least two years
been continuing since 12th Five year plan. • Training for nurses in government hospitals,
Sub-Schemes under Umbrella ICDS Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA),
Auxiliary Nurse Mid-wives (ANM) to provide
• Anganwadi Services – It is for holistic relevant information and counselling support
development of children under the age of 6 to mothers for breastfeeding.
year and pregnant and lactating women. • MAA secretariat and a steering committee
• Scheme for Adolescent Girls – It aims to will be created in all states and at the district
facilitate, educate and make them self-reliant level.
through improved nutrition and health • The programme will be monitored by UNICEF
status. and other partners.
• Child Protection Services – It aims to provide
safe and secure environment for children in
• In India, nearly 13% of newly born children die
conflict with law and children in need of care below 5 years of age, owing to poor breastfeeding
and protection and reduce vulnerabilities. practices.
• National Crèche Services –It aims to provide • Despite the institutional delivery has increased to
a safe place for children of working mothers 78.9% of total delivery, the early initiation of
while they are at work. Thus, empowering breastfeeding is only 40% of total lactating mother.
them to take up employment.
Why in News?
• Recently, draft guidelines for implementation
of Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana
(PMMVY) have been prepared by the
Ministry of Women and Child Development.

Pradhan Mantri Matritva Vandana Yojana was Important Provisions of the Act
previously known as Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog
Yojana. • It amends the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961.
• It has increased the duration of paid
Features maternity leave available for women
• The draft guidelines provide for employees to 26 weeks from 12 weeks.
o Aadhaar linkage However, the increased Maternity Benefit is
o Direct Benefit Transfer of Rs. 5000 in only available for the first two children.
beneficiary’s bank/post office account in • It has extended the benefits applicable to
three instalments the adoptive and commissioning mothers
✓ at the stage of early registration of and provides that woman who adopts a child
pregnancy will be given 12 weeks of maternity leave.
✓ after six months of pregnancy on at • It has introduced an enabling provision
least one antenatal check-up and relating to “work from home” that can be
registration of child birth & exercised after the expiry of 26 weeks’ leave
✓ first cycle of immunization of the period.
child. • It has mandated crèche facility for every
• It is Centrally Sponsored Scheme. The cost establishment employing 50 or more
sharing ratio between – employees.
o The Centre and the States & UTs with • Every establishment will be required to
Legislature is 60:40 provide woman, at the time of her initial
o For North-Eastern States & three appointment, with information about every
Himalayan States, it is 90:10, & benefit available under the Act.
o 100% Central assistance for Union
Territories without Legislature. 1.11. OTHER SCHEMES
About the Scheme 1.11.1. ONLINE PORTA LS ‘NARI’
• It is available to all Pregnant Women & AND ‘E-SAMVAAD’
Lactating Mothers (PW&LM) except those in
Why in news?
regular employment with the Central or
State Government or PSU or those who are The government has launched two online portals-
in receipt of similar benefits under any law ‘NARI’ and ‘e-Samvaad’.
for the time being in force. NARI
• It is available for first living child of the
family as normally, the first pregnancy of a • Due to scattered information on various
woman exposes her to new kind of women centric schemes/legislations there is
challenges and stress factors. a lack of awareness among people regarding
• The objectives of the scheme are- the same. To address this problem
o providing partial compensation for the government launched NARI portal as a single
wage loss in terms of cash incentives so window access to information and services.
that the woman can take adequate rest • It is a Mission Mode Project under the
before and after delivery of the first National E-Governance Plan (designed and
living child; and developed by National Informatics Centre
o the compensation provided would lead (NIC), Ministry of Electronics & Information
to improved health seeking behavior Technology).
amongst the Pregnant Women and e-samvaad Portal
Lactating Mothers.
• It is a platform for NGOs and civil society to
1.10.3. MATERNITY BENEFIT interact with the Ministry of Women and
(AMENDMENT) ACT, 201 7 Child Development (MWCD) by providing
Why in News? their feedback, suggestions, put up
grievances, share best practices etc.
Maternity Benefit Amendment Act, 2017 were
recently notified.

• This will help in formulation of effective • Kerala was the first state which formulated
policies and measures for welfare of women the Transgender Policy to enforce the
and children. constitutional rights of transgenders.
• Odisha is the first region in the country to
1.12. DEVELOPMENTS give transgender people social welfare
RELATED TO TRANSGENDER benefits - such as a pension, housing and
food grains.
• India’s First Transgender Sports meet was • Andhra Pradesh, also, recently announced
organized by the Kerala State Sports Council pension scheme for transgender community.
at Thiruvananthapuram.

2.1. CHILD LABOUR states while recommendations serve as non-binding
guidelines. In many cases, a convention lays down the
Why in news? basic principles to be implemented by ratifying
countries, while a related recommendation
India has ratified two key ILO conventions on supplements the convention by providing more
child labour: The Minimum Age Convention (No detailed guidelines on how it could be applied.
138) and the Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendations can also be autonomous, i.e. not
Convention (No 182). linked to any convention.
Fundamental conventions: The ILO's Governing Body
Background has identified eight conventions as "fundamental" or
• The main bottleneck in the way of India Core. They cover subjects that are considered as
ratifying Conventions 182 and 138 was fundamental principles and rights at work. These
principles are also covered in the ILO's Declaration on
addressing forced or compulsory recruitment
Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (1998).
of children and appropriately raising the age
of employment in hazardous occupations With ratification of these two core ILO conventions,
India has now ratified 6 out of 8 core ILO conventions.
from 14 to 18 years.
The other four core ILO conventions ratified by India
• Consequent to the passing of the Child are:
Labour (Prohibition and Regulation)
• Forced labour convention (No 29) and Abolition of
Amendment Act, 2016 by the Indian Forced Labour convention (No 105) relating to
Parliament, prohibiting the employment of abolition of forced labour,
children up to 14 years of age, and children • Equal Remuneration convention (No 100)
up to 18 years of age in hazardous • Discrimination (Employment and Occupation)
occupations, India could now ratify convention relating to removing discrimination
Conventions 182 and 138. between men and women in employment and
The Minimum Age The Worst Forms of Child
Convention (No 138) Labour Convention (No 182) Two core ILO conventions which are yet to be ratified
by India are:
It requires ratifying By ratifying this Convention, a • Freedom of Association and Protection of the
states to pursue a country commits itself to Right to Organise Convention (No 87)
national policy for taking immediate action to • Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining
effective abolition of prohibit and eliminate the Convention (No 98).
child labour and to worst forms of child labour.
raise progressively National Child Labour Policy (NCLP)
the minimum age for The worst forms of child
admission to labour prohibited under this • The National Policy on Child Labour, 1987
employment or work. are all forms of slavery or contains the action plan for tackling the
practices similar to slavery, problem of child labour. It envisages-
such as the sale and o A legislative action plan
trafficking of children, debt o Focussing and convergence of general
bondage and serfdom and
development programmes for benefiting
forced or compulsory labour,
children wherever possible, and
including forced or
compulsory recruitment of o Project-based action plan of action for
children for use in armed launching of projects for the welfare of
conflict. working children in areas of high
concentration of child labour.
Related Information • In pursuance of National Child Labour Policy,
India is a founder member of the International Labour the National Child Labour Project
Organization (ILO), which came into existence in 1919. Scheme(NCLPS) was started in 1988 to
Conventions and Recommendations: ILO sets rehabilitate child labour.
International labour standards in the form of • NCLPS is a central sector scheme where 100%
conventions and recommendations. They are legal of the funding is provided by the Government
instruments. Conventions are legally binding of India through the Ministry of Labour and
international treaties that may be ratified by member Employment. It seeks to-

o Eliminate all forms of child labour and the general public in achieving the target of
through child labour free society.
✓ Identification and withdrawal of all • Its main components include-
children and preparing them for o Child Tracking System
mainstream education along with o Complaint Corner
o State Government
vocational training;
o National Child Labour Project
✓ Ensuring convergence of services o Convergence
provided by different government
departments/agencies for the Constitutional Provisions Against Child Labour
benefit of child and their family; • Article 23(1) provides that trafficking in
o Contribute to the withdrawal of all human beings and beggar and other similar
adolescent workers from Hazardous forms of forced labour are prohibited and any
Occupations / Processes and their skilling contravention of this provision shall be an
and integration in appropriate offence punishable in accordance with law
occupations by facilitating vocational • Article 24 provides that no child below the
training opportunities for such age of fourteen years shall be employed to
adolescents through existing scheme of work in any factory or mine or engaged in any
skill developments; other hazardous employment.
o Raise awareness amongst stakeholders
• Article 39(e) provides that the state shall, in
and target communities on the issue; and
particular, direct its policy towards securing
o Creation of a Child Labour Monitoring,
that the health and strength of workers, men
Tracking and Reporting System. and women, and the tender age of children
Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) are not abused and that citizens are not
Amendment Act, 2016 forced by economic necessity to enter a
• It seeks to amend the Child Labour vocation unsuited to their age or strength.
(Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.
• In light of the Right of Children to Free and 2.2. CHILD SEX ABUSE
Compulsory Education Act, 2009, the Act
Why in News?
seeks to prohibit employment of children
below 14 years in all occupations except National Commission for Protection of Child
where the child helps his family after school Rights has now enhanced its scope to handle
hours. cyber bullying, cyber stalking, morphing of
• It adds a new category of persons called images and child pornography.
“adolescent”. An adolescent means a person Nobel Peace laureate Kailash Satyarthi
between 14 and 18 years of age. It prohibits announced ‘Bharat yatra’ to increase national
employment of adolescents in hazardous awareness regarding child sex abuse.
occupations as specified (mines, inflammable
substance and hazardous processes). What is Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)?
According to 1999 WHO Consultation on Child Abuse
• The central government may add or omit any
Prevention, “Child sexual abuse is the involvement of
hazardous occupation from the list included a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully
in the Act. comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to, or
• It enhances the punishment for employing for which the child is not developmentally prepared
any child in an occupation. It also includes and cannot give consent, or that violates the laws or
penalty for employing an adolescent in a social taboos of society.”
hazardous occupation.
UN Convention on Rights of Child
• It empowers the government to make
• It came into force in 1990. It prescribed a set
periodic inspection of places at which
of standards to be followed by all State
employment of children and adolescents are
parties in securing the best interests of the
child. India ratified it in 1992.
PENCIL (Platform for Effective Enforcement for Child • It is the first legally binding international
Labour) Portal instrument to incorporate the full range of
• It is an electronic platform that aims at involving human rights for children —civil, cultural,
Centre, State, District Governments, civil society economic, political and social.
• State parties to the Convention on the Rights • For the more heinous offences of Penetrative
of the Child are required to undertake all Sexual Assault, Aggravated Penetrative
appropriate measures to prevent— Sexual Assault, Sexual Assault and Aggravated
o The inducement or coercion of a child to Sexual Assault, the burden of proof is shifted
engage in any unlawful sexual activity; on the accused.
o The exploitative use of children in • The media has been barred from disclosing
prostitution or other unlawful sexual the identity of the child without the
practices; permission of the Special Court.
o The exploitative use of children in
POCSO e-box
pornographic performances and • It is a National Commission for Protection of Child
materials. Rights (NCPCR) initiative to help children report
• Apart from this there are 3 Optional such crimes directly to the Commission.
Protocols (under the Convention on the • The online complaint management system
Rights of the Child) which state may enables easy reporting and timely action against
independently choose whether or not to be the offenders under the POCSO Act, 2012.
bound by them.
o Increase the protection of children from 2.3. SAFE CHILDHOOD
involvement in armed conflicts PROGRAMME
o Protection from sexual exploitation
o Allowing children to bring complaints Why in News?
directly to the Committee on the Rights Recently, NCPCR, Ministry of Panchayati Raj and
of the Child. UNICEF has released the handbook about the
*India has ratified only the first two guideline on safe childhood programme.
protocols. Related News
About Protection Of Children from Sexual UNICEF recently released a report named- ‘State of
World’s Children Report: Children in the Digital
World, 2017’.
• It protects children from offences of sexual
About Safe Childhood Programme
assault, sexual harassment and pornography
• It provides children (aged three to ten) with a
and provides for establishment of Special
set of skills to help them prevent sexual,
Courts for trial of such offences and for
emotional, and physical abuse.
matters connected therewith or incidental
• It emphasizes on child’s security which can
be enhanced without creating
• It defines a child as any person below the age
misunderstanding, fear, or anxiety or
of 18 years and provides protection to all
reducing a child’s sense of trust.
children under the age of 18 years from the
• It will contribute in improving the current
offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment
scenario related to health, development,
and pornography.
education and protection of children.
• For the first time it listed aspects of touch as
well as non-touch behaviour (example- it Related Information
brought photographing a child) under the National Commission for the protection of Child
ambit of sexual offences. Rights
• It incorporated child friendly procedures for • This statutory body at the National and State
reporting, recording of evidence, level has been proposed to be set up under
investigation and trial of offences. the Commission for Protection of Child Rights
• The attempt to commit an offence has also Act 2005.
been made liable for punishment for up-to • It is under the control of the Ministry of
half the punishment prescribed for the Women & Child Development, set up in
commission of the offence. 2007.
• It also provides for punishment for abetment • It consists of one Chairman and Six other
of the offence, which is the same as for the member (out of which atleast two
commission of the offence. This would cover are woman having experience in Child
trafficking of children for sexual purposes. Psychology, Education etc.).
Bal Panchayat: Initiated and supported by the • It has four priority areas:
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), this o Survival, health and nutrition
model. o Education and development
o Child Protection
• The formation of the Bal-Panchayat ensures
o Child Participation
participatory governance in the village and
inculcates a sense of democratic values in the 2.3.2. NATIONAL ACTION PLAN FOR
children. CHILDREN, 2016
• India has ratified the United Nations Child
Rights Convention in the year 1992 and this Some of the provisions of the National Child
Act was passed as one of the necessary steps Action Plan of 2016 are as follows-
to protect the rights of the children in the • On Child Survival, Health and Nutrition
country. o It will help in the improving child health
Integrated Child Protection Scheme by universalizing the maternal and child
• It has been introduced to bridge the gaps in healthcare.
previous schemes & their implementation and to o It will also give emphasis on new born
provide safe and secure environment for overall care by initiatives like universal
development of children in difficult immunization.
circumstances, by the Ministry of Women and o It will prevent mental and physical
Child Development.
disabilities through timely measures for
• There is a provision for opening up of ‘Open
pre-natal, peri-natal and post-natal care
Shelters’ for children in the need of care and
protection, including the street children, in urban
of mother and child.
and semi-urban areas, activities of which includes • On Education and Development
access to vocational training, recreation, bridge o It will provide universal and equitable
education, etc. access to quality Early Childhood Care
• It provides for setting up of District Child and Education (ECCE) for all children
Protection Societies (DCPS) by the State below six years of age.
Governments/ UT Administrations in every district o It will promote affordable and accessible
of the State responsibility of which includes quality education up to the Secondary
identifying families and children at risk to prevent level for all children.
destitution of children.
• On Child Protection
2.3.1. NATIONAL POLI CY FOR o It will help strengthen legislative,
CHILDREN 2013 administrative, and institutional redressal
mechanisms for Child Protection at all
• It recognizes a child to be a person below the level.
age of 18 yrs. • On Child Participation
• It recognizes that children are not a o It will ensure that children actively
homogenous group and require different participate in planning and
responses. implementation of programmes
• It aims to give a social safety net to family to concerning them.
help nurture child.
• It says that every child has universal,
inalienable and indivisible human rights.

Policy Response to Ageing
• Maintenance & Welfare of Parents and
3.1.1. NATIONAL COUN CIL OF senior citizen Act 2007: This act provides a
SENIOR CITIZENS legal framework for the maintenance of the
elderly parents & grandparents and was
Why in News?
promulgated by the States and Union
Recently, Ministry of Social Justice and Territories in stages. It defines the senior
Empowerment has organised second meeting of citizen as any person being a citizen of India,
National Council of Senior Citizens (NCSrC). who has attained the age of 60 years and
Related Information- above.
• Article 41: The State shall, within the limits of its • Integrated Programme for Older Persons: It
economic capacity and development, make is a central sector scheme.
effective provisions for securing the right to work, o Its objective is to improve the quality of
to education and to public assistance in cases of
life of the Senior Citizens by providing
unemployment, old age, sickness and
basic amenities like shelter, food, medical
• India is signatory of Madrid Plan of Action and care entertainment opportunities and by
Barrier Free Framework which intend to work encouraging productive and active
towards an inclusive, barrier-free and age-friendly ageing.
society. o It aims at generating support for capacity
building of Government/Non-
About National Council of Senior Citizens
Governmental Organizations (NGOs)/
• It was originally known as National Council Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)/ local
for Older Persons (NPOP) and was renamed bodies and the community at large.
in 2012. • Health care for Older Persons: The health
• It is chaired by the Minister of Social Justice & care programme namely National
Empowerment and have to meet at least Programme of Health Care for Elderly
twice a year. (NPHCE), for the elderly is being
• It is the highest body to advise the Central implemented by the MOHFW from 2011
and State Governments on issues related to under the National Rural Health Mission.
the welfare of senior citizens and • Social Pensions: The National Social
enhancement of their quality of life. Assistance Programme was launched to
About Rastriya Vayoshri Yojana provide social assistance to the poor and the
• It provides Physical Aids and Assisted-living • National Policy for Older Persons (NPOP),
Devices for Senior citizens belonging to BPL 1999
category’ with 30% of the beneficiaries in o The policy is aimed at providing assistance
each district to be women. to senior Citizens through Pension
• It is a Central Sector Scheme which is being Scheme, Tax Exemption, and Subsidised
implemented with the expenditure being met Food and health services.
from "Senior Citizens' Welfare Fund". o Established a Multi-Service Citizens
• Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation Centre, outreach services, supply of
(ALIMCO) is the sole implementing agency, a disability related aids and appliances etc.
PSU under the Ministry of Social Justice and and setting up a welfare fund for older
Empowerment. persons.
• Senior Citizens Welfare Fund
3.1.2. POLICY RESPONSE TO A GING o Established under Senior Citizen Welfare
Recently the report, “Caring for Our Elders: Early Rule 2016.
Responses, India Ageing Report – 2017 o It is an interest bearing account in the
(UNFPA)”, has been released that takes stock of Public Account of India and shall be
ageing concerns and policy response in the administered by the Committee.
o The fund will be credited from unclaimed • The Act is in line with the principles of
PPF, EPF and other Govt sponsored Small the United Nations Convention on the Rights
Savings funds such as National Saving of Persons with Disabilities and aims at
Certificate, Kisan Vikesh Patra, Sukanya encouraging establishments to have a
Samriddhi Accounts etc. disabled friendly workplace.
• The National Policy on Senior Citizen, 2011, • The types of disabilities have been increased
also, focused on various aspects related to from existing 7 to 21 and the Central
old age like Income security, healthcare, Government will have the power to add more
safety security, housing, productive aging, types of disabilities.
welfare, multigenerational bonding, etc. It • Persons with "benchmark disabilities" are
also established a National Council for defined as those certified to have at least 40
Senior Citizens to suggest required policy per cent of the disabilities mentioned in the
changes for the elderly. Act.
United Nations Population Fund • Additional benefits such as reservation in
• It is the UN’s reproductive health and rights higher education, government jobs,
agency created in 1969. reservation in allocation of land, poverty
• It calls for the realization of reproductive rights for alleviation schemes etc. have been provided
all and supports access to a wide range of sexual for persons with benchmark disabilities.
and reproductive health services – including • Every child with benchmark disability
voluntary family planning, maternal health care between the age group of 6 and 18 years
and comprehensive sexuality education. shall have the right to free education.
• Reservation in vacancies in government
3.2. DISABLED establishments has been increased from 3%
to 4% for certain persons or class of persons
with benchmark disability.
• It has now brought private establishments
Why in News? within its ambit. Though it does not require
private establishments to mandatorily
The Rights of Persons with Disability Rules, 2017
appoint Persons with Disabilities (PwD), there
(Rules) were notified to supplement the
are certain obligations imposed on private
provisions of the Rights of Persons with Disability
establishments under the Act.
Act, 2016.
• Broad based Central & State Advisory Boards
UN Convention of Rights of Persons with Disability on Disability are to be set up to serve as apex
• Entered into force in 2008, it is the first policy making bodies at the Central and State
comprehensive human rights treaty of the 21 st level.
century and first legally binding instrument with
• Creation of National and State Fund will be
comprehensive protection of the rights of persons
created to provide financial support to the
with disabilities.
• Its guiding principles include- respect for inherent
persons with disabilities.
dignity, non-discrimination, participation and • For strengthening the Prime Minister's
inclusion in society, equality of opportunity, Accessible India Campaign, stress has been
accessibility, equality between men and women given to ensure accessibility in public
and respect for the rights of children with buildings (both Government and private) in a
disabilities. prescribed time-frame.
• Though the convention does not explicitly define • It provides for penalties for offences
disability, it recognizes that the notion of committed against persons with disabilities
“disability” is not fixed and can alter, depending on
and also violation of the provisions of the
the prevailing environment from society to society.
new law.
• India has ratified the convention.
• Special Courts will be designated in each
Provisions of the Act district to handle cases concerning violation
• It replaces the Persons with Disabilities (Equal of rights of PwDs.
Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full
Participation) Act, 1995.

3.2.2. DIVYANG SARATHI MO BILE • It has been divided into three verticals: Built
APP Environment; Transport and Information &
Communication Technology (ICT) ecosystem.
• The GoI recently launched a mobile app
named “Divyang Sarathi” for easy 3.3. MINORITY
information dissemination to Divyanjans
(Persons with disabilities) 3.3.1. GARIB NAWAZ SKI LL
• It aims at providing all relevant information DEVELOPMENT CENTRES
pertaining to the Department of
Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities • The Minister of State for Minority Affairs &
(DEPwD), Ministry of Social Justice and Parliamentary Affairs said that Garib Nawaz
Empowerment, including its various acts, Skill Development Centres will be established
rules, regulations and guidelines, schemes, in 100 districts of the country.
information about the various outreach • These centres will effectively ensure
institutions, employment opportunities, and employment-oriented skill development of
the disability market in an accessible format. youth belonging to Minority communities.
• It is also an integral part of the ICT • The courses will be short term (2 to 6
(Information and Communication months) in fields such as mobile and laptop
Technology) component of the Accessible repairing, security guard training,
India Campaign. housekeeping training, etc.

Related Information Other skill development schemes for minorities are:

Sugamaya Pustakalaya • Seekho aur Kamao
• It is an online platform that makes accessible • USTTAD (Upgrading the Skills and Training in
content available to print-disabled people. Traditional Arts/ Crafts for Development)
• It has been created by Department of • Nai Manzil
Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities • Maulana Azad National Academy for Skills
(Divyangjan), Ministry of Social Justice and (MANAS)
Empowerment in collaboration with member • PM’s 15 points programme for welfare of minority -
organizations of Daisy Forum of India and Lending to minority
powered by TCS Access. • Nai Roshni
• Books are available in Accessible formats for
people with visual impairment and other print 3.3.2. JIYO PARSI
Why in News?
• One of the unique features of the app is its
Union Ministry of Minority Affairs launched the
audio notes. This is so because the app
2nd phase of publicity campaign of “Jiyo Parsi”.
comes embedded with (text-to-voice
conversion software) which converts the About Minorities
written information into an audio file as well • Minorities in India are notified by the
as the adjustable font size which can be Government of India.
altered as per the user’s requirement. • Presently, minorities in India include: Sikhs;
Muslims; Christians; Zoroastrians (Parsi);
Accessible India Campaign Buddhists; Jains.
• It is the nationwide flagship campaign of About Jiyo Parsi
the Department of Empowerment of
• It is a central sector scheme formulated in
Persons with Disabilities(DEPwD).
September 2013 for containing population
• The aim of the Campaign is to make a barrier
decline of Parsis in India.
free and conducive environment for
• Need of the Scheme: Population of Parsi
Divyangjans all over the country.
community in India declined from 114,890 in
• It is based on the principles of the Social
1941 to 57,624 as per Census 2011, thus
Model of Disability, that disability is caused
declining by almost 50% in last 60 years.
by the way society is organised, and not the
• Objective of Scheme: To target an increase
person’s limitations and impairments.
in the Total Fertility Rate of the Parsi

community, in order to stem or at least slow • It came into force in 2006. The Nodal Ministry
its population decline. for the Act is Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
• The Scheme will be implemented by the • It has been enacted to recognize and vest the
Parzor Foundation with the help of the forest rights and occupation of forest land in
Bombay Parsi Panchayat (BPP) and through forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other
the organizations/societies /Anjumans and traditional forest dwellers, who have been
Panchayat of the community concerned in residing in such forests for generations, but
existence for not less than three years. whose rights could not be recorded.
• It not only recognizes the rights to hold and
3.4. TRIBALS live in the forest land under the individual or
common occupation for habitation or for self-
3.4.1. HABITAT RIGHTS TO PVTGS cultivation for livelihood, but also grants
Why in news? several other rights to ensure their control
over forest resources.
The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes • The Act also provides for diversion of forest
(NCST) has temporarily banned displacement of land for public utility facilities managed by
tribals from forest areas and critical tiger reserves the Government, such as schools,
to ensure tiger conservation does not infringe on dispensaries, fair price shops, electricity and
tribal rights. telecommunication lines, water tanks, etc.
Background with the recommendation of Gram Sabhas.
Mankidia, one of the 13 Particularly Vulnerable 3.4.2. EKLAVYA SCHOOLS
Tribal Groups (PVTG) in Odisha, were recently
denied habitat rights inside the Similipal Tiger Why in news?
Reserve (STR) under the Scheduled Tribes and In his budget speech 2018-19, the Finance
Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Minister announced establishment of Eklavya
Forest Rights) Act, 2006. Schools.
About Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups Details
(PVTGs) • They are to be established in all Tribal blocks
with more than 50% ST population and at
• In 1973, the Dhebar Commission created
least 20,000 Tribal persons will have Ekalavya
Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate
Model Residential School (EMRS) by 2022.
category, who are less developed among the
• Ekalavya schools provide boarding and
tribal groups. They were later renamed as
lodging facilities to tribal students.
• They are at par with the Jawahar Navodaya
• States/UTs submit proposals to the Central
Vidyalayas (schools aimed at providing high
Ministry of Tribal Welfare for identification of
quality education to all students irrespective
of their socio-economic backgrounds).
• Some basic characteristics of PVTGs are:
• These schools will have special facilities for
o Mostly homogenous
preserving local art and culture besides
o A small population
providing training in sports and skill
o Relatively physically isolated
o Primitive Social institutions
o Absence of written language Census 2011
o Relatively simple technology and a slower • 104.2 million Indians notified as STs (8.6% of the
rate of change total population and 11.3% of the total rural
o Their livelihood depends on food population).
gathering, Non-Timber Forest Produce, • literacy rate-58.96%
• Drop-out rate 70.9% in Classes I to X in 2010-11
hunting, livestock rearing, shifting
• Mizoram has the highest population of STs (94.5%)
cultivation and artisan works.
ASHRAM SCHOOLS: These are also residential schools
What is the Scheduled Tribes and Other which impart education up to the secondary school
Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of level to ST children. They are established throughout
Forest Rights) Act, 2006? India under central scheme funded by Ministry of
Tribal affairs.

3.5. OTHER ISSUES • Offences under the Act are cognizable and
non-bailable and attract stringent penalties.
3.5.1. MAHARASHTRA SOCIAL • Vigilance/Monitoring Committee at sub-
BOYCOTT ACT Division, District, State and Central Govt.
Why in news? • National Commission for Safai Karamcharis
The Maharashtra government’s Prohibition of (NCSK) would, inter alia, monitor
Social Boycott Act got the assent of the President. implementation of the Act and enquire into
complaints regarding contravention of the
What is Social Boycott? provisions of the Act.
If any individual or group tries to prevent or obstruct
• Provision of construction of adequate
another member or group from observing any social
number of sanitary community latrines in
or religions custom or from taking part in a social or
community function, the act amounts to social urban areas, within three years from the
boycott. date of commencement of this Act to
eliminate the practice of open defecation.
Provisions of the Act
The National Career Services also has listed the
• Maharashtra is the first state in the country manual scavengers under ‘unorganised sector’ thus
to formulate such a law which is against the recognising their work.
parallel justice system of the gaviks or jati National Career Services
panchayats. This Act can lead to other states • It is an ICT based portal launched by the Ministry
following this step. of Labour and Employment.
• It provides for prohibition of social boycott of • The portal facilitates registration of job seekers,
a person or group of persons, by an individual job providers, skill providers, career counsellors
or a group like caste panchayat. etc.


Recently Madras High Court passed an order ACT, 2017
asking Government to take stringent measure to Why in news?
enforce the Prohibition of Employment as
Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, A series of studies and reports have pointed out
2013. that there is an uneven implementation of the
Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and
About the Act Regulation of Street Vending) Act, 2017 across
• This Act intends to, inter alia, achieve its the country.
objectives to: Important Provisions of the Act
o Eliminate the insanitary latrines.
o Prohibit: • It aims to protect the livelihood rights of
✓ Employment as Manual Scavengers street vendors as well as regulate street
✓ Hazardous manual cleaning of sewer vending through demarcation of vending
and septic tanks. zones, conditions for and restrictions on
o Survey of Manual Scavengers and their street vending.
rehabilitation, within a time bound • It provides for constitution of a Town
manner. Vending Authority in each Local Authority,
which is the fulcrum of the Act, for
implementing the provisions of the Act.
Main features of the Act are: • Any person intending to undertake street
vending needs to register with the Town
• Definitions of manual scavengers and
Vending Committee (TVC) and then apply for
insanitary latrines widened to cover not only
vending certificates.
dry latrines but other insanitary latrines as
well. • TVC comprises of the municipal
commissioner, representatives of street
vendors, local authority, planning authority,
local police, resident welfare association and o Inclusive Employment
other traders associations. ✓ Engage with corporate sector
• Procedure for relocation, eviction and organisations; public and private, for
confiscation of goods has been specified and creating awareness towards inclusive
made street vendor friendly. employment
• State government shall frame a scheme for o Inclusive Community Life
street vendors. The local authority shall, in ✓ Civil Society organisations and State
consultation with the planning authority, Government connect initiative
frame a street vending plan once every five creating awareness among general
years. public, ensuring that the people
becomes sensitive towards the focus
Why in News? • The conference stressed need to take
advantage of all 10 schemes of the national
• Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment in trust namely;
collaboration with key partners organised the o DISHA: Early Intervention and School
conference-Inclusive India Initiative: Towards Readiness Scheme
an Inclusive India. o VIKAAS: Day care scheme, primarily for
• National Trust will be the nodal agency for enhancing interpersonal and vocational
the initiative. skills.
o SAMARTH: Respite Care for orphans or
The National Trust
abandoned, families in crisis and also for
• A statutory body of the Ministry of Social Justice
Persons with Disabilities (PwD) from BPL
and Empowerment.
• CEO of trust is Joint Secretary level officer.
& LIG families including destitute.
• Established under National Trust for the Welfare o GHARAUNDA: Group home for adults
of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental and an assured home and minimum
Retardation and Multiple Disabilities” Act (Act 44 quality of care services throughout the
of 1999). life of the PwD.
• Works towards providing opportunities for o NIRAMAYA: affordable insurance for
capacity development of Persons with Disability pwd, health insurance cover upto 1 lakh.
namely education, employment and community o SAHYOGI: Provide training and create a
sensitisation. skilled workforce of care associates to
• Evolving procedures for appointments of provide adequate and nurturing care for
guardians and trustees for persons with
Person with Disabilities (PwDs) and their
families who require it
More on News o GYAN PRABHA: to pursue higher
education or skill development courses.
• A vision document on ‘Inclusive India
o PRERNA: Marketing assistance to create
Initiative’ was released with the collaboration
viable and widespread channels for sale
of various partner and ministries.
of products and services produced by
• The three core focus areas of Inclusive India
Initiative are:
o SAMBHAV: collate and collect the aids,
o Inclusive Education
software and other form of assistive
✓ Awareness campaigns and
devices developed with a provision of
involvement of private organisations
display and demonstration of the devices.
for making the infrastructure of
o BADHTE KADAM: aims at community
educational disabled friendly.
awareness, sensitisation, social
integration and mainstreaming of
Persons with Disabilities.

3.5.5. 2016 INDIAN EXCLUSION digital access, agricultural land, and legal
REPORT (IXR) justice for undertrials.
• Most severely and consistently excluded from
• The 2016 Report released by Center of provisioning tend to be the same historically
Equity Studies reviews exclusion with respect disadvantaged groups: Dalits, Adivasis,
to four public goods: pensions for the elderly, Muslims, and persons with disabilities and
age-related vulnerabilities.

special training for mainstreaming out-of-
school children, residential facilities,
EDUCATION transportation or escort facilities, and
providing uniforms and text books.
4.1.1. INTEGRATED SCHOOL • Bridging Gender Gaps in Elementary
EDUCATION SCHEME Education through interventions like opening
Why in news? of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya,
Separate girls’ toilets and digital gender atlas.
Government has decided to subsume Sarva
• Sub-Programmes under SSA
Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik
o The Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat (PBBB)
Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education
is focusing on foundational learning in in
(TE) which were operational since more than 15
classes I and II with an emphasis on
years under an integrated school education
reading, writing and comprehension and
scheme. mathematics.
Objectives of the Scheme o The Rashtriya Aavishkar Abhiyan (RAA)
aims to motivate and engage children of
The integrated scheme will be in place from 2018,
the age group 6-18 years, in science,
to 2020, with an estimated allocation of Rs.
mathematics and technology. Schools
75,000 crore over the period, a 20% increase over
have been adopted for mentoring by
the current allocation.
institutions of higher education like IIT’s,
• Provision of quality education and enhancing IISER’s and NIT’s.
learning outcomes of students; o Vidyanjali: The aim of the programme is
• Bridging Social and Gender Gaps in School to strengthen implementation of co-
Education; scholastic activities in government
• Ensuring equity and inclusion at all levels of schools through services of volunteers
school education; and enhance community and private
• Ensuring minimum standards in schooling sector involvement in Government run
provisions; elementary schools.
• Promoting vocationalization of education; o ShaGun portal - an Initiative to monitor
• Support States in implementation of Right of the implementation of SSA.
Children to Free and Compulsory Education • Teacher Training via in-service teacher
(RTE) Act, 2009; and training and distance education programmes.
• Strengthening and up-gradation of State • Academic Support System by setting up of
Councils for Educational Research and Block Resource Centres (BRCs) and Cluster
Training (SCERTs)/State Institutes of Resource Centres (CRCs) to provide
Education and District Institutes for decentralized academic support, training and
Education and Training (DIET) as nodal supervision to teachers and schools.
agencies for teacher training. • Infrastructure improvement through
flexibility to states in the execution of civil
Key Interventions under Sarva Sikhsa Abhiyan
works repair of old school buildings and
retrofitting of school buildings.
SSA is being implemented since 2001 for • School Management Committees and
universalization of elementary education. After Community Participation wherein the
enactment of Right to Free and Compulsory parents/guardians of students studying in the
Education Act 2009 which confers the right to respective school are the members.
elementary education on all children, in the age • Admissions under Section 12(1) (c) of the
group of 6-14 years, SSA became the central RTE Act: It mandates all private unaided
programme to fulfil its objectives. schools and special category schools to
• Universal Access: SSA has made significant reserve a minimum of 25 per cent of seats for
progress in achieving near universal access economically weaker sections.
and equity through opening of new schools,

Key Provisions of Rashtriya Madhyamik o ‘India Teacher Education Portal
Shiksha Abhiyan (Prashikshak)’ launched in 2016 for
monitoring of Teachers Education
• RMSA was launched in 2009 with the
Institutions and in providing
objective to enhance access to secondary
comprehensive information to
education and improve its quality.
prospective students and teachers to
• The scheme envisages to enhance the
select the right institute as per choice.
enrolment by providing a secondary
school with a reasonable distance of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV): KGBV are
habitation, with an aim to ensure GER of residential upper primary schools for girls from SC, ST,
100 per cent and universal retention by OBC Muslim communities and BPL girls which are set
2020. up in educational backward blocks for out of school
• Some of the significant initiatives, under girls in the 10+ age group who are unable to complete
primary school. KGBVs provide for a minimum
RMSA for improving quality of education
reservation of 75 per cent seats for girls from
are: SC/ST/OBC and minorities communities and 25 per
o Shaala Sidhi: It is a portal for School cent to girls from families that live below the poverty
Standards and Evaluation Framework line.
launhed in 2015.
Digital Gender Atlas for Advancing Girls’ Education: It
o Shaala Darpan: It was launched in
is developed by Department of School Education and
2015 to provide services based on Literacy with the support of UNICEF, to help identify
school management systems to low performing geographic pockets for girls,
students, parents and communities particularly from marginalized groups including girls
vis a vis Kendriya Vidyalyas. with disabilities.
o National Achievement Survey
o Kala Utsav is an initiative of MHRD to 4.1.2. NATIONAL ACHI EVEMENT
promote Arts (Music, Theatre, Dance, SURVEY
Visual Arts and Crafts) in education Why in news?
by nurturing and showcasing the
artistic talent of school students. Recently, National Achievement Survey (NAS)
o Focus on Science and Maths as part was released by the HRD Ministry.
of Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan About National Achievement Survey
launched in 2015
o National Award for Teachers using It assesses performance of students in five major
ICT For Innovation in Education. subjects -English, Mathematics, Science, Social
Science and Modern Indian Languages.
Key Provisions of Centrally Sponsored Scheme
for Teacher Education (CSSTE):
• Strengthening Teacher Education: The
Centrally Sponsored Scheme for Teacher
Education was initiated in 1987 pursuant to
the formulation of the National Policy of
Education, 1986. It aims to establish District
Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs) in
all districts created up to 2011, strengthen
Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs),
Institutes of Advanced Studies in Education
(IASEs) and establish Block Institutes of
teacher education (BITEs) in identified SC/ST/
minority concentration districts.
• Quality in Teacher Education via creation of Findings of the Survey
Separate Cadre for teacher educators.
• New Activities/Initiatives under CSSTE • The performance of students declined in
Scheme: environmental science, language and maths
as one moves from class III to class VIII.

• Rural students scored higher than those in 4.2. HIGHER EDUCATION
cities which is contrary to the perception that
the quality of education in urban areas is 4.2.1. ALL INDIA SURVEY ON
superior to that in rural areas. HIGHER EDUCATION
• Also, in classes V and VIII, OBC students
outscored the general category. Why in news?
• At all levels, average scores were lowest for Recently, 8th All India Survey on Higher Education
ST students while SC students scored a tad for the year 2016-17 was released.
• Female students performed better than male All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE)
students. 2016-17

Beyond Basics ASER’s recent survey • AISHE is a Pan India, annual web-based
• Since 2006, ASER has focused on the age group of survey which covers all the Higher
5 to 16. However, this year, the survey titled Educational Institutions in the country
“Beyond Basics” is focusing on youth who are 14 conducted by Ministry of Human Resource
to 18 years old and have moved just beyond the Development.
elementary school age. • Various parameters on which the data is
• It reports on children’s schooling status and their collected are teachers, student enrolment,
ability to do basic reading and arithmetic tasks in programs, examination results, education
its previous reports. This year, a wider set was
finance, infrastructure etc.
considered including four domains - activity,
ability, awareness, and aspirations. Major Findings of AISHE
4.1.3. THE RIGHT OF CHILDREN TO • Institutions: There exists a regional disparity
FREE A ND COMPULSORY in college density (number of colleges per
EDUCATION (AMENDMENT ) BILL, lakh eligible population) which varies from 7
2017 in Bihar to 59 in Telangana as compared to All
India average of 28.
Why in news? • Enrolment: Total enrolment in higher
Lok Sabha has passed the Rights of Children to education has been estimated to be
Compulsory Education (Amendment) Bill, 2017. 35.7million with an overall increase of 18.3%
as compared with 2012-13.
More on News • Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER): A high
• After the passage of Right to Education Act, percentage of the eligible population is still
new schools were established to foster the outside college as shown by the GER in
aim of universal education. The Act also lays Higher Education in India of 25.2% (calculated
down the Pupil Teacher Ratio for 18-23 years of age group).
o Primary Level – 30:1 o The GER for male population is 26%
o Upper Primary Level – 35:1 (22.7% in 2012-13) and female is 24.5%
o Secondary Level – 30:1 (According to (20.1% in 2012-13).
Rashtriya Madhyamik Shisksha Abhiyan) • Gender Parity Index: There is a marginal
• At present close to 8.5 lakh unqualified increase in the Gender Parity Index (GPI) (a
teachers hold jobs which would now be given ratio of proportional representation of
a chance to attain the degrees according to female and male) for all categories from 0.89
the amendment to Compulsory Education in 2012-13 to 0.94 in 2016-17.
Act. • Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR): in Universities and
• Under the amended Act the deadline to Colleges is 22 which have remained stable
possess the minimum qualification will be from 21 in 2012-13.
relaxed up till March 31, 2019. • The foreign student enrolment has also been
increased from 34,774 in 2012-13 to 47,575
in 2016-17 with a greater increase in male
foreign students as compared to female

• Uttar Pradesh tops in student enrolment in govern all such institutions, ensuring their
Universities followed by Maharashtra and complete academic, administrative and
Tamil Nadu. financial autonomy.
• These regulations will override all other UGC
4.2.2. INSTITUTIONS OF EMINENCE regulations and free the institutions of UGC’s
Why in news? restrictive inspection regime, the regulatory
control over fee and curriculum.
Government constituted a panel, headed by N
Gopalaswami, for identification of top 20 best UGC
• It came into existence on 28th December, 1953
higher education institutions.
and became a statutory Organization in 1956
• It has the unique distinction of being the only
grant-giving agency in the country which has been
vested with two responsibilities: that of providing
funds and that of coordination, determination and
maintenance of standards in institutions of higher

Why in news?
Government unveiled a new scheme named
Revitalization Infrastructure and Systems in
Education (RISE) in Union Budget, 2018.
About RISE
• It is a new initiative to step up investments in
centrally funded institutions like IITs, Central
Universities and others such institutes
• Funding will be provided through Higher
Education Financing Agency (HEFA).
Features of such institutions
About HEFA
• It should preferably be multi-disciplinary and • It is a joint venture of MHRD Government of India
have both teaching and research focus of an and Canara Bank.
exceptionally high quality. • RBI granted license to operate as Non-Banking
• Apart from the regular courses, it should also Financial Company (NBFC)
offer various inter-disciplinary courses, • It seeks to introduce a market-linked education
including in areas of emerging technology as financing structure
well as those relevant to the development • It aims to lend low-cost funds to government
concerns of countries like India. higher educational institutions.
• There should be a reasonably good mix of 4.2.4. TECHNICA L EDUCATION
domestic and foreign students. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
• There should be a transparent merit based PROGRAMME (TEQI P)
selection in admissions.
• The faculty student ratio should not be less Why in news?
than 1:10 after three years of declaration The government has decided to employ
• It should have student amenities comparable graduates from premier colleges like IITs, NITs
with that of globally reputed institutions. etc to teach in engineering colleges in backward
• The Institution should have reasonably large districts for a period of 3 years as a part of TEQIP
owned campus with adequate space for Phase 3.
expansion etc.
• The UGC (Institutions of Eminence Deemed
to be Universities) regulations, 2017 will
About TEQIP known as "Madhyamik and Uchchtar Shiksha
Kosh" (MUSK).
• The scheme, launched by HRD Ministry in
2002, aimed to overhaul the quality of About the Fund
technical education in the Low Income States
• Administration and maintenance of the
and Special Category States (SCS).
MUSK pool would be done by the Ministry of
• The project commenced with the World Bank Human Resource Development.
assistance to Government of India to launch a
• The Ministry of Human Resources
TEQIP as a long term programme of 10-12
Development can allocate funds for any
years and in 2 or 3 phases.
future programme/scheme of secondary and
• The present 3rd Phase of the schemes has higher education, based on the requirement,
central, eastern and north-eastern region and as per prescribed procedures.
hill states as its focus states
• The expenditure on schemes of the
• The measures under TEQIP include: Department of School Education & Literacy
o Institution based: accreditation of the and Department of Higher Education would
courses through NBA, governance be initially incurred from the gross budgetary
reforms, improving the processes, digital support (GBS) and the expenditure would be
initiatives, securing autonomy for the
financed from the MUSK only after the GBS is
colleges. exhausted.
o Student based: improving the quality of
• The fund would be operationalised as per the
teaching, teacher training, equipping the
present arrangements under Prarambhik
class rooms, revision of syllabus, industry
Shiksha Kosh (PSK) wherein the proceeds of
interaction, compulsory internships for
cess are used for Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)
students, training the students in
and Mid-Day Meal (MDM) Schemes of the
industry-relevant skills, preparing them
Department of School Education & Literacy.
for the GATE exam etc.
• The MUSK would be maintained as a Reserve
Fund in the non-interest bearing section of
the Public Accounts of India.
Utilization of the Fund
The fund would be utilised for:
• For Secondary Education-
o ongoing Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha
Abhiyan Scheme
o National Means-Cum-Merit Scholarship
Scheme and
o National Scheme for Incentives to Girls
for Secondary Education.
• For Higher Education-
o Ongoing Schemes of Interest Subsidy and
contribution for guarantee funds,
Scholarship for College & University
o Rashtriya Uchchtar Shiksha Abhiyaan
o Scholarship (from Block Grant to the
institutions) and National Mission on
4.2.5. MADHYAMIK A ND UCHCHTAR Teachers and Training.
SHIKSHA KOSH Education Cess Rate:
Why in News? The rate at which education cess is calculated is a
combination of the two types of cess applied on the
The Union Cabinet has accorded its approval for taxable income.
creation of a non-lapsable pool in the Public • The education cess the rate is 2% of the tax
Account for secondary and higher education payable and

• The Secondary and Higher Education Cess (SHEC) • In view of the need to have a specialized body in
the rate is 1% of the tax payable. Together they India like the most advanced countries, the
form the education cess rate of 3% of the tax Finance Minister in the Budget speech of 2017-18
payable. had announced setting up of a National Testing
Agency (NTA).
4.3.1. EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT • It is created as a Society registered under the
IMPACT BOND Indian Societies Registration Act, 1860, and
as an autonomous and self-sustained premier
Why in news? testing organization to conduct entrance
The British Asian Trust created a 10-million- examinations for higher educational
dollar Education Development Impact Bond institutions.
(EDIB) for India. • It would be an independent body dedicated
on the lines of the Educational Testing
About the Bond
Service (ETS) in the United States.
• It is intended as an innovative and • It will conduct entrance tests entrusted to it
sustainable social impact investment tool by any department or ministry.
which will be tied in with performance and
outcomes of educational initiatives in India.
• It would initially conduct those entrance
• It will provide funding for delivering a range
examinations which are currently being
of activities including principal and teacher
conducted by the CBSE. Other examinations
training, direct school management, and
will be taken up gradually after NTA is fully
supplementary programmes.
geared up.
• The concept of Development Impact Bonds is
• The entrance examinations will be conducted
intended as a result-oriented way to attract
in online mode at least twice a year, thereby
new capital into development, with a strong
giving adequate opportunity to candidates to
emphasis on data and evidence.
bring out their best.
• The focus is to improve literacy and
• To serve the requirements of the rural
numeracy learning levels for over 200,000
students, it would locate the centres at sub-
primary school students from marginalized
district/district level and as far as possible
communities in Delhi, Gujarat and Rajasthan.
would undertake hands-on training to the
• The bond has been described as a step
towards a greater focus on social impact
• It will be given a one-time grant of Rs.25
financing as a transformational tool for
crore from the Government to start its
operation in the first year. Thereafter, it will
• The UK government’s Department for
be financially self-sustainable.
International Development (DfID) will
NTA composition
contribute technical assistance and insights
• It will be chaired by an eminent educationist
to the project as part of a wider partnership. appointed by Ministry of Human Resource
• The CEO will be the Director General to be
TESTI NG AGENCY appointed by the Government.
Why in News? • There will be a Board of Governors comprising
The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister has members from user institutions.
• The Director General will be assisted by 9 verticals
approved creation of National Testing Agency
headed by academicians/ experts.
Background 4.3.3. GLOBAL EDUCATION
• NTA was recommended in the national education MONITORING REPORT
policy 1986 but it was never implemented by
previous governments. • The 2nd edition of the Global Education
• The National Knowledge Commission in its Report Monitoring Report (GEM Report, 2017-18)
to the Nation (2006-2009) also mentions the was recently released by UNESCO with the
setting up of a National Testing Service. theme ‘Accountability in Education’.
• The report talks about various Swayam Prabha
Accountability Mechanisms that may be
• It is a group of 32 DTH channels devoted to
effective with certain actors, in certain
telecasting of high-quality educational
contexts, for certain ends like- political
programmes on 24X7 basis using the GSAT-15
mechanism, legal or regulatory routes,
performance-based approaches, social
accountability, and professional or internal National Academic Depository (NAD)
accountability. • It is 24X7 online store house of all academic
4.3.4. NEW ONLINE EDUCATION awards viz. certificates, diplomas, degrees,
INITIATIVES marks sheets etc. duly digitised and lodged by
academic institutions / boards / eligibility
Swayam assessment bodies.
• A Web portal where Massive Open Online • It ensures easy access to and retrieval of an
Courses (MOOCs) will be available free of academic award and also validates and
cost on all kinds of subjects with a provision guarantees its authenticity and safe storage.
of certificate / credit-transfer. Programme 17 for 17
• It is designed to take the best teaching
• A 17 point action plan for 2017 – for building
learning resources to all, including the most
digital campuses and high quality education.
• The action plan covers measures like
universal adoption of digital education, digital
financial transactions in the campuses from
the current academic year.

Why in news?
Recently, NITI Aayog released a comprehensive
Health report named Healthy States, Progressive
India Report.
About the Report
• It is an annual report which will rank States
and UTs on incremental changes in health
outcomes and overall performance with
respect to others.
• It has been developed by NITI Aayog in
consultation with Technical Assistance
Agency of World Bank, Ministry of Health
and Family Welfare (MoHFW), States and 5.1.2. PRIVATE HEA LTH CARE
Union Territories, domestic and international
sector experts and other development Why in news?
partners. Health being a state subject, the government has
• The Health Index is based on three main been persuading states for implementation of
domains which focus on outcomes, ‘The Clinical Establishments (Registration &
governance and information, and critical Regulation) Act, 2010’.
o Health Outcomes – 10 indicators The Clinical Establishments (Registration and
weighing 70% of the total index. Regulation) Act, 2010
o Governance and Information - 3 • Objective: To provide for the registration
indicators which weigh 12%. and regulation of clinical establishments with
o Key Inputs and Processes – 10 indicators a view to prescribe minimum standards of
weighing 18%. facilities and services.
• The states have been categorised based on • Applicability: All types of clinical
the availability of data and the fact that establishments, except those run by the
similar states should be compared amongst armed forces, fall within the ambit of this Act.
themselves. Therefore, the states have been • Implementation: Through a three-tier
categorised as Larger states, Smaller States structure — the Central Council, the State
and UTs. Council and the District Registering Authority.
• Based on the above categories the states are • Penalty: Running a clinical establishment
grouped into three categories – Aspirants without registration would be punishable
(bottom one third states with score below with a fine of Rs 50,000 for the first offence,
48), Achievers (middle one third state with Rs 2 lakh for the second offence and Rs 5 lakh
score between 48 and 63) and Front runners for the subsequent offence.
with scores above 63. • Monitoring: The Act permits health
authorities to conduct inspections and
penalize or cancel licenses of hospitals that
are found to be fleecing patients, either by
prescribing needless tests and procedures, or

5.1.3. FOCUS ON NEWBORNS framework of the National Health Mission
Why in News? o Six pillars of intervention include:
UNICEF recently released a report on new born ✓ Preconception and antenatal care
deaths titled “Every Child Alive”. ✓ Care during labour and child birth
✓ Immediate newborn care
• Neonatal mortality includes deaths in the first 28 ✓ Care of healthy newborn
days of life. ✓ Care of small and sick newborn
• Child mortality refers to death of children below 5
Care beyond newborn survival.
years per 1000 live births (50 per 1000 live births
in 2015-16). What is RMNCH+A?
• Maternal mortality Rate refers to number of • Launched in 2013 Strategic approach to
women who die as a result of pregnancy and Reproductive Maternal, Newborn, Child and
childbirth complications per 100,000 live births in Adolescent health.
a given year (174 per 100, 000 live births in 2015). • It will provide continuum of care to ensure equal
Situation in India focus on various life stages.
• Address the issue of anaemia through National
• At 6,40,000 newborn child deaths in 2016, Iron + initiative.
India has the largest number of babies dying in
the world. 5.1.4. INFANT MORTALITY RATE
• The number of annual under-five deaths in Why in News?
India has gone below one million for the first
time in 2016. • As per latest data, IMR has reduced by 58% in
• The under-five mortality rate for girls was 11 India during the period of 1990-2015 which is
per cent higher at 41 per 1,000 as against 37 more than the Global decline of 49% during
per 1,000 for boys. the same period.
• India’s current under-five mortality rate is The National Health Mission is India’s flagship health
39/1000. sector programme to revitalize rural and urban health
• With the current rate of decline, India is back sectors.
on track to meet the Sustainable Development The National Health Mission comprises of 4
Goals (SDG) target for the under-five mortality components namely the National Rural Health
of 25 per 1,000 live births by 2030. Mission, the National Urban Health Mission, Tertiary
• India’s neonatal mortality rate (2016) is Care Programmes and Human Resources for Health
25.4/1000. and Medical Education.
The National Health Mission represents India’s
Related Information endeavour to expand the focus of health services
• Every Newborn Action Plan beyond Reproductive and Child Health, so as to
o It is led by WHO and UNICEF. address the double burden of Communicable and
Non-Communicable diseases as also improve the
o In 2014, 194-member states of the Sixty-
infrastructure facilities at District and Sub-District
Seventh World Health Assembly, Levels.
including India, endorsed the action plan.
o It provides a road map of strategic What is IMR?
actions for ending preventable newborn
• The Infant Mortality Rate is the number of
mortality and stillbirth and contributing
deaths under one year of age occurring
to reducing maternal mortality and
among the live births in a given geographical
area during a given year, per 1,000 live births
• India Newborn Action Plan (2014)
occurring among the population of the given
o It is India’s committed response to the
geographical area during the same year.
ENAP to advance the Global Strategy for
• The latest government data on child health
Women s and Children’s Health.
indicators shows that India’s IMR is now at 39
o Its goal is to attain Single Digit Neonatal
per 1,000 live births as against 40 the
Mortality and Stillbirth Rates by 2030.
previous year.
o It is to be implemented within the existing
Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child • The target for IMR under National Health
and Adolescent health (RMNCH+A) Mission is 30 per 1000 live births by 2020.

SDG 3 provisions related to child and maternal entitles them to receive high per capita
health- funding, relaxed norms, enhanced monitoring
By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to and focused supportive supervisions and
less than 70 per 100,000 live births. encouragement to adopt innovative
By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and approaches to address their peculiar health
children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming challenges.
to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12
per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least Ama Sankalpa in Rayagada of Odisha
as low as 25 per 1,000 live births. • This initiative has brought down the infant
mortality rates in district from 48 to 33 out of
Various steps taken by the Government (under 1,000 in 1 year
the National Health Mission) • Measures included
o keeping track of pregnant women’s expected
• Under Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) and date of delivery
Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK), o upgrading primary health centres
the number of institutional deliveries have o directing Anganwadi and ASHA workers, ANMs
improved. These programmes entitle all to identify pregnant women in high risk
pregnant women delivering in public health category & bring them to Maa Gruhas
o operating Maa Gruhas round the clock to
institutions to absolutely free ante-natal
ensure medical assistance and nutritional food
check-ups, delivery including Caesarean
to women
section, post-natal care and treatment of sick o promoting vegetable cultivation in rural parts
infants till one year of age. of the district through Integrated Tribal
• Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Development Agency.
launched MAA-Mothers’ Absolute Affection
programme in August 2016 for improving 5.1.5. INTEGRATED HEA LTH
breastfeeding through mass media and INFORMATION PLATFORM (IHIP)
capacity building of health care providers in
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW)
health facilities as well as in communities.
has set up an IHIP to enable the creation of
• Village Health and Nutrition Days (VHNDs)
Electronic Health Records (EHRs) of citizens and
are observed for provision of maternal and
make them available nationwide online for
child health services and creating awareness
medical history, with the help of Health
on maternal and child care including health
Information Exchange.
and nutrition education.
• Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is • MoHFW had notified Electronic Health
being supported to provide vaccination to Record EHR Standards Version 2016 with the
children against many life-threatening intent to bring standardisation and
diseases. homogeneity, inter-operability in capture,
• Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) storage, transmission, use etc. of healthcare
for health screening, early detection of birth information across various health IT systems.
defects, diseases, deficiencies, development
delays including disability and early 5.2. NUTRITION
intervention services has been
operationalized to provide comprehensive 5.2.1. GLOBA L HUNGER I NDEX
care to all the children in the age group of 0- Why in news?
18 years in the community.
• Iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation for India has ranked 100 among 119 developing
the prevention of anaemia among the countries as per report titled “2017 global hunger
vulnerable age groups. index: The inequalities of hunger”.
• Various trainings are being to build and Related National health policy 2017
upgrade the skills of health care providers in recommendations
basic and comprehensive obstetric care of • Increase utilization of public health facilities by 50%
mother during pregnancy, delivery and from current levels by 2025.
essential newborn care. • Ensure availability of paramedics and doctors as
per Indian Public Health Standard (IPHS) norm in
• Low performing districts have been identified
high priority districts by 2020.
as High Priority Districts (HPDs) which
• achievable target of raising public health despite being world’s second largest food
expenditure to 2.5% of the GDP in a time bound producer.
• targeted approach to reach under-serviced areas in 5.2.2. GLOBA L NUTRITION REPORT
infrastructure and human resource development. 2017
• enhanced outreach of public healthcare through
Mobile Medical Units. • It is an independently produced annual
• Retain a certain excess capacity in terms of health stock-take of the state of the world’s
infrastructure, human resources, and technology to nutrition.
effectively handle medical disasters. • In all 140 countries studied, the report found
• establishing cadres like Nurse Practitioners and the vast majority (88%) of countries studied
Public Health Nurses to increase their availability in face a serious burden of two or three of
most needed areas. these forms of malnutrition: childhood
• CSR should be leveraged for filling health stunting, anaemia in women of reproductive
infrastructure gaps in public health facilities.
age and overweight adult women.
About the Global Hunger Index • Double burden of malnutrition in India- 38%
of children under-5 are affected by stunting
• It has been released by Washington-based
and 21% of under-5s are defined as 'wasted'.
International Food Policy Research Institute
On the other hand, 16 per cent of adult men
(IFPRI) in association with Concern
and 22 per cent of adult women are
Worldwide of Ireland and Welthungerhilfe
(German non-profit organization)
• It ranks countries on a 100-point scale with 0 5.2.3. THE STATE OF FOOD
representing no hunger. SECURI TY A ND NUTRITI ON I N THE
• GHI scores are based on four indicators: WORLD REPORT
o UNDERNOURISHMENT: the share of the
population whose caloric intake is • It is an annual flagship report jointly prepared
insufficient. by Food and Agriculture Organization of the
o CHILD WASTING: the share of children United Nations (FAO), the International Fund
under the age of five who have low for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the
weight for their height. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the
o CHILD STUNTING: the share of children World Food Programme (WFP) and the World
under the age of five who have low Health Organization (WHO).
height for their age. • For the first time, the report provides two
o CHILD MORTALITY: the mortality rate of measures of food insecurity. Indicator of the
children under the age of five (a extent of hunger, the prevalence of
reflection of the fatal mix of inadequate undernourishment, is complemented by the
nutrition and unhealthy environments). prevalence of severe food insecurity using the
Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) which
Status of Hunger across the world
includes direct interviews.
• The level of hunger across the Globe has • In addition, the report assesses the trends for
declined by 27% since 2000. six nutrition indicators: anaemia in women of
• South Asia and Africa South of the Sahara reproductive age, stunting, wasting,
have the highest levels of hunger, at 30.9 and overweight, obesity and levels of exclusive
29.4, respectively. breastfeeding.
• The Central African Republic has the worst Related Information
score and is the only country in extremely
‘Alarming’ hunger level category in 2017. • World Food Programme
o It is the UN agency focused on hunger
Performance of India
alleviation and food security.
• With a score of 31.4, India is at the high end o It is a member of the United Nations
of “serious” hunger problem category. Development Group (a consortium of
• India has seen low improvement (i.e. 38.2 in 32 United Nations agencies created in
2000 to 31.4 in 2017) in hunger prevalence 1997 to improve the effectiveness of

UN development activities at the • Recently, Lancet study raised concern about
country level). double burden of malnutrition, that is,
o Globally, it responds to emergencies underweight as well as obese children in
making sure food reaches where it is India.
needed, especially in times of civil strife
Highlights of the Report
and natural disasters.
o In India, WFP has moved from providing • It showed a small difference between boys
direct food aid to providing technical and girls for all indicators of malnutrition.
assistance and capacity building services • It shows a significantly higher prevalence of
to the Government of India. malnutrition among children whose mothers
o Currently, WFP is focusing on- had little or no schooling.
✓ improving the efficiency, • The prevalence of child malnutrition among
accountability and transparency of households in the higher wealth quintiles
India’s own subsidized food was significantly lower than among
distribution system. households in lower wealth quintiles. While
✓ pioneering the multi-micronutrient in terms of over-nutrition, children from the
fortification of school meals in higher wealth households were more.
which the pilot project saw rice • Only 37.4% households accessed a public
fortified with iron. distribution system in the month preceding –
✓ supporting the Odisha lowest being in Surat (10.9%) and highest
government’s Poverty and Human being in Kolkata (86.6%).
Development Monitoring Agency in • Less than one in four children was fed a diet
establishing a State-level Food that meets the minimum requirements for
Security Analysis Unit. healthy growth and development.
• International Fund for Agricultural
Dual Burden of Malnutrition
Development (IFAD)
o It is an international financial institution Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or
and a specialized agency of the United imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or
nutrients. The term malnutrition covers 2 broad
Nations dedicated to eradicating
groups of conditions- undernutrition and overweight.
poverty and hunger in rural areas of
developing countries.
o It was established as an international 5.2.5. NATIONA L NUTRITION
financial institution in 1977 as one of STRATEGY
the major outcomes of the 1974 World Why in News?
Food Conference. A high-level panel under Niti Aayog has drawn up
o Its headquarters is in Rome and is a a 10-point nutrition action plan that includes
member of the United Nations governance reforms in line with the vision for
Development Group. “Kuposhan Mukta Bharat- Vision 2020”
5.2.4. URBAN NUTRITI ON IN INDIA Related Provisions
Why in News? • Article 47 of the Constitution mentions the
“duty of the state to raise the level of
• The Urban HUNGaMA (Hunger and
nutrition and the standard of living and to
Malnutrition) Report on Urban Nutrition was
improve public health.
released based on the survey that was
• The Copenhagen Consensus has identified
conducted in 2014 by Citizens Alliance
twice several nutrition interventions as some
against Malnutrition, capturing essential
of the most high-yielding of all possible
nutrition data of children aged 0-59 months
development assessments.
in the 10 largest cities of India.
• The National Nutrition Mission,
• The data collected in the survey was related
recommended by the Prime Minister’s
to Nutrition (weight, height, age) &
National Council on India’s Nutrition
Household (parent’s years of schooling,
Challenges in 2010, was launched in 2014, to
religion, access to services).

address the problems of maternal and child to enable integration of nutrition-related
under-nutrition in the country. interventions cutting across sectors like
• The government recently laid down the women and child development, health, food
National Health Policy, 2017, that also talks and public distribution, sanitation, drinking
about Child & Adolescent health and water, and rural development.
interventions to address malnutrition and Related News
micronutrients deficiencies, among other
issues. • The Government of Indian has approved
setting up of the National Nutrition Mission.
National Nutrition Strategy Provisions
About the Mission
• Reducing all forms of malnutrition by the
end of 2030. • It would be executed with the Ministry of
• The nutrition strategy envisages a framework Women and Child Development (WCD)as
wherein the four proximate determinants of the nodal ministry along with Ministry of
nutrition – uptake of health services, food, Drinking Water and Sanitation and Ministry
drinking water & sanitation and income & of Health and Family Welfare.
livelihoods – work together to accelerate • Implementation and Target
decline of under nutrition in India. o The mission has a target to reduce
• Decentralised Approach- With this the stunting, under-nutrition, and low birth
Strategy aims to strengthen the ownership of weight by 2 per cent per annum, and
PRIs and urban local bodies over nutrition anaemia by 3 per cent annually.
initiatives as subjects allocated to PRIs o It aims to focus mainly on children up to
include those addressing the immediate and the age of 6 years, pregnant and lactating
underlying determinants of undernutrition women, and adolescent girls.
like sanitation and water. o It would also strive to achieve reduction
• Governance reforms envisaged in the in stunting from 38.4% (NFHS-4) to 25%
Strategy include: (i) convergence of state and by 2022 (Mission 25 by 2022).
district implementation plans for ICDS, NHM o It will be implemented in three phases:
and Swachh Bharat, (ii) focus on the most 2017-18, 2018-19 and 2019-20. 315 ‘high
vulnerable communities in districts with the burden’ are to be covered in the first
highest levels of child malnutrition, and (iii) phase, 235 in next and the remaining in
service delivery models based on evidence of last.
impact. • Features
• Nutrition Social Audits are to be undertaken o NNM as an apex body will monitor,
to track the children and their health supervise, fix targets and guide the
progress. nutrition related interventions.
• National Nutrition Surveillance System- o Mapping of various schemes contributing
Undernourished endemic zones of the under malnutrition
country will be mapped for identifying ‘high o ICT (Information and Communication
risk and vulnerable districts’ & the cases of Technology) based real time monitoring
severe under nutrition in children should be system
included in the routine disease reporting o Incentivising states/UTs for meeting
system. targets
• Institutional Arrangements- Institutional o Incentivising Anganwadi Workers (AWW)
arrangements like the National Nutrition for using IT based tools and eliminating
Mission Steering Group (NNMSG) and the the need for registers
Empowered Programme Committee (EPC) o Measurement of height of children at
respectively under the chairpersonship of Anganwadi Centres
Minister and Secretary of Women and o Social Audits to track the health progress
Children and the Secretary will be of the children
constituted. o Setting-up Nutrition Resource Centres.
• National Nutrition Mission- The Strategy
aims to launch a National Nutrition Mission,
similar to the National Health Mission. This is

5.2.6. ‘ZERO HUNGER' PROGRA MME About Swasth Bachche Swasth Bharat
Why in News?
• It is the step of Kendriya Vidyalaya
Three districts --Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh), Sangathan in pursuit of building active
Koraput (Odisha) and Thane (Maharashtra)- have Schools.
been chosen for the launch of India's ambitious • It will provide a comprehensive and inclusive
'Zero Hunger' programme through interventions report card for children, covering all age
in farm sector on October 16 (World Food Day). groups and children of different abilities.
Related Information- State of Food and Agriculture • It is objected toward making students,
• State of Food and Agriculture is FAO's major teachers and parents aware about
annual flagship publication which aims at bringing importance of good health & fitness and
to wider audience balanced science-based encouraging 60 minutes of play each day.
assessments of important issues in the field of food • It will use technology for data capture and
and agriculture. analytics, and giving access to schools,
• The 2017 Report focuses on Leveraging food
parents and teachers.
systems for inclusive rural transformation.
About the Programme 5.2.8. THERAPEUTIC FOOD
• It will be initiated by the Indian Council of Why in news?
Agricultural Research (ICAR) in association Recently, Maharashtra Government stopped
with the Indian Council of Medical Research implementation of Ready-to-use Therapeutic
(ICMR), the M S Swaminathan Research Food to treat malnourished children after
Foundation and the Biotechnology Industry notification from the Centre Government.
Research Assistance Council (BIRAC). The
concerned state governments will also be What is Ready-to-use Therapeutic Food (RUTF)?
involved in the programme. • It is a medical intervention to cure Severe
• It will focus on agriculture, health and Acute Malnutrition (SAM) among children
nutrition in a symbiotic manner to develop which includes readymade packed paste
an integrated approach to deal with hunger & made of high energy fortified supplements
malnutrition. (peanuts, oils, dried milk etc.) being
• It will consist of organising farming systems administered to the child under doctor’s
for nutrition, setting up genetic gardens for supervision.
biofortified plants crops and initiation of a • The paste is administered to children aged
`Zero Hunger' training. between 6 months and 6 years daily for
• It will ensure suitable methods of measuring about a month.
the impact of intervention. • It is cost-effective and hygienic as it has low
• There will be intensive training programme in human contact as compared to freshly
order to identify the nutritional maladies in cooked food.
each district and the appropriate • It is being implemented under the global
agricultural/horticultural and animal initiative Scaling Up Nutrition movement
husbandry remedies. (SUN) and ICDS in India, through
• It will work in addition to the government's collaboration with the state governments.
other plans to make India malnutrition free
SUN Movement
by 2022 and attaining the SDG (No. 2) for
• It began in 2009 with the development of Scale Up
‘Zero Hunger’. Nutrition Framework.
• It unites people—from civil society, the United
Nations, donors, businesses and researchers—in a
BHARAT PROGRAMME collective effort to improve maternal and child
Why in News? nutrition.

• Recently, Ministry of Human Resource Nutraceutical Industry in India

Development has launched ‘Swath Bachche • Nutraceuticals are supplements and foods
Swasth Bharat’ Programme. that aren’t drugs but purported to contain

ingredients essential to well-being such as 36%, is female sterilization. Male sterilization
obesity pills, diet regimens shake with accounts for a mere 0.3%.
exaggerated benefits etc.
• In a 2017 report, the Associated Chambers
of Commerce and Industry of India
estimated the global nutraceutical industry
to be growing by about $15 billion annually.
In India alone, it is worth more than $2
• Recently, a centre was set up under National
Institution of Nutrition Hyderabad to
regulate nutraceutical industry according to
the guidelines by FSSAI last year.


Why in news?
Recently the fourth round of the National Family
Health Survey (NFHS-4) report on the variations
in the total fertility rate (TFR) of different
communities was released.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) may be defined as average
number of children that would be born to a woman if 5.3.2. MISSION PARIVAR VIKAS
she experiences the current fertility pattern
throughout her reproductive span (15-49 years).
Why in News?
• It is a more direct measure of the level of fertility • On the World Population Day (July 11, 2017),
than the birth rate, since it shows the potential
Minister of Health and Family Welfare
for population change in a country.
launched Mission Parivar Vikas.
• Total fertility rate declined in India from 2.7 in
2005-06 (NFHS-3) to 2.2 in 2015-16 (NFHS-4). National Population Policy 2002
Replacement level fertility is the level of fertility at • long term objective of achieving a stable
which a population exactly replaces itself from one population by 2045
generation to the next. Below 2.1 populations begin to • To address the unmet needs for contraception,
decline. health care infrastructure, and health personnel
• To provide integrated service delivery for basic
reproductive and child health care.
• Geographic variance: The fertility rate in 23 • Maternal Mortality Rate: below 100 per lakh
states and Union territories—including all the birth.
southern states—is below the replacement • Infant Mortality Rate: 30 per 1000 live birth.
rate while it is higher in a number of states in • Achieve 80% institutionalized deliveries, to reduce
central, east and north-east India. MMR
o Bihar has the highest rate at 3.41, • Achieve universal immunization of children.
• Promote delayed marriage for girls, not earlier
followed by Meghalaya at 3.04 and Uttar
than age 18 and preferably after 20 years of age.
Pradesh and Nagaland at 2.74.
• Compulsory school education, reduce dropout
o Total fertility rate in rural areas was 2.4 rate.
while in urban areas it was 1.8. • Promote small family norm to achieve
• Impact of education: Women with 12 years replacement levels of TFR.
or more of schooling have a fertility rate of • Convergence in implementation of related social
1.7, while women with no schooling have an sector programs.
average rate of 3.1.
• Skewed pattern of contraceptive usage: The
most popular contraceptive method by far, at

Mission Parivar Vikas o Santushti Strategy- invitation to private
sector gynaecologists and vasectomy
• It aims to control Total Fertility Rate of 146
surgeons to conduct sterilization
districts in seven states, constitute the 28 of
operations in Public Private Partnership
total country population.
• Mission will utilise the RMNCH+A strategy,
Family Planning Logistics Management National Family Welfare Programme launched in
Information System (FP-LMIS) and consumer 1951 with the objective of "reducing the birth rate to
friendly website on family planning. the extent necessary to stabilize the population at a
level consistent with the requirement of the National
• Strategic focus on improving access through;
economy. The Family Welfare Programme in India is
o Provision of services: distribute a kit recognized as a priority area and is being
(Nayi Pahal) containing products of implemented as a 100% Centrally sponsored
family planning and personal hygiene programme.
among newly-wed couples.
o Commodity security: it will increase Other Initiatives
sterilization services, roll out injectable • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
contraceptive at sub-centre level and has launched two new contraceptives, an
generate awareness about condoms and injectable contraceptive named ‘Antara’ and
pills. a contraceptive pill ‘Chhaya’, to meet the
o Promotional schemes: Special buses emerging needs of couples.
called ‘SAARTHI-Awareness on Wheels’ • The sterilization compensation scheme has
will to generate awareness, sensitize the been enhanced in 11 high focus states (8
community and disseminate family EAG, Assam, Gujarat, Haryana).
planning messages. • Appointment of dedicated RMNCH+A
o Capacity building: ‘SAAS BAHU counsellors at high case load facilities.
SAMMELANS’ will be held to bridge the • Under ‘National Family Planning Indemnity
gap in their attitudes and beliefs about Scheme’ (NFPIS) clients are insured in the
reproductive and sexual health. eventualities of deaths, complications and
o Enabling environment: ASHA workers to failures following sterilization and the
encourage inter-spousal communication providers/ accredited institutions are
and consensual decision-making on indemnified against litigations in those
reproductive and sexual health, delaying eventualities.
the birth of the first child and spacing the • Under the Compensation scheme for
second. sterilization acceptors the beneficiaries are
o Intensive monitoring: find out the causes provided compensation for loss of wages on
of high Fertility rate and half yearly account of undergoing sterilisation.
review of the programme and correlate
the achievements with time. 5.4. DISEASES
Jansankhya Sthirata Kosh (JSK)
• It was set up with a corpus grant of Rs 100 5.4.1. GLOBA L BURDEN OF DISEASE
crore in 2003 to raise awareness for STUDY
population stabilization strategies. Why in news?
• Recently, government approved the
proposal for its closure as an Autonomous Newborns in India have a lesser chance of
Bodies. Although, it will continue to play a survival than babies born in Afghanistan and
significant role in population stabilization Somalia, according to the latest Global Burden of
strategies. Disease (GBD) study published in the medical
• It organizes various activities with target journal The Lancet.
population as a part of its mandates. Highlights of study
• Strategies adopted-
• In the GBD rankings for healthcare access and
o Prerna Strategy- for helping to push up
quality (HAQ), India has fallen 11 places, and
the age of marriage of girls and delay in
now ranks 154 out of 195 countries.
first child and spacing in second child
• Further, India’s healthcare index of 44.8 is the o Disparity among states is also visible with
lowest among the sub-continental countries, a range of 66.8 years in Uttar Pradesh to
as Sri Lanka (72.8), Bangladesh (51.7), Bhutan 78.7 years in Kerala for females, and from
(52.7), and Nepal (50.8) all fared better. 63.6 years in Assam to 73.8 years in
• Access to tuberculosis treatment in India was Kerala for males in 2016.
scored lower than Pakistan, Congo and o Child and Maternal Nutrition: The
Djibouti. disease burden due to Child and
About the study Maternal malnutrition has dropped to
15% but it still remains single largest risk
• The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and factor in India.
Risk Factors study is put together by the • Non-Communicable Diseases and
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Epidemiological Transition
(IHME) o Over the past 26 years the pattern of
• IHME is an independent population health diseases has shifted from communicable,
research centre associated with the maternal, neonatal, and nutritional
University of Washington, along with a diseases (CMNNDs) to non-
consortium of 2,300 researchers in more than communicable diseases (NCDs) and
130 countries. injuries.
o Among the leading non-communicable
5.4.2. INDIA STATE LEVEL DISEASE diseases, the largest disease burden or
BURDEN REPORT DALY rate increase from 1990 to 2016
was observed for diabetes, at 80%, and
Why in news? ischaemic heart disease, at 34%.
India State Level Disease Burden Report was • Reduction in Infectious diseases but
published as a part of Global Burden of Disease prevalence still high in many states
Study 2016 to provide state level-disease burden o The burden of infectious diseases has
and risk factors trends from 1990 onwards. reduced since 1990.
o DALY rates for whole of India for this
About the Report group was 2.5 to 3.5 times higher than
• It has been prepared by Indian Council of the average globally for other countries
Medical Research (ICMR) along with Public with similar levels of development.
Health Foundation of India and Institute for • Increasing burden of diseases among states
Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). o Injuries due to road accidents, suicides
• The findings of the study can be used to track etc. are the leading contributors to the
subnational disease burden in India using injury burden in India.
DALY. • Unsafe Water and Sanitation
o The Disease burden due to above is
Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) improving but it continues to contribute
• Years of healthy life lost to premature death and 5% of total disease burden though it has
improved since 1990.
• It is composed two components: Years of Life Lost
(YLL) and Years of life lived with disability (YLD). • Household air pollution improving and
• DALYs instead of causes of death alone provides a worsening outdoor air pollution
more accurate picture of the main drivers of poor o Outdoor Pollution – The contribution of
health. pollution remained high during 1990 and
2016 which causes a mix of NCDs and
Findings of the Report
infectious diseases.
• Health Indicators and disparities among o Household pollution – it has considerably
States decreased due to reduced use of solid
o Life Expectancy: As compared to 1990s fuels for cooking.
the life expectancy at birth improved • Rising risk of cardiovascular diseases and
from 58.3 years among men and 59.7 diabetes
years among women to 66.9 years for
males and 70.3 years for females.

o The contribution of this group has
increased from 10% to 25% when 1990
and 2016.
o All these risks are generally higher in
females than males.


Why in News?
The Union Ministry of Health & Family Welfare on
World AIDS Day launched-
• National Strategic Plan 2017-24, &
• Mission SAMPARK
More about News
• National Strategic Plan (2017-24)- It aims to
strive, along with partners, towards fast track
strategy of ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 Provisions for protection of AIDS patients in
and is expected to pave a roadmap for India
achieving the target of 90:90:90. Apart from various constitutional protections in
• Mission SAMPARK- Aim is to trace those who terms of Fundamental Rights, there are other
are Left to Follow Up and are to be brought provisions for helping people with AIDS like-
under Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) services.
“Community Based Testing” will be taken up • India is currently in the fourth (since 2012)
for fast-tracking the identification of all who phase of National AIDS Control Programme,
are HIV positive. launched with two principal objectives-
o 50% reduction in new infections (using
2007 as baseline)
o Provision of comprehensive care and
support to people living with HIV.
• National AIDS Prevention and Control Policy
(2002, adopted under NACP II)- The main
purpose of this policy was to bring in a legal
sanction to prevent discrimination of people
living with HIV in work and social, medical
and financial settings.
• Indian Medical Council Act, 1956
(Professional Conduct, & Ethics) Regulations,
2002)- It lays down certain duties on the part
of doctors towards the HIV/AIDS patients.
• Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act, 1986- It
provides for conducting compulsory medical
examination for detection of HIV/AIDS among
the victims of trafficking.
• HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Act, 2017-
It criminalises discrimination against people
living with HIV/AIDS. Some of its important
features are-
o Provision for appointment of an
ombudsman by State/UT Governments to
address grievances related to violation of

the Act and penal action in case of non- • India has the third highest malaria burden in
compliance the world thus an immediate action plan was
o Provides an environment for enhancing long needed.
access to health care services by ensuring
informed consent and confidentiality for Efforts to eliminate Vector Born Diseases
HIV-related testing, treatment, and • The National Framework for Malaria
clinical research. It also provides ground Elimination (NFME) last year outlined India’s
for penal action for any health care commitment for eliminating malaria by 2030.
provider, except a physician or a • To implement this commitment the National
counsellor to disclose the HIV positive Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination was
status of a person to his or her partner. launched in July 2017.
The National AIDS Control Programme (NACP), • The government would like to eliminate
launched in 1992, is being implemented as a malaria by 2027 and urged the states for
comprehensive programme for prevention and control active cooperation. It gives strategies for
of HIV/AIDS in India. working towards the ultimate goal of
NACP-IV Components elimination of malaria by 2030.
Component 1: Intensifying and Consolidating • The strategies involve strengthening malaria
Prevention services with a focus on High-Risk Group surveillance, establishing a mechanism for
(HRG) and vulnerable populations. early detection and prevention of outbreaks
Component 2: Expanding IEC services for (a) general of malaria, promoting the prevention of
population and (b) high risk groups with a focus on malaria by the use of Long Lasting
behavior change and demand generation. Impregnated Nets (LLINs), effective indoor
Component 3: Comprehensive Care, Support and residual spray and augmenting the
Treatment. manpower and capacities for effective
Component 4: Strengthening institutional capacities. implementation.
Component 5: Strategic Information Management
National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination
Systems (SIMS).
Following are the provisions of NSPME-
• It divides the country into four categories
between 0-3, viz, -
o Category 1 (0)- includes 75 districts
where there has been no case of malaria
in last 3 years.
o Category 2 (1)- has as many as 448
districts in which API (Annual Parasite
Incidence) in a year is < 1 among every
1000 persons.
o Category 3 (2)- are the regions where the
API is one or above, but <2 per 1000
FOR MALARIA ELI MINATION o Category 4 (3)- are the regions where the
API is 2 or >2 per 1000 persons.
Why in News?
• The plan aims to eliminate Malaria
Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare completely by 2022 in the category 1 and 2
launched the National Strategic Plan for Malaria districts, while the other two categories will
Elimination (2017-22). be brought under pre- elimination or
Background elimination programmes.
• The plan aims at achieving Universal Case
• India that is a breeding ground for at least six Detection and treatment services in the
major vector-borne diseases—malaria, endemic districts to ensure full diagnosis and
dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese treatment of all the cases.
encephalitis and visceral leishmaniasis.

• Based on the WHO recommendations, 5.4.6. INDIA HEALTH FUND
following are the 4 components of the plan:
Why in news?
o Diagnosis & case management
o Surveillance & Epidemic Response The India Health Fund (IHF), an initiative by Tata
o Prevention by Integrated Vector Trusts, in collaboration with the Global Fund has
come forward to financially support innovations
and technologies designed to combat
o Cross Cutting interventions including tuberculosis and malaria.
communication, R & D, etc.
Key facts
• TB and malaria pose long-standing health
challenges for India. The two diseases
Why in News? account for over 4.23 lakh deaths and around
15 million lab-confirmed cases every year.
• Supreme Court has stayed the Karnataka
• It is aligned with the country’s goal of
High Court decision on reducing the size of
eliminating TB by 2025 and malaria by 2030.
Pictorial warning on Tobacco products form
• The IHF aims to support individuals and
85% to 40%.
organisations with already germinated
Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products (Packaging innovative strategies, services, products. It is
and Labelling Rules) amendment rule 2017. not a fellowship to do research from scratch.
• It was mandated that “the specified health • The Global Fund is designed to accelerate the
warning shall cover at least eighty-five per cent end of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as
(85%) of the principal display area of the package. epidemics. Founded in 2002, it is a
• Sixty per cent (60%) shall cover pictorial health partnership between governments, civil
warning and twenty-five per cent (25%) shall
society, the private sector and people
cover textual health warning.
affected by the diseases.
Other initiatives to control tobacco use
• India had ratified WHO the Framework 5.4.7. JOINT MONI TORING
Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in PROGRAMME 2017
• MPOWER- (a policy package intended to reduce Why in News?
the demand of Tobacco) initiative of WHO is • In July 2017, WHO and UNICEF under Joint
being implemented in India.
Monitoring Programme (JMP) released the
• National Tobacco Control Programme: for
report titled 'Progress on drinking water,
greater awareness about the harmful effects of
tobacco use and tobacco control law. sanitation and hygiene 2017 update and
o National Tobacco Control Cell (NTCC) nodal Sustainable Development Goal baselines'.
agency for overall policy formulation, Joint Monitoring Programme
planning, monitoring and evaluation of the • The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for
different activities. Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP)
• The Cable Television Networks (Amendment) Act • Maintains global database and estimates the
2000: prohibited tobacco advertising in state progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene
controlled electronic media and publications (WASH) since 1990.
including cable television. • Focuses on further enhancing global monitoring of
• Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products drinking water, sanitation and hygiene in the
(Production Supply and distribution) act 2003: context of the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
prohibition of smoking in public places, selling to Development
minors, and ban on sale of tobacco products • Each sector is dependent on the presence of the
within 100 yards of all educational institutions. other. For example, without toilets, water sources
• Prevention of Food Adulteration Act mandates become contaminated; without clean water, basic
statutory warnings regarding harmful health hygiene practices are not possible.
effects for paan masala and chewing tobacco.
• Higher Tax: Under GST, there will be an additional
cess charged on the tobacco-related products,
over and above the GST charged at the rate of

About the Report • Augmented by induction of non-physician
healthcare providers such as nurse practitioners,
• This is the first global assessment of “safely in addition to the existing staff, the HWC will
managed” drinking water and sanitation provide essential drugs and basic diagnostic free
services”. of cost.
• The report focus on; • Various vertical disease control programmes will
o Ending open defecation (SDG 6.2) find convergence at this delivery point.
o Achieving universal access to basic • Using technology, HWCs can generate real time
services (SDG 1.4) data for monitoring various health indicators.
o Progress towards safely managed Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna (RSBY)
services (SDG targets 6.1 and 6.2). • Launched in 2007-08, it is a health insurance
UN-Water scheme for BPL families and workers in the
unorganized sector.
• United Nations (UN) inter-agency coordination • It provides for IT-enabled and smart–card-based
mechanism for freshwater related issues, cashless health insurance, including maternity
including sanitation (no single organisation for benefit cover up to Rs. 30,000/- per annum on a
water related aspect) family floater basis.
• UN-Water launched its 2014-2020 Strategy in • Funding Pattern: Contribution by Government of
support of the 2030 Agenda. India to Sate Government is in ratio of 75:25.
World water Development report (WWDR) • It is implemented by the Ministry of Health and
Family Welfare.
• Published by UN-Water Members and Partners it
represents. Highlights
• The report production is coordinated by the
• Aim- To provide medical cover up to Rs5 lakh
World Water Assessment Programme and the
theme is harmonized with the theme of World
per year per household for secondary and
Water Day (22 March). tertiary health care.
• Coverage- An estimated 10 crore households
UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of
across the country, constituting 40% of total
Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS)
population on the basis of “deprivation and
• By the World Health Organization (WHO) onbehalf
of UN-Water. occupational criteria” as per Socio-Economic
• It is a substantive input into the activities of and Caste Census (SECC) data, 2011.
Sanitation and Water for All (SWA). • Using JAM- It would be a cashless and
Aadhaar enabled for better targeting of
5.5. GOVERNMENT SCHEMES beneficiary.
• Finance- It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme
5.5.1. NHPS with ratio of contribution towards premium
will be
Why in News?
o 60: 40 ratio Share between Centre and
In budget 2018, a flagship National Health State in all states and UTs with
Protection Scheme (NHPS) was announced under legislature.
Ayushman Bharat programme for a New India o 90: 10 ratio between Centre and
2022. northeastern states & 3 Himalayan
Ayushman Bharat programme has two component
viz. National Health Protection Scheme & Health and o 100% Centre’s contribution in case of
Wellness Centre. union territories (UTs) without
Health and Wellness Centre: They were envisioned legislature.
under National Health Policy, 2017. o Central funding: Initial corpus of Rs 2000
• Under this 1.5 lakh centres will bring health care crore was announced and rest will be
system closer to the homes of people. funded from 1% additional cess (Budget-
• These centres will provide comprehensive health 2018).
care, including for non-communicable diseases • NHPS scheme will subsume Rashtriya
and maternal and child health services. Swasthiya Bima Yojana (RSBY) under it.
• Contribution of private sector through CSR and
• National Health Agency (NHA)- It will be set
philanthropic institutions in adopting these
centres is also envisaged. up to manage NHPS.

• It will operate around the insurance principle • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) will give
of risk pooling. When a large number of protection against 13 types of pneumococcal
people subscribe to an insurance scheme, bacteria.
only a small fraction of them will be Highlights of Intensified Mission Indradhanush
hospitalised in any given year. (IMI)
Significance • It will be done through mapping of all
• It would be the world’s largest government- underserved population in urban areas and
funded health programme. need-based deployment of ANMs (auxiliary
• Consolidating Fragmented Healthcare nurse midwife) for providing vaccination
Insurance facility available in different states. services in these areas.
• It will focus on children up to 2 years of age
5.5.2. MISSION INDRA DHANUSH and pregnant women who have missed out
on routine immunization. However,
Why in news?
vaccination on demand to children up to 5
• Union Health Ministry launched Intensified years of age will be provided during IMI
Mission Indradhanush to achieve full rounds.
immunization. • A distinctive feature is that there is greater
• PMO will review the mission through multi- focus on convergence with other ministries,
modal platform PRAGATI (Pro-Active especially women and child development,
Governance and Timely Implementation) Panchayati Raj, urban development, youth
platform. affairs etc.
Mission Indradhanush • It will primarily focus on:
o Areas with vacant sub centres- Auxiliary
• It is a strategic endeavour under Universal Nurse Midwife not posted or absent for
Immunisation Programme 1985. more than 3 months
• It targets to immunize all children below two o Unserved/low coverage pockets in sub-
years of age either unvaccinated or are centre or urban areas, due to issues
partially vaccinated as well as all pregnant around vaccine hesitancy of program
women. reach; sub centre/ANM catering to
• Immunisation against seven vaccine populations much higher than norms
preventable diseases namely; Diphtheria, o Villages/areas with three or more
Pertussis, Tetanus, Childhood Tuberculosis, consecutive missed routine
Polio, Hepatitis B and Measles. immunization sessions.
• Moreover, Vaccines for Japanese o High risk areas identified by the polio
Encephalitis, Haemophilus influenza type B, eradication program that are not having
inactivated polio vaccine, Rotavirus vaccine independent routine immunization
and Measles Rubella vaccine are also being sessions and clubbed with some other
provided in selected states. routine immunization sessions such as;
• Mission is technically supported by WHO, ✓ Urban slums with migratory
UNICEF, Rotary International and other donor population
partners. ✓ Nomadic sites (brick kilns,
construction sites, other migrant
Universal Immunisation Programme 1985
• The UIP provides free of cost vaccines to all
settlements-fisherman villages,
children during the first year of life. riverine areas with shifting
• To protect them against 12 life threatening populations, underserved and hard-
diseases: tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis to-reach populations-forested and
(whooping cough), tetanus, poliomyelitis, tribal populations, hilly areas, etc.)
measles, Hepatitis B, Diarrhoea, Japanese ✓ Areas with low routine
Encephalitis, rubella, Rotavirus and Pneumonia immunization coverage identified
(added in May 2017). through measles outbreaks, cases
Pneumonia vaccine of diphtheria and neonatal tetanus
• India accounts for nearly 20% of global in the last two years.
pneumonia deaths.

5.5.3. MENTAL HEALTHCARE ACT live in the community and not be segregated
in large institutions and make provisions for
Why in news? half-way homes, group homes and other such
• The Centre has proposed to establish facilities for rehabilitating persons with
“halfway homes” in an attempt to mental health problems.
rehabilitate the mentally ill. • It requires the government to meet
internationally accepted norms for the
What are “Halfway Homes”? number of mental health professionals within
• Halfway homes are transitional living facilities for
10 years of passing this law.
mentally ill patients who have been discharged
from hospital but are not fully ready to live on 5.5.4. EVIN PROJECT
their own or with the family.
• Such halfway homes will run outside the campus Why in news?
of mental health establishments and will be
Electronic vaccine intelligence network (eVIN)
registered as mental health establishments under
the Act. project of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
• They will be required to comply with all the has been lauded by various developing countries.
standards and other requirements to be observed About eVIN
by mental health establishments.
• The patients will be encouraged to do various • eVIN is an indigenously developed technology
activities and will be paid for their services system in India that digitises vaccine stocks
• They will be allowed to move freely with the and monitors the temperature of the cold
establishment and form relationships within in chain through a smartphone application.
the community. They shall also be allowed to • The technological innovation is implemented
move out under supervision at the discretion of by the United Nations Development
the medical officer in-charge within fixed timings.
Programme (UNDP).
• Such an initiative will give persons with mental
illness a second chance to mingle in society and • By streamlining vaccine flow network, it
start afresh and will help them overcome their strengths health systems by easy and timely
fears and inhibitions before they are actually availability of vaccines.
exposed to the real world.
Important Provisions of the Act PERFORMA NCE OF HOSPI TALS
• It has decriminalized suicide by ‘reading Why in news?
down’ the power of section 309 of the Indian
Penal Code. Niti Aayog along with the Health ministry has
• The law takes a rights-based approach to all started ranking district hospitals through ‘Health
aspects of mental healthcare. It provides of our Hospitals’ index.
persons with mental illness protection from Details
cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment,
right to information about their illness and • Its aims to provide comprehensive secondary
treatment, right to confidentiality of their health care services to the people in the
medical condition and right to access their district at an acceptable level of quality and
medical records to be responsive and sensitive to the needs of
people and referring centers.
• It makes provision for writing an advance
directive through which which people can • The hospitals are assessed on the basis of-
state their preferences for treatment, o Number of functional hospital beds per
including how they would like to be treated 1,00,000 population,
for mental illness. o ratio of doctors, nurses and paramedical
• The government is explicitly made
o stock out rate of essential drugs,
responsible for setting up programmes for
o blood bank replacement rate and
the promotion of mental health, prevention
o post-surgical infection rate etc.
of mental illness and suicide prevention
• It requires the government to make
provisions for persons with mental illness to
• ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Why in News?
Outcomes) is a concept of weekly or
• The railway ministry has given an in-principle
fortnightly virtual clinics using
approval to opening up of Jan Aushadhi
teleconferencing by best specialists to reach
Kendras at railway stations and other railway
out to underserved areas.
establishments under the Pradhan Mantri
• ECHO clinics do not provide care directly to Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana.
patients like in telemedicine. Instead, they
equip primary healthcare clinicians in Generic Medicines
remote areas with the knowledge and • It is a low-cost version of a formulation that is
support to manage complex cases. equivalent to branded product in quality, dosage,
strength, route of administration and efficacy.
• It helps in bringing specialist care and
• Due to patency issues generic drugs are not sold
knowledge to areas where there is none. in the market unless the patent of the branded
India’s first ECHO clinic began in 2008 as a drug expires.
collaboration between the National Aids Control • Even after the patency, generic drugs are
Organization (NACO) and Maulana Azad Medical available under brands and are called Branded
College (MAMC) on managing HIV AIDS patients.
Current regulation regarding Generic Drugs in India
Since then, ECHO clinics and handling various
• The Medical Council of India's ethics code for
diseases in the country.
doctors made generic prescription mandatory in
Project ECHO began in 2003 in New Mexico when a October 2016, though it was not enforced.
liver disease specialist in US realized that there were • Health Ministry has proposed changes in the
thousands of cases of Hepatitis C in New Mexico Drugs and Cosmetics Act to ensure the generic
without access to any treatment. Thus, he brought names is printed in bigger fonts than the brand
together local clinicians and specialists through ECHO names.
clinics. Drug Controller of India has directed states to order
the approval of drugs based on generic names only.
About the Scheme
Why in news?
• Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) Pariyojana is a campaign launched by the
to open AMRIT outlets in all districts. Department of Pharmaceuticals, to provide
About AMRIT quality medicines at affordable prices to the
masses through special kendra’s known as
• It was launched in 2015 by MoHFW as an Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi
Affordable Medicines and Reliable Implants Kendra (PMBJK).
for Treatment (AMRIT) programme with an • Bureau of Pharma Public Sector
aim to Reduce the expenditure incurred by Undertakings of India (BPPI), established
patients on treatment of cancer and heart under the Department of Pharmaceuticals
diseases. with the support of all the Central PSUs,
• AMRIT medicine outlet will be opened across coordinates procures, supplies and markets
India to cater medicines at very low costs. It generic drugs through PMBJK.
is being implemented through Mini-Ratna • All drugs procured under this scheme are
PSU, HLL Lifecare Ltd. The country’s 1st tested for quality assurance at NABL
AMRIT outlet was opened at AIIMS. (National Accreditation Board Laboratories)
• AMRIT will be launched in all Central Govt accredited laboratories and is compliant with
hospitals. The AMRIT pharmacy would be WHO GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices)
selling 202 cancer and 186 cardio-vascular benchmarks.
drugs, and 148 types of cardiac implants at
very affordable prices (60 to 90 percent
discounted price than Market).

• State Governments provide space in o Any NGOs/Charitable Society/Institution/
Government Hospital premises or any other Self-help Group/Individual Entrepreneurs
suitable locations for the running of the Jan /Pharmacist/Doctor can also open the Jan
Aushadhi Kendra. PMBJK may also be opened Aushadhi Kendra at outside of the
by any Government agencies in any hospital premises or any other suitable
Government building owned by Government place.

Why in News?
• Minister of State for Labour and
Employment, launched two schemes namely; Why in News?
One IP- Two Dispensaries and Aadhaar • Recently, Social Progress Index 2017 for the
based Online Claim Submission. States of India was released by Social
Highlight of the Schemes Progress Imperative and Institute of
• Two Dispensaries scheme of ESIC has given
an option to an Insured Person (IP) to choose About the Social Progress Index (SPI)
two dispensaries, one for self and another for • It measures the progress of a society across
family through an employer. different states, beyond the traditional
• It will benefit all IPs, especially migrant economic measurement tools (Income GDP,
workers who are working in other than home GVA etc.)
State. • SPI measures three broad criteria of social
• Moreover, Aadhaar based online Claim progress.
Submission scheme will provide an easy PF o The capacity of a society to meet the
(Provident Fund) final settlement under basic human needs of its citizens,
EPFO. o Allow citizens and communities to
What is EPFO What is ESIC (Employee enhance and sustain the quality of their
(Employee Provident State Insurance lives, and
Fund Organisation)? Corporation)? o Create the conditions for all individuals to
reach their full potential.”
• It is statutory body • It is a statutory, • It has three dimensions and four tiers of
under Ministry of autonomous
score to measure the society progress (See
Labour and corporation under
Employment Ministry of Labour and
implementing Employment
retirement benefit Established in 1948.
scheme that’s • It implements medical
available to all and cash benefits to
salaried employees. employee of organised
• EPF scheme is sector against the
applicable to events of sickness,
establishments maternity,
employing 20 or disablement and
more persons. death due to
• Does not apply to employment injury.
the co-operative • Applicable to all the
societies employing States except
less than 50 persons Manipur, Sikkim,
and the Arunachal Pradesh
organisation who and Mizoram.
have their own EPF • Mandatory for non-
scheme but seasonal factories
supervisor rest with employing 10 or more Four tiers of score
EPFO. persons and
employing 20 or more
persons in certain

Highlights of the report • India has also performed among lowest in
Gender gap but has fared well on skills
• India ranked 93rd out of 128th countries and
needed for future with a rank of 65 among
scored 58.39 out of 100.
130 countries.
• Denmark ranks 1st with a score of 90.57.
• State wise Social Progress (Highest to 6.2.3. SDGS I NDEX
Lowest); Kerala (68.09)→ Himachal Pradesh
(65.39)→ Tamil Nadu (65.34)→Mizoram Why in News?
(62.89) Delhi (60.17)→Haryana (44.89). • India rank 116th out of 157 country on SGDs
Index and Dashboard report conducted by
6.2.2. GLOBA L HUMA N CA PITAL Sustainable Development Solutions Network
Why in news? Highlights of Dashboard Report
• India has been placed at a lower rank on the • India is ranked 116th on the index is behind
WEF’s Global Human Capital Index. the countries such as Nepal, Iran, Sri Lanka,
• The report measures 130 countries against Bhutan and China. Pakistan is ranked 122.
four key areas among (shown in figure) five • The rising trend of nationalism and
distinct age groups to capture the full human imperialism is impeding the implementation
capital potential profile of a country. of goals.
World Economic Forum • The poor performances regarding
It is a not-for-profit foundation established in 1971 sustainable consumption and production are
and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. one of the greatest obstacles to achieving the
Major Reports and Indices by WEF global goals for high-income countries.
• Global Competitiveness Report • Small developed countries are closest to
• Global Gender Gap Report fulfilling the goals.
• Global Human Capital Report • Richest countries are nowhere near achieving
• Inclusive Development Index the global policy objectives but also
• Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report deteriorate the implementation process for
• Global Energy architecture performance index poorer countries because of negative spill
over effects.
Sustainable Development Solutions Network
• Established in 2012 has been operating under
the auspices of the UN Secretary-General.
• An independent global network of research
centres, universities and technical
• It is part of the UN’s response to the outcome
of the UN Conference on Sustainable
Development (UNCSD, or Rio+20).
• It works closely with United Nations agencies,
multilateral financing institutions, the private
Performance of India sector, and civil society.
• To mobilize scientific and technical expertise
• India has improved its rank by 2 places last
for problem-solving in relation to sustainable
year but it still ranks last among G-20 and
lowest among BRICS countries.
• It provides practical solutions for SDGs and
• Even among its South Asian neighbours India
Pairs Climate Change Agreement.
is ranked lower than Sri Lanka (70) and Nepal

the village may witness some ‘slip back’ into
open defecation due to old habits.
SCHEMES • Behaviour change campaigns through
effective information, education and
6.3.1. SWATCH BHARAT A BHIYAN communication (IEC) such as ;
Why in News? o “Darwaza Bandh” (on open defecation)
• Various Civil Societies and assessment groups o Incentive based trained grass roots level
had come up with data about the sanitation motivators, or swachhagrahis, to
on third year 2017 of Swatch Bharat Abhiyan. stimulating community-level demand for
Swatch Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) toilets.
o Involving locally elected representatives,
• The campaign aims to achieve the vision of a
grass roots-level organisations, NGOs and
‘Clean India’ by 2nd October 2019 on the
school students and least one trained
mark of 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma
grassroots-level swachhagrahi in each
village in India.
• Launched, under two submission namely;
SBA Gramin and SBA Urban, implemented by 6.3.2. SWACCHTA HI SEVA
the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation
and the Ministries of Urban Development Why in news?
respectively. • The government recently asked companies to
Earlier Initiatives on Sanitation contribute 7 percent of their CSR (Corporate
In 1986, government launched the first nationwide Social Responsibility) funds to Swacchta Hi
sanitation program under Central Rural Sanitation Seva Campaign.
Program (CRSP). Corporate Social Responsibility
In 1999, CRSP had been restructured under Total • It is a management concept where companies take
Sanitation Campaign (TSC), augmented with up the responsibility to assess the impact of their
incentives scheme in the form of an award for total corporate plans on the environment and social
sanitation coverage, maintenance of a clean well-being of the people and integrate it in their
environment and open defecation-free panchayat business models.
villages, blocks and districts, called Nirmal Gram • According to Companies Act, 2013, companies with
Puraskar. a net worth of Rs500 crore or revenue of Rs1,000
Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) in 2008, instated a crore or net profit of Rs5 crore should spend 2% of
framework for cities to prepare City Sanitation Plans their average profit in the last three years in
under the scheme of a State Sanitation Strategy. pursuance of its Corporate Social Responsibility.
Urban Sanitation awards and ratings were also
What is a Swacchta Hi Seva Campaign?
introduced, based on the benchmarking of sanitation
services. • Swacchta Hi Seva Campaign is a 15 day
Centrally sponsored schemes such as JNNURM, Urban campaign undertaken by the government
Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and under the Swacch Bharat Mission (SBM). The
Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), Rajiv Awas Yojna, etc. campaign was co-ordinated by the Ministry
provide funds for creation of sanitation assets like
of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
individual toilets, community toilet blocks and
wastewater disposal and treatment facilities at the city • Under this campaign, people from all walks of
level. life were encouraged to undertake
In 2012, the TSC was renamed to Nirmal Bharat shramdaan (voluntary labour) to make SBM
Abhiyan (NBA). On October 2, 2014 the campaign was a janandolan (mass movement).
relaunched as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan • The campaign targeted the cleaning of public
How different from earlier Initiatives? and tourist places. It mobilised the masses for
cleanliness and toilet construction.
• SBM had moved from outputs (number of • The campaign was significantly successful as
toilets built) to outcomes (ODF villages). the participation ranged from the President
• It emphasizes on sustainability by giving of India, legislators, common citizens,
verification mechanism (90-day) on Post celebrities, army personnels, schools kids and
ODF-declaration, because it is possible that more.

• The campaign culminated on October 2 How a state is declared as ODF free?
Gandhi Jayanti which is also Swacch Bharat
• Sanitation is a State subject.
Diwas (Clean India Day).
• The Ministry of Drinking Water and
Please refer to Vision IAS Current Affairs August Sanitation has given two criteria for granting
2017 to know more about Swacch Bharat of ODF status to a Gram Panchayat or village.
Mission. ✓ No visible faeces should be found in the
environment/village; and
Other Similar Initiatives Under Swacch Bharat ✓ Every household as well as
public/community institutions must use
• Swacch Sankalp se Swacch Siddhi – Under this
safe technology options for the disposal
campaign, essay, short films and painting
competitions were organised for general public
of faeces. (Safe technology option here
with a special focus on school children. means no contamination of surface soil,
• Swacchathon-The Swacch Bharat Hackathon – It groundwater or surface water’ excreta
invited innovative technology based solutions to inaccessible to flies or animals; no
some of the most challenging questions being handling of fresh excreta; and freedom
faced by Swacch Bharat Mission (Gramin) such as from odour and unsightly condition)
usage of toilets in non-intrusive manner at scale, • Quality Council of India has been tasked to
how to spark behaviour change at scale , frugal substantiate Open Defecation Free (ODF)
technology designs for difficult terrains etc. claims of Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban)
6.3.3. ARUNACHAL BEC OMES OPEN while in case of rural areas State may choose
DEFECATION FREE (ODF) through whom to verify - it can be through
own teams or through third party.
Why in news?
Recently, Arunachal Pradesh emerged as the INDEX A ND REPORT 2017
second state in the Northeast, after Sikkim, to be
declared Open Defecation Free. Why in news?
Details Recently, government released the India Youth
Development Index and Report 2017.
• Swachh Arunachal Mission is also launched
alongside, which envisages Swachh Protocol Global Youth Index
(Cleanliness Protocol) aimed at ensuring • It is developed by the Commonwealth Secretariat
sustainability of assets created under SBM using a comprehensive measure across five
domains - education, health, employment, and
civic and political participation.
• Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala,
• It helps policy makers to make informed decisions
Uttarakhand and Haryana are the first 5 regarding young people’s needs and
states out of total 11 states and UTs declared opportunities and help to achieve the Sustainable
ODF free across India. Development Goals.
• Sanitation coverage in rural India has
increased substantially from 39% in 2014 to India Youth Development Index, 2017
76%. • The Index has been constructed by The Rajiv
Swachh Bharat Gramin (SBG) Gandhi National Institute of Youth
It aims to achieve a clean and ODF rural India by 2nd Development (RGNIYD) with an objective of
October, 2019 through: tracking the trends in Youth Development
• Accelerating sanitation coverage in rural areas, across the States.
• Motivating communities to adopt sustainable • According to the Report ‘Youth’ refers to a
sanitation practices and facilities, stage of life in transition between
• Developing community managed sanitation adolescence and adulthood in the age
systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste bracket of 15 to 29 years. (As accepted by
Management systems, Commonwealth and National Youth Policy
• Creating significant positive impact on gender and 2014).
promote social inclusion.
• The various dimensions on which the YDI
2017 has been formed are
o Education
o Health • It endeavours to identify the bright minds
o Political Participants among the student community, who are keen
o Civic Participation on subjects related to science.
o Work • The government will conduct an annual
o Social Inclusion (new dimension added in talent search exam at the national level to
IYDI 2017). identify students who have a scientific bent
Highlights of YDI-2017 of mind.
• India has 65% of the population less than the age • It is an initiation of Vijnana Bharati (VIBHA),
of 35 years and 50% below 25 years of age and it in collaboration with National Council of
is expected to be youngest in the world by 2020 Education Research and Training, an
with median age of 29 years. institution under the Ministry of Human
• The National YDI value is 0.569 with wide range of Resources and Development and Vigyan
variations between states e.g. Bihar (0.466) and Prasar, an autonomous organization under
Himachal Pradesh (0.689). the Department of Science and Technology,
• YDI score for male 0.625 and female 0.535. Government of India.
• Youth Gender Development Index score is 0.856.
• Youth Education Index stands at 0.513. 6.3.6. LPG PANCHAYAT
• Youth Health Index score is 0.632
• Youth Work Index and Youth Civic Participation Why in news?
scores are 0.572 and 0.191 respectively.
• The Centre has launched LPG Panchayat in
• Youth Political Participation Index score at
order to back-up its scheme Pradhan Mantri
national level is 0.436 which implies that the
scope of youth to be politically more active.
Ujjawala Yojana.
• Youth Social Inclusion Index score is 0.785. Pradhan Mantri Ujjawala Yojana
• It aims to provide 500 crore LPG connections to
National Youth Policy 2014 BPL families by 2019.
• It was formulated with an aim to empower • It was launched in May 2016 under the Ministry of
youth to achieve their full potential, and Petroleum and Natural Gas
through them enable India to find its rightful • LPG Connections under the scheme will be issued
under the name of women of the household in
place in the community of nations.
order to empower women.
• The priority areas are education, skill
• Identification of BPL families under the scheme will
development and employment, be done through Socio Economic Caste Census
entrepreneurship, health and healthy Data.
lifestyle, sports, promotion of social values, • It will not only provide additional employment and
community engagement, participation in business opportunity but will also boost the “Make
politics and governance, youth engagement, in India” campaign.
inclusion and social justice.
How will the LPG Panchayat Work?
6.3.5. VIDYARTHI VIG YAN • The centre plans to organise one lakh LPG
MANTHA N panchayat across the country in the next one
Why in News? and half year.
• LPG Panchayats will bring together about 100
• Recently, government has launched mobile LPG users of an area and create an interactive
App for Vidyarthi Vigyan Manthan (VVM). platform to discuss safe and sustainable
Vijnana Bharati (VIBHA), usage of LPG, its benefits and linkages
• It is one of the largest science movement in the between using clean fuel and empowering
country led by eminent scientists and to inculcate women as their health risks are reduced.
and generate scientific temper, foster excellence • The panchayats will also include safe
in students and mentor them for their careers in practices, quality of service provided by
pure sciences. distributors and availability of refill cylinders.
About the Programme
• The program is for educating and
popularizing science among school students
of VI to XI standards.
6.3.7. UTKRISHT IMPA CT BOND • The Mission adopted the specifications of Bureau
of Indian Standard for drinking water to declare it
Why in news? contaminated.

United States Agency for International About the Programme

Development (USAID) has launched a Rajasthan • Launched in 2009, under the Ministry of
Development Impact Bond (Utkrisht Impact Drinking water and Sanitation,
Bond) at the Global Entrepreneurship Summit in operationalized through strategic plan 2011-
Hyderabad. 2022.
About the bonds • It emphasized on ensuring sustainability of
water availability in terms of portability,
• It has been launched to reduce maternal and adequacy, convenience, affordability and
neo-natal deaths in Rajasthan by improving equity.
the quality of services at private healthcare • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with
facilities and adhere to the government’s 50:50 fund sharing between the Centre and
quality standards. the States.
• It is a world's first Development Impact • It prescribed certain norms for drinking water
Bond (DIB) in healthcare and has been such as;
developed in a public-private partnership and o 40 liters per capita per day (lpcd) of safe
will provide financial assistance to 440 small drinking water for human beings.
healthcare organisations. o 30 lpcd additional for cattle in the Desert
• Target: To reach up to 600,000 pregnant Development Programme Areas.
women with improved care during delivery o One hand-pump or stand post for every
and save lives of up to 10,000 women and 250 persons.
newborns by the next five years. o The water source should exist within the
Development Impact Bond (DIB) habitation/ within 1.6 km in the plains
• They are outcome based bond, under which and within 100 mtrs. elevation in the hilly
donor pay back private investors investment with areas.
interest, if the service providers achieve pre- • Other components include-
determined targets. o Focus on piped water supply, increase
level of service delivery, thrust on
6.3.8. NATIONAL RURAL DRINKING coverage of water quality affected
WATER PROGRAMME habitations.
Why in News? o Coverage of Open Defecation Free (ODF)
declared villages, Saansad Adarsh Gram
Cabinet has recently approved the continuation Yojana, Integrated Action Plan (IAP)
and restructuring of National Rural Drinking districts, Border Out Posts (BOP) with
Water Programme (NRDWP). piped water supply and Institutional set
More on News up for proper O&M of water supply
assets etc.
• The restructuring is to make it outcome-
based, competitive and better monitored 6.3.9. SWAJAL YOJANA
with increased focus on sustainability
(functionality) of schemes. Why in news?
• National Water Quality Sub-Mission • Recently, Ministry of Drinking Water and
(NWQSM) will be funded under the NRDWP. Sanitation launched Swajal Pilot project at
NWQSM Village Bhikampura, Karauli district,
• Launched by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Rajasthan.
Sanitation, in 2017, to bring the water quality of About Swajal Project
country at par of International Standard by 2020.
• It will provide clean water to habitations affected • It is a community owned drinking water
by major physio-chemicals pollutants such as programme which will not only ensure round-
arsenic, fluoride, iron, salinity and nitrate, by the-year availability of clean drinking water
March 2021. but also generate employment.

• Besides ensuring the availability of clean Findings of the Report
drinking water to every household round the
• The report shows that among nations
year, the project would also generate
inequality has been decreasing as
traditionally poor countries are catching up
• It is the second project under the Swajal with other developed countries however
Yojana. Prior to this, it has been launched in inequality has been deepening steadily
Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. within every nation.
• 90% of the project cost will be taken care of • Income inequality varies greatly across world
by the government while the rest 10% of the regions with lowest in Europe and highest in
project cost which will be contributed by the Middle East.
• The project derives its name from an old Income inequality in India
Swajal project, a World Bank project • The report points that income inequality in
dedicated to rural water and environmental India has risen very high with top 1% earners
sanitation launched in 1996 in UP. grossing 22% of the national income and top
6.3.10. WORLD INEQUA LITY 10% was 56% (2014).
• Since deregulation policies in 1980s, the top
0.1%earner have captured more than bottom
Why in news? 50% and middle 40% have seen relatively
little growth in income.
Recently World Inequality Report was released by
World Inequality Lab at the Paris School of
Economics and University of California.

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