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Molarity, Normality , Formality and Faraday’s Law

Molarity : The number of moles of solute dissolved per litre of the solution at a particular
temperature .
Given weight of the solute (w)
Number of moles = _________________________
Molecular weight of the same (M’)

w/M’ [ where v= volume of the solution in cm3 or mililitre ]

Hence Molarity (M) = v/1000
M = w × 1000
v× M’

w = M × M’ × v (1)

Similarly ,Normality : The number of gram equivalents of the solute dissolved per litre of the solution
at a particular temperature.
Number of gram equivalents = Given weight of the solute (w)
Equivalent weight of the same (E )

Hence Normality (N) = w/E


N = w × 1000
v× E
w = N× E× v (2)

Equating (1) and (2) M × M’× v = N ×E× v

1000 1000

Or, M/N = E/M’

1 gm mole of any substance is molecular weight amount of that substance expressed in gram.
1 gm equivalent of any substance is the equivalent weight amount of that substance expressed in
gram .

Molality (m ) : The number of moles of solute dissolved per 1000 gm of the solvent
m = n/W [ where W is the weight of the solvent in kg ]
Formality (F) : The number of gram formula mass of an ionic solute dissoloved per litre of the
Solution at a particular temperature.
w = F × M’× v
Mole fraction of two substances (or more than two) can be found out using the following formula

nA nB [ nA = Number of moles of A ]
xA = ____________-- AND xB = _________________ [ nB = Number of moles of B ]
nA + nB nA + nB

Numerical problems on molarity, normality, molality

Q1. What is the molality of a semimolar NaCl solution if the density of the solution is 1.16gm/cm 3
Q2. Calculate the molality of 1 litre solution of 93% H2SO4 (weight/volume). The density of the solution
Is 1.84 gm/ml
Q3. 100 cm3 of a centimolar solution of an acid contain 0.098 gm of the acid. Find the molecular mass
of the acid.
Q4. Calculate the mole fraction of ethyl alcohol and water in a solution in which 46 gm ethyl alcohol
180 gm of water are mixed together.
Q5. Calculate the number of molecules of oxalic acid ( H2C2O4.2H2O) in 100ml of 0.2 N oxalic
acid solution.
Q6. 150cm3 of a decimolar NaOH solution is diluted to 750cm3. Find the molarity of the diluted
Q7. 1.725 gm of a metal carbonate is mixed with 300 ml of N/10 HCl. 10ml of N/2 NaOH were
required to neutralize excess of the acid. Calculate the equivalent mass of the metal carbonate.
Q8. A sample of NaCO3 H2O weighing 0.62 gm is added to 100ml of 0.1 N H2SO4 . Will the resulting
Solution be acidic, basic or neutral?
Q9. 20 ml of N/2 HCl , 60 ml of N/10 H2SO4 and 150 ml of N/5 HNO3 are mixed. Calculate the normality
of the mixture of acids in solution.
Q10. 1.26 gm of a dibasic acid were dissolved in water and the solution made up to 200ml. 20ml of
this solution were completely neutralized by 10 ml of N/5 NaOH solution. Calculate the
equivalent mass and molecular mass of the acid.