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Algorithm for PV Array Using ĊUK Converter

1

M. Tech Scholar in Instrumentation and Control,

Bhilai Institute of Technology Durg, C. G., India.

2

Associate Professor in Electrical & Electronics Department,

Bhilai Institute of Technology Durg, C. G., India.

3

Professor in Computer Science Department,

Bhilai Institute of Technology Durg, C. G., India.

E-mail: 1tekeshwarsahu@gmail.com, 2tvdixit@gmail.com, 3rk_bitd@rediffmail.com

Abstract

cycle and Perturb & Observe (P&O) algorithm for extracting the power

from Photovoltaic Array (PVA). Because of nonlinear characteristics

of PV cell, the maximum power can be extract under particular voltage

condition. Therefore, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

algorithms are used in PVA to maximize the output power. In this

paper the MPPT algorithm is implemented using Ćuk converter. The

dynamics of PVA is simulated at different solar irradiance and cell

temperature. The P&O MPPT technique is a direct control method

enables ease to implement and less complexity.

1. Introduction

Among the renewable energy resources, the energy through the solar photovoltaic

effect can be considered the most necessary and prerequisite sustainable resource

because of the ubiquity, large quantity, and sustainability of solar energy. The output

characteristics of PV module depends on the solar irradiance, cell temperature and

output voltage of PV module. Since PV module has nonlinear characteristics, it is

necessary to model it and simulate for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of PV

system applications. A PV module generates small power, so the task of a MPPT in a

214 T.V. Dixit et al

maximum power from the solar array regardless of weather or load conditions

(Chermitti et al, 2012). Previously buck, boost and buck-boost converters are used to

transfer the power generated by PVA to load (Ankur Bhattacharjee, 2012; Kalirasu and

Dash, 2010). In literature it is reported that direct control of Ćuk converter minimizes

power loss and avoids the discontinuous conduction. The limitation of PI controller is

observed by some of the (Safari and Mekhilef, 2011). The PI controller increase

complexity of system. In this work direct control of duty cycle using MPPT technique

is explored.

The voltage and current generated by PVA are inputs of the MPPT system and the task

of the MPPT algorithm is to calculate the reference voltage. The MPPT systems

contain two control loops to achieve maximum power. The inner loop contains the

MPPT algorithm block and comparator to generate the switching pulses. The external

control loop contains the PI controller, which controls the input voltage of the

converter. The PI controller works towards minimizing the error between Vref

(generated by MPPT block) and the output voltage of DC-DC converter by vary the

duty cycle. The MPPT block is used to generate an error signal, which is non zero at

most of the operating points except at MPP. Simplicity of operation, ease of design,

inexpensive maintenance, and low cost made PI controllers very popular in most linear

systems. However, the MPPT technique of standalone PV system is a nonlinear control

problem due to the nonlinearity nature of PV module and un-predictable environmental

conditions. Hence, PI controller performance is inferior with PVA system (Safari and

Mekhilef, 2011).

v,i

PV array Ćuk converter load

i L ,v L

D

MPPT

system

Fig. 1: Block Diagram of MPPT Using Fig. 2: Block Diagram of Direct Duty

PI Controller Cycle (δ) Control MPPT

3.1. Photovoltaic System

Photovoltaic (PV) cell is a semiconductor device which directly converts the light

energy into electrical energy. A PV system consists of a multiple component, including

the modules, mechanical connection, electrical interconnections, and mounting for

other components. Photovoltaic cells are made of several types of semiconductors

Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV Array 215

(PV) cell generates a voltage around 0.5 to 0.8 volts depending upon semiconductor

and the built-up technology. The numbers of PV cells are connected in series and

parallel to get more amounts of voltage and current known as PV module and if many

such modules are connected for any application to get desired amount of current and

voltage then it is called as PV array (Ahmad and Singh, 2012).

The current–voltage relationship of mathematical model is represented in equation (Tsai

et al, 2008).

V IR S N P V

q IR S

N N P NS

I N P I PH N P IS exp S 1

kTA R SH (1)

The PV module photocurrent which depends on the solar irradiation & cell’s

operating temperature, which is described as:

[Isc Ki (T Tref )]

Iph 1000 (2)

On the other hand, the cell’s saturation current varies with the cell temperature,

which is described as:

3

qEG 1T 1T

T ref

IS IRS c T exp

ref kA (3)

Reverse saturation current can be described as:

I SC

I RS

qVOC (4)

exp 1

N S kAT

The Solkar 36W PV modules are taken as the reference PV module for simulation and

electrical characteristics are: NP= 36, NS = 1,Tref = 25oC, A = 1.6, q=1.6*10^-19,

k=1.380658e-23 ,ISC = 2.55 A,VOC = 21.24, Eg = 1.1 (Pandiarajan and Ranganath,

2011).

The simulation results of i-v curve and p-v curve of PV model for different solar

irradiation and constant temperature (T=250C) are shown in Fig.3.

216 T.V. Dixit et al

Fig. 3: i-v Curve and p-v Curve for Different Solar Irradiance.

From the above current & power curve for different solar irradiation and constant

temperature, it can be observe that current & power of the PV module increases with

increasing the solar irradiation.

The simulation results of i-v curve and p-v curve of PV model for constant solar

irradiation (β = 800 W/m2) and different temperature are shown in Fig.4. From the

above it can be observe that voltage and power of the PV module decreases with

increasing the cell temperature.

Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV Array 217

Fig. 4: i-v Curve and p-v Curve for Different Cell Temperature.

PVA generated voltage is fed to the converter and Ćuk converter output connected to

the load. By varying the duty cycle the voltage gain of both Buck–Boost and Ćuk

converters can be set higher or lesser than unity. Although the buck–boost

configuration is cheaper than the Ćuk but it has some limitations such as high peak and

discontinuous input current, poor transient response and efficiency. The Ćuk converter

has low switching losses and the highest efficiency among non-isolated DC-DC

converters. It can also provide a better output-current characteristic due to the inductor

on the output stage (Safari and Mekhilef, 2011; Durán 2011).The practical circuit of Ćuk

converter using diode and MOSFET are shown in Fig.5 (Rashid, Third Edistion;

Erickson and Maksimovic; Second Edition).

L1 C1 L2

i1 i2

v1

Vg R

G1 D1 C2 v2

218 T.V. Dixit et al

The inductor voltages and capacitor current equations during ON and OFF state are

as shown in (6).The conversion ratio (M) is the relation between input and output

voltage of Ćuk converter. This conversion ratio is the function of Duty cycle as shown

below:

V T on

M () 2 (5)

Vg 1 T off

The connection port in Fig.6 of Ćuk converter is connected to PVA. The

simulation circuit diagram of PVA fed Ćuk converter and duty cycle generator unit is

shown in Fig.7.

v L1 Vg (Vg V1 ) 0

v L2 (V1 V2 ) (V2 ) 0

(6)

i C1 i 2 i1 0

V2

i C2 i 2 0

R Where = -1

5.1. MATLAB/SIMULINK Model of PVCC for Duty Cycle (δ = 0.6)

The boosted voltage by converter is fed to load with negative polarity & constant duty

cycle. A PWM pulse generated by duty cycle generator is applied to IGBT/Diode.

Simulation model of PV array with Ćuk converter is shown in Fig.7. The PV module

consists two blocks such as generator unit and photovoltaic cell.

δ= 0.6

Voltage generated by PV module is applied at the input of Ćuk converter for constant

duty cycle δ=0.6. The simulation results of the output power of the PV module (input

power of the Ćuk converter) and the output power of the Ćuk converter for different

solar irradiance after simulation are shown in Fig.8.

Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV Array 219

Fig. 8: Output Power Curve of the PV Module and Ćuk Converter for

Constant δ = 0.6 and Different β.

Fig. 9: Output Power Curve of the PV Module and Ćuk Converter for

Constant δ = 0.6 and Different T

220 T.V. Dixit et al

The results of the output power of the PV module (input power of the Ćuk

converter) and the output power of the Ćuk converter after simulation for different

temperature and constant solar irradiance (β=1000W/m2) are shown in Fig.9.

To improve the efficiency of the solar panel MPPT is used. According to maximum

power point theorem, output power of any circuit can be maximize by adjusting source

impedance equal to the load impedance, so the MPPT algorithm is equivalent to the

problem of impedance matching. In present work, the Ćuk Converter is used as

impedance matching device between input and output by changing the duty cycle of

the converter circuit. A major advantage of Ćuk converter is that high or low voltage

obtained from the available voltage according to the application. Output voltage of the

converter is depend on the duty cycle, so MPPT is used to calculate the duty cycle for

obtain the maximum output voltage because if output voltage increases than power

also increases. In this paper Perturb and Observe (P&O) and constant duty cycle

techniques are used, because these require less hardware complexity and low-cost

implementations (Esram and Chapman, 2007; Zainudin and Mekhilef, 2010).

Start

N Y

P(k) P(k 1)

Y N Y N

v(k) v(k 1) v(k) v(k 1)

k k 1

G to start

Fig. 10: Flow Chart of P&O MPPT.

sensed, so it is easy to implement. In this method power output of system is checked

by varying the supplied voltage. If on increasing the voltage, power is also increases

then further ‘δ’ is increased otherwise start decreasing the ‘δ'. Similarly, while

decreasing voltage if power increases the duty cycle is decreased. These steps continue

Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV Array 221

till maximum power point is reached. The corresponding voltage at which MPP is

reached is known as reference point (Vref). The entire process P&O algorithm is shown

in Fig.10.

The MATLAB/SIMULINK model of PV model with Ćuk converter using P&O

algorithm is shown in Fig.11.

6.3. Simulation Result of PVCC Using Perturb & Observe (P&O) MPPT

Algorithm

A PVA fed Ćuk converter’s duty cycle is generated through P&O algorithm in

embedded system function block. The simulation results of output power of the PVA

(input power to Ćuk converter) and Ćuk converter for different solar irradiance and

constant temperature (T=300C) are shown in Fig.12.

222 T.V. Dixit et al

Fig. 12: Output Power Curve of the PV Module and Ćuk Converter for

Different β and P&O MPPT.

From the various simulation results for different solar irradiance and constant cell

temperature it is clear that output power of the PV module and Ćuk converter increases

with increasing solar irradiance.

The results of the output power of the PV module (input power of the Ćuk

converter) and the output power of the Ćuk converter after simulation for different

temperature and constant solar irradiance (β=1000W/m2) are shown in Fig.13.

Fig. 13: Output Power Curve of the PV Module and Ćuk Converter for

Different T and P & O MPPT.

Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV Array 223

From the various simulation results for constant solar irradiance and different cell

temperature it is clear that output power of the PV module and Ćuk converter

decreases with increasing temperature.

The output of PV system for P&O and constant duty cycle algorithms under

constant temperature and different solar irradiance as well as different temperature and

constant solar irradiance are shown in Table-1 and Table-2.

(W/m2) Power (Watt) Power (Watt)

P&O 900 27.3 25.4

1000 31.3 29.4

1100 34.6 32.7

δ = 0.6 900 23 22

1000 28.8 26.8

1100 33.5 31.5

(Centigrade) Power (Watt) Power (Watt)

P&O 30 31.3 29.4

40 27.4 25.6

50 24 22.4

δ = 0.6 30 28.8 26.8

40 26.9 25.2

50 24.7 23.1

7. Conclusion

In this paper, P&O and constant duty cycle algorithm of MPPT is implemented using

Ćuk converter. The model is simulated with MATLAB/SIMULINK. It is shown that

PV system output power increases with rise in solar irradiance and fall in cell

temperature. Therefore, solar cell performance better in winter season than summer.

The P&O gives the optimum duty cycle as compare to Constant duty cycle control, to

extract the maximum power from PV system.

References

[1] Ali Chermitti, Omar Boukli-Hacene and Samir Mouhadjer (2012) “Design of

a Library of Components for Autonomous Photovoltaic System under

Matlab/Simulink”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 –

8887), Volume 53– No.14.

224 T.V. Dixit et al

Photovoltaic Battery Charge Control Algorithms in MATLAB/SIMULINK

Environment”, International Journal of Advanced Computer Research (ISSN

(print): 2249-7277 ISSN (online): 2277-7970), Volume-2 Number-3 Issue-5.

[3] Athimulam Kalirasu and Subharensu Sekar Dash (2010) “Simulation of

Closed Loop Controlled Boost Converter for Solar Installation,” SERBIAN

JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, Vol. 7, No. 1.

[4] Azadeh Safari and Saad Mekhilef (2011) “Simulation and Hardware

Implementation of Incremental Conductance MPPT with Direct Control

Method Using Cuk Converter”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics,

Vol.58, no.4.

[5] E. Durán, M.B. Ferrera, J.M. Andújar, M.S. Mesa (2011) “I-V and P-V

Curves Measuring System for PV Modules based on DC-DC Converters and

Portable Graphical Environment” IEEE, 978-1-4244.

[6] Hairul Nissah Zainudin and Saad Mekhilef (2010) “Comparison Study of

Maximum Power Point Tracker Techniques for PV Systems” 14th

International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’10), Cairo

University, Egypt, Paper ID 278.

[7] Huan-Liang Tsai, Ci-Siang Tu, and Yi-Jie Su (2008) “Development of

Generalized Photovoltaic Model Using MATLAB/SIMULINK” WCECS2008.

[8] M. G. Villalva, J. R. Gazoli and E. Ruppert F. (2009)“A Comprehensive

Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Array,” IEEE

Transaction of Power Electronics, vol.25, no.5, pp.1198-1208.

[9] Nicola Femia, Giovanni Petrone, Giovanni Spagnuolo and Massimo Vitelli

(2005) “Optimization of Perturb and Observe Maximum Power point

Tracking Method,” IEEE transaction on power electronics, vol.20, no.4.

[10] Pandiarajan.N and Dr. Ranganath Muthu (2011)“Development of Power

Electronic Circuit Oriented Model of Photovoltaic Module”, International

Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, E-ISSN 0976-3945 Vol.II/

Issue IV.

[11] Trishan Esram and Patrick L. chapman (2007) “Comparison of Photovoltaic

Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques,” IEEE Transaction on

power electronics, vol.22, no.2.

[12] Zameer Ahmad and S.N. Singh (2012) “Extraction of the Internal Parameters

of Solar photovoltaic Module by developing Matlab / Simulink Based Model”,

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562

Vol.7 No.11.

[13] Mohammad H. Rashid., “power electronics converters, applications and

design,” third edition, Pearson education.

[14] Robert W. Erickson and Dragan Maksimovic, “Fundamentals of Power

Electronics,” second edition, by, University of Colorado,Boulder, Colorado.

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