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# Advance in Electronic and Electric Engineering.

## ISSN 2231-1297, Volume 4, Number 2 (2014), pp. 213-224

http://www.ripublication.com/aeee.htm

## Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT

Algorithm for PV Array Using ĊUK Converter

## Tekeshwar Prasad Sahu1, T.V. Dixit2 and Ramesh Kumar3

1
M. Tech Scholar in Instrumentation and Control,
Bhilai Institute of Technology Durg, C. G., India.
2
Associate Professor in Electrical & Electronics Department,
Bhilai Institute of Technology Durg, C. G., India.
3
Professor in Computer Science Department,
Bhilai Institute of Technology Durg, C. G., India.
E-mail: 1tekeshwarsahu@gmail.com, 2tvdixit@gmail.com, 3rk_bitd@rediffmail.com

Abstract

## This paper presents the comparative analysis between constant duty

cycle and Perturb & Observe (P&O) algorithm for extracting the power
from Photovoltaic Array (PVA). Because of nonlinear characteristics
of PV cell, the maximum power can be extract under particular voltage
condition. Therefore, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
algorithms are used in PVA to maximize the output power. In this
paper the MPPT algorithm is implemented using Ćuk converter. The
dynamics of PVA is simulated at different solar irradiance and cell
temperature. The P&O MPPT technique is a direct control method
enables ease to implement and less complexity.

## Keywords: Photovoltaic Array (PVA), MPPT, Ćuk Converter.

1. Introduction
Among the renewable energy resources, the energy through the solar photovoltaic
effect can be considered the most necessary and prerequisite sustainable resource
because of the ubiquity, large quantity, and sustainability of solar energy. The output
characteristics of PV module depends on the solar irradiance, cell temperature and
output voltage of PV module. Since PV module has nonlinear characteristics, it is
necessary to model it and simulate for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of PV
system applications. A PV module generates small power, so the task of a MPPT in a
214 T.V. Dixit et al

## PV energy conversion system is to continuously tune the system so that it draws

maximum power from the solar array regardless of weather or load conditions
(Chermitti et al, 2012). Previously buck, boost and buck-boost converters are used to
transfer the power generated by PVA to load (Ankur Bhattacharjee, 2012; Kalirasu and
Dash, 2010). In literature it is reported that direct control of Ćuk converter minimizes
power loss and avoids the discontinuous conduction. The limitation of PI controller is
observed by some of the (Safari and Mekhilef, 2011). The PI controller increase
complexity of system. In this work direct control of duty cycle using MPPT technique
is explored.

## 2. Block Diagram of Tracking System

The voltage and current generated by PVA are inputs of the MPPT system and the task
of the MPPT algorithm is to calculate the reference voltage. The MPPT systems
contain two control loops to achieve maximum power. The inner loop contains the
MPPT algorithm block and comparator to generate the switching pulses. The external
control loop contains the PI controller, which controls the input voltage of the
converter. The PI controller works towards minimizing the error between Vref
(generated by MPPT block) and the output voltage of DC-DC converter by vary the
duty cycle. The MPPT block is used to generate an error signal, which is non zero at
most of the operating points except at MPP. Simplicity of operation, ease of design,
inexpensive maintenance, and low cost made PI controllers very popular in most linear
systems. However, the MPPT technique of standalone PV system is a nonlinear control
problem due to the nonlinearity nature of PV module and un-predictable environmental
conditions. Hence, PI controller performance is inferior with PVA system (Safari and
Mekhilef, 2011).

v,i

i L ,v L
D
MPPT
system

Fig. 1: Block Diagram of MPPT Using Fig. 2: Block Diagram of Direct Duty
PI Controller Cycle (δ) Control MPPT

## 3. Block Diagram of Tracking System

3.1. Photovoltaic System
Photovoltaic (PV) cell is a semiconductor device which directly converts the light
energy into electrical energy. A PV system consists of a multiple component, including
the modules, mechanical connection, electrical interconnections, and mounting for
other components. Photovoltaic cells are made of several types of semiconductors
Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV Array 215

## using different manufacturing processes (Villalva, et al, 2009). Typically, photovoltaic

(PV) cell generates a voltage around 0.5 to 0.8 volts depending upon semiconductor
and the built-up technology. The numbers of PV cells are connected in series and
parallel to get more amounts of voltage and current known as PV module and if many
such modules are connected for any application to get desired amount of current and
voltage then it is called as PV array (Ahmad and Singh, 2012).

## 3.2. Mathematical Model of PV Module

The current–voltage relationship of mathematical model is represented in equation (Tsai
et al, 2008).
   V IR S     N P V 
  q      IR S 
N N P     NS
I  N P I PH  N P IS exp   S 1  
  kTA   R SH (1)
   
   
The PV module photocurrent which depends on the solar irradiation & cell’s
operating temperature, which is described as:
[Isc  Ki (T  Tref )]
Iph  1000 (2)
On the other hand, the cell’s saturation current varies with the cell temperature,
which is described as:
 
3
 qEG  1T  1T  
T  ref 
IS  IRS  c T  exp  
 ref  kA (3)
 
 
Reverse saturation current can be described as:
I SC
I RS 
  qVOC   (4)
exp    1
  N S kAT  

## 3.3. Different Parameter Used in Standalone PV Module

The Solkar 36W PV modules are taken as the reference PV module for simulation and
electrical characteristics are: NP= 36, NS = 1,Tref = 25oC, A = 1.6, q=1.6*10^-19,
k=1.380658e-23 ,ISC = 2.55 A,VOC = 21.24, Eg = 1.1 (Pandiarajan and Ranganath,
2011).

## 3.4. Simulation Result of PV Module

The simulation results of i-v curve and p-v curve of PV model for different solar
irradiation and constant temperature (T=250C) are shown in Fig.3.
216 T.V. Dixit et al

Fig. 3: i-v Curve and p-v Curve for Different Solar Irradiance.

From the above current & power curve for different solar irradiation and constant
temperature, it can be observe that current & power of the PV module increases with
The simulation results of i-v curve and p-v curve of PV model for constant solar
irradiation (β = 800 W/m2) and different temperature are shown in Fig.4. From the
above it can be observe that voltage and power of the PV module decreases with
increasing the cell temperature.
Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV Array 217

Fig. 4: i-v Curve and p-v Curve for Different Cell Temperature.

## 4. Modeling of DC-DC ĆUK Converter

PVA generated voltage is fed to the converter and Ćuk converter output connected to
the load. By varying the duty cycle the voltage gain of both Buck–Boost and Ćuk
converters can be set higher or lesser than unity. Although the buck–boost
configuration is cheaper than the Ćuk but it has some limitations such as high peak and
discontinuous input current, poor transient response and efficiency. The Ćuk converter
has low switching losses and the highest efficiency among non-isolated DC-DC
converters. It can also provide a better output-current characteristic due to the inductor
on the output stage (Safari and Mekhilef, 2011; Durán 2011).The practical circuit of Ćuk
converter using diode and MOSFET are shown in Fig.5 (Rashid, Third Edistion;
Erickson and Maksimovic; Second Edition).

L1 C1 L2
i1 i2

 v1 

Vg R
G1 D1 C2 v2

## Fig. 6: Simulation Circuit Diagram of Ćuk Converter.

218 T.V. Dixit et al

The inductor voltages and capacitor current equations during ON and OFF state are
as shown in (6).The conversion ratio (M) is the relation between input and output
voltage of Ćuk converter. This conversion ratio is the function of Duty cycle as shown
below:
V     T on 
M ()  2       (5)
Vg 1    T off 
The connection port in Fig.6 of Ćuk converter is connected to PVA. The
simulation circuit diagram of PVA fed Ćuk converter and duty cycle generator unit is
shown in Fig.7.
 v L1   Vg  (Vg  V1 )  0 

 v L2   (V1  V2 )  (V2 )  0 
 (6)
 i C1   i 2  i1  0 

V2 
 i C2   i 2  0
R  Where  = -1

## 5. Modeling and Simulation of PVCC

5.1. MATLAB/SIMULINK Model of PVCC for Duty Cycle (δ = 0.6)
The boosted voltage by converter is fed to load with negative polarity & constant duty
cycle. A PWM pulse generated by duty cycle generator is applied to IGBT/Diode.
Simulation model of PV array with Ćuk converter is shown in Fig.7. The PV module
consists two blocks such as generator unit and photovoltaic cell.

## 5.2 Simulation Result of MATLAB/SIMULINK Model of PVCC for Duty Cycle

δ= 0.6
Voltage generated by PV module is applied at the input of Ćuk converter for constant
duty cycle δ=0.6. The simulation results of the output power of the PV module (input
power of the Ćuk converter) and the output power of the Ćuk converter for different
solar irradiance after simulation are shown in Fig.8.
Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV Array 219

Fig. 8: Output Power Curve of the PV Module and Ćuk Converter for
Constant δ = 0.6 and Different β.

Fig. 9: Output Power Curve of the PV Module and Ćuk Converter for
Constant δ = 0.6 and Different T
220 T.V. Dixit et al

The results of the output power of the PV module (input power of the Ćuk
converter) and the output power of the Ćuk converter after simulation for different
temperature and constant solar irradiance (β=1000W/m2) are shown in Fig.9.

## 6. Maximum Power Point Algorithm

To improve the efficiency of the solar panel MPPT is used. According to maximum
power point theorem, output power of any circuit can be maximize by adjusting source
impedance equal to the load impedance, so the MPPT algorithm is equivalent to the
problem of impedance matching. In present work, the Ćuk Converter is used as
impedance matching device between input and output by changing the duty cycle of
the converter circuit. A major advantage of Ćuk converter is that high or low voltage
obtained from the available voltage according to the application. Output voltage of the
converter is depend on the duty cycle, so MPPT is used to calculate the duty cycle for
obtain the maximum output voltage because if output voltage increases than power
also increases. In this paper Perturb and Observe (P&O) and constant duty cycle
techniques are used, because these require less hardware complexity and low-cost
implementations (Esram and Chapman, 2007; Zainudin and Mekhilef, 2010).

Start

## P(k)  v(k) * i(k)

N Y
P(k)  P(k  1)
Y N Y N
v(k)  v(k  1) v(k)  v(k  1)

## 1   1   1  1 

k  k 1

G  to start
Fig. 10: Flow Chart of P&O MPPT.

## It is the simplest method of MPPT to implement. In this method only voltage is

sensed, so it is easy to implement. In this method power output of system is checked
by varying the supplied voltage. If on increasing the voltage, power is also increases
then further ‘δ’ is increased otherwise start decreasing the ‘δ'. Similarly, while
decreasing voltage if power increases the duty cycle is decreased. These steps continue
Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV Array 221

till maximum power point is reached. The corresponding voltage at which MPP is
reached is known as reference point (Vref). The entire process P&O algorithm is shown
in Fig.10.

## 6.2. MATLAB/SIMULINK Model of PVCC Using P&O MPPT Algorithm

The MATLAB/SIMULINK model of PV model with Ćuk converter using P&O
algorithm is shown in Fig.11.

## Fig. 11: MATLAB/SIMULINK Model of PVCC Using P & O Algorithm.

6.3. Simulation Result of PVCC Using Perturb & Observe (P&O) MPPT
Algorithm
A PVA fed Ćuk converter’s duty cycle is generated through P&O algorithm in
embedded system function block. The simulation results of output power of the PVA
(input power to Ćuk converter) and Ćuk converter for different solar irradiance and
constant temperature (T=300C) are shown in Fig.12.
222 T.V. Dixit et al

Fig. 12: Output Power Curve of the PV Module and Ćuk Converter for
Different β and P&O MPPT.

From the various simulation results for different solar irradiance and constant cell
temperature it is clear that output power of the PV module and Ćuk converter increases
The results of the output power of the PV module (input power of the Ćuk
converter) and the output power of the Ćuk converter after simulation for different
temperature and constant solar irradiance (β=1000W/m2) are shown in Fig.13.

Fig. 13: Output Power Curve of the PV Module and Ćuk Converter for
Different T and P & O MPPT.
Simulation and Analysis of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV Array 223

From the various simulation results for constant solar irradiance and different cell
temperature it is clear that output power of the PV module and Ćuk converter
decreases with increasing temperature.
The output of PV system for P&O and constant duty cycle algorithms under
constant temperature and different solar irradiance as well as different temperature and
constant solar irradiance are shown in Table-1 and Table-2.

## Algorithm Solar irradiance β PV Module Ċuk Converter

(W/m2) Power (Watt) Power (Watt)
P&O 900 27.3 25.4
1000 31.3 29.4
1100 34.6 32.7
δ = 0.6 900 23 22
1000 28.8 26.8
1100 33.5 31.5

## Algorithm Temperature PV Module Ċuk Converter

P&O 30 31.3 29.4
40 27.4 25.6
50 24 22.4
δ = 0.6 30 28.8 26.8
40 26.9 25.2
50 24.7 23.1

7. Conclusion
In this paper, P&O and constant duty cycle algorithm of MPPT is implemented using
Ćuk converter. The model is simulated with MATLAB/SIMULINK. It is shown that
PV system output power increases with rise in solar irradiance and fall in cell
temperature. Therefore, solar cell performance better in winter season than summer.
The P&O gives the optimum duty cycle as compare to Constant duty cycle control, to
extract the maximum power from PV system.

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