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Appendix

Instrumentation Symbols
and Labels

This appendix presents the symbols and labels used in this book for the instrumentation
diagrams. Most companies have their own symbols and labels, and even though most
of them are similar, they are not all identical. The symbols and labels used in this book
follow closely the standard published by the Instrument Society of America (ISA); see
the References. The appendix presents just the information needed for this book. For
more information, see the ISA standard.
In general, the instrument identification, also referred to as tag number, is of the
following form:

Typical Tag Number


LRC 101 Instrument identification or tag number
L 101 Loop identification
101 Loop number
LRC Functional identification
L First letter
RC Succeeding letters

Expanded Tag Number


20-TAH-6A Tag number
20 Optional prefix
A Optional suffix

Note: Hyphens are optional as separators.

The meanings of some identification letters are given in Table A-l.


Some symbols used in this book to designate the functions of computing blocks, or
software, are presented in Table A-2. Table A-3 presents some instrument symbols, and
Table A-4 presents some instrument line (signal) symbols.
699
Meanings of Identification Letters (Courtesy of the Instrument Society of America)
First Letter Succeeding Letters
Measured or Readout or output
Initiating Variable Modifier Passive Function Function Modifier
A Analysis Alarm
Burner, combustion User’s choice User’s choice User’s choice
C User’s choice Control
D User’s choice Differential
E Voltage Sensor (primary
element)
F Flow rate Ratio (fraction)
G User’s choice Glass,
viewing, device
H Hand High
I Current (electrical) Indicate
J Power scan
K Time, time schedule Time rate of Control station
change
L Level Light Low
User’s choice Momentary Middle,
intermediate
N User’s choice User’s choice User’s choice User’s choice
0 User’s choice Orifice, restriction
P Pressure, vacuum Point (test)
connection
Quantity Integrate, totalize
R Radiation Record
S Speed, frequency Safety Switch
T Temperature Transmit
Multivariable Multifunction Multifunction Multifunction
V Vibration, mechanical Valve, damper,
analysis louver
Weight, force Well
X Unclassified X axis Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
Y Event, state, or Y axis Relay, compute
presence convert
Z Position, dimension Z axis Driver, actuator,
unclassified
final control element
Meanings of Identification Letters (Continued)

Initiating or Well Viewing


First Computing Primary Test or
Recording Indicating Blind Recording Indicating Comb. Recording Indicating Blind Element Point Device Element

ARC AP AW
BRC BSH BSL BSHL BRT BW BG

ERC ESL Ez
F FRC FC FCV, FI FSH FSL FSHL FRT N Fv

FQRC FQSH
FF FFRC FFIC FFC FFR FFI FFSH FE

Iz
JRC JR JSH JSHL JRT JE
KRC
LRC LW LG
0
IT

PDSH PDSL

RIC RC RRT RT RY RE Rz
SIC SC sv

TIC TC l-r TY TP TW
T D SL TDY TP TW

u
v VRT

Weight force WRC WC wcv


WDSH WDSL

X
Y YR YI YT YY YE

zc zcv

ZDIC ZDC ZDSH ZDSL ZDY


704 Appendix A Instrumentation Symbols and Labels

Table A-2 Function and Symbols of Computing Blocks or


Software
Function Symbol Function Symbol
Summation Integral
Multiplication X or * Division
Square root Function
High selector Low selector
High limiter Low limiter
Bias Lead-Lag

Figure A-l shows different ways to draw a control system, particularly a flow control
loop. Figure A-la shows a flow element, which is an orifice plate with flange
taps, connected to an electronic flow transmitter, FT-10. The output of the transmitter
goes to a square root extractor, and from here the signal goes to a
indicating controller, FIC-10. The output from the controller goes to an I/P transducer,

Table A-3. General instrument symbols.


A Instrumentation Symbols and Labels 705

Table A-3. (Continued)

to convert the electrical signal to a pneumatic signal. The signal from the
transducer then goes to a flow valve, FV-10. Often the labels for the flow element and
valves are omitted for the sake of simplicity; the resulting diagram is shown in Fig.
A-lb. The signals drawn in Fig. A-lb indicate that the control system used is electrical.
Figure A-lc shows the control system when a computer control system is used; note
the difference in signals. Figure A-ld shows the symbols used in this book. The figure
shows the control concept without concern for specific hardware.

Table A-4. Instrument line (signal) symbols.


706 Appendix A Instrumentation Symbols and Labels

Figure A-l. Flow control system.

REFERENCES
1. “Instrumentation Symbols and Identification.” Standard Research Triangle
Park, N.C.: Instrument Society of America.
Appendix

Case Studies

This appendix presents a series of design case studies that provide the reader with an
opportunity to design process control systems from scratch. The first step in designing
control systems for process plants is deciding which process variables must be con-
trolled. This decision should be made by the process engineer who designed the process,
the instrument or control engineer who will design the control system and specify the
instrumentation, and the operating personnel who will run the process. This is certainly
very challenging and requires team effort. The second step is the actual design of the
control system. It is the second step that is the subject of these case studies; the first
step has been done. Please note that, like any design problem, these problems are
ended. That is, there are multiple correct answers.

Case 1. Ammonium Nitrate Prilling Plant Control System


Ammonium nitrate is a major fertilizer. The flow sheet in Fig. B-l shows the process
for its manufacture. A weak solution of ammonium nitrate is pumped from
a feed tank to an evaporator. At the top of the evaporator there is a steam ejector vacuum
system. The air fed to the system controls the vacuum drawn. The concentrated solution
is pumped to a surge tank and then fed into the top of a prilling tower. The development
of this tower is one of the major postwar milestones in the fertilizer industry. In this
tower the concentrated solution of is dropped from the top against a strong
updraft of air. The air is supplied by a blower at the bottom of the tower. The air chills
the droplets in spherical form and removes part of the moisture, leaving damp pellets,
or prills. The pellets are then conveyed to a rotary dryer where they are dried. They are
then cooled, conveyed to a mixer for the addition of an antisticking agent (clay or
diatomaceous earth), and bagged for shipping.

A. Design the system to implement the following:


1. Control the level in the evaporator.
2. Control the pressure in the evaporator. This can be accomplished by manip-
ulating the flow of air to the exit pipe of the evaporator.
Control the level in the surge tank.
4. Control the temperature of the dried pellets leaving the dryer.