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Applied Thermal Engineering 50 (2013) 1235e1245

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Applied Thermal Engineering


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

Experimental investigation on melting characteristics of frozen


ureaewater-solutions for a diesel SCR de-NOx-system
Byung-Chul Choi a, *, Young Kwon Kim b, Woo-Nam Jhung a, Chang-Hwan Lee c, Chan-Yeon Hwang c
a
School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Bug-gu, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea
b
Korea Automotive Technology Institute, 107 Chomdan-3-gil, Bug-gu, Gwangju 500-706, Republic of Korea
c
Hanex Co., 1635-2 Songjung-dong, Kangseo-ku, Busan 618-270, Republic of Korea

h i g h l i g h t s g r a p h i c a l a b s t r a c t

< We investigated melting character-


istics of the frozen urea tank under
30  C.
< Best conditions of coolant were
200 L/h and 70  C to ensure a suffi-
cient molten urea.
< BWT-type was suitable for unit to
concentrate heat source on the
bottom of the tank.
< The combined system of BWT and
EH could get the molten urea of
300 mL at 5 min.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The purpose of the study is to investigate a system that can prepare a sufficient amount of ureaewater-
Received 8 February 2012 solution to ensure normal de-NOx performance within the shortest time from the cold start of a diesel
Accepted 7 August 2012 vehicle with a urea-SCR system. Main experimental parameters are the flow rates and temperatures of
Available online 17 August 2012
the engine coolant, shapes of the heating tube, and power of the electric heater in the diesel vehicle. The
frozen urea is melted by two heating sources as an engine coolant heating and an electric heating. The
Keywords:
urea-melting performance of a combined system of both heating sources and that of a single heating
Selective catalytic reduction
source were investigated by experiments. The results showed that it was best to supply the 70  C coolant
Urea
Freezing
at 200 L/h to the heat exchanger of the frozen urea tank. The BWT (bottom winding tube) heat exchange
Melting tube, whose surface area of the heat transfer is concentrated at the bottom of the urea tank to supply
de-NOx system concentrated heat around the inlet of the urea suction tube, is recommended to ensure a proper amount
of urea solution within the shortest time from a cold start for diesel vehicles equipped with a urea-SCR
system. The combined system of the BWT and the urea suction tube equipped with an electric heater
(100 W) could ensure the supply of 330 mL molten urea within 5 min from cold start, an amount of urea
solution which can be injected in the urea-SCR system of a diesel vehicle for 10 min.
Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction only for commercial vehicles but also for passenger cars. Because of
the characteristics of diesel combustion, however, NOx is generated
As diesel engines have high power and good fuel economy as in the localized high-temperature combustion regions, and
well as low CO2 emissions, their market shares are increasing not particulates are formed in the zones of diffusion combustion [1].
European Union (EU) recently announced the Euro 6 regulation,
which is to be implemented starting 2014. It limits NOx below
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ82 62 530 1681; fax: þ82 62 530 1689.
E-mail addresses: bcchoi@chonnam.ac.kr (B.-C. Choi), ykkim@katech.re.kr 0.08 g/km and NH3 below 10 ppm for diesel passenger cars on ECE
(Y.K. Kim), wnjuhng@jnu.ac.kr (W.-N. Jhung). (Economic Commission for Europe) and EUDC (Extra Urban Driving

1359-4311/$ e see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2012.08.008
1236 B.-C. Choi et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 50 (2013) 1235e1245

Cycle) driving cycles, and for heavy-duty diesel vehicles on ETC freezing chamber; and a temperature measurement device. The
(European Transient Cycle) and ESC (European Stationary Cycle) urea tank was made of plastic material of 38 L in volume. This tank
driving cycles. LNT (Lean NOx Trap), urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic model was applied to a diesel engine with 8 L displacement. The
Reduction) and HC-SCR (Hydrocarbon-SCR) have been developed ureaewater-solution used in the experiment was AdBlueÔ (32.5%
for after-treatment of the exhaust gas to reduce NOx from diesel urea) [7].
vehicles [2,3]. The urea-SCR technology is considered an effective The temperature within and around the urea tank was
and proven after-treatment method for meeting future strict measured by thermocouples (K type, diameter 0.5 mm) installed at
emission regulations as Euro 6 under lean conditions [4,5]. each of the points of the urea tank, as shown Fig. 2. Fig. 2 shows the
With regard to its diesel vehicles application, a ureaewater- thermocouple positions inside the central section of the heat
solution is chosen at its eutectic composition (32.5% urea), exchanger, and these positions were used to analyze freezing and
because this solution has a low melting temperature, about 11  C melting processes of the urea tank. The temperature data within
[6]. The solution must be provided to the injection system of and around the urea tank was recorded automatically by NI-DAQ
a diesel vehicle in liquid state. When the ambient temperature (9211, 9213) with the LabVIEW Program. Measured temperature
levels are below 20  C, as in some areas of North Europe or North data was used to analyze the temperature contour by MATLAB
America, the ureaewater-solution tank freezes. To ensure a suffi- Program.
cient amount of liquid solution for vehicle start, the frozen urea Frozen ureaewater solution is melted by two methods: one uses
tank must be melted in the shortest time with limited heat sources. the engine coolant heating and the other uses a DC 24 V battery-
The American EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)/CARB (Cal- powered electric heater. Fig. 3 shows the shapes of the heat
ifornia Air Resources Board) requires that a urea-SCR system for the exchange tubes through which the engine coolant circulates to
diesel vehicles has to supply the ureaewater-solution into the melt the frozen urea tank. The heating area of the BWT (bottom
system within 70 min from engine-start at ambient temperature wound tube) of the heat exchange tube is concentrated at the
of 32  C [5]. bottom of the urea tank to supply heat intensively around the inlet
One-dimensional numerical techniques of the urea melting of the urea suction tube. Types WT (winding tube)5 and WT3 are
process were presented [7]. The author experimentally studied the heat exchange tubes with 5 and 3 windings, respectively. Table 1
urea melting process that used electric heating elements [8]. shows the specifications of the winding heat exchange tubes for
However, the study on the melting system of frozen urea that the circulation of engine coolant, where CT (commercial tube) was
ensures a sufficient amount of urea solution within a specific time made by Wema Co., which has the same shape as type WT5, but
(for example 10 min) for heavy-duty diesel vehicles is still lacking. winding number of 7. BWT þ EH (Electric Heater) in Fig. 3 shows
The purpose of the study is to investigate the melting charac- a combined system of the BWT of the winding heat exchanger and
teristics of a frozen ureaewater solution tank by some heating the urea suction tube equipped with an electric heater element.
parameters as the flow rates and temperatures of the engine
coolant, shapes of the heating tube, and power of the electric
2.2. The test procedures
heater. Furthermore, this study develops a system that can provide
the proper amount of ureaewater solution to secure the normal de-
For the freezing tests, the urea tank was filled only up to 80%
NOx performance of a urea-SCR system within the shortest time
(33.4 L) of its volume with ureaewater-solution (AdBlue) to ensure
from a cold start.
a small air gap at the top of the urea tank. The urea tank was placed
in the freezing chamber under the ambient temperature of 30  C.
2. Experimental equipment And the temperatures within and around the test tank were
recorded automatically.
2.1. Test apparatus For the melting experiments, the temperature of the coolant
tank that was filled 60 L automotive engine coolant (antifreeze) was
Fig. 1 shows a schematic view of the experimental apparatus controlled by the electric heater with a temperature controller. At
that was used to investigate freezing and melting processes of
a urea tank. It was composed of a coolant tank (80 L) with
a temperature controller; coolant circulation pump; 3-way valve;
flow meter; flow rate control valves; urea tank; heat exchange tube;

Fig. 2. Thermocouple positions inside the central section of the heat exchange tube CT
Fig. 1. Schematic view of experimental apparatus. (commercial tube).
B.-C. Choi et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 50 (2013) 1235e1245 1237

Fig. 3. Shape of heat exchange tubes.

a given flow rate and temperature of the coolant, the coolant was The freezing process showed that it took 72 h for the 34 L urea tank
circulated to the frozen urea tank through selected heat exchange to reach the ambient temperature of 30  C.
tubes by a circulation pump, and the flow rate of the coolant was
controlled by a flow control valve. The ambient temperature of the 3.2. Melting process of frozen ureaewater solution
urea tank was maintained at 30  C during the melting process. All
temperatures data within and around the urea tank were measured Fig. 5 shows the temperature profiles of the cylindrical heat
by thermocouples installed at all of the measurement points. exchanger in the vertical plane of the center of heat exchanger
In the test carried out to measure the amount of melting urea according to flow rates (A) 100 L/h, (B) 150 L/h, (C) 200 L/h (at
according to heating time, the amount of the melted urea from the constant coolant temperature of 70  C). The CT type heat exchange
start of heating was measured at intervals of 5 min. When the test tube was used. In the figure, (a), (b), (c), (d) represent the
of melted volume was finished for one condition, the ureaewater temperature profiles at intervals of 5 cm height from bottom of the
solution was re-filled into the urea tank, and after it was frozen urea tank, respectively.
again, a test at another condition was conducted. For the coolant flow rate of 100 L/h (A), at first the temperatures
(left and right) in the vicinity of the heat exchange tube are
3. Results and discussion increased, and then the central temperature is increased by heat
conduction from the heat exchange tube. In Fig. 5 (A) (a), the right
3.1. Freezing process of ureaewater solution side temperature at the bottom (0 cm) is sharply increased to 15  C
during the period from start to 180 s, and it is decreased to 0  C
Fig. 4 shows the temperature profiles within the urea tank at again. This is because the heat capacity of melted urea is less than
points AeE of the central section (TeT section) in the freezing the capacity of heat loss to the surrounding frozen urea.
chamber at the ambient temperature of 30  C during the freezing For the coolant flow rate of 150 L/h (B), the temperatures at the
process. The freezing process of the ureaewater solution (AdBlue) bottom are very similar to the case of (A). However, the central
is clearly divided into the liquid-phase stage, phase-change stage, temperature is sharply increased to 5  C after 1300 s from the
and solid-phase stage. After a rapid cooling stage with a large start of heating, because the heat transfer from the heat exchanger
temperature decrease during 12 h, the temperature profiles indi-
cate a nearly constant temperature level in the vicinity of the
melting point (11  C) within the urea tank [5,8]. The temperature
profiles of the phase-change stage show small variations according
to the sensor positions, and the melting point period at the central
position (point B) is longer than at the wall sides (points A, C, E).
This implies that it takes time for the cold air to transfer from the
wall sides to central position by heat conduction and convection.
After this stage, the temperature levels in the solid-phase stage
decrease up to the ambient temperature. During the phase-change
period from the phase-change stage to the solid-phase stage,
a white crystal was white crystals were observed in the urea tank.

Table 1
Specifications of heat exchange tubes.

Commercial tube (CT) BWT WT5 WT3


Area (m2) 0.098 0.064 0.092 0.062
Outer diameter (mm) 12.7
Material SUS304 Fig. 4. Temperature profiles at the ambient temperature of 30  C during freezing
process.
1238 B.-C. Choi et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 50 (2013) 1235e1245

to the central region is faster than that of case of (A). Especially in In the case of 200 L/h (C), the temperatures at the bottom are very
Fig. 5 (B) (b), the temperatures in the vicinity of the heat exchange similar to the case of (B); however, the temperatures are sharply
tube 5 cm height from bottom are abruptly increased at 550 s, and increased as the coolant flow rate increases. The maximum temper-
consequently, the central temperature is sharply increased but ature is higher than that at low coolant flow rates because of the
those of the other points did not sharply increase. increase of heat supply. At the coolant temperature of 70  C, the time

Fig. 5. Temperature profiles of the cylindrical heating unit in the vertical plane of the center of heat exchanger according to flow rates (coolant temperature: 70  C), (A) flow
rate:100 L/h, (B) of 150 L/h, (C) of 200 L/h.
B.-C. Choi et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 50 (2013) 1235e1245 1239

Fig. 5. (continued).

for the central temperature at the bottom of the urea tank to reach 5 cm height are sharply increased, and then they are decreased again
melting temperature of 11  C was 900 s, which is faster than those of because that the heat transfer of the melted urea solution near of the
the other flow rates. In fact, the higher the fluid velocity, the higher heat exchange tube is enhanced by convection, and then the heat of
the heat transfer rate. The temperature at the bottom and that at the the melted urea solution transfers to the surrounding frozen urea.

Fig. 6. Temperature profiles of the cylindrical heating unit in the vertical plane of the center of heat exchanger according to supply transient temperature with 5e70  C (flow rate:
200 L/h).
1240 B.-C. Choi et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 50 (2013) 1235e1245

1200 s, and then it is gradually decreased thereafter because the


rate of heat transfer from the coolant to the melted urea is sharply
increased by convection around the heat exchange tube. The rate of
heat transfer through a fluid is much higher by convection than by
conduction.
Transient heating of the coolant supplied to the heat exchanger
has less effect on the melting of the frozen urea than the steady-
state coolant heat at about 70  C, because the amount of heat
flux in the transient state is smaller than that at steady-state.
Therefore the best conditions of the coolant to supply to the heat
exchanger of the frozen urea tank were 200 L/h and 70  C to ensure
a sufficient amount of urea solution for a diesel vehicle equipped
with a urea-SCR system.
Fig. 7 shows the melted urea volume according to heating time.
The CT-type heat exchange tube and coolant of 200 L/h and 70  C
were used. After 15 min from the start of heating, the melted urea
volume reaches 1400 mL, and then it gradually increases with
Fig. 7. Amount of molten urea according to heating time (heat exchange tube:CT, flow heating time; however, it is zero during initial 10 min, because the
rate: 200 L/h, coolant temperature: 70  C). upper of the urea suction tube is in the freezing state, which means
that a heating device is also required for the upper of the urea
suction tube during melting process of the frozen urea tank.
Fig. 6 represents the temperature profiles of the cylindrical Because the inlet of the urea suction tube is near the bottom of the
heating unit in the vertical plane of the center of heat exchanger urea tank, a heating system should be installed at the bottom of the
according to supply transient temperature (5e70  C) with coolant urea tank so that the melted urea can accumulate at the bottom of
flow rate of 200 L/h. Generally, the engine coolant temperature the urea tank.
slowly increases after an engine starts. Therefore, for the experi- Fig. 8 illustrates the temperature profiles of the BWT heat
ment, the inlet coolant temperature of the heat exchanger was exchange tube in the vertical plane of the center of heat exchanger
increased from 5  C to 70  C during 1800 s, as shown in Fig. 6 (d). during melting process with coolant flow rate of 200 L/h and
The temperatures at the bottom are slowly increased from the start coolant temperature of 70  C. The whole surface of heat transfer of
of the coolant circulation, the temperatures (left and right) in the the BWT heat exchange tube is smaller than those of other types of
near of the heat exchange tube at 5 cm height are sharply increased, heat exchange tubes; however, the surface of heat transfer is
and then the central temperature at 5 cm height is abruptly concentrated on the bottom of the urea tank so heat can be
increased at 1200 s, as shown in Fig. 6 (b). In Fig. 6 (d), the outlet supplied intensively around the inlet of the urea suction tube. The
temperature of the heat exchanger is linearly increased during rising rate of the temperature at the bottom of the BWT-type is

Fig. 8. Temperature profiles of the BWT in the vertical plane of the center of heat exchanger during melting process (flow rate: 200 L/h, coolant temperature: 70  C).
B.-C. Choi et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 50 (2013) 1235e1245 1241

Fig. 9. Temperature profiles of the WT5 in the vertical plane of the center of heat exchanger during melting process (flow rate: 200 L/h, coolant temperature: 70  C).

faster than that of the CT-type; especially, the central temperature


is sharply increased as shown in (a), (b). And the temperature
increasing area is extended to 10 cm height from the bottom as
shown in (c). This phenomenon of temperature extension is rec-
ommended to ensure the proper volume of urea solution within the
shortest time from a cold start for diesel vehicles with a urea-SCR
system, because the inlet of the urea suction tube is located at
the bottom of the urea tank.
Fig. 9 shows temperature profiles of the WT5-type in the
vertical plane of the center during the melting process with coolant
flow rate of 200 L/h and coolant temperature of 70  C. The shape of
the heat exchange tube is very similar to that of the CT-type, but the
number of tube windings is different. The rising rate of temperature
at the bottom is much slower than that of the CT-type as shown
Fig. 5 (C)-(a), and the rising rates of temperature at 5 cm and 10 cm
height are faster than those at the same positions of the CT-type as
shown in Fig. 5 (C)-(c), (d). At first, both of the outside (left and
right) temperatures of the heat exchanger seem to increase and
then the central temperature, because the melted urea near the
heat exchange tube is circulated from the bottom up by convection
heat transfer, so the amount of heat loss at the bottom is more than
the input heat.
Fig. 10 shows the temperature difference (DT) between the inlet
and outlet of the heat exchanger at various coolant flow rates (a) for
various heat exchange tubes (b). The result (a) is for the CT heat
exchange tube. The DT decreases with heating, reaching
a minimum for heating time of 5 min, and starts to increase after
5 min. The value of DT at low coolant flow rate of 100 L/h is larger
than those of others high coolant flow rates. The heat from the heat
exchange tube in the initial 5 min is transferred to the frozen urea
by conduction, during which time the rate of heat transfer at the
surface of the heat exchange tube is low. And then, DT increases
with elapsed heating time because the rate of heat transfer
Fig. 10. Differential temperature at inlet and outlet of heat exchange tube, (a) variable
increases by both heat conduction and convection due to the flow rate (coolant temp.:70  C), (b) variable heat exchange tubes (flow rate: 200 L/h,
thawing urea around the heat exchange tube. As the coolant flow coolant temperature: 70  C).
1242 B.-C. Choi et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 50 (2013) 1235e1245

rate increases, the residence time of the coolant in the heat 3.3. Combined system of coolant heat exchanger and electric heater
exchange tube decreases, and DT becomes small. During this time,
more heat from the coolant transfers to the frozen urea, so the rate When the urea that was melted by circulation of the engine
of heat transfer increases. From Fig. 10 (b), the DT of the BWT-type coolant was transported to the injection system, the upper of the
heat exchange tube is low. The DT of the CT heat exchange tube is urea suction tube froze, so the installation of an electric heater on
higher than the DTs of other types of heat exchangers, because the the urea suction tube was considered.
rate of heat transfer proportionally increases with the increase of The heat exchange tube and the urea suction tube with an
the surface area of heat transfer. electric heater were all set in a device, as shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 11 shows the amount of heat transfer of the entire tube and (BWT þ EH). In preliminary experiments for determining the
from the bottom to 15 cm height in the heat exchange tube capacity of the electric heater that was to be installed, when the
according to the coolant flow rate (a) and the kind of tube (b). The electric heater power was 100 W, the temperature between the
rate of heat transfer in the heat exchange tube can be expressed as electric heater and the urea suction tube was about 60  C, and when
equation (1). the power was 200 W, the temperature increased up to 105  C, and
then the melted urea changed to white gas of ammonia by thermal
Q_ ¼ m
_ Cp DT (1) cracking. The capacity of the electric heater suitable for the urea
suction tube was about 100 W.
_ ¼ coolant mass flow rate (kg/h); Cp ¼ Specific heat (kJ/K kg);
m Fig. 12 represents the temperature profiles of the cylindrical
DT ¼ Temperature difference between inlet and outlet of heat combined system of a coolant heat exchanger (BWT) and a urea
exchange tube (K). suction tube with an electric heater (EH) in the vertical plane of
Heat transfer was measured for 30 min from the start of melting. the center of coolant heat exchanger. The experimental coolant
The amount of heat transfer was calculated at intervals of 5 min, flow rate and temperature were 200 L/h and 70  C, respectively,
and then the amounts of all intervals were summed. and the type of heating tube used was the BWT-type, and the
Fig. 11 shows the amount of heat transfer of the entire tube and capacity of the electric heater used was 100 W. In Fig. 12 (a), the
from the bottom to 15 cm height in the heat exchange tube temperatures in the center of the bottom of the combined heating
according to kind of tube. In the case of the CT-type, the amount of system increased early compared to the results of Fig. 8 (a)
the heat transfer from the bottom to 15 cm height is 21.4% of the (coolant heating alone). In Fig. 12 (b), (c), the temperature profiles
total heat transfer of the entire tube. The amounts of heat transfer at the heights of 5 and 10 cm increase early, compared to the
in the entire tube of CT, BWT, WT5 and WT3 are 7051 kJ, 2432 kJ, results of Fig. 8 (b), (c). It was effective to concentrate both coolant
3905 kJ, 3008 kJ, respectively. These results are related to the heating and electric heating on the frozen urea at the bottom of
surface area of heat transfer. The surface area of the BWT-type was the urea tank. When the heating unit supplied heat to the frozen
0.064 m2, which is smaller than those of the other tubes; there- urea tank, the melted urea solution near the heat exchange tube
fore, the amount of heat transfer in the entire tube was smallest flowed down the tube, so an empty space was formed near the top
value. However the amount of heat transfer from the bottom to of the heat exchange tube. Therefore, the rate of heat transfer in
15 cm height in the tube was the largest, because this type the empty space became low. The combined system of the coolant
concentrates the heating tube at the bottom of the urea tank. The heat exchanger and the urea suction tube with an electric heater
melting system of the frozen urea tank must be configured to simultaneously solved the problems of the freezing urea-suction
collect a large amount of melted urea at the bottom of the tank in tube and the required fast collection of melted urea at the cold
a short period from cold start of a diesel vehicle with a urea-SCR start of the diesel vehicle.
system because the inlet of the urea suction tube is located on Fig. 13 (a)e(f) illustrate the visualization results of temperature
the bottom of the urea tank. Therefore, the high temperature heat, distributions of the combined heating unit (BWT þ EH) in the
which can be obtained by using high coolant flow rate, has to be vertical plane of the center of coolant heat exchanger at intervals of
supplied to the bottom of the tank. Finally the best heat exchange 5 min. The measured temperature data of Fig. 12 was used to
tube among the above 4 types of tubes is the BWT-type for analyze to the temperature contour by MATLAB.
a practical urea-SCR system. It can be seen that at first the temperature near the 5 cm height
and then the central temperature of the heating unit are rising, and
that heat transfers to both the bottom and upper sides. From this
result, it can be seen that the combined system of BWT and EH was
a very effective device to concentrate both the coolant heat and the
electric heat to the bottom of the urea tank.
Fig. 14 shows the temperature profiles of the combined system
of the coolant heat exchanger and the urea suction tube with an
electric heater (WT5 þ EH) in the vertical plane of the center of
coolant heat exchanger. The experimental conditions are the same
as in Fig. 12. The surface area of the WT5 is 30% greater than that
of the BWT; therefore, the WT5 is able to transfer more heat
energy to melt the frozen urea. The bottom temperature in the
center of coolant heat exchanger increased to 11  C after 1100 s
from the start of the heating, and it took 300 s less to reach the
melting point than that in Fig. 9 (coolant heating alone). The rising
rate of temperature of the combined system of (WT5 þ EH) on the
bottom (or 5 cm height) was lower than that of the combined
system of (BWT þ EH).
Fig. 15 (a)e(f) illustrate the visualization results of temperature
Fig. 11. Amount of heat transfer of the entire tube and of the bottom to 15 cm height in distributions of the combined heating unit (WT5 þ EH) in the
the heat exchange tube (flow rate: 200 L/min, coolant temperature: 70  C). vertical plane of the center of heat exchanger at intervals of 5 min.
B.-C. Choi et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 50 (2013) 1235e1245 1243

Fig. 12. Temperature profiles of a combined system of the coolant heat exchanger and the urea suction tube with electric heater (BWT þ EH) in the vertical plane of the center of
heat exchanger.

The visualization method was same as that used for Fig. 13. The In very cold winter, if driving of the diesel vehicle equipped with
temperature contour was similar to that of the combined heating the urea tank that is a half residue level is stopped, the urea tank
unit (BWT þ EH) in Fig. 13. However it can be confirmed that the will be freezing. When the frozen urea tank is melting using by the
value of temperature contour on the bottom side of the combined heating system, the heat transfer rate for the upper part on the
heating unit (WT5 þ EH) was lower than that of the combined coolant heat exchanger in contact with air is very low. Therefore,
heating unit (BWT þ EH). the combined heating unit (BWT þ EH) should be applied to

Fig. 13. Visualized results of temperature profiles of the cylindrical heating unit (BWT þ EH) in the vertical plane of the center of heat exchanger (a) 5 min, (b) 10 min, (c) 15 min, (d)
20 min, (e) 25 min, (f) 30 min.
1244 B.-C. Choi et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 50 (2013) 1235e1245

Fig. 14. Temperature profiles of a combined system of the coolant heat exchanger and the urea suction tube with electric heater (WT5 þ EH) in the vertical plane of the center of
heat exchanger.

concentrate the heat sources on the bottom of the urea tank to Fig. 16 shows the volume of melted urea for the combined
ensure the proper supply of urea solution within the shortest time heating systems as a function of heating time. The combined
from the cold start of a diesel vehicle equipped with a urea-SCR system of BWT þ EH can produce 300 mL of melted urea after 5 min
system. from start. On the other hand, the combined system of WT5 þ EH

Fig. 15. Visualized results of temperature profiles of the cylindrical heating unit (WT5 þ EH) in the vertical plane of the center of heat exchanger (a) 5 min, (b) 10 min, (c) 15 min, (d)
20 min, (e) 25 min, (f) 30 min.
B.-C. Choi et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 50 (2013) 1235e1245 1245

were 200 L/h and 70  C, which ensured the sufficient amount of


urea solution for the diesel vehicle equipped with the urea-SCR
system. The whole surface of heat transfer of the BWT heat
exchange tube was smaller than that of CT-type; however, the
surface of heat transfer was concentrated on the bottom of the urea
tank, so heat was supplied intensively around the inlet of the urea
suction tube. The combined heating unit (BWT þ EH) was suitable
for concentrating the heat sources on the bottom of the urea tank to
ensure a proper amount of urea solution within the shortest time
from the cold start of the diesel vehicle equipped with the urea-SCR
system. The combined system of BWT þ EH produced 300 mL of
melted urea after 5 min from the cold start, and this amount can be
used for an actual urea injection system of a diesel vehicle equipped
with a urea-SCR system for 10 min.

Acknowledgements

Fig. 16. Amount of molten urea from the combined heating system according to This work was financially supported by the 2010 Industrialized
heating time. Technology Development Program (Busan (Nogsan) Rural Indus-
trial Complex Corp.) of Korea, for which we are grateful.

can produce only 50 mL of melted urea. The melted urea of 300 mL References
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