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Discuss the role played by the following in terms of the changes they brought to the
Spanish colonial setting:
A. development of an export-oriented cash-crop economy
a. Major changes in economic policy manifested in the last quarter of the 18th
i. ​cultivation of cash crops like tobacco, indigo, hemp and sugar was
actively encouraged
1. Manila was opened to foreign shipping

b. Raised the value of land and made landowning and export crop production an
attractive means of livelihood
c. Spanish government encouraged growth and development of haciendas because
of its desire to promote an export economy in the Philippines
d. Haciendas​ = private estates which benefit from government’s economic program
i. Developed plantations
ii. Owned by ​haciendero​ (Spaniards who are either businessmen or
members of religious order)
iii. Divided into several portions
1. Inquilino​ = manager/farmer → employed ​kasama
(tenants/farmworkers) → patron (“ninong”)
2. Kasama ​did not own the land; they were seasonal workers;
depend on i​nquilino
e. The Spanish friars were the real wielders of colonial power and owned great
estates worked by inquilinos

B. educational reforms
a. Opening of schools to Filipinos (1800s)
b. Why did schools separate boys and girls?
i. At present, boys have different needs than girls
ii. In the past, boys were taught different subjects
1. Breadwinners, businessmen, doctors, lawyers
2. They trained to become future professionals
iii. Girls trained to be good housewives and mothers
1. First teachers of their children
2. Not taught how to write; parents chose partners for their
c. Emphasized on ​religion
d. Royal Decree of 1863
e. Public school in every town in the Philippines
f. Only 5% became literate
C. rise of the ilustrado class.
a. Product of economic reforms
b. Middle class
c. Loyal to the Philippines as well as Spain
i. Dressed and ate like Spaniards
ii. Used canes (like sceptre → status symbol that stands for power); cost

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