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NATIONALADVISORYCOMMITTEE;

FOR AERONAUTICS

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TECHNICAL NOTE 3785

HANDBOOK OF STRUCTURAL STA131LITY

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PART V - COMPRESSIVE STRENGTHOF FLAT STIFFENEDPMIIILS

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By George Gerard

New York University

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Washington

August 1957

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TAELEOF CONTENTS

SUMMARY

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✎☛

ORIXT!LINGS!CRENGTEOFPANELSWITHX3RMEDSTIFFENERS.

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99.

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CRIPPLINGSTRENGTHOFPANELSWITHEXTRUDEOSTDRFENERS

* *

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*m***

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am*

m*

*9*9*

 

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AdditionalFailureModes

 

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FailureinWrinklingMale

 

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WrinklingJhstabilityofPanel

 

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W&inklingFailureof Skin

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9898*9

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WkinKlingFailureofPanelsofOtherMaterials

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COLtMNSTRENGTHOF S~PANELS Colmn-StrengthRangese TransitionRange

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OPTIMLMSTIFFENEDPANELS

GeometricProportions.O

 

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StabilizationofCompressionCuVer.

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Rotational+tiffnessConsiderations

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Efluenceofspars

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AH?ENDIXA - AEPLICATJDNSECTK)N

crippling

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Shortrivetedp~els

ColumuStrengthofPsnels

 

I?oxconstruction

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NATIONALADVISORYCOMMITTEEFORAERONAUTICS

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TECHNICALNWE 3785

HANDEOOKOF STRUCTURALSTABILITY

PARTV - coMl?REssrvE

STRENGTHOFl&AT

m GeorgeGerard

SWMARY

A generalizedcripplinganalysisforshort panelswithformedor

extrudedstiffenersispresented.Theanalysis appliestomonolithic panels.“Criteriaaregivenforrivetedpan& whichindicateifthe panelscanbe consideredtobehaveina monolithicmanuer.Riveted panelsthataresubjectto interrivetbucklingandwinklingorforced

cripplingdonotbehaveinthismanner.Methodsarepresentedforesti-

matingthestrengthof suchpanels.

Intermediate-lengthandlongstiffenedpanelsaresubjectto other failuremodes.Methmisaregivenforestimatingthecolumustrengthof panels.Variousformsofcolmncurvesanddirect-readingchartsare

considered.Theoryandtestdataonoptimw.ustiffenedpanelsarepre-

sentedforuseinpreliminarydesignstudies.

lhboxtypesofconstruction,theribandsparstructuresinfluence theccxnpressivestrengthofthestiffenedpsnel.Thevariousfactors whichcanbe of importanceareconsidered.

IN!CRODUX!1ON

ThispartoftheHandbookofStructuralStabilityisconcernedwith thecompressivestrengthofflatstiffenedpanelsbothintheformof individualpanelsandas componentsofboxstructuresunderbending.

Considerationsofthecanpressivestrengthof stiffenedpanelsare governedtoa largeextentby thecripplingorshort-panelstrength. Thisquantityisccmmonlydeterminedexperimentallyonpanelswithan effectiveslendernessratiointheneighborhocxlof20. b thisregion,

. variationsinlengthhavea negligibleeffectuponthecripplingstrength.-.

Ill PartIVofthisHandbook (ref.1),a generalizedcrig&nganaly-

_—.

Siswas presenttiforindividual

formedandextrudedelements.This

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NACATN3785

methodofanalysisis*ended topanelswithformedstiffenersinthe section“CripplingStrengthofPsnelsWithFormedStiffeners”andto pauelswithextrudedstiffenersinthesection“@ipplingStrengthof PanelsWithEx_lmud~Stiffeners”h=ein. At theendofthelast-nsmed section,thepertinartresultsofthegeneralizedcrippkbganalysisare Sullmarizea

.

-.

Thecrippl~analysispresentedisvalidforstiffenedpanelsof

monolitJQcconstructiasuchasmachined,forged,andextrudedpanels

audalsoforrivetedpanelsifcc3%ainrivetingrequirementsaresatis-

fiea. Thestrengthofshortrivetedpanelsisdiscussedinthesectian by thatnsmeintezmsof interrivetbuclddngE@ wrinklingorforced crippling.

~ utilizingthemethodsofanalysispresentedintheabuve-mentioned sections,theshort-panelstrengthmsybe estimated.Forintezmediate- lengthandlongpsnels,considerationofadditionalfailuremodesis requ&edaspresentedh thesection“ColumnStrengthof StiffenedPanels.” VariousQpes ofcolumncurvesarediscussedanddirect-readingcolumn chartsfordeteminingmintium-weightpaneldesignsarereview~.

Foruseinpreliminarydesignstudies,itisconvenienttorepresent theenvelopeofallminimum-weightstiffened-paneldesignsinthefomnof aptimum-panelcurves.h thesection“OptimumStiffenedPanels”uptimum- .

paaeltheory-andtestdataarereviewedandtheresultsaresumarizedin

.

Finally,methodsofgeneralizingtheresultson qptimumpanelsof one. materialtopanelsofothermaterialsarepresented.

termsofpanelefficiencycoefficientsfa hat,Y, audZ stiffenershapes.

.

Theuseof stiffenedpanelsinboxconstruction,whichisrepresenta- tiveofwingaudtailstructures,reqydrestheuseofribsorformersto

stiividethecompressioncoverintopauelsofreasonablelength.3kLthe

section“Stiffened-Ru3elBoxConstruction”strengthandstiffiesscriteria

forthesupportingrib.structuresarepresented.Ihadditiontotheribs, thesparstructuremaycontributetothestrengthofthestiffenedpauel. A briefconsiderationofthe.perttientfactorsispresented.

ThissurveywasconductalUTIIerthe sponsorshipandwiththefinhn- cialassistanceoftheNationalAdvisory CmmitteeforAeronautics.

SYMEOIS

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A area;forstiffenedpanel,areaof stiffenerplusareaof . sheetcorrespondingto stiffenerspac,ing,sqin.

B flexuralrigidityperunitwidth,in-lb

—.-. -—-—-——-—

———-—.—-.-. .—

-

_

-.

-.—

.-. — —

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b

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be

bei

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c

d

de

E

E

Es

%

e

f

g

K

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k

J%

L

LI

m.

N

P

q

R

 

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spacing,h.

effectivewidth,h.

effectivewidthof skincorrespondingto Ui from

equation(10)

shearrigidityperunitwidth,in-lb

nuniberofcorners

rivetdismeter,in.

effectiverivetdismeter,in.

mdulusof elasticity,psi

.

effectivemodulus,psi

secantmodulus,psi

tangentmodulus,psi -

ena-fixitycoefficient

effectiverivetoffset,in.

nmberofcutsplusflsnges

deflectionalspringconstant,lb/in.

bucklingcoefficient

coefficientinwrinklingmcde

columnlengthorribspacing,in.

effectivecolumnlength,Li = L/e ~lp,~m

slope

10SdiIlgper unit width,lb/in.

rivetpitch,in.

lateralpressure,psi

radius,in.

.-———.

——

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NACATN3785

 

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rivetstrength,ksi

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thiclmess,in. effectivethiclmess,in. panelwidthorsparspacing,in. cripplingcoefficient panelefficiencycoefficient cripplingcoefficientbasedoncorners cripplingcoefficientbasedonctisplusflanges plasticity-reductionfactorforplates claddingreductionfactm rotationalspringconstant,torqueperunitrotation Poissonssratio radiusof~ation,in.

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bucklingstress,ksi

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compressiveyieldstrength,ksi Eulercolumnstress,ksi titerrivetbuckHngstress,ksi proportional-limitstrength,ksi panelstrengthat L~/p= 20,ksi

effectivestrength,psi effectivepanelstrength,ksi compressiveyieldstrengthh cornerofformedsection,ksi cripplhgstrength,ksi strengthofa shortrivetedpanel,ksi

 
 

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NACA~ 3785

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c

 

%

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%

T

7

panelstrengthunderlateralpressure,ksi

strengthofrivetedpanelinwrhkl@?mcde,ksi

plasticity-reductionfactor

pl.astici@-reductionfactorforoptimumstiffenedpanels

Subscripts:

o optimum

r rivetorrib

s skinorsheet

St Stiffener

w stiffenerweb

av average

4.

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CRIPF!GINGSTRENGTHOFPANE.GSWITHIUIMEDSTEFENERS

5

Considerationsofthecompressivestrengthof stiffenedpanelscan

be convenientlydividedintoa~roximatelythreeregions:Longpanels

whichbehsveessentiallyascolumns,shortpanelswhicharesubjectto

crippling,andpanelsof intermediatelength.Thelattergenerallyfail as a resultofccmbinedcripplingandcolumnbehaviorwithtorsional effectsoftenevideut.

.

b thepresentsection,thecripplingstrengthof stiffenedpanels

withformelstiffenersistreated.Theskinandstiffeners~e assumed tobe fastenedtogetherinsucha mannerthatthepanelcanbe considered tobemonolithicfrcmthestandpointofcripplingstrength.Riveting requirementsto obtainmonolithicbehaviorareconsideredinscmedetail inthesectionentitled“StrengthofShortRivetedPanels.”

Themethodofcripplinganalysisusedforfomedstiffenedpanels isan extensionofthegeneralizedcripplinganalysispresentedin PartIVofthisHandbook(ref.1). Panelsutilizingextrudedstringers ofcomplexcrosssection,suchasY-shapes,me consideredinthesection

“CripplingStrengthofPanelsWithExtrudedStringers.4’

 

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6

NACATN3785

GeneralizedCrippling-AnalysisReview

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Inreference1,thecrippltngstrengthofa varietyoff~ed sec-

tionswiththreeormorecornerswasanalyzed.Itwasshownthatexcel-

lentcorrelationwasobtatiedwiththefollowingfamula:

Gf

—=fic ~cy

[+(7]

ct2~

~ Ucy

1/20.85

(1)

Thecoefficientf3=dependedscxnewhat upontheticreasedyieldproperties

intheccmnersoftheformedsection. Farmaterialssuchas 2024-T4dU-

minumallqyfonn&itoradius-thickness ratio R/t = 3, PC= 1.3,for . exsmple.

Ihanalyzingthecripplingstrengthofstiffenedpanelswhichconsist offormedZ-orhatsectionsattach~to a flatsheet,certainadditional considerationssrisebeyondthoseencounteredintheanalysisofthe stiffenersectionalone.To avoidconsiderationofthemethdof attach- mentof sheetto stiffen~s,itisassunedthatthepsnelismonolithic. Rivetstrengthrequirementsto achievethisconditionsrepresentedin thesection“Strengthof ShortRivetedPanels.“ Thelineofattaclxnent ofthestiffenertothesheetintroduces,ineffect,snothercorner. Therefcme,indeterminingc ineqmtion(1)forthestiffenedpanel,. somealluwanceisnecessaryfortheattadment.

Secondly,thethicknessofthefarmedstiffener~ maybe ~ifferent “

fromthat ofthesheetts. Thus,inevaluating theparameter tz/A in

equation(1)itisnecessaryto accouutforthis differencein thickness.

Z-StiffenedPauels

Testdataonthecripplingstrengthofflat st~fenedpanelswith Z-sectionstiffenerswereobtainedfromthreedifferentsetsofdata (refs.2 to4) listedintable1. lhthefirstset,therewasa system- aticvariationinthepsrsmeteri+/ts.b thesecondset,ninediffer=t materialswereusedcoveringa-wideramgeof E and Ucy values.The thtrdgroupcoverspotential-strengthestimatesofthehighestobtainable cripplingstrengthofa lsrgegroupofrivet&1panels.Thepotential strengthofa rivetedpanelcorrespondsessentiallyto thestrengthof a monolithicpanel.~ alltests,theslendernessratioofthepauel L*/p= 20,approximately.Furthermore,theZ-sectionstiffenerhadsub- stantiallythesamephysicalpropertiesasthoseofthesheet,exceptfor theticreasedyieldprop-iesinthecornersoftheformedZ.

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NACATN3785

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7

Thedatapresentedinfigure1 arebasedonthenomhalvaluesof .

-

thegecmetiicparametersandonthecompressiveyieldstrengthofthe

2024S-T3material,whichwas43ksi* 7 percent.Althoughtherewasa widevariationinthe ~/~ and b~/t~psrsmet=s,no systematicvaria- tion inthecorrelatiauwasobtatiedby accountingfortheseparameters independently.Thusthedataarepresentedinfigure1 withoutregard. totheseparameters.

lhequation(1),oneofthebasicparametersusedforformedsections

iS ct2/A.lhevaluatingthisparsmeterfora stiffenedpanelitis necessaryto specifythemsmnerinwhichthecross-sectionalarea A and thenumberofcornersc aredetermined.Also,itisnecessaryto accountforthe tJts variations.

Thecross-sectionalareaofa stiffenedpanelistakenasthearea ofthestiffenerplustheareaof sheetcmv?espondingtothestiffener spacing.lb a Z-stiffenedpanel,thenumberofcornersforthetypical sreaelementconsistingoftheZ stiffenerplussheetisthree:Twofor theZ andonefortherivetline.Thismethodofdet~ c is arbitrsry.Itsjustificationliesinthefactthatthe PC values-of

equation(1)obtainedinthismannersxeincloseagreementwiththose

obtainedformulticornerfomed sections.

.

,,

To accountfori+e ~/ts variationinthemostsimpleanddirect

manner,theparsmeterct2/Afortheformedelementisreplacedby

c~ts/A forthestiffenedpanel.Again,thisprocedureissomewhat

.

arbitrary.Itisrelativelysimpleto introducescuneweightingfactors. whichmayresultina morerealisticevaluationofthe ct2/Aparsmeter forstiffenedpanels.However,suchfactorsleadtoadditionalcanplexity ad donotimprovethecorrelationsufficientlytowarranttheiruse.

~ useoftheproceduresoutlinedabove,thedatashownh figure1 for2024-T3al.uminum-hlloypanelswerefoundto correlatedwithin +lo-pacmtl~ts witheqution(1).Thevalueof j3c= 1.26 for

Z-stiffenedpanelsisingoodagreementwiththevalueof1.30established

inreference1 frcmtestdataonmulticornerelementsof2024-T3alumtiun alloyformedto R/t= 3 atthecorners.Theslightdifferenceinthe twocoefficientsmaybe attributedtothefactthat,incountingthenum- berofcorners,no increaseinyieldstrengthoccursattherivetline . asdoesoccurataid.oftheformedcornersofthemulticornerelements.

Thedataoffigure1 representwe firstisetoftable1 andcover onematerial,2024-~aluminunalhy,witha widevariationinthe tJts psrsmeter.Thesecondsetofdatacoversninedifferentmaterials witha widevariationin E and Ucy for ~/ts = 1. Thissecondset

ofdataispresentedinfigure2.

.- ---

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NACATN3785

.

Infigure2(a),thedataarepresakd intermsof (A/*2)(acy/$/2 andincludetestvaluesup to 7f/acy= 1. On therightside,theheavy linecorrespondsto equation(1)with c = 3 and PC= 1.26.Itcanbe observedthata considerableportionofthedatafailsbelowtheline .correspondingto equation(1).’

Csrefulscrutdnyofthesedatasuggestedthatforsamepanels wrinKUngprobablyoccurred(seesectionentitled“Strengthof Short RivetedPanels”) and.therefarethesepanelscouldnotbe consideredas monolithicfromthestandpointofcripplingstrength.Itwasdecided to usethetestdab forthosepanelsidentifiedas25-54)-XIand

37.5-75-200- stice,accordXto thecriteriaofthesection“Strength

of ShortRivetedPsnels,” thesepanelsa~earedtobe unaffectedby wrinkling. Thedataforthisgroupofpanelsfortheninematerials listedintable1 areshowninfigure2(b).~tcanbe observedthat,for thesepanels,thecripplingstrengthcsnbepredictedadequatelyby equa- . tion(l),utilizingc = 3 and PC= 1.26.

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. Thefinalsetofdatalistedintable1 consistsofpotential-

strengthestimatesof2024-T3and7075-T6aluminum-alloyZ-stiffened

panels.Thepotentialormsximwnattainablestrengthwasdeftiedasthe highestaveragestressatmaximumloadthatcanbe obtainedfora given panelbyvaryingrivetdismeterandpitchto f~ theqtimun. The potentislstrengthcorrespondscloselytothecripplingstrengthofa monolithicpanelofthesameconstruction.

Thesedataareshowninfigure3 in conjunctionwithequation(1)

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.

. fore= 3andf3c = 1.26.Agati,itcanbe observedthatthepotential- - strengthdatacorrelatewellaccordingtothemethodsproposedherein.

To Summarizetheavailabledataonthemonolithiccripplingstrength offarmedZ-stiffenedpsnels,thedatafranthethreesourceslistedin table1 arepresentedinfQgure4 groupedaccordingtothe ~/ts values.

Satisfactorycorrelationisobtainedwitheqpation.(1)inallcases,using

c =3 a

pc.=1.26. Thiscorrelationholdsup to a vslueof Ff/acy= 1.

Iht-StiffenedPanels

Thecripplhg-stiengthanalysisofformedhat-stiffenedpanelsis essentiallythesameasthatusedfw theZ-stiffenedpanels.Thetest .

dataofreference5 covera rangeof *

topweb;~ isheightof sidewebs)betweenO.6and1.2anda rangeof

values(bh iswidthof

WPS valuesof1.25,1.00,0.63,and0.39.Fora typicalhat-stiffened--.

.

panelareaelement,thefacta c = 6 inequation(1),.consistingof 4 cornersfcmthehatplus2 rivetlines.

—-.

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-

—.

WCA m 37/35

9

The test dataforeachvalueof ~/ts are showninfigure5 and

,

--

arebasedonthencmdnalvaluesofthegecmetric parametersandthe

compressiveyieldstragthofU ksi.m fildatac-&rel.atewellwith- equation(1)althoughthereisa smallsystematicvariationofthe j3c valuewiththeparsmeter~/ts,as shownintable2,thatmaybe dueto theraisedyieldeffectinthecorners.Theabsenceofa j3cvariation fortheZ-sectionsuggests,however,thatpossiblytheclosedformofthe

hatsectionhassaneinflu6nce.

Fortheparticularriveting usedforthehat-stiffenedpanelsthere is someevidenceofwr~ing at ~f/~cy -ues greaterthan0.8as

showninfigure5. Furthermore, an analysisofthepanelswith

%/% = 0.39 inreference6 indicatesdefinitepossibilitiesofwr~ing.

This~ accountforthesaewhatanmilousbehaviorofthedatashownin figure5(d) inwhichthe f3cvalueforthegroupwith bs/ts= 75 is

. scmwhathigherthanforthegroupsof bs/ts= 25,35,and50. Because ofthesuspicionofwrinkling,itisrecommendedthata cutoffof

7(7 f/ Cy

that&autionbe exercisedinusingthis equationforpanelswith

=o;8 beplacedon e~&tion(1) forhat-stiffenedpanelsand

%/%

= 0.39.

C!RIEPLINGSTRENGTHOF PANELSWITHEXTRUDEDSTIFFENERS

.

M attemptingto extendthegeneralizecrippling-strengthanalysis

topanelswithextrudedstiffeners,inthemamnerdemonstratedinthe section“CripplingStrengthofPanelsWithFarmedStiffeners,” sn essen-

tialdifficultyIS encountered.Thisdtificul~centersaroundthe selectionofthenumberofcornersforan extrudedsectioninwhich severalfI.angesorwebsmaymeetata ccmmmijuncttie.

Also,as showninreference1,thebehaviorofthejunctionof adjacentweborflsngeelementshasa significantinfluenceonthe cripplingstrength.Forexample,thejunctionoftheflangeelenents ofan sngleissubjectto distortionafterbuckling.On theo@er hand, theflangeelementsofa cruciformsectionarehorizontallyopposedso thatthejunctionoftheflangeelementsremainsessentiallystraight. Forthisreaaon,itwasfoundthatthecripplingstrengthperflangeof thecruciformwhichisessentiallyccmposedoftwoanglesisgreaterthan thecrippklngstrengthperflangeoftheanglealone.

h orderto characterizethisclifferenceinbehaviorthefollpwing

nomenclaturehasbeenadupted:“Angle-type”isusedtoreferto two adjacentelematswhichmeetata junction,whereas“T-type”refersto

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—-—.

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10

NACATN 3785

 

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three

ormoreadjacentelementsmeetingata commonjuncture.with

these

definitionsitcanbe observedthatallformedsectionsarecom-

posed ofangle-typeelements,whereasextrudedsectionsmsybe cmposed

.

of sngle-and/orT-me elem&nts.

Thus,forextrudedsectionscomposedofonlysngle+ypeelements, thegen=elized-crippling-analysisprocedureoftheprecedingsection maybe used.Insuchcases,thereisnomajorclifferencebetweencom- parableextrudedandformedsections.Theminordifferencesinclude filletradiuseffectsfortheextrusionandraisedyieldcornereffects fortheformedsection.Anydifferencesinyieldsti-h exeaccounted fordirectlyinthecripplhg-strmgthformula.

Forextrudedsectionscmposedwhollyor partiallyofT-typeelements, thecornerconceptinequation(1)isnowreplacedby a newconceptwhich involvescuttingthesectionintoa seriesofflanges.Ihorderto $urMfy

this.methodofsnalysis,testdataonV-grooveplates,extrudedengles,

. squaretubes,T-,H.,andcruciformsectionsarereviewed.Theanalysis o isthenextendedto stiffenedpanelswithextrudedY stiffeners.Finally, intheinterestofa singlemethodofanalysisforalltypesofmulti- cornersectionssmds,tiffen~,panels,thedataoftheprecedhgsection on Z-andhat-stiffenedpsnelsarereviewedintermsoftheanaly’sisof thissection.

Angleand T+pe Elements

.

Ihref=ence1, equation(1)wasusedto correlatetestdataon sqyaresadrectsnguhrtubes.Itwasfouudthata valueof Pc= 1.42 for c = 4 gaveexcellentcorrelationwiththeavailabletestdataon fourdifferentaluninum~OyS .

I$ycuttingthetubeintoa seriesoffouranglesas showninfig- ure6 andcorrelatingthetestdataaccordhgtotheparameterg which isthetotalnmhr ofcutsplusflanges,thefollowingrelationfa angle-typeelementsisobtained:

[01

Cy

1/20.85

%=pg$#-

=Cy

.

(2)

By useofequation(1),itis evidentthat

.—

-—

~g = Pc(c/g)o”85

.

_

(3)

NACATN3785

Thus,forthe extrudedtubes

Bg= 1.42(4/Q0”85= 0.558

11

(4)

Thecorrelationaccordingto equations(2)and.(4)fortheextruded-tube testdataofreference1 isshowninfigureT(a)by thelinedesignated

angletype.Alsoshownwiththislinearesometestdatafromrefer-

ence1 onextrudedaug~esfm whichg = 2 andonV-grouveplatesfor whichg = 3. Goodcorrelationisobtainedwiththesedataalthoughthe extruded-angledataaretoofewinnumbertop-t definiteconclusiaus to be drawn.

TheanalysisforT-typeextrusionsisbasedonthefollowingrela-

tionestablishedinreference1 frcmtestdataoncruciformextrusions:

af

—=Pg~~

acy

[()]

@2 ~ 1/20.40

(5)

ForthecrucifomnPg = 0.670and -g= 4 as showninfigure6. TMR relationshipalsocorrelateswell.withsanelimitedtestdataon T-extrusionsas showninfigurey(a).

RatherextensivetestdataonH-extrusionsoffouralminumalloys andonemagnesiumalloyareavailabletotestfurthertheg-correlation scheme.h reference1,theH-adzrusionwastreatedasa’specialtype .oftwo-cornerelementandthegeneralizedcripplinganalysiswasnot appliedto thissection.

AS showninfigure6, g = 7 foranH-extrusion.Thetestdata

.-

correlatedaccordtigtotheparsmeterA/gt2axeillustratedinfig-

urey(b).Itcanbe observedthatsatisfactorycorrelationwitheqya- tion(5)isobtainedbyutilizingthe ~g valueforthecruciformfor

5tJ fl Cy =

<

3/4. As discussedinref~~ce 1,beyondthiscutoff

for Zf/acy> 3/4.

‘f= ‘cr

I

(6)

-

——

——

-——

.

-..

12

.

.-

NACATN3785

FYomtheresultspresentedinfigure7, itappearsthatthe g-correlationschemeforangle-sndT-typeextrusionspermitsan inte- gratedapprosch“tothecrippling-strengthanalysisof extmudedelements.

Y-stiffenedPsnels

.

.

--

Inanslyzingthecripplingstrengthofmonolithicstiffenedpanels

utilizingextrudedY-stringers,certainadditionalconsiderationsare

encounteredwhichhavenotarismpreviously.Theseinclude:

.

(1)Themethodofdeterminhgg fora stiffenedpanel.

(2) Thethicknessesofthevariousflangesoftheextrusionmay notbe constant.

(3)Thecompressiveyieldstrengthoftheextrudedstiffenermay

be significautilydiff~entfromthatofthesheet.

Themethodofdeterminingg fm a Y-stiffenedpanelis illustrated infigure8. Sincethetestdataareforpanelstestedwithsixstiff- eners,it isdesirabletodetemnheanaveragevalueof g fora typical areaelementeqpaltothestiffenerspacing.Itcanbe notedfrcmfig- ure8 thatthecutsmidwaybetweenstiffenersarecreditedtotheelement totheleftofthecut. Thusthelastelementontherighthasa value . of g ofoneunitlessthantheotherelements.Thus,theaveragevalue of g = 18.83fortheY-sttifenedpanelaccouutsforthisfact.

FortheparticularY-extrusimusedinreference7,thethickness

ofthehorizontallyopposedflsngesatthetopofthesectionisgreater thanthatof‘theotherelementsinthecrosssection,as showninfig- ure8. Con~equently,indeterminingtheeffectivethicknessofthe stiffenert+ foruseinthegeneraliz~cripplingrelation,thefollowlng methodofweightingwasused:

(7)

.

.

b equation(7),bi and ti refertothelengthendthickness,respec-

tively,ofthecross-sectimalelements.

Similarly,forthe7075-T6alunhum-alloypanels,thecompressive

yieldstrengthofthestiffener ( Ucyw= 78ki) was Signific=tl.yhigher

‘.

thanthatofthesheet(ucys= 67ksi). Thefollowingweightingprocedure

.

wasused:

. -.———

,

.—— .—— -.——

.

.

.

NACATN3785

u

(8)

where~ istheeffectivethiclmessofthestiffened panel.

As a consequenceoftheseweight”&procedures, thegeneralized cripplingrelationfortheY-stiffenedpanelhasthe form

(9)

Thetestdataofreference7 for2024+3and7075-%aluminum-alloy panelswerecorrelatedaccordingto theparametersof equation(9)for threedifferent~/ts ratios.Ihallcasesncminaldimensionswere used.SincetheY~extrusionisccmposedofbothsngle-andT-type elements,thevalueof m ineqyation(9)isnotevidenta priori.As showninfigure9, satisfactorycorrelationisobtainedby considering theY-extrusiontobe an angle-meelementsothat m = 0.85.The ~g valuesvarysomewhatwiththeparameter‘~/tsas givenintable3. !Ihisvariationwaspreviouslyobservedforthehat-stiffenedpsnels.

PanelsWithFormedStiffeners

Inviewofthedestiabili@ofhavingonemethalofanalysisfor bothformedandextrudedsections,ifpossible,theresultsofthe section“CripplingStrengthofPanelsWithFormedStiffeaers”onpanels withfomed Z andhatstiffenersarereviewed.Thesepqnelswere

-z~

stratedinreference1.

accOI’dingto equation(1)fOr multicornerelementsasdemon-

~ useofeqyation(3),thec-correlationmethodcanbe converted

to theg-correlationmethod.Theresultsarelistedintable4. Similarly,byuseoffigure8,thevaluesof g canbe obtainedfor thestiffenedpanelsandthe PC valuesconvertedto ~g valuesby use

of equation(3).Suchresultsaregivm intable4.

All pg valuesaresmmarizedas a functionof %Jts infigure10. Itcanbe observedthatat ~/ts = 1, all Pg valuesareh gocdagree- ment.Furthermore,thevariationof ~g with ~/ts forthehat-and Y-s”tiffenedpanelsissubstantiallythesame.

—-.

-

.z—

—.

.

14

MAOATM3785

STRENGTHOF SHORTRIVETEDP-

.

.

‘-

Illtheprecedingsections,thecripplingstrengthofmonolithic

panelswasconsidered.Suchpanelsincludeintegralformsofconstruc-

tionsuchasmachined,extruded,fygedorrolled,andgenerallybonded

or sesmwel,dedp=els. lhrivet~or spotweldedpanels,thediscrete locationsoftheattachmentscanpermittheoccurrenceofadditional bucklingandfailuremodeswhichreducethecripplingorcolumnstrength ofthepanelbelowthatofthecorrespondingmonolithicpanel.

.

SpotWeldsgenerallycanbeplacedsufficientlyclosetogetherso thatthemonolithicstrengthcanbereadilyachievedinspotwelded penels.Forpanelswithrivetedattachments,however,carefuldesign isoftenreqxlredto achievemonolithicstrengthlevels,particularly inshortpanelsofheavy-sheetandlight-str~erconstruction.Insuch cases,closelyspacedlarge-diemet~rivetsareoftenreq.ed.

Theadditionalbucldingorfailuremodesthatcamdestroythemono-

lithicbehaviorofrivetedpanelsaxetiterrivetbuckling,wrinklhgor

forcedcrippling,andrivetfailure.Inthepresentsection,thebehavior

of stiffenedpanelssubjettedtotheseadditionalbucklingandfailme modesisreviewedandavailabletheoriesarepresented.Designcriteria aregiventhatpresenta rationalapproachtotheachievementofmono- lithicstrengthlevelsforrivetedpanels.

AdditimalFailureModes

Theinterrivetmodehml.vesbuckl@ oftheskinofthesttffened panelasa widecolwnnuponessentiddyundistort$istringerssothat separationoccursbetweentheskinendstringers.Thewidthofthewide columnisgenerallyequaltothatofthepanelendthelengthcorresponds to therivetspacing.DifferentrivetQpes suchasftit-headorcounter-

sunkrivetsprovidedifferingendrestraints,th~ebyreducingtheeffec-

tivelengthofthecolmn. Sincefailureendbucklingofa widecolumn

sreessentiallycoticident,interrivetbucklingt~tes oftheskinto carryadditionalloadsbeyondbuckling.

FailureinthewrinklingmodeMS thesanegemmala~earsmceas theinitialinstabili~andoccursata somewhathigherstresslevel. Ithasbeentemned“wrhlCldng”becauseofcertainshuileritieswith wrinklingofthefacesinsandwichconstruction.At failure,thebuckles havegrownsothatthesldnactsasa widecolmnonen elasticfounda-

theability -

tion.However,incontrastwiththeinterrivetmode,thestrhgerdis-

tortsappreciablyastheattachmentflmge followsthebuckledskincon- tour.Sincetherivetsareactiveincausingtheflangeto confomto

thesldn,rivet-strengthconsid=ationsareof importancehere.The

—.

.

—.—.

.

.

.

.

.

.

----

..

.

.

—.

-.-.

.

.

. .

B

-,

NACATN3785

~>

distortedattachment flmgecausesdistmtionof otherelementsinthe

stringersectionand hencethetezm“forcedcrippling”isalsousedfor

thisphenomenon.Thebucklewavelengthisgreaterthantherivet

spacinganddependsupontheeffectivefouudationcharacteristicsof

thestring=.

.

h figure11,thevariousfailuremodesofa short,riveted,

stiffenedpanelareshownschematically.Itisassum~herethatonly therivetspacingisvaried.Forsmallrivetspacings,themonolithic strengthlevelofthepanelisatttiedandcanbepredictedby the methodsofthesections“CripplingStrengthofPanelsWithFormed stiffeners”and “CripplingStrengthofPanelsWithExtrudedStiffeners.”

, Formoderaterivetspacings,wrinklingoccursata wavelengthgreater thantherivetspdcing.At largespacings,interrivetbucklingoccurs at an overallwave lengtheqpaltotherivetpitch.

WterrivetBuckling

Historically, interrivetbucklingwasobservedshortlyafter-the

-. introductionofall-metalconstructionintheairframe. Howland(ref.8) analyzedthisproblemforpauelswithflatheadrivetsby assumingthat . theskinactsas a tidecolwnnwhichisclampedattheendswherethe rivetsarelocat~.Thus,theinterrivetbucklingstressisgivenw

“i

eJc2qm

ts

2

()

= 12(1

- V2)~

(lo)

Inequation(10),q and ~ aretheplastici@-reductionfactorand claddingreductionfactor,respectively,forplatecolumnsasdiscussed inPartI ofthisHandbook(?%f.9).

A surveyof scmeMmitedtestdataon titerrivetbuclClingindicates

thatthevalueof end-fixitycoefficiente

closetothatforclampingexceptformachtnecountersunkrivets.From thesedata,thevaluesof end-fixitycoeffickntgivenintable5 from references8, 10,and11aretentativelysuggestedforusewithegpa-

tion(10).~Althoughnopublisheddataareavailableonrivetsind~led

inequation(10)isgenerally

joints,itmaybe tentativelyassmwdthatthevalueof e = 1 forcounter- sunkrivetsmaybeusedinthiscaseintheabsenceof substantiatingdata.

Afterinterrivetbucklingoccurs,itisreasonableto expectthat

9 undercontinueddeformationtheskinwillcontinueto carrytheloadat buckl!hgbutno sdditimalloadsincethebehavioroftheskinisthat ofa widecolmn. !l?hus,thefailingstressoftherivetedpauelinthis

c caseis

.—

.—.

.

.

.

——.

——

16

.— -

.—

NACATN3785

(m

.

where 2bei isthetotaleffectivewidthof skincorrespondingtothe interrivetbucldiingstressUi givenby equation(10).Thecrippling stressofthestring=alone ~fst canbe determined~ themethods

ofPartIVofthisHandbook(ref.1).

RivetGeometryandStrength

Withtheuseofheavierskingageswhichapproachor”exceedthe stringerthiclmess,i.nterrivetbuc~ingisrarelya factortidecreasing thestrengthof shortpanels.However,ithas.beenobservedthatthe rivetdiameterandpitchandrivetstrengtharefactorsofconsiderable importanceinachievingmonolithic-panelstrengthlevels.

TheNACAhasconductedan extensiveexpertientalprogramto establish theeffectsoftherivetvariablesuponthestrengthof shortpanelsthat failinthelocslinstabilityandwrinklingmodes.Theresultsofa

progrsmforshort2024-Uand70~-T6ahminum-alluyZ-stiffenedpanels

with2117-T4flatheadrivetsinwhichtherivetdiameterandpitchwere

varied(ref.4) aresummarizedinfigure1.2(a).Theordinateoffig- ureU(a) representstheratioofthestrengthoftherivetedpanel Ff tothatof a correspondingmonolithicpanel.Thelattercanbe

obr~inedby themethodsofthesection“CripplingStre&thofPanels WithFormedStiffeners”asdiscussedthereinforZ-stiffenedpanels.

Testdataofreference12 indicatethatthestren@hofpanelsof moderateslendernessratio(L’/p = 35)isaffectedconsiderablyless thauthatof shortpanelsbyrivetpitchanddiametervariations.The strengthoflongpanels(Lt/p= 60)wasnegligiblyaffectedbyrivet configurationinthersngetested.

.

.

.

.

Anotherexperimentaltiestigationofreference13wasconcerned

withtheinfluenceofrivettensilestrengthuponthestrengthofshort

7075-T6alumimm-alluyZ-stiffenedpanels.Theresultsfareightrivet

typesaresummariz~infigure12(b)intermsof substantiallythessme

quantitiesusedinfigure12(a).Thesoledtiferenceistheuseofan

&fectiverivetdiemeter~ - definedintermsofa standardrivettaken

----

ss ~ 2n7-@ dUUiINZU-SUOY

rivetwiththefolluwingtensileproperties: .

.

_

-

.

-.

NACATN3785

s = 57ksi

S=”&-~

.—.

17

dejtav<1.67=

de/tav>l*67

I

(12)

wheretav istheaverage-ofskinand string=thicknessinfiches.

Theeffectivediameterofa rivet ofanothamaterialis

(13)

where sr isthetensilestrengthoftherivetdefinedasmaximumtensile loaddividedby shankareainksiunits.

FailureinWrinklingMale

Thedatapresentedinfigure12relatethe“strengthof shortriveted panelstothecripplingstrengthofthecorrespondingmonolithicpanel. However,thesedataareoflittlevaluefranthedesignstaulpointof providingcriteriato achievemonolithicstrengthlevels.Furthermore, recentanalysesofthewrinklingphemnenonhaveprovideda moredetailed understandingoftheinfluenceoftherivetvariablesuponthecompressive

strengthofpanels.

.

AWWiS andDunne(ref.14)appeartohavebeenthefirstto consider

theoccurrenceofthewrinklingphenamnoninrivetedpanelsinthepub-

lishedliterature.Theydiscussedit qualitativelyintermsoftherivet

offsetdistsncefra theplaneofthestiffenerweb.

BijlaardandJohnston(ref.15)havepresentedan extensiveanalysis ofthef orced-cripplhgphenomenon.Bucklingcoefficientsforthiscase arepresentedfora limitedrangeofriveted-panel-configurationvariables~ andeffective-widthdataaregivenfromwhichthefailureloadofthe panelinthewrinklingmodecan& estimated.Theresultsoftheanalysis areinreasonableagreementwithtestdataon severalstiffenedpanels usedto checkthetheory.

A morerecentanalysisofwrinklhglzySemonisnsndPet=son(ref.6) utilizesa structuralparameterwhichccmbinestherivetpitch$diameter~

@ offsetdistancefrcmthewebplaueofthestiffenerintoa single

parameter,theeffectiverivetoffset. Thelatterisevaluatedby useof a relativelyrigorousinstabilityanalysisinconjunctionwith~=imental dataonrivetedpanels.A semiempiricalfailing-strengthanalysisofthe

.

.

.

.

.

.—.

——.

——

-—

-.—-

.-.

18

NACATN3785

wrinklingtie basedonthisparameterispresent~therein.compari- sonsoftheresultsoftheanalysiswitha largegroupoftestdataon 2024-T3and70~-T6almdnnn-alloyZ-andhat-stiff=ed panelsfiicate goodagreementalthoughitwasfoundthatthesmilysisreqtiessane modificationforpanelsofothermaterials.

EffectiveRivetOffset

.

.

-

Thegoverningparameterinthisanalysisoftheeffectiverivet offsetwasevsluatedbyrelatingtheexperimentallyobservedbuckling stressh thewrinklingmodetothetheoreticalvalue.Thetheoretical valuesarepresentedh figure13(a)andtheexperimental,infigure13(b) intermsoftheeffectiverivetoffsetdistancef, andthereforef can be determinedfrcmeachpsneltested.Thebestfitto thesedatawas determinedfromsuccessivecrossplottingandtheresultsareshownin figure14. Sincethischartisbasedon experimentaldata,certainlimi- tationsas givenbelowareimpliedinitsuse.

Thedataoffigure14wereobtatiedprimsrilyfra 2024-T3and

7073-T6aluminun-slloy”-paneltestsutilizing2117-@kalumimm-alloy

NACAcountersunkrivets.Apparentlytheinfluenceofotheraluminun-

alloyrivettypessuchasuniversal-headorflatheatrivetsonthe

wrinklingstressissmallandthereforefigure14maybeused.However,

figure14wasestablishedfrcmtestsonpanelswithrivetshavinga

dismetergreaterthen90percentoftheskinthickness.Therefore,fig-

ure14 shouldnotbe usedfor d ts<0.9 withoutconfirmation.

I

.

.

Sincetherivetstiffnessisa contributingfactorintheeffective- rivet-offsetpsrsmeter,changesh rivetmaterialfrcmtheal~um alloys canresultinf-valuesclifferentfrcmthosegiveninfigure14. Testdata indicate,however,thatrivetmaterialswitha hi~erelasticmodulusand strengththan2117-T4alminunalloydo notsignificantlyincreasethe strengthofthepanel.Ontheotherbend,al.minun-alloypanelswith .FS~lmagnesiumrivetsorCherryBlindrivetsfailedatloadslessthan

thoseofcorrespondingpanelswith2117-T4rivets.Therefore,figure14

shouldbe usedwithcautionforaluminun-alloypanelsutilizingrivet

mat=ialsoflowerstrengthsandstiffnessesthan211.7-T4rivets.

Thedatausedto constructfigure14 arebasedonpaneltestsusing fmmedstiffen=s.Theuseofextrudedstringerswithsharpexterior c-ers usuallyeliminatesthewrinklingmodebecausetherivetoffset distancecanbe reducedandthestiffnessofthefilletedattachment flangeisgreaterthanfortheformedstiffeqer.Theavailabletests

onpanelswithextrudedstiffenersindicatethatfigure14providesa

conservativeestimateof f althoughthedataaretoofewtopermit theconstructicmofa chartsuchasfigure14forthiscase.

.

.

—.——

.

.

--

-

.

---,

.---

.

NACATN3785

WrinklingInstabilityofPauel

-——

19

-—

.- Intheanalysisofa shortrivetedpanelwitha prescribedconfig- uration,threebucklingties arepossible:Localbucklingwhichis

treatedinpartIIofthisHandbook(ref.16),titerrivetbuckling

whichwasconsideredpreviouslyinthepresentsection,andbucklingin thewrinklingmode. Thelatter cm be detemined byuseoffigure13[a) inconjunctionwith theusualrelation:

,.

lQr2q7jEtfJ2

()

cr= 12(1-Y)2F

.

(14)

In eqpation(14),theappropriatevaluesoftheplastici~-reduction factorq andcladdingreductionfactor~ areforlongshplysupported

compressedplatesasgiveninref~ence9.

.’,

WrinlilingFailureofSkin

Thefailurestrengthofa monolithicstiffenedpanelisgivenby thecri~linganalysisofthesections“CripplingStrengthofPanels WithFormedStiffenms”snd.“CripplingStrengthofPanelsWithExtruded stiffeners.“ Forrivetedpanels,failurecsmoccurinthewrinkling modeandlessfrequentlyasa resultofrivetfailureorthegrowthof interrivetbuckling.b suchcases,thecompressivestrengthislower thanthemonolithiccrippl@ strengthandcsnbedeterminedby the methrxlsgivenbelow.

Ihthewrinklingmode,theaveragestressatfailureexceedsthe bucklingstressgivenby eqyation(14)by a relativelysmallsmount. At failure,thelateralforcesonthestrqersgenerallybecmelarge ad forcecripplingofthestringers,therebydestr@ngtheircapaci~

to C&I’I’yadditionallosds.

~ useofa semiempiricalanalysis,SemonisnsndPeterson(ref.6)

havedeterminedthewrinkling-failurecoefficientspresentedinfig-

ure13(b)whicharetobe usedinconjunctionwith

~= A!+%2

—-

()

12(1- V)2bs

——

.

.

.

.

(15)

-

-.

.

.

—.—.

al

NACATN3785

-.

todeterminefailureoftheskininthewrinklingmcde.Forhat-stiffened panelsorthosewithunegpalstfifenersprings,anaveragevalueof b~/t~maybeusedh equation(15).

Testshaveindicatedthattheredistributionofstressafterbuckling inthewrinklingmodeisrelativelymoderate.Infact,theaveragestress end-shorteningrelationforpanelsthatwrinklenearlycoticideswiththe stress-straincurveofthematerialuntiljustpriorto failure.There- fore,ithasbeenrecommendedthatthevaluesof q and ~ corresponding to a longsimplysupportedplateat ‘~ be usedineqpation(15).Tests appeartobe inreasonably‘god~eementwiththisassumption.

~.

lMnlClingFailureofAlwnin~-AllqPanels

Equation(15)canbe usedtodeterminethewrinklingstrengthofthe skin.b estimatingthewr~ing strengthofa shortpanel,however,it isnecessarytodeterminethecripplingstragthofthestr~er aloneto ascertatiifitisstableorunstableatwrinldingfailureoftheskin. 1%suchananalysis,thefollowingquantitiesareof importance:

~fst

ZW

Gf

cripplingstrengthof stringeralonewhichcanbe determined bymethodsofPartIV ofthisHandbook(ref.1)

wrhEMng strengthof skinwhichcanbe estimatedfrcm

eqmtion(15)

.

monolithiccripplingstrengthofpanelwhichcanbe determined . bymethodsof.thesectionsCripplingStrengthofPanels withFormedstiffeners”and“CripplhgStrengthofPanels. WithExtrudedStiffeners”

strengthofrivetedpanelwhichcanbe determinedas given below

Afterafat and ‘~ havebeendetermined, itwill.beWown ifthe

stringerisstablew notinthefollowingway:

(1)~ ~fat> ~, thesti@er isstable. Therefore,thepanel failscmpletelyinthewrinklhgretieand

.

.——.

.—.

(16)

.

.

NACATN3785

21

(2) ~ =f~t <=& thestringerisunstable. An approximation

suggestedinreference6 whichyieldspredictions whichareslightly

. highwhenthestringersareunstablebutgivessatisfactmyresults overtheentirepracticalrangeofpopnelproportionsisthatthestringers carrythesamestressastheskinupto Vfst.Beyondthisthestringers

carryno additionallosd.!llms,thefailingstressoftheshortpanelis

afr=

kbsts + ~&f%t

bsts+ &t

(17)

(3) ~ either c==, the fail- stre@h oftheriveted panelcannot exceedthecri~lingstrengthofthecorrespondingmonolithicpanel. Therefore,thelowerofthetwovaluesI?Pror Gf istobe takemas thefailingstrengthoftheshortpanel.

RivetCriteria

Themaxhnzn-strengthanalysisofcompressionpanelsgivenh the precedingsectionregpirescertainlimitationsonthepitchandstrength ofrive’tsinorderthatthepanelwi~ carrythepredictedload.The rivetsmustbe spacedcloselyenoughandhaveadequatestrengthtomake thestringerflangefollowtheplatecontour.Iftiespacingistoolarge, thepanel&y failby titerrivetbuckling.H thestrengthisinsuffi- cient,thepanelmayfailprematurelybecauseofrivetfailure.

.

A criterionfortherivetpitchfoundfra testdatawhichresults infailuretnthewrinklingmcileratherthanas a resultof interrivet bucklingiS

p/bs< 1.27/~ 1/2.

where~ isgiveninfigure13(b).

(18)

lhelateralforcereqtiedtomakethestr@y3rattachmentflange

conformtothewrinkled-skincontourloadstherivetintension.An approximatecriterionforrivetstrengthderivedfrm thatgivenin reference6 is

------

.——

- ——.

2

Sr>0”7 Estddq bsP ‘w

()

—.—.——.——.

(19)

-

22

.——

NAOATN3785

-“

Thetensilestrengthoftherivet~ isdefinedintermsoftheshank

area.Itmaybe associatedwitheithershankfailureorpullingofthe . coumk%unkheadoftherivetthroughtheskin.ValuesOf Sr for 2U7-T4alminuu-alluyrivetsaregivenby egpations(12).

.

Wi-iIIMh&FailureofPanelsofOtherMaterials

.

ThewrinlWng-failurecoefficient~ h eqpation(15)wase.yaluated

by Sesmnianendpeterson(ref.6)frcmtestdataonthefailurestrength ofshort2024-Dand~~ -T6alminun-alluypanels.Whenthismethd of _sif3 wasusedto checkthetestdataofreference3 onshortpanels ofotheraltium alloys,magnesiumslloy,steel,c~er, endtitanium, itwasfoundthatthetheorywasopttiistic~ asmuchas230percent

whenccmparedwiththetestdatainscmecases.I%rther,itwasdeter-

minedthatthefailurestrengthinthewrinlilingmodeisapparently relatciito the ucy/Eratioofthematerial.Therefore,inthissection an attemptismadebasedontheavailabletestdatato extendtheanalysis ofrefer-=ce6 to includetheeffectsofthephysicalpropertiesofthe materials.

An alternate formofequation(15)givenby SemonianendPeterson forthewrinkling failureof shortalminum-alloypanelsis

.

Thiseqpationcanbeverywellapproximatedby thefollowing,for v = O.3:

~

=o.k8qi,($+4’3(#’(~)’2

(a)

Egpation(21)isequivalentto equation(20)andeqpation(15)andis in a convenientformforcorrelationpurposessinceitdoesnotrequireuse of figureU(b) to .-,

Testdataon shortalminum-allqyhat-endZ-stiffendpanelsare showninfigure15 in~tams oftheparametersof equation(21).Itcan be observedthatthedatacorrelatereasonablywellwithin*lO-percent MUits. Itistobenotedthattheagreementofthetestdataoffig- ure15withequations(20)or (15)isrelativelythesameasthat

. —

.

.

.

.——.

-

.

B lulcllml3785 “

23

,,

.

obtainedforequation(21).Therefore,itappeaxsthatequation(21)

isinreasonableagreementwithwrinklingtestdataon shorthat-end

Z-stiffenedpsnelsof2024-T3and7075-!!?6aluminumalloys.

Equation(21)wasusedtocorrelatetestdataofreference3 on wrinklingfailureofpanelsofothermaterialsthatfirstbuckledin thewrinklingmodeintheelasticrange.Forthesedataa systematic variationwiththe E/ucyratioisobservedas showninfigure16. Thetestdatashownhereareforpanelsoftheseinegeanetry,with

identicalrivetoffset,relativelytheseinerivetstrengths,andrela-

tivelystiilarcaressiveyieldprc@rtiesintheearnersoftheformed z stiffener.!l!herefore,onlythephysicalpropertiesofthepanel materialswerevariedh thisseriesoftests.

FYamfigure16,:twasfoundthatforspecifictiuesof

(bs/ts)(bw/Q@(f/q $/3

(22)

Consequently,equation“(21)can bemodifiedto includetheeffectsof physical-propertyvariationsin thefollowingformby notingthatthe theoryapparentlyappliesfora valueof E/ucyequalto 125:

(23)

Itcanbenotedthatequation(23)isina formsimilartothat obtainedinthegeneralizalcri~lingstudypresentedinthesection “&ipplingStrengthofPanelsWithFormedStiffeners”“and“Crippling. StrengthofPanelsWithExtrudedStiffeners.” b factbothwrinkling andcripplingtestdatacanbe correlatedon cmechartby notingthat

Ap#6

~

a .= %/%

(24)

Thus,thegeneralizedcrippling&mla forformedZ-stiffenedp,anels.

becanes,fromequation(1),

.

 

.

.

.

.

-

--—

-.--—-

.-

—.

----

-----

—.

24

NACATN 3785

--

%= ’*2’[i=E-r’70”8

(25)

.

Kid.ofthetestdataofreference3 havebeenplottedinfigure17. On therightside,monolithiccripplingbehavioraccordingto eqpa- tion(25)is indicatedfor u = 1.3and1.8,whichcoverstherangeof panelstested.Ontheleftandupperportions,theapensymbolsare forthealuminunandmagnesiumalloyswhichdo-not e@zriencesignifi- cantraisedyieldeffectsintheformedcornersof theZ as indicated by the ~Cy/UCYratiosgiveninfigure17. These dataareingood

agreem~twithequation(23).

Thesolidsymbolsareforthematerislswhich havevaluesof

7cy/a&J@eat=-

m 1.4. Titaniumisincludedinthisgroup,since

itwasseverelyanisotropicandmoreoverhadconsid~ablescatterin yieldstrength.Thesedataarereasonablywellcorrelatedaccording to equation(23)usinga coefficientof20.5inplaceof17.9inthis fOrmula.

On thebasisofavailabletestdata,equation(23)witha suitable coefficientthatdependsupon Gcy/ccymaybe usedto determinethe strengthof shortrivetedpanelswhichfailbywrinklhg.~ conjunc- tionwithequation(23),f/~ valuesaretobe determinedfrcmfig- ure14,andequation(17)istobe usedifthestrhgerisunstable. Becauseoftheempiricalnatureof SemonianandPetersontsanalysis

(ref.6)audthatcontainedinthissection,theaboveconclusionsmust

be regardedastentative,subjectto furthersubstantiationbypanel tests.

COLUINSTRENGTHOF STIFFENED PANELS

latheprecedz sections,‘thecompressive

strengthof shortmono-

lithicandrivetedstiffenedp&nelshas-beenconsid&3. Sincethe colmnstrm ofthepaneldecreasesasthelen@hincreases,the strengthof shortpanelsisessentiallythemaxtiumstrengthwhichcan be achievedfortheparticularcross-sectionalconfigurationandsheet- Stiffmer fasteningarrangement.Havhgestablishedmethmlsforesti-

matingthecrippl~ strength,it isnowpertinentto ccmsiderthe ColwnnstrengthOfpanelsOfval?iOUSkn@hs .

Wior to about1945,itwascustmarytopresentchartsofthe columnstrengthof stiffenedpsnelsintermsoftheeffactiveslenderness ratioofthepanel.Methodsofconstructingsuchchartsarewellknown

.

.- .? .* .

-.

—.

.-

NACATN3785

25

intheaircraftindustryand aresummarizedinthebooksof Sechlerand Dunn(ref.17)andotherson aircraftstructures.

.

.

Since1~5, therehasbeena growingtendencytousedirect-reading

designchartsforstiffenedpanelsinwhichthecoluunstrengthispre-

sentedasa functionofthestructuralindexI?/L~. Theindexcontains thelosdingperinch N andtheeffectivecolwnnlengthLt andis h

a convenientformforminimum-weightstudiesof stiffenedpanels.

h figure18,thetwotypesof stiffen~-pauelcolumnchartsare

presented.Figure18(a)representstheEuler-andtangent-modulus

behaviorofa stiffenedpanelwithsturdystiffenersandnotsubject

tobucklingoftheskin.b figures18(b)and18(c)cripplingofthe stiffeneroccursgenerallyprecededby localbucklingoftheskinor stiffenerelements.Thisistheusual@pe ofbehaviwof stiffened panelsandisdiscussedinscmedetailasfollows.

Column-StrengthRanges

(1) Belowthelocalbucklingstressofthepanel,thecolumn strengthisusuallyinthelong-columnraugeandcangenerallybe representedby theEulerrelation

(26)

for aes Ucr. Thiseqpationisgenerallyvalidwiththeexceptionof panelswithstiffenersofverypoortorsionalrigidity.

Fordirect-readingdesigncharts,suchasfigure18(c),theEuler

relationis

(27)

for Ue~ Ucr. Here,pfi isa d~ensionlessshapeperamet~ofthe paneland N/L’ isthestructuralindex.

(2)Thelocalbucklingstmmgthofthepanelwhichrepresentsthe

limitofapplicationof equations(26)end(27)csmbe obtaix.iedfrcm PartIIofthisHandbook(r&.16). Figures13and14thereinpresent compressive-local-bucklingcoefficientsforvarioustypesof integral panels.Figures3, 5, end6 ofreference16givecoefficientsfor individualstiffenersor stiffenerelementsandfigure19(a)ofthesame referencecanbe usedto estimatethebucklingstressoftheskin.

-—.

.

.

_

_

.

.: -. r. -

——.

.—

26

NACATM3785

. (3)Thecriwlingstrengthofmonolithicpanelsandwrinkling

strengthofrivetedpsnelswhichpertaintotheshort-panelrangemqr be obtainedby themethodspresentedinthesection“CripplingStrength ofPanelsWithFormedStiffeners”to thesection“StrengthofShort

.

.

Thus,theoryisavailablefordeterminingthecolunnstrengthin theEulerrsmgeaswellasforthectioffatthelocal-buckling-strength lwel. Semiemptiicalmethodsareavailablefortheshort-panelstrength. Theremainingcolmn-strengthrangeisthetransitionfrcmtheEuler ramgeto theshort-panelrange.b thistransitionrange,thereisa considerablerelianceontheuseofpaneltests.~ fact,themajor portionoftheextensiveMACAprogrsmondirect-readingdesigncharts wasconcernedwithtestdatainthistransitionregion.

TransitionRange

Toreturnto the@pe ofcolumnchartshowninfigure18(b)fm the moment,a veryusefula~roximationinthistransitionrangewhichhas beenusedquiteextensivelyisthepsraboliccolumncurve.Forstiffened panelssubjectto localbucklingandcrippling,theparabolicapproxima- tionhasthefollowlngform:

for ~co> Ucr”where

Ue = #E/(L’/p)2

(28)

(29)

M egyation(28),acr and ~f areknownfarthepanelcross-

sectionalconfiguration,and ue istheEulerstressfortheparticular panellen@h. Thisrelationisessentiallyan interaction-typeequation forthetransitionrange.mom equation(28),Gc#5f = 1 f~ L’/p = O

and Gco= acr for ue= Ucr.

Forthedirect-readingdesigncharts,it isalsopossibleto employ equation(28)inthetransitionregion.Ihthiscase,howwer,equa- , tion(28)istobe usedinconjunctionwith

cre= [#E(p/%)2(I?/L1)~l/3

(30)

.

NACATN3785

27

As indicatedpreviously,~co= ~f for L~/p= O. However,inmost

. crip@ingtests,thevalueof T7fisobtatiedat L~/p= 20. infact,

thecripplingmethodofthesections“CripplingStrengthofPanelsWith FormedStiffeners”and“CripplingStrengthofPanelsWithEx&uded Stiffen-s”isbasedon suchtests.Consequently,itisdesirablethat equation(28)bemodifiedsothat ~co= Gf at L’/p= 20. Thisis readilyaccomplishedby theadditionofa correctiontermto equation(28):

.

(31)

Ineqution(31),am representsthestressobtainedfranequation(29) for Lt/p=20. Aspreviously,equation(31)appliesfor Gco> ucr. ti

caseswhere Ucr> %1 ~pl is~eprop-i- replacesUcr inequations(28)snd(31).

limitstress)~1

Todemonstratebrieflytheuseoftheparabolicapproximationfor

direct-readingdesigncharts,figure19hasbeenpreparedbasedon

Z-stiffened-psneltestdataof Schuette(ref.18). Inthisfigure,Ue wasobtainedfromequation(30),~f frcmequation(1)usingc = 3 and Pc = 1.26,and ~cr by useoffigure14ofPartIIofthisHandbook (ref.16). Thetrsmsitionregionisrepresentedby equation(31).It canbe observedthatthemethodisiusatisfactoryoverallagreementwith testdatainthiscase.

Direct-ReadingColunnCharts

TheNACAhasengagedinan extensive~erimentalprogamfcwthe purposeofconstructingdirect-readingcolumnchartsof severalclifferent typesforhat-,Y-,andZ-stiffenedpanels(refs.7 and18to 25). The useofthesechartsindesigndependsuponwhetheraxialcompressive considerationsgovernortheminimumskh thiclmessisan overriding

condition.Becauseoftheextensivenumberofthesecharts,theperti-

nentreferenceislistedintable6 andno attemptismadetoreproduce theseriesofchartsherein.

Thepanelstestedinthisprogramutilizedstronglyrivetedconnec-

tionsbetweentheskinandthestiffener.W spiteofthisprecaution, however,wrinklingorforcedcripplingprobablyoccurredinmanyofthe panels.Conseguentl.y,theseresultswillbe conservativewhenapplied

to correspondingpanelsofmonolithicconstruction.

——-- .-.

-

-— —--.

-

-

NACATN3785

.

Itistobenotedthatminimum-weightpaneldesignsobtainedby use

ofthesechartsgenerallyresultinhighbuckl~ stressesoftheskin as a resultofverycloselyspacedstiffeners.Forlargerstiffener . spacings,withouta resultingsignificantdecreaseh structuraleffi-

ciency,theuseofmagnesium-all~skinsinconjunctionwithalumimm-

alloystringersoffersan tit=estingpossibili~indesign(ref.19).

OPTIMWISTIFFENEDPANELS

Althoughitisnotpracticaltoreproduceherein theentireseries ofdirect-readingcolmncurvesobtatiedby theNACA, itisconvenient to summarizetheresultsofthisinvestigationinthe formofoptimwn- columncurves.Thesecurvescanbe ofconsiderablevalueinpreliminary

designstudiessndrepresenttheenvelopeofall.minimum-weightstiffened-

paneldesignsforspecifiedstructural-loadingpsmmeters.

b thissecticm,opthmm-columncurvesforhat-,Y-,andZ-stiffened panelssrepresentedintwoforms:Plotsof Fco againstN/Li and plotsof GCo againstN/ts forspecifiedvaluesof N/Li.Thelatter formofpresentationisusefulwhendesignconditionsreqtietieuseof a minimwnskinthickness.

Inorderto extendtherestitsoftheoptimum-stiffened-panelstudy tomaterialswithphysicalpropertiesotherthanthoseinvestigated, methodsofgeneralizingtheoptinnmresultsareccmsidered.Thesemethcds . arebasedonavailabletheoriesforthedesignandanalysisof stiffened panelsofmhimunweight.

.

Optimum-l?snelTheoriesandResults

Theoryandtestdataintheavailableliterature on opthmmstiffened

p-elshavebeenreviewedsndconsider~indetail~ ward (ref.26). Thetheoryofthedesignofmonolithicstiffenedpanelsofminimumweight hasbeenconsideredby Zahorski(ref.~) andFarrar(ref.28),andthe

resultsoftheseanalysescanbe summarizedinthefollowingformula:

(32)

Emu thethemy,thepanelefficiencycoefficient~ andthe plasticity-reductionfactorfortheoptimumpenelF axe

-—_

_

.

NMM m 3785

 

.

 

%?=

.

29

(33)

(%)

Fromequation(33),itcanbe observedthatincreasesinstructural efficiencyareobtainedwhentheradiusof gyrationp islarge,the stiffenerspacm bs issmall,and tO/% a~roachesuni@,which

impliesrelativelythickskins.l?arrsr(ref.28)hasactusllychrried

theanalysisup tothepointwhere~ hasbeenevaluatedformono- lithichat-,Y-,andZ-stiffenedpsnels.Hisresults,infact,are within8 percentofthevaluesobtain~frcmtheNACAexperimentalpro- grsmonminhnum-weightrivetedpanels.

TheresultsoftheNACAinvestigationareshowninfigure20,for

optimumz-,hat-,andY-stiffenedpanels.Thedatausedtoconstruct thesechartswereobtainedfra thereferenceslistedintable7.

Ihfigure20,thestraight-lineportionsofthedatawereextra-

polatedtorepresenta hypotheticalelasticmaterial.It issignificant

thattheslopeofthislineonthelogarithmicplotinallcasesis almostexactlyone-halfofthatpredictedby thetheoryof equation(32). Thisisremarkableinviewofthefactthatthislinerepresenlmthe envelopeofa largesetofempiricalcurvesobtainedby varyingthe stiffened-panelgecmetry.

~ appropriatelyaccountingforthemodulusof elasticityofthe

panelmaterials,theexperimentalvaluesoftheriveted-panelefficiency coefficientsgivenintable8 weredetermined.Alsoshownarethetheo-

reticalvaluesofFarrar(r&.28)formonolithicpanels.

Recently,Catchpole(ref.29)investigatedtheoptinnzndesignof

stiffend panelshavingunflangedintegral.stiffeners.Thetheoretical panelefficiencycoeffickntforthis$asewasfoundtobe ~ = 0.81. Thecross-sectionalproportionsoftheoptimunconfigurationare bps = 0.65 - t#O = 2.25.Thereisnopublishedqertiental substantiationoftheseresults.

Specified SkinThickness

Ihcertaindesigncases,it isnecessarythatthestiffe.nedpanel satisfya skin-thicknessrequirementh additionto carryinga canpressive

.

.

.

-

—-—.—

——

—.

-

--

30

NACATN3785

 

.

10SJ3. Thissituationcommonlyariseswhentorsional-stiffnessrequire- mentsgovern.b suchcases,theminimum-weightchartspresentedin

 

figure21forZ-,hat-,andY-stiffen&ipanelsareuseful.Thesecharts

 

.

weretakenfranthereferenceslistedintable7.

 

Towardtheright-handsidesofthesechsrtsthevalueof ?& correspondingto specifiedvaluesof N/Lt a~roachestheoptimum indicatedinfigure~. As thevalueof N/ts decreases,however,the stressleveldecreasessmdsaneweightpenaltyis incurred.

 

It isinterestingtonoteinfigure21thatsincetheordinate represents??Co= N/% andtheabscissais N/*s,secantsdrawnfrom theoriginrepresentlinesofconstantvaluesof ts/%.Micks(ref.30) hasconsideredthisproblemb somewhatgreaterdetailby cross-plotting chartssuchasfigure21 intheformoffigure20fen?specifiedvalues of tsfi.Fromthis,he isableto estimatetheweightpenaltyassoci- atedwithdesignsbasedon specifiedv&luesof ts/~.

 
 

GecmetricProportions

Forpanelsofoptimundesign,itisassuredthatlocalbucklingof allthecross-sectionalelementsoccurssimultaneouslywithfailureof thepanelintheEulermde. Consequently,it ispossibleto estimate variousgeometricparametersofthepsnel.

 

The”effectivethiclmessofthepanelcan be obtaineddirectlyfrom

equation(32):

 

.

 

(35)

The b/ts ratiooftheskinfollowsfrm the fsmiliarplate-buckling equationfor k=4 and v=O.3

 
 

(bs/ts)o= 3.6~~/Tco

(36)

Fromequation(34),for k = 4 and v = 0.3,

(37)

.

------

B NACATN3785

.

By

substituting

equation(36)intoequation(37),

(Pmo= o.605u@ GCo

31

(38)

Mickshaspresentedformulasfordeterminingthecross-sectional propertiesofpanelsrequiredto satisfyspecifiedvaluesof (pfi)n (ref.m).

InelasticBuckling

. A ccmp~isonofthevaluesof ~ obtain~frantestson

2024-II?3al.&ninwn-allqyhat-,Y-,andZ-stiffenedpanelswiththetheo-

reticalvaluesof T = (Es/E)(Et-/Es)1/2 as giveninequation(34)is shownirifigure22,whichistakenfrcmreference26. A typicalstress- straincurvefor2024-Ualmimzualloyhavhga ccmrpressiveyield strengthof~ ksiwasusedto findthevaluesof Et/E,Es/E,andthe theoreticalvalueof ~. Sincetheproportional-limitstressofthe typicalstress-straincurveappesredtobe samihathigherthanthe stressatwhichthecurvesof Gco againstN/Lt departed&cm a linearrelationshipinfigure20,a nondimensionalrepresentationwas usedinfigure22. Theabscissarepresentsvaluesof ~ %. where~pl

r

isthestressatwhichthecurvesdepartfruna straight-l-tierelatio~hip

ontheplotof ~co againstN/Li.

Withinthelimitationsimposedby thelackofprecisestmess-strati dataforthestiffenedpanels,itappearsthatsatisfactorycorrelation isobtainedbetweentestdatasndthetheoreticalvalueof ~. However,

it isof interestto considerpossiblereasonsforthea~srentlow

valueof 6P1 oftherivetedpanels.

.

Onecausepaybe associatedwiththestressconcentrationsatthe rivetholesina built-upstructureresultinginanapparentlow~ing oftheproportionallimit.Thisphenomenonhaabe= observedinother built-upstructuressuchas stiffenedcylinders.A secondcausemaybe attributedtowrinklingorforced-cripplingfailuresofthepanels.The Z-stiffened.psnelsareparticularlysuspectinthisregardandthereis saneadditionalevidencetobepresentedinthefolluwingdiscussion whichSllppOrtSthisContention.

It istobe notedthatbothofthesereasonsareassociatedwith rivetedstructures.Therefcme,itmaybe expectedthatthevalueof

T givenby equation(*) wouldapplydirectlyto a monolithicstructure

withoutanyuncertaintiesconcerningtheeffectiveproportionallimit.

.-.

-

—-—--

_

.—

———

————

——

.

.

.

.

.

32

-.—.

IWCAm 3785

GeneralizationsforOtherMaterials

Sticemostoftheavailabledataareforrivetedstiffenedpanels, however,itispertinentto considermethcdsofgeneralizingtheresults on opttiumpanelsofonematerialtopanelsof othermaterials.Such

methodshavebeenconsid~edbyYounger(ref.31),Micks(ref.30),and

.

.

Schnitt,RruU,a wolko(ref.32). Thefollowingprocedureisbased ontheresultsofopttium-psneltheoryas givenby equation(32).

Accordingto theprinciplesofbucklingsimilitudediscussedby

SteinbacherandGerard(r&.33),thebuckling-stressequationcanbe

writtensothatthephysical-propertyparameterscanbe eqmtedtothe

geometricandloadingparametersoftheproblem.Thus,fromequation(32)

fortheoptimumstiffenedpsnel:

.

I

Gco(a)l/2=a@/L’)1/2

(39)

Toccmparepanels ofthessmetypeofconstruction,thepanel

efficiencycoefficient isconstantandtherefore

(40)

.

Further,sinceitisdesiredtocmpsreoptimunstiffenedpauelsatthe samevalueof N/L’,set (N/L’)1= (N/L’)2 h equation(40)withthe , result

(41)

Itisconvaientto solvethisproblemonplotssuchasthoseof figure23where (?lZ)l/2isplottedasa functionof =Co. Here,

secants,drawnfromtheoriginrepresentconstantvaluesof (TE)l/2~co

andhence [ ~(N/L’)1/~-1, accordingto egyation(39).

I

tifigure23(a),theoreticalsmdtestresultsonqptimumZ-stiffened

panelsof2024-T3ml 70~-T6aluminumalloysareccmpsred.Thelines markedtheoryarefrcm 7 valuesccmputedfrcmtypicalstress-strain curvesaccord=to equation(34).Thepointsrepresentdataas

.

.

.

NACATN3785

33

computedfrcml figure20(a).Thecurveforthe‘7075-T6panelsderived frcunthetest dataon 202k-T3 panelswasobtainedbyratioingstress levelsalonga.secantasfollaws: -

T -75 = 6=24 “5/”~4

(

)

(42)

Thesubscriptsg amd th referto experimentsndtheory,respectively,

andthesubscripts75and24arederivedfrauthealloydesignations.

Itcanbe observedthattheagreemmtbetweenthederivedcurvefor 7075-T6aluminumalloyandthecorrespondingtestdataisnotgod. How- ever,whenthismethodwasappliedtotheoptimumY-stiffenedpanelsshown

infigure23(b),relativelygoodagreementwasobtained.Thisdifference

inthedegreeofcorrelatimbetweentheZ-andY-stiff=edpanelsis attributedtowrinklingorforcedcripplingoftheZ-stiffenedpanels.

Thisfailuremodewasnotaccouutedforinderivingequation(32)and

consequentlythediscrepancymsybe attributedtothisfactor.

It istobe notedthatinderivingthethecrreticalvalueof ?

forthe7075-T6al.uminum-allqyY-stiffenedpanels,itwasnecessary

to accountfora fairlylargedifferenceinpropertiesoftheAlclad sheetad extrudedstiffeners.Thiswasaccomplishedby usingtheroot meansquareofthe T valuesccmputedindividuallyforthesheetand stiffener.

STIFFENED-PANELI!OXCONSTEUETION

Thematerialpresentedintheprecedingsectionshasbeenconcerned

withthecompressivestrengthof isolatedstiffenedpanels.~ aircraft construction,ofcourse,suchpauelsarean integralportionofwingamd tailstructuresandareformedby theuseof sparsaudribsto stidivide thecompressioncover.Consequently,it isof importanceto investigate theinfluenceoftheboundaryrestraintsprovidedby thesparaudrib supportingstructureaswelld lateralpressureloadsonthestrengthof stiffenedpanelsasusedh boxstructures.Thesefactorsareconsidered inthissection.

Thecolumn-strengthrelationshipsforstiffenedpanelspresentedin thesections“ColumnStrengthofStiffenedPanels”and“OptimumStiffened Panels”indicatethatthestrengthis inverselyrelatedto theeffective columnlength.Thus,theuseofa lateralsuppm?timgstructureconsisting ofribsorfozmersprovidesan effectivemeansofobtaininghigherpanel

strengthwithanacccunpanyingincreasein structuralefficiency.

.

—-.

.

A---

.

.

NACATN3785

“L

lkm thes-point thatthe ribsactsolelyto stabilizethecom- pressionCOVW,itispossibleto deriverib-stiffnesscriteriabasedon certatisimplifyingassumptions. However,inanaircraftwingtherib stiucturep-s anadditionalroleintransmittingtheatiloadstothe spas. Thus,sincetheairloadingandcanpressiveloadingonthecuver arerelated,it isgenerallynecessaryto includestrengthconsiderations intheribdesigninadditiontothestiffnessrequirementsforgeneral stabili@.

~ testsof aircraftwlmgstructures,effectivecolumnlengths

differentfrcmtheribspacinghavebeenobserved.Saneofthemost

l~elycausesforthisbehavioraxethefollowlng:

(1)

(2)

Generalinstabili@ofthecompressionsurface

Torsionalrestiatitprovidedby theribstructure

Continuityofthestiffeneruvertheribstructure

(3)

(4) Lateralairloadeffectsonthepanel

(5)

Presenceof sparsattheunldadedpaneledgesresultingin orthotropicplatebehavior

(6) Membraneeffectscausedby intenx!parcurvatureofthepanel

.

The abovefactorsarec@sideredinthepresentsection.

.

StabilizationofCompressionCover

The ribstructureofa wingw tailprovidestheprimarymeansof stabilizingthecompressionsurface.Inorderto avoidgeneralinstab- ility ofthissurface,certainflexural-stiffhessrequirementsmustbe satisfiedby theribstructure.E thesereqtiementsaremet,the effectivelengthofthestdf’fenedpanelcorrespondsto theribspacing. Continui@ofthepanelovertheribstructureaswellasthetorsional rigidi~oftheribscanproviderestraidmwhichfuz?therdecreasethe effectivepanellength.

Thusthedesignoftheribstructureto achievea desiredvalue of end-fixitycoefficientattheloadededgesofa stiffenedpanel entailscertatiflexural-andtorsional-stiffnessrequirements.These reqpiremntshavebeenconsideredh certainidealizedcases:13uaiansky, Seide,andWeinberger(ref.%) treatedthebucklingofa singlecolumn supportedby 1,2,3, andan infinitenumberof eqyallyspacedreflec-

tionalandrtiationalsprings;Zahorski(ref.35)analyzedthebuckling

of a gridofcolmnssupportedby 1, 2,3, andan infinitenumberof

.

.—.

_

NACATN3785

35

eqyallyspacedflexural-typelateralstiffenersof varioustorsional

rigidities.Forplates,BudianskyandSeide(ref.

ofa simplysupportedplaterestingonan infinite numberof equally spacedflexural-@pelateralstiffenersofvarious torsianalrigidities.

An analysisoftheserefermcesindicatedthattheresultsfm?a singlecolumn,gridofcolumns,orsimplysupportedplateofaspectratio lessthan0.20canbereducedtoa uniquefunctionalrelationshipfor thecaseofan inf@itenmub=oflateralstiffeners(practically,three ormore)of zerotorsionalrigidity(ref.26). Thisrelationshipis showninfigure24(a)whichshowstheend-fixi@ coefficiente interms

36)COIlSide3?edbuclCUng

. of&e stiffnesspsrameterK@/B.

Thedefinitionofthetermsinthestiffnessparameterforvarious

casesisasfollows:Thegridofcolumns(ref.35):

me plate(ref.36):

B = (rEI)stlbst

B = @#/1.2(1- V2)

(43)

(44)

!Cheflexural-typelateralstiffenerwithhingedends(refs.35 and37):

 

K

=

fi4(EI)r/w4

(45)

Theflexural-typelateralstiffenerwithclampedends(ref.37):

 

K

=

5m (EI)r/W4

(46)

.Theshear-typelateralstiffener(ref.37):

 

.

 

K

= fi2~/w

.

(47)

TheeffectivespringconstantsK ofthevarious@pes ofribstructures havebeenconsideredbyLsm@aarinreference37. Thevaluesgivenby equations(45) to (47)arefrm thispaper

,.

.— .

-

.

-

- —.——

—-

.—

36

.—

-

NACATN3785

“.

me a~licationoftheseresultsto stiffmed-panel-ribconstruc- tionrequiresconsiderationofthebehaviorofthepanel.Gridaction isapproachedasa limitingcaseforpanelscmposedofheavystiffeners andverythinskins;intheotherlimitofthicksldnswithlight stiffeners,platebdmntorisapproached.Sincetheresultsforthese

twocasescoincidewhengivenintermsoftheparametersoffigure24(a),

it isassumedthatfigure24(a)canbe usedalsoforsttifenedpanels. Thevalue of B fora stiff&n&ipanelcanbe obtaintifrcunthe-following colmnrelationship:

Ey letting

N = X%(L:)2b8t

/

IJMenccmbiningegpations(48) and (49)

(48).

(49)

(n)

Theresultsgiveninfigure24(a)assume thata largenwnberof lat=alstiffenersof zerotorsionalrigidity areused.InWPWW theseresultstodevelapa rib-stiffnesscriterion,itisassmmlthat thetensionsurfaceofthewingdoesnotcontributeto theeffective springconstantoftherib. Forformers(partial-depthribs)this assumptionisvalid,althoughforribsattachedtothetensionsurface thisassumptionwillbe conservative.

General~tability

Forthepurposeofavoidinggeneralinstability,a suitabledesign criterionfortheribgiveninreference26 isbasedon therequirement. thattheribsof zerotorsionalrigidi~possesssufficientflexural rigidi~to achievean end-fixi@ ooefficientofuni~. lhxmfigure24(a) itcanbe observedthateffectivdyrigidribsareobtatiedwhen

Ihfact,anyincreaseinthevalueof KL3/Bbeyondthatgivenby eqm- tion(51)doesnotresultinanyincreaseh end-fixitycoefficientfor ribsof Z=O torsionalrigidim.

.

.

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NACATN 3785

.

37

w ccmbtiingequations(51),(5o),(45),WI (46)j tiefohm

minhmm rib-flexural-rigidi~criteriaareobtainedforan end-fixity

coefficiatof e = 1: Ribswithhingedends:

RibswithCISmped-S:

(EI)r =4:4:

()

(EI)r= *

~

(52)

(5