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Business Requirements Analysis T2 2017

v Approaches to requirements elicitation v Quality Function Deployment with House of Quality

v Quality Function Deployment with House of Quality Refs: q q q Morgan Masters, “An Overview
v Quality Function Deployment with House of Quality Refs: q q q Morgan Masters, “An Overview

Refs:

q

q

q

Morgan Masters, “An Overview of Requirements Elicitation”, Business Analyst Articles: Business Analysis & Systems Analysis, 2010, modernanalyst.com.

A.J. Lowe (2000): “The House of Quality Interactive Tutorial,” URL: http://www.webducate.net/qfd/qfd.html

K. Crow (2016): “Customer-Focused Development with QFD,” URL:

http://www.npd-solutions.com/qfd.html

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Elicitation of Information

Elicitation of requirements is the process of communication with stakeholders for the purpose of discovering relevant information, such as:

• stakeholder needs / problems • requirements for systems / solution • alignment of needs with requirements • documenting all insights • deciding what to do next

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Business Requirements Analysis T2 2017

Collect Information

Traditional methods of eliciting information:

Focus groups to find synergy and contrasts between their views and opinions;

JAD meeting for collaborative development of requirements and designs;

Interview people informed about the operation and issues of the current system and needs of the system in the future activities;

Observe workers at selected times to see how data are handled and what information people need in their job;

Delphi/ExpertLens technique to facilitate online and focused discussion to converge on a common view.

Study documents to discover reported issues, policies, rules, and directions as well as concrete examples of the use of data and information in the organisation;

Deliverables:

• Business objectives

Information needed

 

Survey people via questionnaires to discover their specific issues and their needs;

Data handled

• Processes transforming data

 

• Sequences and dependencies

• Rules governing data

• Policies and guidelines

• Events affecting data

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Group Techniques

Bringing together in one session, e.g. JAD, Focus Group or Delphi, users, sponsors, analysts and others to discuss and review business / system requirements;

• Using group support systems to facilitate online sharing of ideas and voicing opinions;

• Using tools to analyse the current systems to discover new requirements;

• Prototype poorly understood requirements.

• Create simulations to engage end- users in scenarios.

• Reuse requirements of existing systems.

Delphi method is an approach of structuring communication among geographically distributed individuals to deal with a complex problem.

The method relies on the facilitator who sets the tasks, collects, compiles and tabulates information, organises ranking of the collected information.

• Delphi process includes:

Setting questions or issues to be debated;

Collection of feedback from individual contributors;

Review and assessment of the collected information by all participants;

Providing opportunities for individuals to revise their views.

opportunities for individuals to revise their views. 4 © Deakin University, Dept of Information Systems and

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Business Requirements Analysis T2 2017

Planning and preparation:

Conducting a session:

• Setting goals and objectives for the elicitation session;

• Preparing questions;

• Acquiring background knowledge of the subject matter;

• Organising the environment for conducting an effective elicitation session.

As a facilitator, the skills required are the ability to converse in a professional business context using appropriate questioning techniques;

As a note taker, the skills include the ability to analyse what is being said without imposing subjective ideas, prejudices and feelings on the subject.

subjective ideas, prejudices and feelings on the subject. elicitation Validating the model with participants:
subjective ideas, prejudices and feelings on the subject. elicitation Validating the model with participants:
subjective ideas, prejudices and feelings on the subject. elicitation Validating the model with participants:

elicitation

ideas, prejudices and feelings on the subject. elicitation Validating the model with participants: Consolidate and

Validating the model with participants:

Consolidate and model the information gained:

Conduct follow up sessions to validate assumptions that lead to the construction of a model;

Provide feedback to participants;

Finalise decisions.

• Consolidating notes;

• Producing structured models of information contributed by a number of participants;

• Elaborating the model by adding information from other sources.

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Focus on Requirements Elicitation

Focus on Requirements Elicitation

This form

Answers these questions - which you already know

Purpose of the system

Why is the system being designed?

Scope of the system

Who will use the system and how often? What is the expected growth of the system? What areas of business does it affect? What are the system interfaces?

Management objectives

What do you want to gain from the system? What measurable results do you expect?

Functions

What functions will the system provide? What is the priority of these functions? For each one, what is "must" and "nice"?

Constraints

What limitations need to be considered? What are the deadlines? What is the budget? Any space, security, regulations constraints? Can system support on-line processing?

Additional user resource requirements

What are the user requirements for additional staff, equipment and physical space?

Assumptions

What decisions have already been made?

Open issues

What unresolved questions should be addressed prior to the session?

Participation list

Who should attend the session?

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Business Requirements Analysis T2 2017

Alignment of Needs with Requirements

Alignment of Needs with Requirements
Alignment of Needs with Requirements

Having collected stakeholder needs and requirements, the next issue is their alignment. One method of achieving this is:

• QFD with HOQ

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What is the QFD & House of Quality?

The ultimate goal of QFD is to translate subjective quality criteria into objective ones that can be quantified and measured and which can then be used to

design and manufacture the product.

QFD was developed by Yoji Akao in Japan in 1966 and initially used at the Mitsubishi Kobe Shipyard.

The method involves cross- functional teams relying on a set of matrices translating product features from most general (requirements) to most specific (production details).

At each stage the most important product aspects are passed from one matrix to the next.

The matrix is called “the House of Quality”.

next. • The matrix is called “the House of Quality”. 8 © Deakin University, Dept of

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Business Requirements Analysis T2 2017

 

Project - Improve university facilities

 

The environment

Example:

Students: I want to have fun, pay little $$$ and get a big $$$ job at the end

Publisher: I want to sell lots of books and if not then videos

Practitioner: I want graduates with the lot to make lots of money for me

Academic: I want to pump out as much knowledge and wisdom as possible

University: I want to use as little resources and minimise trouble

 

Knowledge

Theory

Methods

Experience

Theory

Methods

University

Temple of Wisdom

$$$

Experience Theory Methods University Temple of Wisdom $$$ Knowledge Resources Trouble Wisdom Welcome to … The
Knowledge
Knowledge

Resources

Trouble

Wisdom
Wisdom
Experience Theory Methods University Temple of Wisdom $$$ Knowledge Resources Trouble Wisdom Welcome to … The
Experience Theory Methods University Temple of Wisdom $$$ Knowledge Resources Trouble Wisdom Welcome to … The
Experience Theory Methods University Temple of Wisdom $$$ Knowledge Resources Trouble Wisdom Welcome to … The

Welcome to …

The Machine

Academics

 

Students

Endangered Species

The Winging Lot

The Winging Lot
The Winging Lot
  Students Endangered Species The Winging Lot   Practitioner / Employer The Evil Empire Publishers
  Students Endangered Species The Winging Lot   Practitioner / Employer The Evil Empire Publishers
 

Practitioner /

Employer

The Evil Empire

Publishers

The Tree Killers

 

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View

business

functional

To align needs with reqs

Purpose:

point

needs

requirements

Note on Terminology:

Academic

Students to know topics

Enable students to attend intro lecture

As the purpose of a business project is often to build some “system”, we will refer to its stakeholders as “users” and the aim of business requirements

Students to know theory Students to know methods

Enable students to read textbook Enable students to attend tutorials

 

Students to reflect on own knowledge

Enable students to undertake research

 

project

analysis is to translate

 

Student

Know topics

Enable students to watch videos

“business needs” into “system requirements”.

 

Know methods of solving problems

Enable students to attend tutorials Enable students to have fun with games

 

So…

Solve exam problems

Enable students to

QFD project = system

 

attend tutorials

QFD customer = system user

 

Practition

Know theory

Enable staff and students to read textbook Enable students to attend tutorials

Enable students to work experience

Enable staff and students to read textbook Enable students to attend tutorials Enable students to work

QFD customer reqs = user needs

er

Know methods

 

Apply theory and methods Gain experience

Apply theory and methods Gain experience

QFD engineer reqs = system reqs

QFD engineer reqs = system reqs
 

Problems

 

Solutions

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Business Requirements Analysis T2 2017

http://www.edrawsoft.com/housequality.php (Template Drawing Only) 11 By hand? Or with the use of software? Beware of
http://www.edrawsoft.com/housequality.php
(Template Drawing Only)
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By hand? Or with the use of software?
Beware of poor quality QFD software!
House of Quality:
Software
• As in any business project, the first step in a QFD project is to
As in any business project, the first step in a QFD
project is to determine the system users (QFD
customers).
Another Example:
Studying at the Uni
Subsequently the user needs are identified (QFD
customer requirements), which are called “Voice of
Customer”.
Simple tools are often used in this process, e.g. Affinity
Charts or Tree Diagrams.
Each of business needs are entered into a HoQ matrix
and its user importance is also specified (here “weight”
of between 1 and 5).
It is common to derive relative importance (weight) for
each of the needs (as %).
Sometimes, for each user need we also define a
baseline, i.e. the minimum standard that any
considered solution must meet.
In addition, the significance of each of the user needs
can also be analysed from several perspectives, e.g.
Satisfaction rating
Competitive products
Improvement factors
Sales points
Here we use a subjective importance factors identified by users
themselves.
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Business Requirements Analysis T2 2017

• In a similar way, the “Voice of Engineer” is determined. In the process: Another
In a similar way, the “Voice of Engineer” is determined. In
the process:
Another Example:
Studying at the Uni
We identify the system
features (or technology
capabilities) that need to
be developed or acquired
to satisfy the user needs.
As a result we will provide
a list of functional system
requirements (or their
groups).
Often a super-list or a
hierarchy of available
technologies have already
been developed by
system architects.
Sometimes for each
functional requirement, we
also define their “target”,
which identifies
performance or quality
requirements that must be
met by the system – these
correspond to non-
functional requirements.
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Another Example: Studying at the Uni The relationship matrix allows to determine the relationships between
Another Example:
Studying at the Uni
The relationship matrix
allows to determine the
relationships between user
needs and the system
ability to meet those needs.
The strength of the
relationship can either be
weak, moderate, or strong
(represented as numbers,
e.g. 1, 3 or 9).
These relationships are
often represented in
symbolic fashion.
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Business Requirements Analysis T2 2017

Another Example: Studying at the Uni The correlation matrix allows to examine how each of
Another Example:
Studying at the Uni
The correlation matrix
allows to examine how
each of the technical
requirements
impact each other.
The correlation matrix
resembles the roof over
the matrix thus making
it look like a house.
The requirement’s
absolute importance
is given as a weighted
sum of each strength
multiplied by the
importance of the
corresponding need.
The relative
importance is
represented as a
percentage across all
requirements.
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What can HoQ tell you?

House of Quality:

The HoQ allows us to determine:

The extended HoQ also:

what are the user needs and how important they are to the user;

provides detailed analysis of

what system components are needed to fulfil what user needs and to what extent;

what is the overall importance of each system component to the success of the project;

what are the synergies and conflicts between the groups of system components;

what system requirements need to be considered first for further refinement (in the HoQ matrix of the next QFD stage).

factors related to the customer satisfaction, product improvements and

competitiveness, and sales opportunities;

allows more detailed analysis of required changes to the product design to make it competitive against other products;

difficulties and risks faced by designers when aiming for target product improvements.

 

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Business Requirements Analysis T2 2017

• The House of Quality is the main tool of the QFD process. • It
• The House of Quality is the main tool of the QFD process.
• It starts with identification of the Voice of Customer, i.e. all
system users and their needs, as well as, the importance of
each of these needs to the users.
• Next we determine the Voice of Engineer, i.e. all system
features and capabilities described by the system requirements.
• Relationships between user needs and system requirements are
then defined in terms of the strength between these two
groups.
• This characterisation allows us to calculate the absolute
importance of each system requirements to the project.
• Having determined the most important system requirements,
we then assess their interdependencies – both positive and
negative.
• The results of the analysis conducted with the
need-requirements HoQ can be used in further
system refinement into design elements and their
later development cycle.
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Summary