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LESSON PLANS
(Advicefor youto consider!! )
Everyteacherwho takesa classhasto askthemselvesexactlywhat they aretryingto do or achieve.One
definitionofthe processof teaching/learning is that a changeof direction,attitudeor a developmentmusttake
place.lf at the endof the teachingperiod,thereis no stimulation or no changein the studentsdevelopment or
attitudehasoccurred, youshouldquestionwhatyou,asa teacher,aretryingto do,Therehasto be a purposein
takinga class.

" t you've got d plan you can alwoyschangeit " - JohnM. Butler

Whenyoutakea class,whetherit isyourregularclassor youarea studentteacherdoinga teachingpracticeor


youneeda plan.ln commerce
a finalassessment, or industryit wouldbe calleda process
or flow chart.

OBSERVATIOII AS A SKILL
Whenyougo to anyclass, trainingeventor a seminarasa student,(andat timeswe areallstudents),
observe
how the tutor operatesanddividesup the time. Howdoesshe/hework ?. Whatwasthe plan?. Whatwasthe
format ?. Howarethe instructionsphrased?. Werethe instructionsclear?.Voiceprojection?.Whenyou planout
your classon paper,there areseveraldifferentapproachesthat you mighttry.

"Someare hettertfran otfiers!,"


Butyou haveto try asmanyideasasyoucanandmaybemodifvor combinefor yourindividual needs.
To paraphrase FrancisBacon:" Someideasare to 6e tested,otherss*affoue[ an[ some
&gestef,;tfiat Ls,someif,easare to 6e read ityarts, otfrercto 6e reaf, cwiousfy; anf,
someare to read tfrolfg uitfr di[igenceanf attettion '

THE PLAN
I haveneverseenfrom anyauthorityon teaching,a definitivestatementon an exactdefinitivelayoutfor a
teachingplan,but allthe statements
that I'vecomeacross givea basicminimumof:-
a) Thethemeor object/aimof the lesson.
b) Timeor durationof lesson.
c) An introduction.
d) A mainsection, whichmaybe sub-divided or brokendownintosmallersections.
e) A conclusion or summaryor a bringingtogether,
Thebook "AdultLeorning, Adult Teoching"by Dainesand Graham,advisesusingthe format "that the ind)vi[uaf
ntorjnts mostw{uf' . I haveseena numberof approaches usedand it mightbe worthwhiletakingyour own
sequence anddeveloping an approachthat relatesto youwhileat the sametime allowsa development
of ideas.
Forthe actuallayoutof yourlessonplanconsider the followingexamples:

The Laundry List Approach.


Thiswould listthe programmeasa simplelist of sequences/postures or periodsof learning.lt unfortunatelysays
very little in the way of purpose,it lacksdimension,what eachpart is doin& etc.Sadlyit is a commonapproach
but I don'tthinkreallyfulfilsthe r€quirement. lt seemsto ignoredirection,althoughthat maybe indicated by
the sequenceanddoesn'tgiveanyindicationof interaction.

A Ple Ghart.
In a waythiscanbe similarto the abovebut introduces a spatialapproach givinga shapeandstructureto the
lessonwith the segments ofthe "pie"showthe individual periodsandshouldincludethe approximate timesfor
each part.lt cangive problems
similar asthe laundrylistif it is too simpleandto usethismethod properly
we
needa concentric approach, Theoneat the centrecanshowthe timeandasyoumove
ie,severalinnercircles.
out other you canshowthe postures,the interaction,assessment, teachingaids,etc.A friend usesa
-
modification a "starpie"chart,whichis anotheroption.
Herringbone -(lshikawa Diagram)
lf youdon'tknowapproach imaginea herringbone !!. lt is a methodthat showsa developing sequence and
showsthe purposeasthe startingpoint(tail)
andthe "spine"isthe development to the "head".Thelatteris the
Whatyou are planningappearsdownthe "bones".Youcanmakeuseof both sides
objectivesand assessment.
of the spineandshowthe sequenceof postures,teachingaids,variations,etc.lt hasan advantage that it can
showpriorities,etc.
ln someareasthe lshikawamethodis a 'causeand effect'approach- but in reality'isn't thot whot tedchingis
oll obout ?"

A tind tap.
Thisis a veryindividualistic
approach but onceyouhaveusedthisapproach for planning, (ormaking
notes/recording), it helpsdevelopa visualandspatialapproach to the wholeprocess ofteachingandplanning.
[Remember: the LessonPlanis for your benefitand not for your DCT/Observer,etc ]Because it usuallyinvolves
colourandpictures, youcanhigh-lightcertainpointsandthe adventof felt-tipandfluorescent penshas
broughta newdimension to the approach,
Fora descriptionof mindmapsseethe booksby TonyBuzan"Ihe Mind Map BooK' and if you readthat you
shouldread .,."UseYourHeod"alsoby TonyBuzan[the videoof his BBClearningserieswas,in the 80's/90's,
oneofthe mostwidelytraining videos.Anothergoodbookis "Ihe BroinBook"by PeterRussell Iand hisbookon
meditationis goodI.

The Ovewiew Approach.


Theapproach hereisgivean overallviewon whatyouaretryingto achieve or the "theme",ideallyin termsof
Aimsand objectives (which would alsobe part of yourschemeof work).lt canalsoshowwhat the studentsand
the teacherandstudentsaredoingat anyonepointin the programme andwouldlistanyteachingmethodsor
aidsthat might be used.lf I hadto put forwarda startingpointfor a lessonplanfor someonestartingout in
teaching.I personallywould advisepeopleto try this approachfirst. Examples is attached,
In the professional
part of the Written Projectsand alsowhenyou aredoinga TeachingPracticeor a Final
Assessment, you mustproducea lessonplan.Youaretryingto demonstratethat your aim is to becomea
qualifiedprofessionalteacher.Yourlessonplanshouldlookasif youhavegivenit somethought,i.e.,it shouldn't
be on the backof an envelope andlookasif it wasdoneasan afterthoughtor on the wayto the class.

It is very importantto realisethat a lessonplanis a statementof intent and not a contract.Timeor


circumstances mayforceyouto varyfrom the planbut try to stickto it. But rememberit is not written in tablets
of stone.Don'tbe overambitious.
3

An Adlunct forAssessmenUFollow up
lf you canproducea seriesof lessonplansandtotally stickto the letter anddetailsof eachone, you are,
without doubt a geniusand haveperfectstudents.

Themajorityofteachersfind that plansneedto be modified,questionsneedto be answeredandthingsneedto


be reinforced.What mightbe usefulis to havea carddividedin quarterswith the out-line planasan aide
memoirein the first quarter,the secondquarterhasroomfor notes,third quarter- buzzwords,highli8htsfor
talk, announcements, parishnotices,andthe lastquarterfor omissionsandticklenotes(futureareasof
reinforcement).

(Note: Some examples of the main lesson plan ideas & layouts are enclosed.)

" Leanbg isjnliry out wfratgou rcaf,yhtow. Doingis &mowtatitrg you


Gnowit. feacfringis rcminfrig otfrns tfiat tfreybnu just aswe[Iesgou. Younre
a$ hancrs, f,oerst teacfrer".
from lllusions,
or the Messiah's
Handbook
by Richard
Bach.

Thishandoutis basedon the teachingand planninghethodsusedby JohnButler,PaulineMurdoch,


MarionO'Connor, Jill Mason,KenThompson, JohnCainandthe peoplewho haveshared,taughtand
influencedthem. Thecurrentlayoutwas put togetherby BobBrace
wEEK..................
TERM...............-_..

AIM:-
OiIECTIVES:

Time Lesson
Content Activity TeachingAids
Teacher Student

Followup SheetY/N

Assessment
Analysis
WEEK 5 TERilI 2"a Tenn

AIM:- To lmproveBalance - mentallyandphysically


OUECTIVES: Bythe end ofthe sessionthe studentshouldbe ableto:
o Bythe end of the sessionthe studentshouldbe ableto:
. Understandthe importanceof visual/spatial to improvephysicalbalance.
concentration
. Understand the importanceofthe good,easybreathcontrolin Balanceand Relaxation.
. Experience the needfor symmetry/goodpostureandappreciatethe improvements that canbe
obtainedby lettinggo ratherthan effort.
o Experience a further varietyof posturesand modifications

Time LessonContent Activity TeachingAid


Teacher Student
7.30 Music/Relaxation Talking Relaxing/Savasana lpod/Voice

7.35 A developingsequence of TalkThro' Listening/Lettinggo Voice


stretchesandwarm-upsto
preparethe studentsfor posture
worK,

7.n SeatedPostures:Hip Loosening TalkThro'Demo Listenin&/Practice Blocks


Sukhasana,Brahmasana. Observing FoldedMats
Modificationsof Virasana CorrectingPosture White Board

8.00 Relaxation CorrectingPosture Savasana lMusic?l Mats


Observing

8.05 on the problemsof


Discussion
balanceandthe oointsto watch

8.15 StandingPostures Practice Practice Chairs


Tadasana.Vrkasana with Demo. Walls
modifications
for the lessable. Observing
Natarajasana CorrectingPosture
8.30 Relaxation TalkThro' Listening MusicMats

8.35 Postures. Practice Practice Mats


SimoleTwist- variationon Demo. Blocks
Ardhamatsyendrasana. Observing Chairs
Halasana,
Sarvangasana CorrectingPosture

9.00 Pranayama : SimpleAlt. Nostril Demo. Listening FoldedMatsElocks


Breathing.Ujjayi TalkThro' Observing ZafuCushion/
Observing Practice GaitanStool

9.15 FinalRelaxation TalkThro' Savasana Blanket


Listening LowLight

Slowlybringingpeopleout of relaxation,followedby soft music

Week Followup
SheetY/N
6

TEN WEEK COURSE PLAN

Beforerushinginto printon producing a lessonplanor startingyourwrittenworkprojecton planning


a ten
week programme, readthe onepagedocumenton whatthe assessor will be lookingfor.
Forthe written work projectyou will needto set the scenew.r.t.time, place,etc.
1. Studentlevel:Yourassumptions on the students,their abilities,experience, etc.
2. NumbersandType:Maximum/ Minimum(limitations)
3. Courceparametersand venue:LEA/ Private- Duration.
4. Settingand Environment:Gym/Classroom/Church Hall/Dance studio/Heating/Li8hting,
etc
5, What'sWhere?
a. HallLocation/Parking
b. Toilets/ Changing Facilities
c. FireDrill/ FireExit- (CanI usea fire extinguisher?).
d. Emergency Numbers / NearestPhone.
6. Pr€-Handout:
a. Whatthe studentsneed:
i. to know
ii. to wear
iii. to brin8.
7. CourseAims:
a. To providethe students with andintroductionto Yogaincludingbasicasanas, breathing,
relaxation, andphilosophy. Demonstrate to personal
an holisticapproach wellbeingto enable
-
studentsto achievea betterqualityof life attitudeand health.To achievea positiveapproach
to Yogafor differentages,backgrounds andabilities.
8. Objectives:
a. Eightcoreareas.
i. Yoga
ii. Movementandexercise
iii. Warmingup
iv. Asanas andmodification
v. Lifestyle/nutrition/
vi. Relaxation
vii. Homepractice/book list

NOTE:lt would look incrediblyimpressive


and professional
(andget BrowniePoints)if youtook eachof the eight
coreareasandincorporated them intoyourschemeof workeitherasweeklythemesor individual areasand
brokethem downinto:

SUGGESTED THEMES FORA TENWEEKYO6ACOURSE


lf youare planning
a ten weekcourseyoumightliketo consider
havinga themefor eachweek.
Twelvesuggested themeslare listedbelow.

l. Breathing
ll. Balancing
Opening
lll. Visualisation
lV. BackCare
V. Concentration
Vl. ForwardBends
Vll. Backward Bends
Vlll. Twists/Rotation
lX. StrengthandStamina
X. Seouences
Xl. SeatedPostures
Xll. Anyotherthemesyoucansuggest
/ share?

Aims2.........andObjectives3

RELAXA.TIONT.
2
Aim: Thestudents to experience the benefitsof relaxation
andto learna range
of relaxation techniques.
Objectives:3Bythe endof the ten weekcoursethe studentwill/shouldbe ableto:
. Understand the basicprinciplesof pratyahara
. Maintainrelaxation for a chosenperiodwithoutfallingasleep
. Havean understanding ofthe basicphysiologicaleffectsof stress
r Havea basicunderstanding of the needof a good"posture"or bodypositionandthe
. importance of controlledbreathing.
. Relaxwhentheychooseundernormalcircumstances
..............
etc,etc,etc,etc.

9, Coursemethods:
a. Youshouldthengo intosomedetailon COURSE METHODS
b. Formatofthe sessions,
i.e.,startwarmups,etc.
c. Asanapattern
d. Teaching
Methods

10. Assessment:
Youshouldalsoconsider
exactlyhowyouareBoingto coverthe initialassessment, on-going
the continuous/
assessment,
an assessment of yourteachingandthe studentsabilityto learn.
of the success

Note:Theprojectcallsfor a ten sessionplanandit wouldbe importantto makesureyoudo not havetoo high


an expectationof exactlywhat the studentscanachievein sucha short periodandwhat you canoffer,giventhe
time restraints.

YoumiShtwantto emphasisthat Yogais not a once-a-week-experience,


but for the reallyseriousstudenta
continuous
learning
experience,
WEEIOY DIARY
Thisis a weeklydiaryfor eachclass.Completeit afterthe class[maybewhenyou get home]lt is a reminderof
what you'vedone,what you'vemissedand a reminderaboutanyqueriesin your mindor from the students.

A B

week/ Date........ Diary- What Happened- Whatwasmissed+

BriefPlan Comments

cr

Analysis/Comments/Observations
fromB Omissions- anythingI needto do for the next
session?

NextWeek'sPriorities

TickleFile

3wk/

Swks/

nextterm

All the aboveare ideasfor youto consider,rejector buildon.

* RememberJohnM. Butler'sadvice" IJ yot 6avcaphn you cana(wagscfrnflgeit


"

Originalby JohnCain.....March1985
UpdatedBobBrace ......November2008