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19

CHAPTER-2

Chapter – 2: MODIFIED HEFFRON PHILLIP’S MODEL

 S.No Name of the Sub-Title 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Modelling of Power System 2.3 Heffron Phillip's Model 2.4 Modified Heffron Phillip's Model 2.5 Use of Modified Heffron Phillip's

Machine Systems

 Page No. 20 20 21 27 model in Multi- 32

2.1. Introduction

20

CHAPTER-2

This chapter presents the mathematical derivation of both Heffron

Phillip’s Model [1],[10] and the modified Heffron Phillip's model as proposed in

[47], [48].

The material is

reproduced from [10] and [49]

for the

sake of

completeness. In this thesis, the modified Heffron Phillip’s model will be

considered for the development of decentralized state feedback power system

stabilizers.

2.2. Modelling of Power System

Stability analysis requires the modelling of some important power system

components such as

excitation system, synchronous generator and AC

network. The current design makes use of IEEE Model 1.0[50] to correspond to

the synchronous generator having high gain and constant static exciter of low

 time [51]. The following are the dynamic equations that govern the SMIB systems:

Generator mechanical equations

S

B

m

1

S

m 2 H

T

mech

T

elec

DS

m

E

'

q

1

'

T do

E

'

q

X

d

X

'

d

i

d

E

fd

 (2.1) (2.2)  (2.3)

21

Generated electrical torque equation

T

elec

E

'

q

i

q

X

'

d

X

q

i

d

i

q

Static Excitation system equation

E

fd

1

T

A

E

fd

K

A

V

ref

V

pss

V

t

 (2.4)  (2.5)

Appendix A contains the definitions and the standard meanings of the

variables. The equations of stator algebra are denoted by

E

'

q

X

X

q

i

q

'

d

i

d

R

R

a

i

d

a

i

q

V

q

V

d

(2.6)

Figure 2-1: Single Machine Infinite Bus System

2.3. Heffron Phillip’s Model

The SMIB’s criterion linear model, known as Heffron Phillip’s model (also

called K-constant model) in [18] can be achieved by linearizing the system’s

equations around operating conditions.

Conversion of the machine equations

present in Park’s reference frame to the Kron’s reference frame rotating

synchronously can establish an interface of synchronous machine with the

external network.

22

The following are the SMIB system’s equations:

+ = +

i

q

ji

d

R

e

jX

e

e

j

E

b

0

(2.7)

This is just the law of Kirchhoff’s Voltage between the infinite bus and

terminal generator.

In Park’s reference frame subscripts q and d represent q

and d axis and in Kron’s reference frame Q and D represent Q and D-axis

respectively.

Separating real and imaginary parts of (2.7) we get

= + cos

= + sin

i

q

d

i

1

X

q

R

e

X

e

X

where

 X X

q

'

d

e

R

e

X

X

'

d

e

  E   

b

cos

E

b

X

e

2

e

R

'

q

E

sin

(2.8)

(2.9)

(2.10)

The expressions for i d and i q can be obtained by solving (2.10) as given below:

= [ sin + + cos ]

= [( + ) sin cos

]

where

= ( + ) + +

Linearizing (2.11) and (2.12) gives

= +

(2.11)

(2.12)

(2.13)

where

23

= +

1

= [ cos + sin ]

1

= +

1

= [ ( + ) cos + sin ]

=

(2.14)

Linearizing (2.8) and (2.9) and substituting from (2.13) and (2.14)

= + (1 + )

=

Torque Angle Loop:

Linearizing (2.4) we get

=

+

( )

(2.17)

(2.15)

(2.16)

Substituting (2.15) and (2.16) in (2.17), we can express T e as

where

= +

= (

)

= + (

=

( )

)

(2.18)

Linearizing (2.1) and (2.2) and applying Laplace transform, we get

B

s

S

m

S

m

1

2 Hs

[

T

m

-

T

e

- D

S

m

24

 (2.19) ] (2.20)

The combined Eqs. (2.18), (2.19) and Eq. (2.20) can be depicted in the form of a

block diagram as displayed in Figure 2.2. This stands for the torque-angle loop

of the synchronous machine.

Figure 2-2: Torque Angle Loop

For classical machine model,

1

E

q

0 and the characteristic equation given by

2 + + = 0

(2.21)

For stability, both D and K 1 should be positive. If D is negligible, the roots of

the characteristic equations are

S

1

,

S

2

 

K
1
B
j
  
j
n
2 H

(2.22)

Where ω n is the natural (radian) frequency of oscillation of the rotor. Typically,

the range of oscillation frequency is between 0.5 and 2.0 Hz although

25

extreme values of 0.1 Hz at the low end and 4 Hz at the high end are also

possible.

Representation of Flux Decay:

The equation for the field winding can be expressed as

 

T

do

dE

q

dt

E

fd

E

 

q

x

d

x

d

i

d

(2.23)

Linearizing Eq. (2.23) and substituting from Eq. (2.13) we have

T do

d

E

q

d

t



E

fd

 

E

q

x

d

x

d

(C

1

 

C

2

E

q

1

)

(2.24)

Taking laplace transform of (2.24) we get,

where

(1 +

 )∆ = ∆ − K  1 3 [1 ( x d x  ) C 2 ]   d

= ( )

(2.25)

(2.26)

(2.27)

Eq.(2.25) can be expressed through the block diagram as displayed in

Figure 2-3.

26

Figure 2-3: Representation of flux decay

Representation of Excitation system:

The Block diagram of the excitation system considered is depicted in Figure 2-4

Figure 2-4: Excitation System The perturbation in the terminal voltage V t can be expressed as

V

t

v

d

o

v

t o

 

v

d

v

q

o

v

t

o

v

q

(2.28)

Substituting from Eqs.(2.15) and (2.16) in (2.28), we get

where

K

5

V K K E

t

5

6

q

   

v

d

o

v

t

o

  

x C

d

3

+   

v

q

o

v

t

o

  

x C

q

1

(2.29)

(2.30)

K

6



 

v

d

o

V

t o

  

x C

d

4

+

  

v

q

o

v

t

o

  

(1

27

x C

d

2

)

(2.31)

For R e =0, the expressions for the constants K 1 to K 6 are simplified as given

 below: K  E b E Cos qo  o  ( x q  x  d ) E i Sin  1 ( ( x x e e  x q  x  q ) ) I ( x e E b  x  d ) sin  0 b qo 0 K 2  e  x  d )  ( q 0 ( x ) x e  x  d K  ( x e  x  d ) 3 ( x d  x e ) K  ( x d  x  d ) E sin  4 ( x  d x e ) b 0  x V d do E Cos b  0   x V d do E Sin b  0 K 5   ( x e x  x q )  V to V ( x e   x d ) V to K  e e  x  d )  qo  6 ( x  V to 

It is not difficult to perceive that for x e greater than 0, the constants K 1 , K 2 , K 3 ,

K 4 and K 6 are positive. This is because δ 0 is generally less than 90 0 and i qo is

positive. K 3 is independent of the operating point and less than unity (as x' d less

thanx d ). Note that x e is generally positive unless the generator is feeding a large

capacitive load (which is not realistic).

2.4. Modified Heffron Phillip's Model

Figure 2.5 considers a single generator having a power transformer inter-

connected to the external system [48]. The rotor angle pertaining to the voltage

28

V

S

S

of the high voltage bus is illustrated as

expressions for

S

 ' q , i d and i q :  1 P S  X t  X q   Q S  R a  R t  P S  R a  R t   Q S  X t  X q   V 2 S

S

, E

tan

where

P

S

V

S

I

a

cos

p

and Q

s

V I

s

a

sin

p

S

S

. The following are the

(2.32)

From stator algebraic equation (2.6) the following equation can be obtained:

for

'

E E

q

'

q

X

'

d

 V t 2       X q  V S sin  S     X t  X q

2

X

t

X

t

'

X d V

X

t

S

cos

S

(2.33)

Figure 2-5: A single machine connected to external network

The modified stator algebraic equations referred to the transformer bus are

given by

V

q

V

d

 

t

q

 

t

d

R

R

i

i

X

X

t

t

i

d

i

q

V

S

V

S

cos

sin

S

S

(2.34)

29

Kirchhoff's Voltage law between transformer bus and the terminal voltage of the

generator are given here as:

V

q

jV

d

i

q

ji

d

R

t

jX

t

 

V

s

s

e

j

(2.35)

This is the modification suggested in [48] to make the PSS design

independent of the external system parameters.

above equation gives

V

q

jV

d

i

q

ji

d

R

t

jX

t

V  

s

s

Replacing by

(2.36)

s

s

in the

Equalizing the real and hypothetical components in the above equation

provides

the

algebraic

equations

of

the

modified

stator

referred

to

the

transformer bus.

The modified stator equations of algebra which are referred

to the transformer bus are obtained by equating the real and hypothetical

sections of the above equation.

The validity of these equations holds good for

any machine even in the ambience of multiple machines.

V

q

V

d

 

R

t

i

q

R i

t

d

X

t

X

t

i

d

i

q

V

S

V

S

cos

sin

S

S

(2.37)

Equating (2.6), (2.13) and rearranging one can get

X

'

d X

t

X

q

X

i

t

d

R i

t

q

i

q

R

t

i

V

S

cos

S

'

q

E

q

 V sin

S

S

(2.38)

(2.39)

The above equations in matrix form is

i

d

i

q

1

 X X

q

t

X

q

R

t

X

'

d

X

t

X

t

X

'

d

R

t

2

R

t

X

t

 

 

'

V

s

cos

s

E

q

s

V sin

s

(2.40)

30

The terminal voltage of the machine is given by

V t

2
2
V
 V
d
q

Linearizing (2.16) around an operating condition employing

(2.41)

first order Taylor

series approximation and upon simplification one can obtain

where

S

0

,

S

m

i

i

d

q

C

C

1

3

s

s

C

C

2

4

E

E

'

q

'

q

C

C

V

V

1

V

s

2

V

s

(2.42)

C 1

C 2

C 3

C

C

C

4

V

V

1

R V

t

s

0

cos

s

0

X

'

q

1

1

X

X

X

'

d

X

t

'

q

t

V

s

0

cos

s

0

R

t

1

X

t

V

s

0

R V

t

s

0

sin

so

sin

so

1

2

1

X

'

d

1

R

t

X

t

cos

s

0

cos

s

0

X

'

d

R

t

X

sin

so

t

sin

so

0

,

'

q

E

0

,

E

fd 0

and

V

s0

denote the value at the initial operating condition.

The

linearized versions of the equations (2.1) to (2.5) and (2.17) are as follows:

T G

e

1

s

'

G E G V

2

q

V

1

s

S  

s

B

m

s

S

m

1

2 H

T

m



T

e

 

D

S

m

(2.43)

(2.44)

(2.45)

31

E

'

q

G

3

'

do

1 sG T

3

E

fd

G

4

s

V G

t

5

s

'

G E G V

6

q

V

3

s

G

V

2

E

fd

K

A

1 sT

A

V

ref

G

5

s

G

6

E

'

q

V

s

G

V

3

V

s

 (2.46) (2.47)  (2.48)

The constants

G

1

to

G

6

and

G

V1

G

V

s

0

E

q

0

cos

s

0

X

q

X

'

d

1 X

q

X

t

X

t

X

'

d

to

V

s

0

G

V 3

are given below:

sin

s

0

 X q  X t X t  X ' d i q 0 ' X t  X d X d  X t ' X d  X d V s X t X  X ' d q V d 0 V s 0 0

G

G

G

2

3

4

G 5



sin

s 0

cos

s 0

X

q

X

t

V

t 0

X

'

d

V

q

0

V

s

0

sin

'

d

V

t 0

s

0

X

t

X

G

X

t

V

q

0



6 '

X

t

X

d

V

t

0

G

G

v 1

v 2

E q

0

sin

 s 0

X

t

X

q

X

q

X

'

d

I

q

0

cos

s

0

X

'

d

X

t



X

d

X

'

d

cos

s 0

X

'

d

X

t

G

v 3



X

q

V

d

0

sin

s

0

X

q

X

t

V

t 0

X

'

d

V

q

0

cos

s

0

X

t

X

'

d

V

t 0

where

E

q0

'

q0

E

X

q

X

'

d

i

d 0

32

The defined constants

G

1

to

G

6

are similar to

those of the model

constants

K

1

to

K

6

of the original Heffron Phillip’s (HP).However, there is no

further referencing to and

reactance

X

e

.

In

this mode,

three more constants

G

v1

to

E

b

and they do not depend on the equivalent

due to the instability of

V

s

during linearization

G

v3

at the torque, voltage of the field

and terminal voltage junction points respectively, which distinguish this model

from the original HP model as presented in

Figure 2.6.

In instances of

ignoring voltage deviations in the transformer, this model accurately reflects a

firm system having external reactance

X

e

identical to the reactance of the

transformer

X

t

. In case the nominal system also signifies the condition of full

loading, then this model’s GEP furnishes the utmost phase lag. Information of

load flow both at the transformer and the terminals of the generator can enable

the acquisition of the G-constants in real time. Hence, the parameters of the

design of any PSS depending on this model can easily be altered at regular time

intervals through local measurements, in order to accommodate considerable

changes in the system’s structure.

33

Figure 2-6: Linearized model of a single machine in a connected network

2.5. Use of Modified Heffron Phillip's model in Multi-Machine Systems

The

model

derived

above

is

very

general

in

nature

because

every

generating station in the power systems is usually inter-connected to the

transmission

network

of

high

voltage

through

the

means

of

a

step-up

transformer. So the model can be used independently for each generator in a

multi-machine environment. For i th generator in multi-machine power systems

G 1 to G 6 are constantsand

G

V1

to

G

1

i

 V s 0 i E q 0 i cos  s 0 i  X qi  X ' di ' X qi  X ti X ti  X di

G

V 3

are given below:

V

s

0

i

sin

s

0

i

34

G

2

G

3

i

i

X

qi

X

ti

X

ti

X

ti

X

'

di

X

'

di

X

di

X

ti

i

q

0

i

G

4

i

X

di

X

'

di

X

ti

X

'

di

V

s

0

i

sin

s

0

i

X

qi

V

d

0

i

V

s

0

i

cos

s

0

i

X

'

di

V

q

0

i

s

0

i

sin

V

s

0

i

G

 5 i  

G

6

i

X

qi

X

ti

X

ti

V

t

V

q

0

i

0

i

X

E

q

0

ti

i

X

'

di

sin

s

0

i

V

t

0

i

X

qi

X

ti

X

'

di

V

t

0