19
CHAPTER2
Chapter – 2: MODIFIED HEFFRON PHILLIP’S MODEL
S.No 
Name of the SubTitle 

2.1 
Introduction 

2.2 
Modelling of Power System 

2.3 
Heffron Phillip's Model 

2.4 
Modified Heffron Phillip's Model 

2.5 
Use 
of 
Modified 
Heffron 
Phillip's 
Machine Systems
Page 

No. 

_{2}_{0} 

20 

21 

_{2}_{7} 

model 
in 
Multi 

32 
2.1. Introduction
20
CHAPTER2
This chapter presents the mathematical derivation of both Heffron
Phillip’s Model [1],[10] and the modified Heffron Phillip's model as proposed in
[47], [48].
The material is
reproduced from [10] and [49]
for the
sake of
completeness. In this thesis, the modified Heffron Phillip’s model will be
considered for the development of decentralized state feedback power system
stabilizers.
2.2. Modelling of Power System
Stability analysis requires the modelling of some important power system
components such as
excitation system, synchronous generator and AC
network. The current design makes use of IEEE Model 1.0[50] to correspond to
the synchronous generator having high gain and constant static exciter of low
time [51]. 
The following are the dynamic equations that govern the SMIB 
systems: 
Generator mechanical equations
S
B
m
1
S
m 2 H
T
mech
T
elec
DS
m
qAxis flux linkage equation
E
'
q
1
'
T do
E
'
q
X
d
X
'
d
i
d
E
fd
(2.1) 

(2.2) 


(2.3) 
21
Generated electrical torque equation
T
elec
E
'
q
i
q
X
'
d
X
q
i
d
i
q
Static Excitation system equation
E
fd
1
T
A
E
fd
K
A
V
ref
V
pss
V
t
(2.4) 


(2.5) 
Appendix A contains the definitions and the standard meanings of the
variables. The equations of stator algebra are denoted by
E
'
q
X
X
q
i
q
'
d
i
d
R
R
a
i
d
a
i
q
V
q
V
d
(2.6)
Figure 21: Single Machine Infinite Bus System
2.3. Heffron Phillip’s Model
The SMIB’s criterion linear model, known as Heffron Phillip’s model (also
called Kconstant model) in [18] can be achieved by linearizing the system’s
equations around operating conditions.
Conversion of the machine equations
present in Park’s reference frame to the Kron’s reference frame rotating
synchronously can establish an interface of synchronous machine with the
external network.
22
The following are the SMIB system’s equations:
_{} + _{} = _{} + _{} ^{}^{}
i
q
ji
d
R
e
jX
e
e
j
E
b
0
(2.7)
This is just the law of Kirchhoff’s Voltage between the infinite bus and
terminal generator.
In Park’s reference frame subscripts q and d represent q
and d axis and in Kron’s reference frame Q and D represent Q and Daxis
respectively.
Separating real and imaginary parts of (2.7) we get
_{} = _{} _{} − _{} _{} + _{} cos
_{} = _{} _{} + _{} _{} − _{} sin
i
q
d
i
1
X
q
R
e
X
e
X
where
X X
q
'
d
e
R
e
X
X
'
d
e
E
b
cos
E
b
X
e
2
e
R
'
q
E
sin
(2.8)
(2.9)
(2.10)
The expressions for i _{d} and i _{q} can be obtained by solving (2.10) as given below:
_{} = _{} [ _{} _{} sin + _{} + _{} _{} cos − _{} ]
_{} = _{} [( _{} _{} + _{} ) _{} sin − _{} _{} cos −
_{}
]
where
= ( _{} + _{} ) _{} + _{} + _{}
Linearizing (2.11) and (2.12) gives
∆ _{} = _{} ∆ + _{} ∆ _{}
(2.11)
(2.12)
(2.13)
where
23
∆ _{} = _{} ∆ + _{} ∆ _{}
1
_{} = _{} [ _{} _{} cos _{} − _{} + _{} _{} sin ]
−1
_{} = _{} _{} _{+} _{} _{}
1
_{} = _{} [ ( _{} + _{} ) _{} cos _{} + _{} _{} sin _{} ]
_{} = ^{} ^{}
(2.14)
Linearizing (2.8) and (2.9) and substituting from (2.13) and (2.14)
∆ _{} = _{} _{} ∆ + (1 + _{} _{} )∆ _{}
^{}
∆ _{} = − _{} _{} ∆ − _{} _{} ∆ _{}
Torque Angle Loop:
Linearizing (2.4) we get
∆ =
− _{} − _{}
∆ + ∆
−
( _{} − _{} ) _{}_{} ∆ _{}
(2.17)
(2.15)
(2.16)
Substituting (2.15) and (2.16) in (2.17), we can express T _{e} as
where
∆ _{} = _{} ∆ + _{} ∆ _{}
_{} = _{}_{} _{} − ( _{} − _{}
)
_{} = _{}_{} _{} + _{}_{} − ( _{} − _{}
^{} ^{=} ^{}
− ( _{} − _{} )
)
(2.18)
Linearizing (2.1) and (2.2) and applying Laplace transform, we get
B
s
S
m
S
m
1
2 Hs
[
T
m

T
e
 D
S
m
24
(2.19) 

] 
(2.20) 
The combined Eqs. (2.18), (2.19) and Eq. (2.20) can be depicted in the form of a
block diagram as displayed in Figure 2.2. This stands for the torqueangle loop
of the synchronous machine.
Figure 22: Torque Angle Loop
For classical machine model,
1
E
q
0 and the characteristic equation given by
2 ^{} + + _{} _{} = 0
(2.21)
For stability, both D and K _{1} should be positive. If D is negligible, the roots of
the characteristic equations are
S
1
,
S
2
(2.22)
Where ω _{n} is the natural (radian) frequency of oscillation of the rotor. Typically,
the range of oscillation frequency is between 0.5 and 2.0 Hz although
25
extreme values of 0.1 Hz at the low end and 4 Hz at the high end are also
possible.
Representation of Flux Decay:
The equation for the field winding can be expressed as
T
do
dE
q
dt
E
fd
E
q
x
d
x
d
i
d
(2.23)
Linearizing Eq. (2.23) and substituting from Eq. (2.13) we have
T do
d
E
q
d
t
E
fd
E
q
x
d
x
d
(C
1
C
2
E
q
1
)
(2.24)
Taking laplace transform of (2.24) we get,
where
(1 + _{}_{}

^{)}^{∆} 
= 
_{} ∆ _{}_{} − _{} 

K 

1 

3 
[1 
( 
x d 
x 

) 
C 2 
] 



d 
_{} = −( _{} − _{} ) _{}
(2.25)
(2.26)
(2.27)
Eq.(2.25) can be expressed through the block diagram as displayed in
Figure 23.
26
Figure 23: Representation of flux decay
Representation of Excitation system:
The Block diagram of the excitation system considered is depicted in Figure 24
Figure 24: Excitation System The perturbation in the terminal voltage V _{t} can be expressed as
V
t
v
d
o
v
t o
v
d
v
q
o
v
t
o
v
q
(2.28)
Substituting from Eqs.(2.15) and (2.16) in (2.28), we get
where
K
5
V K K E
t
5
6
q
v
d
o
v
t
o
x C
d
3
+
v
q
o
v
t
o
x C
q
1
(2.29)
(2.30)
K
6
v
d
o
V
t o
x C
d
4
+
v
q
o
v
t
o
(1
27
x C
d
2
)
(2.31)
For R _{e} =0, the expressions for the constants K _{1} to K _{6} are simplified as given
below: 

K 
E b 
E Cos qo 
o 
( 
x q 
x d ) 
E i Sin 


1 
( 
( x 
x e e x q x q ) ) 
I 
( x e E b 
x d ) sin 
0 
b qo 
0 

K 2 
e x d ) 


( 
q 0 
( x 
) 

x 
e x d 

K 
( 
x 
e x d ) 

3 
( 
x 
d x e ) 

K 
( 
x 
d x d ) 
E sin 

4 
( 
x 
d x e ) 
b 
0 

x V d do E Cos b 0 
x V d 
do E Sin b 
0 

K ^{5} 


( x e x x q 
) V to V 
( x e 


x d ) V to 

K 
e e x d ) 
qo 


^{6} 
( 
x 
V to 

It is not difficult to perceive that for x _{e} greater than 0, the constants K _{1} , K _{2} , K _{3} ,
K _{4} and K _{6} are positive. This is because δ _{0} is generally less than 90 ^{0} and i _{q}_{o} is
positive. K _{3} is independent of the operating point and less than unity (as x' _{d} less
thanx _{d} ). Note that x _{e} is generally positive unless the generator is feeding a large
capacitive load (which is not realistic).
2.4. Modified Heffron Phillip's Model
Figure 2.5 considers a single generator having a power transformer inter
connected to the external system [48]. The rotor angle pertaining to the voltage
28
V
S
S
of the high voltage bus is illustrated as
expressions for
S
' q 
, i 
d 
and i 
q : 

1 
P S 

X 
t 

X 
q 

Q S 

R 
a 
R 
t 


P S 
R 
a 

R 
t 

Q 
S 
X 
t 

X 
q 

V 
2 S 
S
, E
tan
where
P
S
V
S
I
a
cos
p
and Q
s
V I
s
a
sin
p
S
S
. The following are the
(2.32)
From stator algebraic equation (2.6) the following equation can be obtained:
for
'
E E
q
'
q
X
'
d
V t 
2 


X 
q 

V S 
sin 

S 


X 
t 
X 
q 
2
X
t
X
t
'
X ^{d} V
X
t
S
cos
S
(2.33)
Figure 25: A single machine connected to external network
The modified stator algebraic equations referred to the transformer bus are
given by
V
q
V
d
t
q
t
d
R
R
i
i
X
X
t
t
i
d
i
q
V
S
V
S
cos
sin
S
S
(2.34)
29
Kirchhoff's Voltage law between transformer bus and the terminal voltage of the
generator are given here as:
V
q
jV
d
i
q
ji
d
R
t
jX
t
V
s
s
e
j
(2.35)
This is the modification suggested in [48] to make the PSS design
independent of the external system parameters.
above equation gives
V
q
jV
d
i
q
ji
d
R
t
jX
t
V
s
s
Replacing _{} by
(2.36)
s
s
in the
Equalizing the real and hypothetical components in the above equation
provides
the
algebraic
equations
of
the
modified
stator
referred
to
the
transformer bus.
The modified stator equations of algebra which are referred
to the transformer bus are obtained by equating the real and hypothetical
sections of the above equation.
The validity of these equations holds good for
any machine even in the ambience of multiple machines.
V
q
V
d
R
t
i
q
R i
t
d
X
t
X
t
i
d
i
q
V
S
V
S
cos
sin
S
S
(2.37)
Equating (2.6), (2.13) and rearranging one can get
X
'
d X
t
X
q
X
i
t
d
R i
t
q
i
q
R
t
i
V
S
cos
S
'
q
E
q
V sin
S
S
(2.38)
(2.39)
The above equations in matrix form is
i
d
i
q
1
X X
q
t
X
q
R
t
X
'
d
X
t
X
t
X
'
d
R
t
2
R
t
X
t
'
V
s
cos
s
E
q
s
V sin
s
(2.40)
30
The terminal voltage of the machine is given by
V t
Linearizing (2.16) around an operating condition employing
(2.41)
first order Taylor
series approximation and upon simplification one can obtain
where
S
0
,
S
m
i
i
d
q
C
C
1
3
s
s
C
C
2
4
E
E
'
q
'
q
C
C
V
V
1
V
s
2
V
s
(2.42)
C 1
C 2
C 3
C
C
C
4
V
V
1
R V
t
s
0
cos
s
_{0}
X
'
q
1
1
X
X
X
'
d
X
t
'
q
t
V
s
0
cos
s
0
R
t
1
X
t
V
s
0
R V
t
s
0
sin
so
sin
so
1
2
1
X
'
d
1
R
t
X
t
cos
s
0
cos
s
0
X
'
d
R
t
X
sin
so
t
sin
so
0
,
'
q
E
0
,
E
fd 0
and
V
s0
denote the value at the initial operating condition.
The
linearized versions of the equations (2.1) to (2.5) and (2.17) are as follows:
T G
e
1
s
'
G E G V
2
q
V
1
s
S
s
B
m
s
S
m
1
2 H
T
m
T
e
D
S
m
(2.43)
(2.44)
(2.45)
31
E
'
q
G
3
'
do
1 sG T
3
E
fd
G
4
s
V G
t
5
s
'
G E G V
6
q
V
3
s
G
V
2
E
fd
K
A
1 sT
A
V
ref
G
5
s
G
6
E
'
q
V
s
G
V
3
V
s
(2.46) 

(2.47) 


(2.48) 
The constants
G
1
to
G
6
and
G
V1
G
V
s
0
E
q
0
cos
s
0
X
q
X
'
d
1 X
q
X
t
X
t
X
'
d
to
V
s
0
G
V 3
are given below:
sin
s
0
X 
q 

X 
^{t} 

X 
t 
X 
' d i q 0 

' 

X 
t 
X d 

X 
d 

X 
t 

' 

X 
d 

X 
d V s 

X t X X ' d q V d 0 V s 0 
0 
G
G
G
2
3
4
G 5
sin
s 0
cos
s 0
X
q
X
t
V
t 0
X
'
d
V
q
0
V
s
0
sin
'
d
V
t 0
s
0
X
t
X
G
X
t
V
q
0
6 '
X
t
X
d
V
t
0
G
G
v 1
v 2
E q
0
sin
s 
0 
X
t
X
q
X
q
X
'
d
I
q
0
cos
s
0
X
'
d
X
t
X
d
X
'
d
cos
s 0
X
'
d
X
t
G
v 3
X
q
V
d
0
sin
s
0
X
q
X
t
V
t 0
X
'
d
V
q
0
cos
s
0
X
t
X
'
d
V
t 0
where
E
q0
'
q0
E
X
q
X
'
d
i
d 0
32
The defined constants
G
1
to
G
6
are similar to
those of the model
constants
K
1
to
K
6
of the original Heffron Phillip’s (HP).However, there is no
further referencing to _{} and
reactance
X
e
.
In
this mode,
three more constants
G
v1
to
E
b
and they do not depend on the equivalent
due to the instability of
V
s
during linearization
G
v3
are added
at the torque, voltage of the field
and terminal voltage junction points respectively, which distinguish this model
from the original HP model as presented in
Figure 2.6.
In instances of
ignoring voltage deviations in the transformer, this model accurately reflects a
firm system having external reactance
X
e
identical to the reactance of the
transformer
X
t
. In case the nominal system also signifies the condition of full
loading, then this model’s GEP furnishes the utmost phase lag. Information of
load flow both at the transformer and the terminals of the generator can enable
the acquisition of the Gconstants in real time. Hence, the parameters of the
design of any PSS depending on this model can easily be altered at regular time
intervals through local measurements, in order to accommodate considerable
changes in the system’s structure.
33
Figure 26: Linearized model of a single machine in a connected network
2.5. Use of Modified Heffron Phillip's model in MultiMachine Systems
The
model
derived
above
is
very
general
in
nature
because
every
generating station in the power systems is usually interconnected to the
transmission
network
of
high
voltage
through
the
means
of
a
stepup
transformer. So the model can be used independently for each generator in a
multimachine environment. For i ^{t}^{h} generator in multimachine power systems
G _{1} to G _{6} are constantsand
G
V1
to
G
1
i
V s 
0 
i E 
q 
0 
i cos 
s 
0 
i 

X 
qi 

X 
' di 

' 

X 
qi 

X ti 
X 
ti 

X 
di 
G
V 3
are given below:
V
s
0
i
sin
s
0
i
34
G
2
G
3
i
i
X
qi
X
ti
X
ti
X
ti
X
'
di
X
'
di
X
di
X
ti
i
q
0
i
G
4
i
X
di
X
'
di
X
ti
X
'
di
V
s
0
i
sin
s
0
i
X
qi
V
d
0
i
V
s
0
i
cos
s
0
i
X
'
di
V
q
0
i
s
0
i
sin
V
s
0
i
G
5 
i 


G
6
i
X
qi
X
ti
X
ti
V
t
V
q
0
i
0
i
X
E
q
0
ti
i
X
'
di
sin
s
0
i
V
t
0
i
X
qi
X
ti
X
'
di
V
t
0
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