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Chemistry

Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answers

Subject : Chemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
Chemical Calculations
1. Chemical Calculations : Formula Weight (FW) or Formula Mass -
Answer (click here)
2. Mole Concept and Molar Mass with Example Problems - Answer (click
here)
3. Converting Grams of Substances to Moles and Grams with Solved
Problems - Answer (click here)
4. Calculation of Empirical Formula from Quantitative Analysis and
Percentage composition - Answer (click here)
5. Stoichiometry Equations - Answer (click here)
6. Rules for writing stoichiometric equations - Answer (click here)
7. Balancing chemical equation in its molecular form - Answer (click here)
8. General Rules for assigning Oxidation Number to an atom - Answer (click
here)
9. Balancing Redox reaction by Oxidation Number Method - Answer (click
here)
10. Methods of Expressing the concentration of solution - Answer (click here)
11. Volumetric Analysis - Law with Solved problem - Answer (click here)
12. Determination of equivalent masses of elements - Answer (click here)
13. Equivalent mass of acid, base, salt, oxidising agent and reducing agent -
Answer (click here)
14. Determination of Molecular Mass Victor-Meyer's Method - Answer (click
here)
15. Calculations based on Principle of Volumetric Analysis - Answer (click
here)

General Introduction to Metallurgy


1. Metallurgy - Ores and Minerals - Answer (click here)
2. Sources from earth, living systems and in sea - Answer (click here)
3. Metallurgy - Purification of ores - Answer (click here)
4. Metallurgical processes - Answer (click here)
5. Metallurgy - Purification of metals - Answer (click here)

Atomic Structure I
1. Rutherford's Scattering Experiment - Answer (click here)
2. Defects of Rutherford's model - Answer (click here)
3. Postulates of Bohr's model of an atom - Answer (click here)
4. Limitation of Bohr's Theory - Answer (click here)
5. Electronic configuration and quantum numbers - Answer (click here)
6. Shapes or boundary surfaces of Orbitals - Answer (click here)
7. Pauli's exclusion principle and Uses - Answer (click here)
8. Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity - Answer (click here)
9. Aufbau Principle - Answer (click here)
10. Stability of orbitals - Answer (click here)

Periodic Classification I
1. Brief history of periodic classification - Answer (click here)
2. Earlier periodic classification - Answer (click here)
3. Modern Periodic Law - Answer (click here)
4. IUPAC Nomenclature for Elements with Z greater than 100 - Answer
(click here)
5. Electronic configuration and periodic table - Answer (click here)
6. Types of elements: s-, p-,d-, f- Blocks - Answer (click here)
7. Atomic and ionic radii - Answer (click here)
8. Variation of Ionization Energy in the periodic Table - Answer (click here)
9. Factors Influencing Ionization Enthalpy - Answer (click here)
10. Electron affinity - Answer (click here)
11. Electronegativity - Answer (click here)
12. Anomalous periodic properties in terms of screening constant, stability
etc. - Answer (click here)

Group 1 sBlock elements


1. The structure of the three isotopes of hydrogen - Answer (click here)
2. Deuterium: Methods of Preparation, properties and Uses - Answer (click
here)
3. Tritium - preparation, Properties, Uses - Answer (click here)
4. Ortho and Para hydrogen: Conversion and Properties - Answer (click here)
5. Heavy water: Preparation, Principle, Properties, Important reactions,
Uses - Answer (click here)
6. Hydrogen peroxide: Preparation, Properties, reactions, Uses - Answer
(click here)
7. Liquid hydrogen as a fuel - Answer (click here)
8. Alkali Metals: General characteristics, Physical Properties - Answer (click
here)
9. Lithium : Extraction, Physical and Chemical Properties, Uses - Answer
(click here)
10. Sodium: Extraction, Physical and Chemical Properties, Uses - Answer
(click here)

Group 2 sBlock elements


1. Group 2 s - Block Elements - Answer (click here)
2. Magnesium: Important Ores, Metallurgy, Properties, Uses - Answer (click
here)
3. Compounds of alkaline earth metals - Answer (click here)

pBlock elements
1. p-Block Elements - General Characteristics - Answer (click here)
2. Group 13 - Boron Group (B, Al, Ga, In, Tl): Extraction, Properties -
Answer (click here)
3. Carbon group elements: properties, Structure, Uses - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of Diamond, Graphite, Buckminster fullerenes - Answer (click
here)
5. Metallic character of Carbon group elements - Answer (click here)
6. Nitrogen Group - Answer (click here)
7. Nitric acid: Preparation, Properties - Answer (click here)
8. Importance of molecular oxygen - Answer (click here)
9. Oxygen: Oxides Classification - Answer (click here)
10. Ozone: Laboratory preparation, Properties, Uses, structure, layer - Answer
(click here)
11. Factors affecting ozone layer - Answer (click here)

Atomic Structure II
1. Chronology Of Atomic Structure - Answer (click here)
2. Dual Property of an Electron - Answer (click here)
3. Difference between a particle and a wave - Answer (click here)
4. Experiments to prove particle and wave property of Electrons - Answer
(click here)
5. The Uncertainty Principle - Answer (click here)
6. de-Broglie Relation and Significance of de-Broglie waves - Answer (click
here)
7. The Wave Nature Of Electrons - Answer (click here)
8. Shapes of orbitals: s, p, d Shapes - Answer (click here)
9. Molecular Orbital Theory: Energy level diagram for molecular orbitals -
Answer (click here)
10. Electronic configuration of a molecule and its correlation with molecular
behaviour - Answer (click here)
11. Molecular orbital energy level diagrams -Hydrogen, Hypothetical,
Nitrogen, Oxygen - Answer (click here)
12. Hybridization : Salient Features, Type, Example - Answer (click here)
13. Importance, Strength, Types of Hydrogen bonds - Intermolecular Forces
- Answer (click here)

Periodic Classification II
1. Review Of Periodic Properties - Answer (click here)
2. Calculation Of Atomic Radius (Covalent Radius) - Answer (click here)
3. Calculation of ionic radii - Pauling's Method, Slater rules - Answer (click
here)
4. Factors governing ionization energy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron Affinity or Electron gain enthalpy (E.A.) - Answer (click here)
6. Factors affecting electron affinity - Answer (click here)
7. Electronegativity Scales - Answer (click here)
8. Applications of electronegativity - Answer (click here)

p Block Elements
1. General characteristics of p-block elements - Answer (click here)
2. Electronic configuration of the Boron family elements - Answer (click here)
3. Group - 14 Elements - The Carbon Family - Answer (click here)
4. Silicones - structure and uses - Answer (click here)
5. Metallurgy of Lead: Ores, Properties, Extraction, Purification, Uses -
Answer (click here)
6. Group - 15 Elements - The Nitrogen Family - Answer (click here)
7. Compounds of Phosphorus - Answer (click here)
8. Halides of Phosphorus: Phosphorus TrichlorideII. Phosphorus
pentachloride - Preparation, properties, Structure - Answer (click here)
9. Oxides of phosphorus: Preparation, properties, Structure - Answer (click
here)
10. Oxy-Acids of Phosphorus: Preparation, properties, Structure - Answer
(click here)
11. Phosphine - PH3: Preparation, properties, Structure - Answer (click here)
12. Group 16 The 'Oxygen' Family - Answer (click here)
13. Group 17 - The Halogen Family - Answer (click here)
14. Anamalous Nature of Fluorine - Answer (click here)
15. Isolation, Physical, Chemical Properties, Uses Of Fluorine - Answer (click
here)
16. Structures of interhalogen compounds - Answer (click here)
17. Group 18 Noble Gases Or Inert Gases - Answer (click here)
18. Isolation Of Noble Gases: Ramsay - Raleigh's and Dewar's Method -
Answer (click here)
19. Uses Of Noble Gas - Answer (click here)

d Block Elements
1. Classification and Electronic configuration of d-block Elements - Answer
(click here)
2. General characteristics of d-block elements - Answer (click here)
3. Copper: Occurrence, principles of extraction, Properties and Uses -
Answer (click here)
4. Chromium: Occurrence, principles of extraction, Properties, Uses and
alloys - Answer (click here)
5. Zinc: Occurrence, principles of extraction, Properties and Uses - Answer
(click here)
6. silver: Occurrence, principles of extraction, Properties and Uses - Answer
(click here)
7. Gold: Occurrence, principles of extraction, Properties and Uses - Answer
(click here)
8. Extraction from Gold Ores - Mac Arthur Forrest Cyanide Process -
Answer (click here)
9. Potassium dichromate: Preparation, Properties and Uses - Answer (click
here)
10. Copper Sulphate or Blue vitriol: Preparation, Properties and Uses -
Answer (click here)
11. Silver nitrate or Lunar caustic: Preparation, Properties and Uses - Answer
(click here)
12. Zinc carbonate and Purple of cassius: Preparation, Properties and Uses -
Answer (click here)

f Block Elements
1. General Characteristics of f-block elements and extraction - Answer (click
here)
2. General properties of Lanthanides - Answer (click here)
3. General Properties of Actinide Series - Answer (click here)
4. Comparison of Lanthanides and Actinides - Answer (click here)
5. Uses of Lanthanides and actinides - Answer (click here)
6. Simple salt and Molecular (or) addition compounds - Answer (click here)

Coordination Compounds and BioCoordination Compounds


1. Terminology Used In Coordination Chemistry - Answer (click here)
2. IUPAC Nomenclature Of Mononuclear Coordination Compounds -
Answer (click here)
3. Types of Isomerism: Structural and Stereo isomerism - Answer (click here)
4. Theories Of Coordination Compounds: Werner's theory, Valence bond
theory - Answer (click here)
5. Uses of coordination compounds - Answer (click here)
6. Bio Coordination Compounds - aemoglobin, Chlorophyll - Answer (click
here)

Nuclear Chemistry
1. Nuclear Chemistry - Indroduction - Answer (click here)
2. Difference between chemical reactions and nuclear reactions - Answer
(click here)
3. Type Of Nuclear Reaction - Answer (click here)
4. Radiocarbon Dating and Uses - Answer (click here)
5. Uses Of Radioactive Isotopes - Answer (click here)

Physical Chemistry
Solid state I
1. Crystalline solids and Amorphous solids - Answer (click here)
2. Difference between Crystalline and Amorphous Solids - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristic parameters and seven classes of unit cell - Answer (click
here)
4. Miller Indices - Answer (click here)

Gaseous state I
1. Properties of gases - Answer (click here)
2. The gas laws: Boyle's law and Charle's Law - Answer (click here)
3. Numerical values of gas constant (R) - Answer (click here)
4. Dalton's law of partial Pressures - Answer (click here)
5. Graham's Law of Diffusion - Answer (click here)
6. Causes for deviation of real gas from ideal behaviour - Answer (click here)
7. Vanderwaal's Equation of state : Units, Significance, Limitations -
Answer (click here)
8. Gaseous state - Critical phenomena - Answer (click here)
9. Joule-Thomson Effect and Inversion temperature (Ti) - Answer (click here)
10. Conditions of liquefaction of gases: Linde's Method, Claude's process -
Answer (click here)

Chemical Bonding
1. Elementary theories on Chemical Bonding - Answer (click here)
2. Kossel-Lewis approach to Chemical Bonding - Answer (click here)
3. Ionic (or) Electrovalent bond - Answer (click here)
4. Lattice energy and Born - Haber's cycle - Answer (click here)
5. Determination and Calculation of lattice enthalpy of NaCl - Answer (click
here)
6. Properties of electrovalent (or) ionic compounds - Answer (click here)
7. Covalent bond: Lewis dot structure and Double bond formation - Answer
(click here)
8. Characteristics of covalent compounds - Answer (click here)
9. Fajan's rules: Covalent character of ionic bonds - Answer (click here)
10. Polarity of Covalent Bonds - Answer (click here)
11. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR) Theory - Answer
(click here)
12. Directional Properties of Covalent Bonds - Answer (click here)
13. Theory of Hybridisation - Answer (click here)
14. Chemical Bonding: Concept of Resonance - Answer (click here)
15. Co-ordinate-covalent bonding or Dative bonding - Answer (click here)

Colligative Properties
1. Colligative Properties and its Scope - Answer (click here)
2. Lowering of Vapour Pressure - Answer (click here)
3. Raoult's Law and Dynamic method (or) Ostwald - Walker method -
Answer (click here)
4. Depression of freezing point of dilute solution - Answer (click here)
5. Measurement of freezing point depression by Beckmann method -
Answer (click here)
6. Elevation of boiling point of dilute solutions and Cottrell's Method -
Answer (click here)
7. Osmosis in solution - Answer (click here)
8. Determination of molecular weight and osmotic pressure by Berkley-
Hartley method - Answer (click here)
9. Abnormal Colligative Properties - Answer (click here)

Thermodynamics I
1. Introduction and Terminology used in Thermodynamics - Answer (click
here)
2. Thermodynamics: State functions of a system - Answer (click here)
3. Thermodyanamic processes - Answer (click here)
4. Different between Exothermic and endothermic processes - Answer (click
here)
5. Thermodynamics: Difference between Irreversible and Reversible
process - Answer (click here)
6. Nature of thermodynamic functions - Answer (click here)
7. Zeroth law of thermodynamics or Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click
here)
8. Thermodynamics: Work, heat and energy - Answer (click here)
9. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
10. Relation between enthalpy `H' and internal energy `U' - Answer (click here)
11. Thermochemical equations - Answer (click here)
12. Enthalpy of combustion - Bomb calorimeter - Answer (click here)
13. Enthalpy of neutralisation - Answer (click here)

Chemical Equilibrium I
1. Scope and Nature of Chemical Equilibrium - Answer (click here)
2. Dynamic Equilibrium: Characteristics, Equilibrium in physical and
chemical processes - Answer (click here)
3. Law of chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constant with example -
Answer (click here)
4. Formation of HI from H2 and I2 - Equilibrium constants in terms of
degree of dissociation - Answer (click here)
5. Dissociation of PCl5 - Equilibrium constants in terms of degree of
dissociation - Answer (click here)
6. Characteristics of Equilibrium constant - Answer (click here)
7. Heterogeneous equilibria - Answer (click here)

Chemical Kinetics I
1. Scope of chemical kinetics - Answer (click here)
2. Rate of chemical reactions - Answer (click here)
3. Factors influencing reaction rates - Answer (click here)
4. Chemical Kinetics: Unit of rate constant - Answer (click here)
5. Molecularity of the reaction - Answer (click here)
6. Classification of rates based on the order of the reaction - Answer (click
here)
7. Characteristics of organic compounds - Answer (click here)
8. Purification of Organic compounds: Crystallisation - Answer (click here)
9. Sublimation - Purification of Organic compounds - Answer (click here)
10. Methods for the purification of liquids Distillation - Answer (click here)
11. Chromatography and Different Chromatographic Techniques - Answer
(click here)

Solid State II
1. Types of Cubic System - Answer (click here)
2. Bragg's Equation and spectrometer method - Answer (click here)
3. Types Of Crystals - Answer (click here)
4. Imperfections In Solids - Answer (click here)
5. Super conductors property of Crystalline solids - Answer (click here)
6. Glasses - Amorphous solids - Answer (click here)

Thermodynamics II
1. Limitations Of First Law Of Thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
2. Second law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
3. Entropy And Entropy Change - Answer (click here)
4. Characteristics of entropy 'S' - Answer (click here)
5. Gibbs free energy 'G' and Standard free energy (G�) - Answer (click here)
6. Characteristics of Free energy 'G' - Answer (click here)
7. Le Chatelier's Principle: Haber's and Contact Process - Answer (click here)

Chemical Equilibrium II
1. Le Chatelier's Principle: Haber's and Contact Process - Answer (click here)
2. Attainment Of Equilibrium In Chemical Reactions - Answer (click here)

Chemical Kinetics II
1. Rate And Order Of A Reaction - Answer (click here)
2. Rate equation for first order reactions - Answer (click here)
3. Pseudo-First Order Reactions - Answer (click here)
4. Determination of rate constant of acid catalysed hydrolysis of an ester -
Answer (click here)
5. Temperature Dependance Of Rate Constant - Answer (click here)
6. Simple And Complex Reactions : Difference and Types - Answer (click
here)

Surface Chemistry
1. Classification, Factors affecting of adsorption of gases on solids - Answer
(click here)
2. General characteristics and Types of catalytic reactions - Answer (click
here)
3. Types of catalysts - Answer (click here)
4. Theories Of Catalysis - Answer (click here)
5. Colloids and Types of Colloids - Answer (click here)
6. Preparation Of Colloids : Dispersion and Condensation method - Answer
(click here)
7. Purification Methods Of Sols - Answer (click here)
8. Properties of Colloids - Answer (click here)
9. Natural and Technical Applications Of Colloids - Answer (click here)
10. Emulsions and Types of emulsions - Answer (click here)

Electro Chemistry I
1. Electro Chemistry: Conductors , Insulators And Semi Conductors -
Answer (click here)
2. Theory Of Electrolytic Conductance - Answer (click here)
3. Postulates of Arrhenius Theory - Answer (click here)
4. Evidences of Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation - Answer (click
here)
5. Ostwald's dilution law for weak electrolytes - Answer (click here)
6. Faraday's Laws Of Electrolysis - Answer (click here)
7. Electrical Conductance Quantities - Answer (click here)
8. Variation Of Equivalent Conductance With Concentration - Answer (click
here)
9. Kohlraush's Law - Application with example - Answer (click here)
10. Ionic Product Of Water : The pH of solutions - Answer (click here)
11. Buffer Solutions - Answer (click here)
12. Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and its Significance - Answer (click here)
13. Selection of pH indicators and Titration - Answer (click here)
14. Ostwald's theory and Quinonoid Theory - Answer (click here)

Electro Chemistry II
1. Electrochemistry - Cells and Daniel cell - Answer (click here)
2. Electro Chemistry - Cell Terminology - Answer (click here)
3. Single Electrode Potential - Answer (click here)

Organic Chemistry
Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry
1. Basic Concepts Of Organic Chemistry - Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Classification of Organic Compounds: open chain, cyclic compounds -
Answer (click here)