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7 visualizzazioni15 pagineparsons MODE COUPLING IN TORSIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL SHAFTING VIBRATIONS

May 09, 2018

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parsons MODE COUPLING IN TORSIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL SHAFTING VIBRATIONS

© All Rights Reserved

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parsons MODE COUPLING IN TORSIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL SHAFTING VIBRATIONS

© All Rights Reserved

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257-271

Michael G. Parsons 1

The effect of propeller coupling on the torsional and longitudinal vibration of marine propulsion shafting is

studied. Recent research on the nature and computation of propeller added mass and damping is reviewed.

It is now possible to estimate the inertia coupling and velocity coupling characteristics which couple the

torsional and longitudinal vibration of a marine propeller. Regression equations suitable for estimating the

torsional and longitudinal added mass and damping of 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-bladed Wageningen B-Series propel-

lers are presented in the Appendix. The torsional and longitudinal modeling of a typical marine propulsion

plant is reviewed. The numerical techniques and computer programs used in solving the free vibration prob-

lem for natural frequencies and mode shapes and the forced vibration problem for vibratory response are

introduced. Results for a realistic numerical example are presented to compare the natural frequencies,

mode shapes, and vibratory response which are obtained when the propeller coupling is neglected with

those obtained with the propeller coupling included. In general, the natural frequencies are shown to

change by less than 2 percent. The modes shapes can show significant change. Vibratory response can

be either increased or decreased. Some cases show that neglecting the propeller coupling can result in

more than a 50 percent underprediction of the vibratory response. The coupling effects are greatest when

a torsional natural frequency obtained with the propeller coupling neglected and a longitudinal natural fre-

quency obtained with the propeller coupling neglected converge.

pled motion [6-8].

MARINE PROPULSION shafting vibrates torsionally about its A simple example which extends one presented by Lewis and

axis of rotation, longitudinally along its axis of rotation, and Auslander [5] can be used to illustrate one of the principal effects

laterally normal to its axis of rotation. These forms of vibration of the propeller coupling between the torsional and longitudinal

are often referred to as general modes of vibration. Traditional propeller vibration. Consider the simple one-mass, two-de-

U.S. marine engineering practice considers torsional, longitudi- grees-of-freedom model shown in Fig. 1. The propeller is a rigid

nal, and lateral vibrations independently and separately. There body with motion in x and 0; the shaft is considered massless.

is assumed to be no coupling among these general modes. Many (The propeller mass Mp and mass moment of inertia Jp could

references [1-3] 2 do not even recognize the possibility of coupling. include the effective mass of the shaft.) The equation of motion

For over 20 years it has been understood that the characteristics and u n d a m p e d natural frequency in uncoupled longitudinal

of marine propellers (and diesel engine crankshafts) actually motion is given by

couple the torsional and longitudinal vibration of the shafting

system. The lateral vibration is generally uncoupled from the m~i + k x x = 0

other modes.

where

Guidance has existed for some time concerning when the

coupling between torsional and longitudinal motion must be X = R e X e i~xt

considered. For example, McGoldrick wrote in 1960 [4]: ~i = - R e w x 2 X e i~xt

"the coupling effect is significant chiefly when the critical

frequencies that would exist without this coupling effect are which yields

close to one a n o t h e r . . , for the designer, it is more important -wx2mX + kxX = 0

to ensure that the longitudinal and torsional frequencies are

kept far apart than to he able to predict the amplitude when Wx = x / - k x / m (1)

they are close." The equation of motion and undamped natural frequency in

It may not be the best overall design to keep the torsional and uncoupled torsional motion is given by

longitudinal natural frequencies "far apart" and we now have the

ability to evaluate the coupling properties, so it is of interest to JO + koO = 0

consider the coupling effects. where

Lewis and Auslander [5] were among the first to discuss the

coupling of longitudinal and torsional shafting vibration by the ~0 = R e O e i'~°t

hydrodynamic added inertia and damping of the propeller. They 0 = - Reo~o20e i~°t

analyzed this coupling to aid in the interpretation of experimental

d a t a for the added mass and added-mass moment of inertia of which yields

marine propellers. The Dutch appear to have been the first to - W o 2 J O + koO = 0

Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, The ~0 = ~ (s)

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

2 Numbers in brackets designate References at end of paper. When the propeller shown in Fig. 1 is rotating and vibrating

Presented at the October 23, 1981 meeting of the Great Lakes and either longitudinally or torsionally it will develop an oscillatory

Great Rivers Section of THE SOCIETY OF NAVALARCHITECTS AND lift which will produce both an oscillatory axial force and an os-

MARINE ENGINEERSheld in conjunction with the centennial of naval

architecture and marine engineering at The University of Michigan. cillatory torque on the propeller. These will have components

m = Mp + Ma ~ z ~@ I Mp = propeller mass

Ma = propeller added mass

J =Jp+ Ja [1 JP = propeller polar mass moment

of inertia

AE Ja = propeller added mass moment

k x = -- of inertia

L x~ L = shaft lenqth

A = shaft c r o s s - s e c t i o n area

J'G J' = shaft polar area moment of

k 0 = __ inertia

L E = Younq's modulus

G = shear modulus

proportional to the acceleration and the velocity of the propeller In this paper, the effect of propeller coupling on the torsional

which will couple the longitudinal and torsional motion. and longitudinal vibration of a typical marine propulsion system

Neglecting the damping force and moment proportional to the is considered.

velocity, the hydrodynamic force and moment proportional to

the acceleration will produce the following coupled equations of

Propeller coupling characteristics

motion:

[m mclM Po 0][x]

mc dllOl + k0 o = °

As noted in the preceding, the characteristics of the marine

propeller couple the torsional and longitudinal motion. These

characteristics have been the subject of recent research. In The

The inertia coupling me gives a hydrodynamic tbrce proportional Netherlands, Hylarides and van Gent [9] have recently used

to 0 and a hydrodynamic moment proportional to 2. Substituting .unsteady lifting-surface theory to obtain the propeller added-

x = R e X e i°~t and 0 = R e O e i°~t and their derivatives into these mass and damping properties. In the United States, Parsons and

equations yields the system of linear equations Vorus [10] have used unsteady lifting-line theory to obtain these

I(k--moo)

-m 22) -mc 2 l[xl

(kO -- J¢~2)1 [OJ = 0

propeller characteristics. Vassilopoulos and Triantafyllou [11]

have reported work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

to obtain the propeller characteristics using unsteady lifting-

This system will have a nontrivial solution (X ~ 0, 0 ~ 0) if the surface theory. These results can be used to estimate the coupling

d e t e r m i n a n t of the coefficient matrix is zero. This requirement properties of a marine propeller.

yields the characteristic equation It will be useful to review some of the results of our recent work

[m lIxl

(kx -- m o z 2 ) ( k o -- J w 2) -- m c 2 W 4 = 0 here. If the propeller shown in Fig. 3 is operating behind a ship

and vibrating in all six degrees of freedom, the equations of mo-

which can be rearranged using equations (1) and (2) to become tion of the rigid-body propeller can be written as:

0,) 4 (1 -- ~ j ] W 2(W02 + Wx 2) + Wx 2W02 = 0 (3)

d 0

If we define a coupling parameter a as, m =M~=fe+ f h + f~ (6)

Jd y

/7/e 2

- (4) 0 tn

rnJ Jd LOzA

equation (3) has roots which yield the u n d a m p e d natural

frequencies where fe is a vector of excitation forces and moments due to the

operation of the propeller in the circumferentially varying wake

OJ= [(OJO2+ Wx2) -F ~(OJO2

2(1+ -Wx2)2--

a) n(1-- a)Wx2W02] (5) field, fh is a vector of additional hydrodynamic forces and mo-

ments due to the vibration of the propeller in a wake field which

If there is no coupling, c~ = 0 and equation (5) yields the uncou- can be assumed to be uniform, and fs is a vector of restoring

pled results COxand w0 as required. forces and moments exerted on the propeller by the shaft. The

One of the principal effects of coupling is a change in the un- polar mass moment of inertia is J ; the diametral mass moment

d a m p e d natural frequencies as given in equation (5). For pro- of inertia (about y or z) is Jd.

pellers the coupling parameter ~ is small with values less than The additional hydrodynamic force fh will depend on x and

about 0.10. The amount that the coupling alters the u n d a m p e d 3t for a fully immersed propeller. It can be expressed in the

natural frequencies obtained for this simple model neglecting form

coupling is shown in Fig. 2. As suggested by McGoldrick, the fh = -- M a ~ - Cpx (7)

greatest change occurs when the uncoupled longitudinal and

torsional natural frequencies are close. When they are equal, where M , is the propeller added mass matrix and Cp is the

~o/w~ = 1, coupling with c~ = 0.10 causes one natural frequency propeller damping matrix. This expression can be used in

to decrease 12.8 percent and the second to increase 20.9 percent. equation (6) to yield the typical equations of motion

For many marine propulsion shafting systems, the uncoupled

(M + Ma)£ + Cp x - f~ = fe (8)

torsional natural frequency associated with the model shown in

Fig. 1 is about half the lowest longitudinal natural frequency. The minus signs are included in equation (7) so the added mass

With COo/O~x = 0.5, coupling with a = 0.10 will .cause the lowest and damping terms will occur with plus signs on the left side of

(predominantly torsional mode) natural frequency to decrease the equations of motion, equation (8), where they are normally

1.6 percent and will cause the second (predominantly longitudinal used.

mode) natural frequency to increase 7.1 percent. The coupling In our recent work [10, 12] we have shown theoretically that

can thus have a significant influence on the natural frequen- the added mass and damping matrices have the following general

cies. form

I mll m21 0 0 0 1 ~2 - - t°2

m21 m22 0 0 0 1.3

Ma = 0 0 m33 /7t43 -m53 --m63 (9)

0 0 m43 rn44 -m63 -m64[ a = .i0

0 0 m53 m63 m33 m43| 1.2.

0 0 m63 m64 m43 m44 _..]

~x

and w i i.i-

[-Cll C21 0 0 0 ~ fl ~8

|c21 c22 0 0 0 1.0

o -co / (10)

0 C43 C44 --C63 --C64 /

0 C53 C63 C33 C43/ 0.9

0 C63 C64 C43 C44_J / _ _ ~ = .05

mI

The zeros indicate that the longitudinal coordinate (1) and tor- 0.8 =

~oO ti - 7

~x ~ a .15

sional coordinate (2) are not coupled by the propeller with the

lateral coordinates (3, 4, 5, 6). The terms off the main diagonal

produce the coordinate coupling. In this notation, coefficient m21 ? 0.15 i JO 1 }5 2 .:0 "~

is the inertia coupling between longitudinal and torsional motion.

Coefficient c21 is the velocity coupling between longitudinal and wO/~ x

torsional motion. The longitudinal added mass is rnll; the tor- Fig. 2 Variation of undamped natural frequencies with coupling c~

sional added mass moment of inertia is rn22. The longitudinal

propeller damping is cn; the torsional propeller damping is be used to derive some very practical results for a constant pitch

C22. propeller. Using equation (14) in equations (11) through (13) it

Our analysis of the propeller added mass and damping [10, 12] is easy to show that

yields the complex expressions

Fh 21 P m21 c21 P

Fhll

_

Fhll = w2mll - iwcll = Z t p(r) cos2~g rdr (11) mll c~1 2~-

Fh22 _ P m22 __- _C22

_ _-- P

Fh21 2~r' so that (16)

Fh21 = ~02m21 -- i~c21 = - Z fr h r' p(r) cosflg sinflg r2dr m21 c21 27r

and

(12)

Fh22_ p2 rn22 = C22 _ p2

Fhll 47r2, so that mn Cll 47r2 (17)

Fh22 = w2m22 -- iwc22 = Z f r ~ p(r) sin2fle r3dr (13)

,0' r h

Thus the torsional/longitudinal coupling terms m2i" and c 21 can

where Z is the number of blades, rh and rt are the propeller hub be estimated from either the longitudinal characteristics (rnll

and tip radii, respectively, and p(r) is the complex force ampli- and c11) or the torsional characteristics (rn22 and c22). For a

tude due to the pressure acting on the propeller blade at radius constant-pitch propeller, the coupling parameter a, equation (4),

r due to a unit heave oscillation normal to the propeller face. The can be expressed as,

angle fig is the geometric pitch angle of the propeller blade a t each p2

radius; that is 47r2 D2a2

1 P(r) (14) a = (18)

fig(r) = t a n - 2~rr p2

displacements x, y, z

fz 'z rotations @x' @y' @z

~ / forces fi

q ~ // m°ments qi

qx,@x

.....

If the added mass ma = m 11 is 60 percent of mp and if Ja = m22 where J is a diagonal matrix with main diagonal elements Jii --

is 30 percent of Jp so that Jp = p2ma/(O.3*4~r2), equation (18) Ji. Element J1 includes the propeller added mass moment of

yields a = 0.0865. inertia m22. The vector fT includes the excitation moments. The

The PRAMAD (Propeller Added Mass and Damping) program vibratory torque on the propeller, element fT1, is the only nonzero

developed in our research work [12] can be used to obtain the element. The inertia of the shafting is negligible compared with

propeller added mass (rn11), added mass moment of inertia (m22), that of the propeller, gears, and rotors so the springs are assumed

inertia coupling (m21), longitudinal damping (c11), torsional massless. The equations of motion can now be written as follows

damping (c22), and velocity coupling (c21) using unsteady lift- with the addition of absolute and relative damping matrices:

ing-line theory. These llfting-line results can then be improved

using approximate lifting-surface corrections which are produced JO + cTO + GT 0 + KTO = fT (24)

by the program. The program requires the input of the mean axial The torsional absolute damping matrix CT is a diagonal matrix

wake and propeller geometry data typicallyfound on a propeller with nonzero terms due to the propeller hydrodynamic torsional

drawing. We have also developed regression equations which can damping CT11 = C22 and the equivalent damping in the high-

be used to obtain the propeller added mass and damping in ear- pressure and low-pressure turbines, CT33 and CTs~, respectively.

lier design when only the propeller diameter, expanded area ratio, The torsional relative damping matrix Gv includes the internal

and pitch-diameter ratio are known. Equations of the following or hysteretic structural damping in the shafting and other mis-

form are presented for each of the six terms of interest here: cellaneous damping. It will have the same form as K T but with

the gi replacing the ki. It is common in structural vibration

m11' m*---L

pD 3 = C1 + C2 + C3 {- C4 ~Ao] analyses to assume that the structural damping matrix G.r is

proportional to the stiffness matrix KT'. Marine Engineering

+c5(P)2+C6(-~oo)(P) (19) [1] and authors from the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS)

[14] assume that the internal damping will dissipate some per-

These equations were developed for the lifting-line results for centage/3 of the kinetic energy and flexural potential energy,

all of the added mass and damping characteristics of 4-, 5-, 6-, and respectively, per cycle of vibration. A value of/3 = 0.05 is typically

7-blade Wageningen B-Series propellers [13]. Each of these used for solid shafting. Salzman and Pamidi of ABS [14] use an

values can then be improved using a lifting-surface correction energy dissipation per cycle of

(LSC). For example, the correction for m H ' has the following

form: Ej = ~/3 ki (0j - 0j_l) 2 (25)

LSC(m11") = D I T D 2 ( P ) + D 3 ( A R ) - I + D 4 ( A R ) -2 where 0j and 0i_1 are the twist magnitudes at the ends of a shaft

segment with spring constant kj. This results from a flexural

moment of the form

QJ = kj(Oj - Oj-ti

where AR is the propeller blade geometric aspect ratio. For

The relative damping shown in Fig. 4 produces a moment of the

Wageningen B-Series propellers the geometric aspect ratio is

form

related to the no. of blades Z and the expanded area ratio by

0.22087 Z QJ = gi(0J - 0j-l)

AR - - - (21)

Ae/Ao At resonance, this moment will dissipate the following energy per

For the longitudinal added mass, the final dimensional result is cycle

then given by Ej = gjTrw(Oj - O j _ l ) 2 (26)

roll = pD3m11'LSC'(m11 ') (22) Comparing equation (25) and equation (26), we get the same

The full set of regression equations for all six torsional and lon- dissipation of energy at resonance if the relative damping matrix

gitudinal added mass and damping coefficients for 4-, 5-, 6-, and has the form

7-bladed Wageningen B-Series propellers is given in the Ap-

pendix. GT = ~ KT (27)

Torsional model This yields a structural damping which is the same for all ele-

ments and is inversely proportional to the excitation frequency

To provide a specific example, we will consider a marine steam as is typically used [15].

propulsion plant of a typical design. The system consists of a

compound unit with a high-pressure turbine, low-pressure tur-

bine, and a double-reduction gear driving a fixed-pitch propeller.

Longitudinal m o d e l

The physical system is shown in Fig. 4. The propeller speed at The longitudinal model for the marine steam propulsion sys-

full power is 106.5 rpm. The gear ratios are shown. The effect of tem of Fig. 4 is shown in Fig. 5. The thrust bearing for this par-

the gearing can be reflected in the system model by using an ticular system is aft of the reduction gear with a separate housing

equivalent system model [1] as shown in Fig. 4. Equivalent and foundation. The couplings between the first reduction gears

properties are introduced so the whole system can be viewed as and the low-speed pinions are assumed to be effective so the first

rotating at propeller rpm. Neglecting the damping, the discrete reduction gear setsand turbine rotors are not included in the gear

mass equations of motion are

o o o o 7 l-e-I

-kl (kl -[- k4 Jr k6) 0 -k 4 0 -k6 //02/

o o o IIO I

J0+ (k +k4) o o II° I = JO + KTO = fT (23)

o o o llO l

-k6 0 0 -ks (ks + k6)_.lL06__]

&.

C

r"

J" ,, J~

tail line couplings

106.5 rpm , 4 k3 ~ high pressure

shaft shaft

694 r~pm k4 ~ _ _ _ _ ~ turbine rotor

I I ~ ~

J2 ~ - - ~ j ~ 6227 rpm II

Jp kl ] ~ I gear

m2 thrust}

propeller

propeller 694 low pressure bearingl k ~ k

J2rpm ~ i j~/~ turbine rotor

reduction

wf = 52100#

gear 3626 rpm

n2 = 694/106.5 shafts £ d foundation

I 448 in. 28.915 in.

n 4 = 6227/694

II 982 in. 22.586 in.

n 6 = 3626/694 III 40 in. 26.924 in.

IV 100 in. 26.924 in.

physical s~stem physical system

J4 84 g3 J3 83

M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9

gl g2 g3 g4 g5 g6 g7 g8

g ~ 6 ~6e6 ~ ~5 es~

~ 22 ~ k 6 ~

where J1 = Jp + Ja = Jp + m22 kl = kl

where

J2 = Jg + 2n22J2 k3 = n22n42k3 '' M I = mp + m a = mp + m11 M 9 = Wg/386.4 in/s 2

J3 = n22n42J3 '' k4 = n22k4' M2 = M3 224 in. shaft I MI0 = wf/386.4 in/s 2

M4 = M 5 = M 6 327.3 in. shaft II k 9 = ktb

J4 = n22J4 ' + n22n42J4" k5 = n22n62k5"

M7 40 in. shaft I I I + 40 in shaft IV k10 = kf

J5 = n22n62Js" k6 = n22k6" M8 60 in. shaft IV

J6 = n22J6' + n22n62J6"

system model

system model

Fig. 5 Longitudinal model

Fig. 4 Torsional model

weight w~,. The thrust bearing and housing weight and 25 percent pled together by the propeller characteristics. The 16 coupled

of its foundation weight are included in w[. The thrust bearing equations of motion including equations (24) and (29) can be

spring constant ktb includes the flexibility of the thrust collar, written as

the moving parts and oil film of the bearing, and the thrust

bearing housing. The foundation spring constant k t includes the •

bending and shear flexibility of the foundation and the rotational [a2axl

flexibility of the innerbottom below the foundation [16]. In

general, k / c o u l d be a frequency-dependent stiffness obtained

from a finite-element analysis of the thrust bearing foundation

or

and adjacent ship structure.

In a longitudinal analysis, the mass of the shafting must be M ' ~ ' + Cx' + G:~' + K x ' = f (32)

considered. Accurate results can be obtained for the lowest nat-

ural frequency of interest here if the distributed shaft mass is The only coupling will be the propeller inertia coupling m21 and

modeled by Seven discrete masses as shown in Fig. 5. These the propeller velocity coupling c21 so the coupling matrices will

masses are defined to preserve the total mass and center of be

gravity of the shafting. Consistent massless springs are then de- Me: 6 × 10 matrix with only mcu = m21 nonzero

fined between the discrete masses M1 through M9 to account for Cc: 6 × 10 matrix with only c c l l = c21 nonzero

the shafting flexibility. Neglecting the damping, the discrete mass Gc = 0, 6 × 10 matrix

equations of motion are Kc = 0, 6 × 10 matrix

M~ + Kxx =fx (28) The nonzero elements of the coupling matrices will cause tor-

where sional vibration to be excited by longitudinal vibration and lon-

gitudinal vibration to be excited by torsional vibration. The

-kl -kl 0 0 0 propeller will simultaneously experience a vibratory torque and

-kl (kl + k2) -k2 0 0 vibratory thrust at the blade rate frequency and its harmonics

0 -k2 (k2 + k3) -k3 0 so both longitudinal and torsional vibration will be excited di-

0 0 -k3 (k3 + kt) -k4 rectly by the right-hand side of equation (32).

0 0 0 -k4 (k4 + k5)

Kx = 0 0 0 0 -k5

0 0 0 0 0

Free vibration solution

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 The natural frequencies and mode shapes in systems with low

-0 0 0 0 0 damping are usually obtained with the damping neglected. The

excitation is also neglected, giving the following undamped free

0 0 0 0 0

vibration problems from equations (24), (29), and (32), respec-

0 0 0 0 0 tively:

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 torsion: J~ + KTO = 0 (33)

-ks 0 0 0 0

(k5 + k6) -k6 0 0 0 longitudinal: M~ + Kxx = 0 (34)

-k6 (k6 + k7 + k9) -k7 0 -k9 coupled: M'~' + Kx' = 0 (35)

0 -k7 (k7 + ks) - k s 0

0 0 -ks ks 0 Assuming harmonic motion with 0 = ReOe i~t, x = R e X e i~t, and

0 -k9 0 0 ( k g + k~0)- x' = R e X ' e i'~t, these yield the matrix eigenvalue problems:

The mass matrix M is a diagonal matrix with main diagonal el- torsion: w2JO = KTO (36)

ements mii = Mi. Element M1 includes the propeller added mass longitudinal: ~2MX = KxX (37)

m 11. The vector fx includes the excitation forces. The vibratory

thrust on the propeller, element fx 1, is the only nonzero element. coupled: w2M'X ' = K X ' (38)

The equations of motion can now be written as follows with the

addition of absolute and relative damping matrices: Standard computer methods exist for obtaining the eigenvalues

(w2) and the eigenvectors or mode shapes for these problems.

Mf~ + Cx :~ + Gx/; + Kx x = fx (29) We have developed the TORS.AXL. computer program to

solve the matrix eigenvalue problems given in equations (36),

The longitudinal absolute damping matrix Cx is a diagonal ma- (37), and (38). It is not the purpose of this paper to detail these

trix with the propeller hydrodynamic longitudinal damping cx ~

methods, but a brief review will be included for completeness.

= Cll the only nonzero element. The longitudinal relative The torsional and longitudinal problems are solved using the

damping matrix Gx includes the internal or hysteretic structural

same methods. Both J and M are diagonal matrices. Stiffness

damping in the shafting and structure and other miscellaneous

matrices KT, Kx, and K are symmetrical matrices. Using a simple

damping. Using the same approach as in the torsional case, the transformation of the type

relative damping matrix can be taken as

0 = J1/20, where j~[2= ~ i i (39)

Gx = 2~w Kx (30)

or

where j3 is the percentage of the flexural potential energy dissi- 0 = J-1/20 (40)

pated per cycle of vibration.

equation (40) can be substituted into equation (36) and the result

can be premultiplied by j-1/2 to give

Coupled torsional/longitudinal model w2J-1/2J J - 1 / ~ = J - 1 / 2 K T J - 1 / 2 0

The torsional and longitudinal vibratory motion will be cou- ~20 = A 0 (41)

This is a matrix eigenvalue problem in standard form with matrix be used in this problem due to the presence of the absolute

A a symmetrical matrix. Simply premultiplying equation (36) damping matrix C.

by j - 1 would not yield a symmetrical matrix on the right-hand We have developed the TAC.RESP. computer program to

side; that is, J - 1 K T is not symmetrical. solve for the vibratory response in torsional, longitudinal, and

Our computer program TORS.AXL. uses Householder's coupled torsional/longitudinal vibration. With the excitation

method [17] to transform equation (41) into the matrix eigen- amplitude and frequency specified, the appropriate dynamic

value problem in standard form matrix is formed and then solved by standard methods. The three

problems

co20' = A ' 0 '

torsion: (-oo2J + iOaCT + i w G T + K T ) O = DT(co)O = fT (47)

where A ' is a symmetrical, t r i d i a g o n a l matrix and then uses the

QL algorithm [17, 18] to obtain the eigenvectors and eigenvalues. longitudinal: ( - o a g M + iooCx + icoGx + K x ) X = Dx(w)X = fx

The various transformations are then reversed to give the natural (48)

frequencies and mode shapes for equation (36). The solution of

the longitudinal problem, equation (37), is handled exactly the and equation (45) for the coupled torsional/longitudinal problem

same numerically. are solved exactly the same numerically. The solution is obtained

The coupled problem, equation (38), must be treated in a dif- by computing the LU-decomposition of the dynamic matrix using

ferent manner than the torsional and axial problems because the Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting and then back sub-

propeller inertia coupling causes matrix M' to be nondiagonal. stitution [18[. All computations are performed for complex

The simple transformation equation (39) cannot be used in this components in the dynamic matrix and the excitation vector.

case. The same result can be obtained, however, by using the

Cholesky factorization [17] to obtain the square-root matrix M "1/2

where Example analysis

( M ' I / 2 ) T M '1/2 = M ' To establish the effects of the propeller coupling on the tor-

sional and longitudinal shafting vibration, a specific numerical

and then using the transformation example is considered. The data are based upon that for a

28 500-shp, 23-knot containership which was completed in the

X' = M'-I/2X ' (42)

United States within the past decade. Partial data were available

This is used exactly as in the foregoing to produce the matrix for this vessel. Propeller characteristics and wake data were ob-

eigenvalue problem in standard form tained from a similar vessel. This particular vessel was delivered

with inadequate thrust bearing foundation stiffness and expe-

w2X ' = ( M ' - I / 2 ) T K M ' - I / 2 X ~ = A Z ' (43) rienced longitudinal vibration problems on initial trials. The

where A is a symmetrical matrix. The eigenvalues and eigen- foundation was later stiffened so that the lowest longitudinal

vectors are then obtained by using Householder's method to natural frequency would not be in resonance in the operating

obtain a tridiagonal form and then using the Q L algorithm as in range. To my knowledge coupling was not considered in the vi-

the solution of the torsional and longitudinal problems. bration analyses performed for this vessel.

Three cases are considered here to illustrate some of the effects

and potential effects of the propeller coupling:

Forced vibration solution • A s - b u i l t case: This corresponds to the as-delivered condition

The response amplitudes in torsional vibration, longitudinal where the thrust bearing foundation stiffness is low

vibration, and coupled torsional/longitudinal vibration can be enough that the lowest longitudinal natural frequency can

obtained by solving equations (24), (29), and (32), respectively. be in resonance in the operating range.

Using the coupled problem as the example here, we have the • M o d i f i e d case: This corresponds to the post-delivery con-

equations of motion dition where the thrust bearing foundation stiffness is

increased so the lowest longitudinal natural frequency

M ' f d + Cf~' + G x ~ + K x ' = f = R e f e i~t (44) cannot be in resonance in the operating range.

• W o r s t case: This condition is constructed so that a torsional

The excitation amplitude vector f is composed of the complex

natural frequency and the lowest longitudinal natural

amplitudes of the vibratory torque and vibratory thrust excita-

frequency obtained neglecting coupling essentially coin-

tion at some frequency w. These complex amplitudes include the

magnitude of each excitation and its phase angle with respect to cide so that maximum coupling effects are produced.

As-built case. The torsional model in Fig. 4 and the longitu-

t = 0. The response will be at the same frequency, so we have

dinal model in Fig. 5 apply to the example vessel. The equivalent

x ' = R e X ' e i~t, X' a complex vector system torsional characteristics are given in Table 1. Our PRA-

MAD program was used with the propeller characteristics given

which can be differentiated and substituted into equation (44) in Table 2 to obtain the propeller added mass and damping

to give characteristics. For comparison, the Wageningen B-Series re-

R e [ ( - c o 2 M I + i w C + i w G + K ) X ' ] e i°~t = R e f e i~t gression equations in the Appendix were also used to estimate

the propeller added mass and damping. Both results include the

For this to be true for all time, the following complex equation appropriate lifting-surface corrections. A comparison of these

must be satisfied: results is shown in Table 3; the PRAMAD results were used in

the analyses reported here. The high-pressure and low-pressure

( - o z 2 M ' + i w C + i w G + K)X' = f (45)

turbine damping coefficients were obtained using the quasi-

The matrix on the left is commonly called the dynamic matrix steady approximation recommended by M a r i n e E n g i n e e r i n g [1].

D(w), giving Assuming the approximate turbine torque model

D(w)X ~ = f (46) Q = Q0~rth(2 - N / N o ) (49)

The vibratory response vector X' can be obtained by solving this where Q0 and No are the rated torque and rpm, respectively, and

system of complex linear equations. The technique of modal 7rth is the percent throttle, the quasi-steady turbine damping

analysis commonly used in structural vibration problems cannot coefficient is then given by

Table 1 Torsional model characteristics The longitudinal system characteristics are given in Table 4.

The foundation stiffness kl0 = 10 000 000 lbf/in, is taken as the

Ji CT i ki

mean value recommended by Kane and McGoldrick [19] for a

Ibf in s 2 ibf in s ibf in thrust bearing installed aft of the reduction gear on its own

foundation. The thrust bearing stiffness k9 is also based upon

4742829. 2.2000 x 108

I 1025681. Kane and McGoldrick's recommendations. Their value for a

2 554178.5 0. 40-in.-dia Kingsbury thrust bearing, their mean value for a thrust

3 998254.7 487432. 5.8118 x 1010 bearing housing installed separately aft of the reduction gear, and

4 1512851. 0. 7.8558 x 108

an approximate value for the thrust collar are combined as series

springs to give k9 = 11 137 000 lbf/in. These values produce re-

5 10690093. 487432. 1.0410 x 1010

sults which correlate well with the longitudinal natural frequency

6 1599301. 0. 7.8558 x 108 observed on the prototype vessel. As in the torsional case, equa-

tion (30) was used to obtain the relative damping matrix Gx using

/~ = 0.05. This corresponds to a dissipation of 5 percent of the

flexural potential energy per cycle due to structural and miscel-

Table 2 Propeller characteristics laneous damping.

vx/v The coupled torsional/longitudinal model was completed by

X C/D t/D P/D

dimensionalizing the results in Table 3 to give

• 20 0.210 0.040 1.325 0.440 me11 = m 2 1 = - 5 1 3 7 . 5 l b f s 2

• 25 0.228 1.295 0.494 Cc~ = c21 = -99823.2 lbf s

• 30 0. 245 0.037 1.275 0.553

The final part of the problem definition is the excitation vector

• 35 0. 260 1.262 0.610 f which contains the vibratory torque fT~ and vibratory thrust

.40 0 • 273 0.034 1.257 0.664 fxr With a harmonic analysis of the axial and tangential wake

.45 0 • 283 1.256 0.713 behind the ship and the propeller characteristics, the vibratory

1.248 0.751

thrust and torque can be obtained [19, 20]. In this case, the fol-

• 50 0. 290 0.029

lowing values were assumed without calculation, due to a lack of

• 55 0 • 295 1.220 0.775

complete wake data:

.60 0. 298 0.023 1.176 0.790

fT1 = 1.13 × 106 cos(6[tt - 10 deg) lbf in.

• 65 0.300 1.125 0.802

fx~ = 2.69 × 104 cos(6~t - 25 deg) lbf

.70 0 • 298 0.017 1.070 0.814

where ~ is the rotation rate in rad/sec. These correspond to about

• 75 0. 290 1.014 0.826

9 percent of the steady torque and about 12 percent of steady

• 80 0 • 274 0.012 0.968 0.838

thrust, respectively, at the resonance rpm studied in the fol-

.85 0.248 0.940 0.851 lowing. These values are typical of high values which might be

.90 0.208 0.008 0.925 0.863 experienced on a single-screw ship with an even number of pro-

• 95 0. 135 0.910 0.871

peller blades and poor wake characteristics.

The TORS.AXL. computer program was used to obtain the

1.00 0.000 0.006 0.901 0.878

uncoupled torsional and longitudinal natural frequencies and

mode shapes and the coupled torsional/longitudinal natural

zero skew; zero rake; A e / A o = 0 . 7 7 2 ; Z = 6; P/D10.7 = 1.070

frequencies and mode shapes. The results for the lower modes

of interest are given in Table 5. The third torsional mode has a

blade rate resonance at 91.4 propeller rpm with a full power rpm

of 106.5. The mode shapes are normalized by the first coordinate

Ct _ 1 5 Q _ 60~rthQ0 (50) in the vector throughout Table 5. The third torsional mode has

2~ ~n 2~rNo low amplitude at the propeller so it should not be excited seri-

In the equivalent model, the damping will be the same for the two ously by the propeller excitation. Only the lowest longitudinal

turbines if they have a typical 50:50 power split at rated condi- mode is of practical interest; it has a blade rate resonance at 100.5

tions. In equation (50), ~th is throttle at the operating condition rpm. This longitudinal resonance near full power was observed

about which the vibration is taking place. To complete the tor- on the prototype ship and led to a power restriction being im-

sional model in equation (24), equation (27) was used to obtain posed until the thrust bearing foundation could be stiffened. The

the relative damping matrix GT using ~ = 0.05. This corresponds coupled torsional/longitudinal results show the following:

to a dissipation of 5 percent of the flexural potential energy per • The second and fifth coupled modes are the second and

cycle due to structural and miscellaneous damping. fourth torsional modes, respectively, with little change in natural

Table 3 Comparison of added mass and damping from PRAMAD and Appendix

characteristic computer program regression equations difference

c2 i / p n D 4 -. 1 2 0 6 5 7 -.117076 3.1

frequency and mode shape. The fifth mode shows a reasonable Table 4 Longitudinal model characteristics for as-built case

coupling between the torsional and longitudinal motion. For

Mi Cx i ki

example, in the fifth mode a 0.01-rad torsional oscillation at the

ibf s2/in ibf s/in ibf/in

propeller will be coupled with a 100-mil longitudinal oscillation

at the propeller.

I 356.60 2086.76 1.7589 x 108

° The third coupled mode is primarily torsional and corre-

sponds with the third torsional mode. The natural frequency 2 108.11 0.00 8.7947 x 107

57.387 rad/sec is only 0.05 percent lower than obtained with the 3 108.11 0.00 5.1809 x 107

coupling effects neglected. 4 96.40 0.00 3.6721 x 107

° The fourth coupled mode is primarily longitudinal and 3.6721 x 107

5 96.40 0.00

corresponds with the first longitudinal mode. The natural fre-

0.00 6.2663 x 107

quency 64.125 rad/sec is 1.5 percent higher than obtained with 6 96.40

For this case where the closest torsional and longitudinal 8 25.11 0.00 5.6933 x 108

natural frequencies with the coupling effects neglected are 57.414 9 188.98 0.00 1.1493 x 107

and 63.158 rad/sec, there is relatively little effect on the natural

10 134.83 0.00 1,0000 x 107

frequencies and mode shapes.

The TAC.RESP. program was used to obtain the forced vi-

bration response for the uncoupled torsional and longitudinal

vibration--that is, coupling effects were neglected--and for the modes and with the third torsional and first longitudinal modes

coupled torsional/longitudinal vibration. The vibration ampli- if coupling were neglected. The boxed results represent the cases

tudes are summarized in Table 6. Calculations were performed a designer would use if coupling were neglected. To evaluate the

for excitation in resonance with the third and fourth coupled effect of coupling on the torsional vibration, the amplitudes and

mode I 2 3 4

natural frequency rad/sec 12.130 15.583 57.414 89.687

resonant propeller rpm 19.3 24.8 91.4 142.7

i

1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

0.314 -0.132 -14.368 -36.502

mode shapes 0.594 -0.595 1.556 1.607

0.593 -0.593 1.468 I 1.385

-0.223 0.045 0.460 i -16.836

-0.189 0.034 -1.097 i 122.232

1.000

I 6 3 . 1 5 8 rad/sec. .992

2 2 2 8 . 9 6 8 rad/sec. .971

3 4 1 3 . 9 5 3 rad/sec. .927

4-10 > 5 0 0 . 0 0 0 rad/sec. .856

.776

.724

Note: ~I has a resonant .726

propeller rpm of 100.5 .727

.391

mode 2 3 4 5

natural frequency rad/sec 15.576 57 • 387 64.125 89.687

resonant propeller rpm 24.8 91.3 102.1 142.7

-0.133 -16.389 -0.437 -34.562

torsional -0.598 1.777 0.037 1.522

coordinates -0.595 1.676 0.035 1.312

0.046 0.525 0.014 -15.939

0.034 -1.250 -0.044 115.722

mode shapes

-0.376 -26.460 184.682 10.328

-0.368 -26.187 183.262 10.394

-0.354 -25.536 179.503 10.425

-0.329 -24.258 171.596 10.303

longitudinal -0.293 -22.245 158.587 9.913

coordinates -0.258 -20.039 143.866 9.313

-0.237 -18.645 134.330 8.847

-0.238 -18.699 134.817 8.910

-0.238 -18.720 135.001 8.934

-0.125 -10.035 72.684 4.914

Table 6 Forced vibration amplitudes for as-built case

excitation frequency 57.387 57.414 63.158 64.125

uncoupled torsion:

02 .004437 .004456 .000153 .000126

03 .000481 .000483 .000014 .000011

04 .000454 .000455 .000013 .000010

05 .000142 .000143 .000005 .000004

96 .000338 .000340 .000015 .000013

uncoupled long'l:

x I in.

x2

.0410

.0406

.0412

.0407

I' .1668 .1349

.1655 .1338

x3 .0396 .0397 .1620 .1311

x4 .0376 .0377 .1547 .1253

x5 .0345 .0346 .1428 .1158

x6 .0310 .0312 .1294 .I051

x7 .0289 .0290 .1208 .0981

x8 .0290 .0291 .1212 .0985

x9 .0290 .0291 .1213 .0886

x10 .0155 .0156 .0653 .0531

coupled motion:

O2 .001592 .001574 .000566 .000815

83 .000173 .000171 .000050 .000070

84 .000163 .000161 .000047 .000065

05 .000051 .000050 .000018 .000025

06 .000121 .000120 .000054 .000082

x I in. .0441 .0445 .2234 .3179

x2 .0436 .0440 .2216 .3154

x3 .0425 .0429 .2169 .3090

x4 .0404 .0408 .2071 .2954

x5 .0371 .0374 .1912 .2730

x6 .0334 .0337 .1733 .2476

x7 .0311 .0314 .1617 .2312

x8 .0311 .0314 .1623 .2320

x9 .0312 .0315 .1625 .2324

x10 .0167 .0169 .0874 .1251

phase angles were used to calculate the amplitude of the vibratory which could be acceptable. A comparison of coupled mode 4 and

twist in the main shafting 101 - 021 in the following cases: the longitudinal mode 1 shows that by neglecting the propeller

coupling, the longitudinal vibration amplitudes would be un-

VIBRATORY T W I S T derpredicted by 48 percent at the propeller and thrust bearing.

CASE AMPLITUDE

This could have serious consequence and could be one reason why

Torsional mode 3 resonance 0.00477 rad the prototype ship experienced unexpected unacceptable lon-

without coupling

Coupled mode 3 resonance 0.00169 rad gitudinal vibration on initial trials. The coupling between the

Coupled mode 4 resonance 0.00268 rad torsional and longitudinal modes can have a significant effect on

the vibratory response.

The coupling reduces the torsional vibration in this case. The

M o d i f i e d case. This analysis is a repeat of the as-built analysis

predominantly torsional mode, coupled mode 3, has a twist am-

using an increased thrust bearing foundation stiffness kl0 = k/

plitude only 35 percent of that obtained neglecting coupling. The

= 30 000 000 lbf/in. This is a threefold increase in the foundation

predominantly longitudinal mode, coupled mode 4, actually

stiffness and represents the ship after the foundation was stif-

produces a higher twist amplitude in the main shafting, but this

fened to increase the lowest longitudinal natural frequency so

is only 56 percent of that obtained neglecting coupling. Including

t h a t it would not be in resonance with a blade rate excitation in

coupling in the analysis might eliminate a torsional overde-

sign. the operating range. The uncoupled torsional natural frequencies

and mode shapes are the same as shown for the as-built case in

The effect of coupling on the longitudinal vibration can be

Table 5. The natural frequencies and mode shapes from the

evaluated by considering the amplitudes in Table 6 at the pro-

TORS.AXL. program for the lowest mode of uncoupled longi-

peller and thrust bearing in the following cases:

tudinal vibration and the third, fourth, and fifth modes of the

THRUST

coupled torsional/longitudinal vibration are given in Table 7. The

PROPELLER BEARING uncoupled longitudinal mode shape is renormalized to permit

CASE AMPLITUDE AMPLITUDE a more direct comparison with coupled mode 4. The increased

Longitudinal mode ] resonance 167 mils 121 mils foundation stiffness raises the lowest natural frequency of un-

without coupling coupled longitudinal vibration to 72.94 rad/sec. With a full-power

Coupled mode 3 resonance 44 mils 31 mils rpm of 106.5, a resonance of this mode with a blade rate excitation

Coupled mode 4 resonance 318 mils 231 mils

would occur outside the operating range. With a larger difference

These values are high due to the 12 percent of steady thrust vi- between the uncoupled torsional third mode (w = 57.414 rad/sec)

b r a t o r y thrust amplitude. Resonance in the predominantly tor- and the uncoupled longitudinal first mode (w = 72.941 rad/sec)

sional coupled mode 3 produces longitudinal vibration levels in this case, the effects of the coupling would be expected to be

Table 7 Free vibration results for modified case

natural frequency rad/sec 57.403 72.941 74.089 89.687

resonant propeller rpm 91.4 116.1 117.9 142.7

torsional -15.110 -0.164 -33.333

coordinates 1.637 0.011 1.468

1.544 0.010 1.265

0.484 0.006 -15.371

-1.153 -0.028 111.598

mode shapes

-9.717 190.562 190.562 16.868

-9.550 188.334 188.443 16.805

-9.178 182.652 182.880 16.513

longitudinal -8.485 170.991 171.391 15.741

coordinates -7.434 152.154 152.712 14.320

-6.318 131.191 131.832 12.596

-5.632 117.832 118.483 11.430

-5.649 118.385 119.057 11.511

-5.655 118.594 119.274 11.542

-1.541 32.466 32.664 3.178

excitation frequency 57.387 57.403

82 .001592 ,003165

03 .000173 .000343

84 .000163 .000324

85 .000051 .000101

86 .000121 .000242

x I in. .0441 .0184

x2 .0436 .0181

x3 .0425 .0174

x4 .0404 .0161

x5 .0371 .0141

x6 .0334 .0120

x7 .0311 .0107

xg .0311 .0107

x9 .0312 .0107

x10 .0167 .0029

less than in the as-built case. Comparison of the coupled mode effects might be in a realistic example, the as-built model was

3 in Table 5 and the coupled mode 3 in Table 7 confirms this changed by reducing the thrust bearing foundation stiffness klO

expectation. The natural frequency is changed less by the cou- to 7 000 000 lbf/in, and increasing the propeller mass about 10

pling and the mode shape shows less coupling between the tor- percent to 386.60 lbf s2/in. The uncoupled torsional natural

sional and longitudinal motion. frequencies are the same as shown for the as-built case in Table

The TAC.RESP. program was used to obtain the vibratory 5. The natural frequencies and mode shapes from the TOR-

response of the modified case at the coupled mode 3 natural S.AXL. program for the uncoupled torsional third mode, the

frequency of 57.403 rad/sec. These results are given in Table 8 uncoupled longitudinal first mode, and the third and fourth

with those for the as-built coupled mode 3 resonance for com- coupled modes are shown in Table 9. The uncoupled longitudinal

parison. As expected, the effect of the coupling is less. Since the mode shape has been renormalized to permit a more direct

coupling reduces the torsional response for this mode, the vi- comparison with coupled mode 3. The uncoupled natural

bratory twist amplitudes in the main shafting 181 - 821 for the frequencies essentially coincide as a result of the modifications

various cases are to the thrust bearing foundation stiffness and the propeller mass.

When the coupling effects are included, the lower natural fre-

VIBRATORY

TWIST

quency is reduced to 57.223 rad/sec or a reduction of 0.3 percent.

CASE AMPLITUDE The higher natural frequency is increased to 58.344 rad/sec or

Torsional mode 3 resonance 0.00477 rad an increase of 1.7 percent. Both the coupled mode 3 and coupled

without coupling mode 4 appear to be a general combination of the uncoupled

Modified coupled mode 3 resonance 0.00338rad torsional mode 3 and the uncoupled longitudinal mode 1. The

As-built coupled mode 3 resonance 0.00169 rad coupling effects on the mode shapes are much larger than shown

The further separation of the natural frequencies in the modified for the as-built case in Table 5.

case reduces the coupling and thus the coupling reduces the twist The TAC.RESP. program was used to obtain the vibratory

in the main shafting by only 29 percent below that obtained ne- response of the worst-case design in resonance with the uncou-

glecting coupling. pled longitudinal natural frequency of 57.346 rad/sec and in

Worst case. The propeller coupling is expected to have the resonance with the coupled mode 3 and mode 4 natural

greatest influence when a torsional natural frequency obtained frequencies of 57.223 and 58.344 rad/sec, respectively. These

neglecting coupling and a longitudinal natural frequency ob- results are summarized in Table 10. The uncoupled torsional

tained neglecting coupling coincide. To determine how large these results are unchanged in the worst case so the results in the sec-

Table 9 Free vibration results for worst case

mode coupled 3 long'l I torsional 3 coupled 4

natural frequency rad/sec 57.223 57.346 57.414 58.344

resonant propeller rpm 91.1 91.3 91.4 92.9

torsional -105.625 -14.368 -2.749

coordinates 11.521 1.556 0.288

10.873 1.468 0.271

3.388 0.460 0.087

-8.005 -1.097 -0.218

mode shapes

-1194.783 -1194.783 152.483

-1186.088 -1186.145 151.441

-1163.966 -1164.125 148.730

longitudinal -1118.549 -1118.831 143.082

coordinates -1044.857 -1045.268 133.836

-962.182 -962.696 123.393

-908.888 -909.433 116.627

-911.509 -912.061 116.977

-912.501 -913.053 117.109

-572.026 -572.432 73.474

uncoupled longitudinal vibration

excitation frequency 57.223 57.346 57.800 58.344

02 .008737 .009643 .007309

03 .000953 .001030 .000765

04 .000899 .000971 .000720

05 .000280 .000308 .000232

06 .000662 .000747 .000579

Xl in. .1727 •1847 .2791 .3831

x2 .1714 .1834 .2771 .3805

x3 .1682 .1800 .2720 .3737

x4 .1616 .1730 .2616 .3595

x5 .1510 .1616 .2445 .3363

x6 .1390 .1488 .2253 .3100

x7 .1313 .1406 .2129 .2930

x8 .1317 .1410 .2135 .2939

x9 .1319 .1412 .2137 .2q42

x10 .0827 .0885 .1340 .1846

ond column of Table 6 apply to the worst case as well. The tor- case can be seen by considering the amplitudes in Table 10 for

sional amplitudes can be seen to be greatly increased by the the propeller and thrust bearing in the following cases:

coupling in the worst case. The amplitudes and phase angles were

THRUST

used to evaluate the amplitude of the vibratory twist in the main PROPELLER BEARING

shafting 101 - 021 in the following cases: CASE AMPLITUDE AMPLITUDE

VIBRATORY

Longitudinal mode 1 resonance 185 mils 141 mils

TWIST

without coupling

CASE AMPLITUDE

Coupled mode 3 resonance 173 mils 131 mils

Coupled mode 4 resonance 383 mils 293 mils

Torsional mode 3 resonance 0.00477 rad

without coupling Neglecting propeller coupling results in a 52 percent under-

Coupled mode 3 resonance 0.00884 rad prediction of the vibratory amplitude at the propeller and the

Coupled response at ~ = 57.800 rad/sec 0.01150 tad thrust bearing; the actual results are over twice as large as those

Coupled mode 4 resonance 0.00998 rad

found when the coupling is neglected.

A simple search reveals that the maximum twist occurs at an

excitation frequency of about 57.8 rad/sec. These results are also

included in Table 10. Neglecting the propeller coupling effects

Conclusions

results in a 59 percent uuderprediction of the amplitude of twist Acceptable methods now exist for obtaining estimates of the

in the main shafting; the coupled results are 2.41 times larger than propeller inertia coupling and velocity coupling characteristics

those found when the coupling is neglected. which couple the torsional and longitudinal vibration of marine

The effect of coupling on the longitudinal vibration in the worst propulsion shafting systems. Regression equations for estimating

the torsional and longitudinal added mass and damping of Wa-

geningen B-Series 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-bladed propellers are included

Metric Conversion Table

in the Appendix. These can be used in early design. The PRA-

1 shp = 0.7457 kW MAD program can be used when a detailed propeller design is

1 ft = 0.3048 m available.

l in. = 25.4 mm

1 lbf/in. = 0.1129 N.m T h e propeller coupling does not have a major effect on the

1 rail = 0.0254 mm natural frequencies of the shafting system. In the example sys-

tem, the largest change between a natural frequency found ne- Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Report No.

229, Ann Arbor, Mich., Oct. 1980.

glecting coupling and the corresponding natural frequency found 13 van Lammeren, W. P. A., van Manen, J. D., and Oosterveld, M.

with the coupling included was less than 2 percent. The mode W. C., "The Wageningen B-Screw Series," Trans. SNAME, Vol. 77, 1969,

shapes, however, can exhibit significant changes. pp. 269-317.

The coupling effects increase as a torsional natural frequency 14 Salzman, R. H. and Pamidi, P. R., "Machinery Vibrations in

obtained without coupling and a longitudinal natural frequency Marine Systems," Proceedings, International Symposium on Marine

Engineering, Tokyo, 1973, pp. 3-4-1 to 3-4-12.

obtained without coupling converge. 15 Meirovitch, L., Analytical Methods in Vibrations, The Macmillan

The propeller coupling can have a major effect on the forced Co., New York, 1967, pp. 400-405.

vibration amplitudes in torsional and longitudinal vibration. In 16 Technical and Research Report R-15, "Longitudinal Stiffness of

Main Thrust Bearing Foundations," SNAME, Sept. 1972.

the worst-case example, the inclusion of the propeller coupling 17 Bathe, K.-J. and Wilson, E. L., Numerical Methods in Finite

increased selected torsional twist amplitudes by a factor of 2.4 Element Analysis, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976, pp.

and selected longitudinal amplitudes by more than a factor of 2. 363-473.

The examples also show that the coupling can decrease some 18 Wilkinson, J. H., The Algebraic Eigenvalue Problem, Clarendon

vibration amplitudes by a significant amount. Thus an analysis Press, Oxford, U.K., 1965.

19 Tsakonis, S., Breslin, J., and Miller, M., "Correlation and Appli-

including coupling may be necessary and/or desirable even when cation of an Unsteady Flow Theory for Propeller Forces," Trans.

the longitudinal criticals are outside the operating range. SNAME, Vol. 75, 1967, pp. 158-193.

With the present capability for estimating propeller coupling 20 Greenblatt, J. E., "SKEWOPT: Propeller Skew Optimization

characteristics and analyzing the vibrations of multi-degree- Program User's and Programmer's Documentation," The University of

Michigan, Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering,

of-freedom systems, marine propulsion shafting vibration anal- Report 204, Ann Arbor, Mich., Aug. 1978.

yses should consider coupled torsional/longitudinal motion.

Acknowledgments

The following have contributed to the development of the

Appcndix

computer programs used here:

• The PRAMAD computer program was developed under the Torsional and longitudinal added mass and

Maritime Administration University Research Program Contract damping for Wageningen B-Series propellers

No. MA-3-79-SAC-B0012. Professor William S. Vorus of the

Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, The The following regression equations were obtained by regressing

University of Michigan, and Edward M. Richard, then a graduate lifting-line results obtained using the PRAMAD computer pro-~

student in the department, made major contributions in its de- gram [12]. The propellers were assumed to be operating at 75

velopment. percent of the lightly loaded advance coefficient; that is

• The initial version of the TAC.RESP. computer program

J = 0.75 Ja, where Ju yields KT = 0

was developed in the summer of 1980 by University of Michigan

graduate students LT Michael M. Ashdown, USCG, L T Michael The propellers were assumed to be vibrating at blade rate; that

A. Robinett, USCG, and LCDR Theodore J. Sampson, USCG. is

This program and the TORS.AXL. program were developed for

use in the graduate level marine engineering course NA531 Ma- oJ = 27¢nZ rad/sec

rine Propulsion P l a n t Vibrations.

where n is the propeller revolutions per second and Z is the

n u m b e r of blades. The approximate lifting-surface corrections

References were obtained by regressing results obtained by Hylarides and

1 Long,C. L., "Propellers, Shafting, and Shafting System Vibration van Gent [9] divided by comparable results obtained using the

Analysis," Marine Engineering, Chapter 11, SNAME, New York, PRAMAD program.

1971. For Wageningen B-Series propellers, the geometric aspect ratio

2 Technical and Research Code C5, "Acceptable Vibration of Ma-

rine Steam and Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine Main and Auxiliary Machinery AR is given by

Plants,' SNAME, Sept. 1976.

3 Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels, American Bureau 0.22087 Z

A R - - -

of Shipping, New York, 1981. Ae/Ao

4 McGoldrick, R. T., Ship Vibration, David Taylor Model Basin

Report 1451, Bethesda, Md., Dec. 1960. These estimates should be valid in the following ranges of vari-

5 Lewis,F. M. and Auslander, J., "Virtual Inertia of Propellers," ables:

Journal of Ship Research, Vol. 9, No. 1, March 1960, pp. 37-46.

6 Wereldsma, R., "Experiments on Vibrating Propeller Models,"

International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 12, No. 130, June 1965, pp. Z = 4, 0.5 ~ P/D <~1.2, 0.4 ~<Ae/Ao <~0.88

227-234.

7 Wereldsma, R., "Design Stage Prediction Techniques for Ship Z = 5, 0.5 ~<P/D <~1.2, 0.4 ~<Ae/Ao <~ 1.10

Vibration," in Design and Economical Considerations on Shipbuilding

and Shipping, H. Veenman En Zonen, N. V., The Netherlands, 1969. Z = 6, 0.5 ~<P/D ~<1.2, 0.4 ~<Ae/Ao <~ 1.20

8 van der Linden, C. A. M., 't Hart, H. H., and Dolfin, E. R., "Tor-

sional-Axial Vibration of Ship's Propulsion System," International Z = 7, 0.5 ~<P/D <~ 1.2, 0.4 ~<Ae/Ao <~ 1.20

Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 16, No. 173, Jan. 1969, pp. 16-26.

9 Hylarides, S. and van Gent, W., "Hydrodynamic Reactions to

Propeller Vibrations," Proceediugs, Conference on Operational Aspects L o n g i t u d i n a l a d d e d m a s s mr ~:

of Propulsion Shafting Systems, London, May 21-22, 1979, pp. 44-55.

10 Parsons, M. G. and Vorus, W. S., "Added Mass and Damping roll = p D 3 m u ' LSC(m11') (5i)

Estimates for Vibrating Propellers," Proceedings, Propellers '81 Sym-

posium, Virginia Beach, Va., May 26-27, 1981, pp. 273-302. where

11 Vassilopoulos, L. and Triantafyllou, M., "Prediction of Propeller

Hydrodynamic Coefficients Using Unsteady Lifting Surface Theory," D = propeller diameter (ft or m)

Proceedings, Propellers '81 Symposium, Virginia Beach, Va., May 26-27,

1981, pp. 253-272. p = water mass density (lbf s2/ft 4 or kg/m 3)

12 Parsons, M. G., Vorus, W. S., and Richard, E. M., "Added Mass

and Damping of Vibrating Propellers," The University of Michigan, and

m~: 000~4~+0 ~0(A~) +00~(;) m21'= -0.0005023 + 0.013927 (A~)

+ 0I~4/A~/~

A, o, 000~14~(~)~ °°°~(;) -°.°~°4~/~1~,~o,

0~0~(A~)(;) ~orZ:4 + 0.0056027 (~)~- 0.017030 (~)(~), for Z = 7

+ 0.39805(AR) -1 - 0.42582(AR)-2

+0~0~(~)~+00004~44(;) ~ -0.61189 (P) (AR) -1 + 0.33373 (P) (AR) -2, for all Z

0~404(A~)(;) ~or~:~

T o r s i o n a l added m a s s m o m e n t of inertia m22:

ml~: 00~+0~0~(~) +00~0~(~) m2z = pD~m22'LSC(m22 ') (53)

+0 1~(~)~ 0000~(;) ~ where

m22' = 0.0030315 - 0.0080782 (A~o~)

010~(~)(~) ~o~Z~

m~ 00~0~+00~4~(~)+00~0(~) °°°~°~(~) +°.°°~41~°r~e/~,~o,

+ 0.00043437 (P)2 + 0.0099715 (~eoe)(P) , forZ = 4

+0 11~(~; 0000~0(~)~

m~' : 000~-000~0~0(~)

00~(A~)(;) ~orZ-~

-°°°~°~(~) +°.°°~°~°r~e/~,~o,

(Ae/IP/, for Z = 5

+ 0.42253(AR) -1 - 0.43911(AR)-2

m~' : 000~-0000~ (~)

-0.46697(P)(AR)-1+O.25124(P)(AR) -2, for all Z

ooo~oooo(~)+ ° °°~4~ r~/~,~o,

T o r s i o n a l / l o n g i t u d i n a l inertia c o u p l i n g m21: + 0.00029060 (P ) 2 + 0.0073650 (~o)

(P),Ae forZ = 6

rn21 = pD 4 m21' LSC(m21') (52)

m22"=O.OO21372-O.OO56155(A-~o )

where

m21" = 0.0012195 + 0.017664 (A~eoe) ooo~(~) +ooo~4~/~e/~

,~o,

ooo~(~) -00~0i~/~e/~

,~o, +oooo~o~(~)~+oooo4~o~(~)(~) forZ = 7

+ 0.60294(AR) -1 - 0.56159(AR)-2

-0.80696 (P) (AR)-I + 0.45806 (P) (AR) -2, for all Z

~AoJ

- 0"0055064 (P) - 0"021012/Ae/2

Cll = pnD3clI'LSC(cll ') (54)

m~ 0000~+00~4~(~) where

~Ao]

+000~4~(~)~ 001~0~(~) (~) ~orZO + 0.53868 - 0.65404 , for Z = 4

c~ o~o~o~+~o~(~)o~o~(~)~(~)~ LsC(c21') : 0.80988- 9 63077(AR)-2 + 1.3909 (-~) (AR)-I

c11' = 0.11113 + 2.9831 ()

~oo ~no] ~

Torsional damping c22:

+o~oo(~)~ oo~o(~)(~) ~o~o c22 = pnD5c22'LSC(c22 ') (56)

c11' = 0.03407 + 2.9353 ~o (~e) o~o(~) X~e~~Ao] where

+ 0.17571 - 0.65123 , for Z = 7

+ 0"032644 (P) - 0"041863/Ae/2

[Ao]

LSC(c~') -- 0.82004 - 0~67190(AR)-~ + 1.3913 (~) (AR)-I

+ 19.121 (P) (AR) -4, for all Z

oo~,~o~IAel2..]_ ooo~(~) ~

Torsional/longitudinal velocity coupling c21: oo~(~)(~) ~or~

C21 = pnD4c21'LSC(c21 ') (55)

22 = -0.027873 + 0.061760 Ae + 0.023242

where

c21'=0"13925-0"48179 (~e)

~oo - 0 . 1 4 1 7 5 (~) +0.27711/Ae/2 °°~°°~r~/~+

~,o~ °°°~°°4~(~)~

[no]

- 0.0094311 (~)~+ 0.17407 (~)(~), for Z = 4 - 0.011641 (A~oe)(P), forZ = 6

(~e)

c21' = 0.14558 - 0.44319 Aoo - 0.17025

(~) + 0.24558 ~e~

~Ao] c22' = -0.024043 + 0.051680 (A~-~)+ 0.018585 (P)

[Ao] + 0"0075424 (P) 2

c21' = 0.14228 - 0.41189 (~oe) - 0.17770 (P) + 0.22644 (~oe)2 ooo~o~4~(~:)(~) ~or~

+ 0.026626 + 0.083269 for Z = 6 LSC(c221) = 0 . 8 2 7 6 1 - 0.41165(AR)-2 + 1.2196 (P) (AR) -1

~no]

+ 0.040056 + 0.045135 , for Z = 7

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