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In chemical engineering applications, weir is usually used in open-channel flow and

extensively in tray towers where the height of the weir is adjusted to provide the necessary liquid

depth for a given flow. It is installed in a distillation column or reactor for controlling the flow

within the unit itself. Also, weirs are frequently used for a large scale application such as canals,

irrigation scheme, rivers, wastewater, and sewage system. For small scale application, weirs are

often referred to as notch. Furthermore, notch is a small structure and has sharp edges.

Weirs are overflow structures, with a broad crest, that stretch across an open channel of

water, and are meant to alter the channel’s flow characteristics making it easier to measure the

volumetric rate of water flow. The water will flow through the notch and the depth of water that

flows through it will correlate to the discharge in the channel. The stream of liquid coming out

the weir is known as nappe, sheet or vein. It is the sheet of water that flows over the weir. The

crest of a weir is usually perpendicular to the direction of flow. Also, the height of the water

flowing over the crest of the weir correlates to the flow rate (Sharp, 2014).

The two main types of weirs are rectangular weir and the triangular (V-notch) weir. The

terms rectangular weir and triangular (V-notch) weir generally refer to the shape of the notch in a

weir. For the rectangular weir, this is typically used to control the elevation of water up and

downstream of the weir and it usually has a higher discharge values associated with them.

Meanwhile, triangular or v-notch weirs are typically used with a small discharge.

According to Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara, flow over weirs is complicated because of sharp

curvilinear streamlines besides consisting of eddy regions, accelerating and retarding flow zones.

The existing solution is semi-empirical in nature. In this flow over weirs experiment, the

characteristics of rectangular and triangular (V-notch) weirs are observed. The results of this
experiment are calculated by application of the Bernoulli’s equation, from a point well upstream

to a point just above the notch.

The main objective of this laboratory experiment is to determine the characteristics of a

rectangular notch and a triangular (V) notch. Specifically, it aims to:

1. Determine the values of the discharge coefficient (Co) for both notches.

2. Determine the relationship between the head H of the weir and the discharge of water

over weir.

Coulson, J. M., Richardson, J. F., Backhurst, J., and Harker, J. H. (1999) Chem Eng. Volume 1:

Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer, 6th ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann). ISBN 0 7506

4444 3.

Cruise, James F., and M. M. Sherif. Elementary Hydraulics. Toronto, Ont.: Thomson/Nelson,
2007. Print.

"Sharp Crested Weir 2." Sharp Crested Weir 2. Web. 17 Nov. 2014.

Sutherland, E., Taylor, T. Weirs. CIVE 401 – Hydraulic Engineering, November 18th, 2014.

Thandaveswara, B.S. Flow over Weirs-nptel, Indian Institute of Technology Madras.