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ANALECTA ORIENTALIA 38

UGARITIC TEXTBOOK
G R A M M A R

T E X T S IN T R A N S L IT E R A T IO N

C U N E IF O R M S E LE C T IO N S

G LO SSARY

IN D IC E S

CYRU S H. G O RD O N

R e v ise d R e p rin t

EDITRICE PONTIFICIO ISTITUTO BIBLICO


ROMA
ANALECTA ORIENTALIA 38

UGARITIC TEXTBOOK
G R A M M A R

CYRU S H. G O RD O N

R e v ise d R e p rin t

19 9 8
EDITRICE PONTIFICIO ISTITUTO BIBLICO
ROMA
ANALECTA ORIENTALIA
COM M ENTATIONES SC IE N T IFIC A E D E R E B U S O R IE N T IS A N TIQ U I
38

19 9 8
PONTIFICIUM INSTITUTUM BIBLICUM
ROMAE
CYRUS H. GORDON

UGARITIC TEXTBOOK
GRAMMAR
TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION
CUNEIFORM SELECTIONS
GLOSSARY
INDICES

Revised Reprint

19 9 8
EDITRICE PONTIFICIO ISTITUTO BIBLICO
ROMA

"T his O ne

9CHC-XPG-52PS
ISBN 8 8 2 ‫־‬7653‫־‬238‫־‬
IURA EDITIONIS ET VERSIONIS RESERVANTUR

© 1998 - E.P.I.B. - ROMA


PRINTED IN ITALY

Riproduzione anastatica: 19 dicembre 1997


Tipografia Poliglotta della Pontiflcia Universita Gregoriana
Piazza della Pilotta, 4 - 00187 Roma
Dedicated in gratitude

to my wife, Constance,

for her love, help and understanding


FOREWORD

The production of this Textbook has taken a long time. The printing
alone has stretched over a period of four years. As in former editions of this
work, the book was run off in signatures so that the type could be reused for
the composition of subsequent signatures. Meanwhile a steady stream of new
discoveries at Ugarit kept touching off advances in the subject so that as the
reader proceeds from chapter to chapter, he may sense the steadily rising
level of Ugaritology. Under these circumstances some inconsistencies have
been unavoidable.
I am beholden to Professor Charles Virolleaud for a long series of private
communications containing many excerpts from texts that will not be pub*
lished for some time. Moreover, he generously gave me a proof copy of his
forthcoming PRU Y in time to be included as a Supplement ( = texts 2001-
2123 on pp. 1*-31*) and used in compiling the Glossary.
Among the other scholars who have sent me useful notes on the Ugaritic
Manual of 1955, I single out Father Mitchell Dahood, S.J.
Several of my former students including Doctors Harry Hoffner and Gerald
Swaim — but especially Elmer Smick who prepared the Cuneiform Selections
on pp. 297-346 — have given freely of their time in helping me.
Mrs. Donna Nalley Ryburn, my research assistant during the academic
year 1962-63, compiled the indices of proper names and was of constant
technical aid.
This book is dedicated to the memory of Pater Professor Alfred Pohl, S.J.,
whose faith in my ability to produce the Ugaritic Grammar of 1940 made
possible that book and its three revised editions including this Textbook. He

VII —
forew ord AnOr . 38

was editor of this Textbook until he died on October 23, 1961, when its early
chapters were already printed.
On Father Pohl’s death, the responsibility for editing this Textbook was
assumed by Father William Moran, S.J., until the spring of 1963; then by
Professor Karlheinz Deller and Father James Swetnam, S.J. To all these
scholars of the P.I.B. I am bound in gratitude.
I take this occasion to thank Brandeis University not only for a grant
that facilitated the preparation of this book, but more especially for enabling
me to devote my life to scholarship.

Brookline, Mass., U.S.A.


December 14, 1964
C yrus H. G ordon

VIII
FOREWORD TO T H E REVISED REPRINT

This revised reprinting of the UT of 1965 and (with a Supplement) 1967 is not a
new edition incorporating the evidence of the many tablets discovered since 1965-67.
Numerous corrections and sundry improvements have been made, though
sometimes they cannot be made because of limitations in modern languages,
specifically English. For example, the wife who is contractually entitled to bear her
husband’s successor is called the rbt in Ugaritic and rabltu in Accadian. In the
mythological texts, the divine husband can rule out a specific son of the rabltu but in
that event only another son of hers can he substituted. The same holds for human
society and in the case of the king, the selection of his successor is of public
importance. I have translated rbt/rabltu ‘lady’; but the English language does not
permit us to invent a more exact term like the ‘wife-contractually-entitled-to-
bear-the-husband’s-successor’. Sanskrit, Greek or German might permit such a
compound noun, but not English; so ‘lady’ remains albeit with an explanatory note.
Biblical Hebrew has a word for rbt/rabltu, namely 1) ‫)גבירה‬.
Since 1965-67 the horizons of Ugaritic have been vastly broadened. A glance at
the Glossary will show how Ugaritic has been locked into the Ancient Near East,
whereas now it is also locked into a global scene. Hugh Moran pointed out the
global spread of lunar zodiacs and David Kelley showed that the global scene
embraced Central America(2). It eventually became clear that the Ugaritic ABC of
thirty letters was geared to fit the lunar month(3), which is always less than thirty
days and always more than twenty-nine. The Ugaritic alphabet has twenty-nine letters
that are distinctive phonetically from each other. However the nineteenth letter (s) is

(!) Cyrus H. Gordon, “Ugaritic rbt/rabltu”, in Ascribe to the Lord: biblical and other Studies in memory of
Peter C. Craigie (1 9 8 8 ) 127-132.
(2) Hugh A. Moran & David H. Kelley, The Alphabet and the Ancient Calendar Signs (1969).
(3) Cyrus H. Gordon, “The Accidental Invention of the Phonemic Alphabet”, JNES 29 (1970) 193197‫;־‬
see p. 194.

— IX —
FOREWORD TO THE REVISED REPRINT An Or. 38

phonetically identical with the thirtieth (s). In other words, the Ugaritic ABC is a
twenty-nine letter alphabet that can be stretched to thirty, when a thirtieth letter is
needed to extend the month (for practical reasons reckoned in whole days) from one
new moon to the next new moon. Thus the religious calendar of the Jews who still
use the Neo-Babylonian calendar, has months of either twenty-nine or thirty days.
The Mayans have also left behind a book (in the Mayan language but in Latin
letters) linking Mayan history with the Old World. Around A.D. 1550 a native Mayan
scholar who knew the Spanish/Latin alphabet, wrote up the traditions of the Mayans
in a book called the Popol Vuh, which has been analyzed and translated into modern
languages, including two noteworthy English translations(4). The Popol Vuh
records that the Mayan empire in America had received its authority from its
homeland in the Old World on the east side of the Atlantic Ocean and that for a
while transoceanic contacts were maintained so that the authority was reconfirmed.
The antiquity of the material in the Popol Vuh is proved by the myth of the
cause of toothaches. A worm eats away at our gums, and refuses to subsist on other
food instead. Centuries after the writing of the Popol Vuh in Latin letters, this myth
was discovered on cuneiform tablets in Mesopotamia and not published until 1903.
Intercontinental trade going back at least to Neolithic times supplied the
impetus and since traders have to keep records, the idea of writing spread globally.
Victor Mair, a Sinologist at the University of Pennsylvania, in 1987 asked me
whether anything happened in the Near East around 1200 B.C., when the earliest
Chinese inscriptions first appear. In those inscriptions there are twenty-two glyphs
that are not part of the repertoire of Chinese signs. They are still used to this day.
Mair suspected that the twenty-two glyphs somehow or other reflected the number
of the twenty-two letter Western alphabet. For a long time some Sinologists had
recognized the obvious cuneiform shape of a number of signs in Chinese inscriptions
and naturally thought they were of Mesopotamian origin. But it happens that the
signs are not Mesopotamian but distinctively Ugaritic (5).

(4) The first by Delia Goetz and Sylvanus Morley, 1950; the second by Dennis Tedlock, 1985. My
references to the Popol Vuh are based on the 1950 edition, in my Before Columbus: Links between the Old Word
and Ancient America (Crown Publishers, New York, 1971); see pp. 154-169.
(5) Cyrus H. Gordon, The Background to Jewish Studies in the Bible and in the Ancient Last (= Occasional
1Publication No. 1 of the Purdue University Jewish Studies Program); see Chapter 5 “China and the Alphabet”
on pp. 3746‫־‬.

— X
An Or. 38 FOREWORD TO THE REVISED REPRINT

The connection between China and Canaan had to be via one or more trade
routes, which prepared me for the next development. A Bengali by the name of Mrs.
Liny Srinivasan, Ph.D., became interested in a segment of Bengali vocabulary known
as the Desi words which have no Indo-European etymology. Bengali scholars had
assumed that the Desi words were the legacy of the aborigines who inhabited the
land before the advent o f the Indo-Europeans. For twelve years Liny gathered and
studied the Desi words and found a number of them in the Hebrew dictionaries and
in my Ugaritic glossaries. Since she knew no Semitic languages, her work was full of
errors so that she sought the help o f a Semitist to separate the wheat from the chaff.
She consulted a former student o f mine who looked over Liny’s material and said it
seemed promising but it would have to be scrutinized by a competent and
open-minded Semitist, and referred her to me. I saw at once that she was basically
right but that for every correct identification, her long list had to be cleansed of
many mistakes, by the application of sound phonetic principles. I wrote it up with
some of the far-reaching implications (6).
The results consist o f more than mere exotica; they provide, for the first time,
the precise meanings of some words in both Ugaritic and biblical Hebrew. For
example, it turns out that the Lebanons are not named after the white snow upon
them, which should have been obvious because the Lebanon snow is no whiter than
the anti-Lebanon snow on Mt. Hermon. It is called Lebanon after the Moon
( ‫)לבנ ה‬, while the Anti-lebanons are called Siryon in Ugaritic and Hebrew
( ‫ ) שריץ‬because the Sun is Surya in Sanskrit. The Anti-Lebanons are the Sun range
while the Lebanon is the Moon range. We also can now discern that “ Syria” is
named after Surya ‘the Sun’.
The Code (section 13:5:18) of Theodosius I (‘the Great’) requires the combined
community of the Samaritans and Jews to render navicular service; i.e., to place ships
at the disposal of the State. This reflects the fact that the Judeo-Samaritan community
had a naval capability with the ships and seamen and know-how to convey personnel
and materiel for the Byzantine Empire. There is evidence that this also enabled some
members of the Judeo-Samaritan community to escape beyond the western shore of
the Atlantic from Byzantine tyranny (7).

(6) Liny Srinivasan and Cyrus Gordon, “Canaanite Vocabulary in Bengali and in Some Other Dialects of
India”, M other Tongue, December 1995, pp. 202206‫־‬.
(?) Cyrus H. Gordon, “Diffusion of Near East Culture in Antiquity and in Byzantine Times”, O rient
3031‫( ־‬Tokyo 1995) 6981‫־‬.
— XI —
FOREWORD TO THE REVISED REPRINT AnOr. 38

The above should suffice to show that Ugaritic is no longer only of Near East
interest. It is now global ‘from the rising of the sun to the setting thereof (Psalm
50:1). In the twenty-first century that is soon to dawn, Ugaritic studies should have
more meaning than ever before.
I owe a debt of gratitude to Professor Werner Mayer, S.J., the editor of
Analecta Orientalia, and to Agustinus Gianto, S.J., Professor of Northwest Semitic
Philology of the P.I.B., for their generous and time-consuming help.

Brookline, Mass., USA


June 1997

Cyrus H. G ordon

— XII —
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . vn
Foreword to the revised reprint . . . . . . . . IX

I. I ntroduction . . . . . . . . . . 1
Aim § 1. 1 - Discovery & D ate § 1. 2 - Decipherm ent § 1. 3 -
Significance § 1. 4 - Student’s Prerequisites § 1. 5 - Interpre*
tation & Parallelism § 1 . 6 - Other Means of Interpretation
§ 1. 7 - Progress since 1940 § 1 . 8 - Scope & Lim its § 1 . 9 -
Cuneiform Selections § 1. 10 - Starting the Study of U garitic
§ I- 11•
II. S ystem of E diting & T ext R eferences . . . . . 4
Editorial Devices § 2. 1 - T ext References § 2. 2.

III. T he A lphabet 11
U garitic ABC § 3. 1 - Relation to Hebrew ABC § 3. 2 - ABC
C hart § 3. 3 - W ord Divider § 3. 4 - ABC Defined Syllabically
§ 3. 5 - M irror-w ritten ABC § 3. 6

IV. Orthography . . . . . . . . . . 17
Homographs & Homonyms § 4. 1 - N ature of Script § 4. 2 -
Direction of W riting § 4. 3 - T hree Alephs § 4. 4 - Matres
Lectionis § 4. 6 - Vowels Inherent in Alephs § 4. 6 - Range
of Inherent Vowels § 4. 7 - Vowelless Aleph § 4. 8 - Form s
of £ § 4. 9 - E xtra Wedges § 4. 10 - Omitted Wedges § 4. 11 -
Other V ariants § 4. 12 - Confused L etters § 4. 13 - Unclassified
Misused L etters § 4. 14 - ?/p* & qfl‘ § 4. 15 - qj@ § 4. 16 -
t/e § 4. 17 - § § 4. 18 - tit § 4. 19 - Monograms § 4. 20 -
Encircled * § 4. 21 - Scribal Errors § 4. 22 - W ord Divider
§ 4. 23 - Divider within Word § 4. 24 — W ords on Two Lines
§ 4. 26 - Divider in T exts 57 & 74 § 4. 26 - Ruled Lines
§ 4. 27 - Tabulation Divider § 4. 28 —W edged Lines § 4. 29 -
Elongated Signs § 4. 30 - Orthographic Im pact on Language
§ 4. 31.

— XIII —
TABLE OP CONTENTS An Or . 38

PAGE
V. P h o n e t ic s ................................................................................................ 20
H eterogeneity § 5. 1 - The (2-sign in Semitic & H urrian § 5. 2 -
The (Z-sign in Words of Semitic Derivation § 5. 3 - Problem
of dr* ‘ to sow ’ § 6. 4 - Dialectal T reatm ent of ‘"d in Texts
75 & 77 § 5. 5 - *d > & § 6. 6 - *d = ? in T ext 75 § 5. 7 - ^
for j or t § B. 8 ‫ = ? ־‬t § 6. 9 - Tabulation of <? & ? Corre*
spondences § 5. 10 - *t = ( (or ? in T ext 77) § 5. 11 - Con*
vergence of •6 & •S in 8 § 5. 12 - Tabulation of Consonantal
Shifts § 5. 13 — Conservatism § 5. 14 - Preservation of Vowels
§ 5. 15 - a* > 6 ' § 6. 16 - Long & § 5. 17 - Diphthongs § 5. 18
- Vowel Harmony § 5. 19 - Mimation § 5. 20 - w- > y- § 5. 21 -
Assimilated n § 5. 22 - -nh- > -nn- § 5. 23 - d > % § 5. 24 -
*-* > * 2 5 .5 § ‫ ־‬- m-m > 1-m § 5. 2 6 --r > zero § 5. 27 - p% b
§ 5. 28 - ^ / 29 .5§ ‫ שמש‬- t > d § 5. 30 - 1 t § 5. 31 - b > g
§ 5. 32 - m b § 5. 33 - Dissimilations of $dq § 5. 34 - dt > tt
§ 5. 36 - > t-t § 5. 36 - qjg § 5. 37 - Loss of ,a before * in
Sandhi § 5. 38 - Loss of -h § 5. 39 - Pausal -at > -ah § 5. 40 -
Apparent Aphaeresis in Biconsonantal Im peratives § 5. 41 - if
for f» qk for A: § 5. 42.

VI. P b o n o u n s .................................................................................................35
Independent Nominatives § 6. 1 - an(k) § 6. 2 - ‫וקטל אנך‬
§ 6. 3 - Casus Obliquus § 6. 4 - Possessive Suffixes § 6. 5 -
Possessive 1Sg. § 6. 6 — Possessive 2 & 3 Sg. § 6. 7 -
Possessive 3 Sg. - n § 6 .8 - Possessive 1 Du. § 6. 9-
Possessive 3 Du. § 6. 10 - Possessive 1 PI. § 6. 11 - Posses-
sive 2 PI. § 6. 12 - Possessive 3 PI. § 6. 13 - Emphasized
Possession § 6. 14 - Polite Substitutes for Pronouns § 6. 15 -
Variety of 3 Sg. Acc. § 6.16 - 3 M. Sg. Acc. § 6. 17 - 3 F.
Sg. Acc. § 6. 18 - 1 Du. Acc. § 6. 19 - 2 Sg. & PL, & 3 M.
PI. Acc. § 6. 20 - Dative Suffixes § 6. 21 - Dem onstrative Pro.
§ 6. 22 - D eterm inative & Relative Pro. § 6. 23 - M. Sg. d
§ 6. 24 - F. Sg. dt § 6. 26 - PI. dt § 6. 26 - d May Replace
dt § 6. 27 - Personal vs. Im personal § 6. 28 —General Relative
§ 6. 29 - Independent Indefinite Pers. Pro. § 6. 30 - Indef.
Adj. Pro. § 6.31 - ‘All, E v ery ’ § 6. 32 - Interrogative Pro.
§ 6. 33.

— XIV —
A n O r . 38 TABLE OF CONTENTS

VII. N u m e r a l s ....................................................................................................................

Logographic Numerals § 7. 1 - Logograms for U uits & Tens


§ 7. 2 - Singular w ithout Numeral § 7. 3 - Dual w ithout Nu•
meral § 7. 4 - Ellipsis with PI. Numerals § 7. 6 - Shortened
Form s § 7. 6 - ‘ 1 ’ § 7. 7 - ‘P a ir/S e t’ § 7. 8 - ‘ 2 ’ § 7. 9 -
Number of Noun with 3 to 10 § 7. 10 - ‘ 3 ’ § 7. 11 - ‘ 4 ’ § 7.12
- ‘6 ’ § 7. 13 - ‘ 6 ' § 7. 14 - ‘ 7 ’ § 7. 15 - ‘8 ’ § 7. 16 - ‘ 9 ’
§ 7. 17 - ‘ 1 0 ’ § 7. 18 - Sg. above 10 § 7. 19 - ‘T eens’ § 7. 20
- ‘11 ’ § 7. 21 - ‘ 12’ § 7. 22 - ‘ 13’ § 7. 23 - ‘ 14’ § 7. 24 -
‘ 15’ § 7. 26 - ‘16’ § 7. 26 - ‘ 17’ § 7. 27 - ‘ 18’ § 7. 28 - ‘19’
§ 7. 29 - Tens § 7. 30 - ‘20’ § 7. 31 - ‘30’ § 7. 32 - ‘40’
§ 7. 33 - ‘50’ § 7. 34 - ‘60’ § 7. 36 - ‘70’ § 7. 36 - ‘80’
§ 7. 37 - ‘90’ § 7. 38 - Asyndetic Ten + Digit § 7. 39 -
Additive / § 7. 40 - Hundreds § 7. 41 - Thousands § 7. 42 -
Ten Thousands § 7. 43 - Idiom with Ordinals § 7. 44 - For•
mation of Ordinals § 7. 46 - Distinctive Ordinals § 7. 46 -
‘ 1st’ § 7. 47 - ‘2nd’ § 7. 48 - ‘3rd’ § 7. 49 - ‘ 4th’ § 7. 50 -
‘5th’ § 7. 51 - ‘6th’ § 7. 52 - ‘7th’ § 7. 53 - ‘8th’ § 7. 5 4 -
Fractions § 7. 55 - ‘j ’ § 7. 56 - ‘| ’ § 7. 57 - ‘ j ’ § 7. 58 -
*7’ § 7. 59 — ‘■5■’ § 7. 60 - ‘j ’ § 7. 61 - • - 6 2 .7 § ’‫ ־‬- ‘Toge-
ther’ § 7. 63 - ‘Alone’ § 7. 64 - ‘Twice, Thrice’ § 7. 65 -
‘2nd/3rd Time’ § 7. 66 - ‘Both’ § 7. 67 - Iteratives with -C»)d
§ 7. 68 - Digit + Corresponding Ten § 7. 69 - Other Adverbial
Idioms § 7. 70 —Nouns from Numerals § 7. 71 - Names from
Numerals § 7. 72 - Verbs from Numerals § 7. 73.

VIII. N o u n s ................................................................................. ...........


Inflectional Factors § 8. 1 - Mimation § 8. 2 - F. Sg. § 8. 3 -
F. Sg. w ithout Suffix § 8. 4 - D ual § 8. 5 - PI. of N aturally
Du. Nouns § 8. 6 - M. PI. & PI. Them es § 8. 7 - F. PI. § 8. 8 -
PI. in -m & - t § 8. 9 - Sg. Collective § 8. 10 - Collective in
either Sg. or PI. § 8. 11- Graphic Convergence of M. Du./PI.
& F. Sg./Pl. § 8. 12 - Triptotic Sg. § 8. 13 - D iptotic Sg. § 8. 14
- Final Vowel Indicated by -w ly § 8. 16 —Status Constructus
§ 8. 16 - Vocalization § 8. 17 - Uniconsonantals § 8. 18 -
A Bound Unicon son an tal § 8. 19 — Biconsonantals § 8. 20 —
Nominal Form ations § 8. 21 - qatl- § 8. 22 - qitl- § 8. 23 -
qutl- § 8. 24 —qatal- § 8. 25 —qatil- § 8. 26 —qitil- § 8. 27 —qotal-

— XV —
TABLE OP CONTENTS A n Ob . 38

PAGE
§ 8. 28 - qutul- § 8. 29 - q&til- § 8. 80 - qat&l- § 8. 31 - qit&l-
§ 8. 32 - qatil- § 8. 33 - qattal- § 8. 34 - qittil- § 8. 35 - qatt&l-
§ 8. 36 - qa(t)til- § S. 37 - qi(t)til- § 8. 38 - quttftl- < *qattfil-
§ 8. 39 - a - Followed by 3 Consonants § 8. 40 - i - Followed
by 3 Consonants § 8. 41 - u - Followed by 3 Consonants § 8. 42 -
Reduplicated Nouns of qatqat-, qitqit- & qutqut- Types § 8. 43 -
Quadriconsonantals § 8. 44 - Quinqueconsonantals § 8. 45 -
Preform ative m - § 8.• 46 - Preformative n - § 8. 47 - Prefor-
mative t— § 8. 48 — Names with t— or y— § 8. 49 - Name with
$- § 8. 60 — Suffixes Converging as - y § 8. 51 - Gentilic - y
§ 8. 52 - Gentilic of PL Name § 8. 53 - Suffixed -ay § 8. 54 -
Suffixed -&y § 8. 66 - Directive - h § 8. 56 - Abstracts in - l
§ 8. 67- Suffixed - n = -an § 8. 58 - Names with & without - n
§ 8. 59- Gentilics plus -1 1 § 8. 60 - Compound Names § 8. 61
- Names with il § 8. 62 - Names with cbd § 8. 63 - Names in
Adoration of King § 8. 64 - Names with A ttribute of a God
§ 8. 65 - Names Containing Verb § 8. 66 - Names with Gt
Verb §8. 67 - ‘ F a th e r’ Names § 8. 68 - ‘ S o n ’ Names § 8. 69 -
Patronymics, Fratronym ics & Toponymies § 8. 70 - Compound
Name Treated as Single Noun § 8. 71 ‫ ־‬Adjectives § 8. 72 -
Comparative & Superlative Expressions § 8. 73 - Compounds
§ 8. 74 - Loans § 8. 75.
IX. V erbs . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
An Area of Disagreement § 9. 1 —Does a yaqattal Tense Exist
in Ugaritic? § 9. 2 - Prose vs. Poetic Systems § 9. 3 - The
qtl & yqtl Tenses § 9. 4 - Conversive w § 9. 6 - Thematic
Vowel of qtl § 9. 6 - Conjugation of qtl § 9. 7 - Agreement
with Subject § 9. 8 - Sequence of Prefixed & Thematic Vowels
§ 9. 9 - Moods § 9. 10 - Energic § 9. 11 - Lax Use of Moods
§ 9. 12 - Voice § 9. 13 - Peculiarities of yqtl § 9. 14 - Conju-
gation of yqtl § 9. 16 - Proclitic l- % 9. 16 - Emphatic k -
§ 9. 17 - bl with yqtl § 9. 18 - al with yqtl § 9. 19 - Impe*
rative § 9. 20 - Imperative plus me § 9. 21 - Participle § 9. 22
- Active Participle § 9. 23 - Passive Participles § 9. 24 -
Infinitive § 9. 25 - Construct Infinitive § 9. 26 - Absolute Infin-
itive § 9. 27 - Im perative Use of Abs. Inf. § 9. 28 - P ast Use
of Abs. Inf. § 9. 29 - Abs. Inf. with Same or Different Root
§ 9. 30 - Internal Passive § 9. 31 - Symbols for the Conjuga-

— XVI —
A nOr . 38 TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

tions § 9. 82 - Gt § 9. 33 - N § 9. 84 - D § 9. 35 - L § 9. 36
- Passive § 9. 37 - § § 9. 38 - St § 9. 39 - Other Causative
Conjugations? § 9. 40 - Reduplicated Biconsonantals § 9. 41 -
qtll § 9. 42 - 4 Different Consonants § 9. 43 - - 44 .9 § ‫ם״נ‬
45 .9 § ‫ ל״נ‬- Iqh § 9. 46 - - 48 9 § ‫ § פ״א‬9 . 47 - ‫ס״ו & ס״י‬
49 .9 § ’‫ ‘ם״ה‬- Hollow Verbs (51 .9 § ‫ע״ו‬, ‫ § )ע״י‬9 . 50 - ‫ ל״ו‬-
Inflection of 53 .9 § ‫ § ל״י‬9. 52 - ‫ ע״ע‬- l)(wjy)y G & D and
fywy St § 9. 64 - }j yry § 9. 65 - )/ ndd § 9. 66 - )/ wdy{?)
§ 9. 67 - }/ £wy § 9. 58 - )/ ndy § 9. 59 - ph § 9. 60 - Motion
to or from § 9. 61.

X. P repositions . . . . . . . . . . 92
bfl ‘from’ § 10. 1 - Prepositions h— m § 10. 2 - Temporal ahr
§ 10. 3 - b ‘in, w ith ’ & Other Uses Familiar from Heb. § 10.4
- b ‘from’ § 1 0 . 5 - bl ‘w ithout’ § 10. 6 - bftna ‘between,
am ong’ § 10. 7 - ba«d- § 10. 8 - ka ‘like, a s ’ § 10. 9 - / ‘to,
for (etc.)’ § 10. 10 - l ‘from’ § 10. 11 - «ad(6) ‘up to, u n til’
§ 10. 12 - °al(6) § 10. 13 - em ‘to, w ith ’ § 10. 14 - tafct ‘ under
(etc.)’ §.10. 15 - t6k § 10. 16 - yd ‘ w ith ’ § 10. 17.

XI. A d v e r b s .............................................................................................. 102


Suffixed -h § 11. 1 - Suffixed - t § 11. 2 - Suffixed - n y % 11.3
- Suffixed -m § 11. 4 - Adverbial -m § 11. 5 - Prepositions
Paralleled by -m § 11. 6 - Verb with -m § 11. 7 - Construct
Noun with -m § 11. 8 - Adverbial bt § 11. 9 - Miscellaneous
Adverbs § 11. 10.

XII. Miscellaneous P articles . . . . . . . . 105


Coordinating Conjunctions § 12. 1 - ‘E ither, o r ’ § 12. 2 -
Subordinating Conjunctions § 12. 3 - Particles of Existence &
Nonexistence § 12. 4 - Interrogatives § 12. 5 - Vocative l & y
§ 12. 6 - Expressions for ‘ 10, behold!’ § 12. 7 - Interjectional
m y ‘ w oe!’? § 12. 8 - Suffixed - n § 12. 9.

XIII. Syntax and the P oetic S tructure . . . . . . 111


Earlier Treatments § 13. 1 - Simple Existential Sentences
§ 13. 2 - Existential Sentences with it § 13. 3 - Possession
§ 13. 4 - Simple Nonexistence § 13. 5 ‫ד‬- Jussive Nonexistence

— XVII —
TABLE OF CONTENTS A nOr. 38

PAGE
§ 13. 6 - Nonpossession § 18. 7 - Case System § 13. 8 - Obvious
Features § 13. 9 - Double Accusative § 18. 10 - Accusative of
Material § 13. 11 - Accusative of Goal § 13. 12 - Direction
§ 13. 13 - Exhaustive Singular § 13. 14 - Dual § 13. 15 -
Logical P lural § 13. 16 - PI. Words for ‘a D w elling’ § 13. 17
- Need for Awareness of Dual § 13. 18 - Feminines w ithout
Indicator § 13. 19 - A greem ent of Adjectives § 13. 20 - Com-
parison § 13. 21 - Replacem ent of Adjective by Genitive § 13. 22
- Interchange of qtl & yqtl § 13. 23 - Sequence of Verbal
Aspects § 13. 24 - Transitive & Intransitive Functions of qtl
§ 13. 25 - Instantaneous P resent § 13. 26 - Present of Verb
of Perception § 13. 27 - Optative § 13. 28 - w Conversive
§ 13. 29 - Interchangeable V ariants of yqtl § 13. 30 - Four
Moods § 13. 31 - F uture & P a st § 13. 32 - Mood § 13. 33 -
Adv. Phrase + wyqtl § 13. 34 - Negated Verb § 13. 35 - Ne-
gated Jussive § 13. 36 — Asseveration § 13. 37 - Energic
§ 13. 38 - Interchange of Moods § 13. 39 - Passive G § 13. 40
- Passive & Reflexive N § 13. 41 - G t Reflexive § 13. 42 -
Causative § 13. 43 - D ative Suffixes § 13. 44 - Accusative(s)
with Verbs of Motion § 13. 45 - Prose W ord Order § 13. 46 -
A Prose Nominal Sentence Form ula § 13. 47 - Prose Sentence
beginning with Two Prepositional Phrases § 13. 48 - Prose
Form ula Flanked by Temporal Prepositional Phrases § 13. 49 —
Chiasm in Prose § 13. 50 - Final Position of Verb w ith Em-
phatic - k § 13. 51 - Verbs of Inception § 13. 52 - Commands
§ 13. 53 —Gt, § t & N Commands § 13. 54 —Infinitives § 13. 55 —
- Infinitive in Adverbial Phrase § 13. 66 - Uses of Infinitive
Absolute § 13. 57 - Sequence of Verbs § 13. 58 - Real &
A pparent Subordination § 13. 59 - Temporal b + Infinitive
§ 13. 60 - Subordinate Clauses § 13. 61 - Negative Temporal
Clauses § 13. 62 - Causal Clause § 13. 63 - R esult Clause
§ 13. 64 —Object Sentence § 13. 66 - Purposive l— h Infinitive
§ 13. 66 - Purposive yqtl § 13. 67 - Relative Clauses § 13. 68 -
Relative d with Fem inine A ntecedent § 13. 69 - Relative Clause
of Comparison & Possession § 13. 70 - Independent d + Noun
§ 13. 71 - Substantivized Relative Clause § 13. 72 - Compound
Adjective Introduced by d § 13. 73 - Adjectivalized Relative
Clause of Privation or Negation § 13. 74 - Circumlocution for
Construct + Genitive § 13. 75 - Interrogative § 13. 76 + Double

— XVIII —
A nO r. 38 TABLE OP CONTENTS

PA G E

Question § 18. 77 - Condition § 18. 78 - Condition w ithout


Morphologic Indicator § 13. 79 - Temporal Clause § 13. 80 -
Independent Pronoun for Em phasizing Possession § 13. 81 -
Rhetorical Question with Im § 13. 82 - Rhetorical Question
w ith mn § 13. 83 - General Relative § 13. 84 - Polite Plural
§ 13. 86 - Polite Substitutions for Pronouns § 13. 86 - U nity
without Numeral § 13. 87 - D uality w ithout Numeral § 13.88 -
Numerals w ithout -ifh § 13.89 - Ten + U nits w ithout w § 13.90
- U nits + l + Tens § 13.91 - Sg. with Numeral over ‘ 10’ § 13.92
- Order of Cardinal w ith Noun § 13. 93 - Numeral with Noun
of Possessor § 13. 94 - Ordinal before Noun § 13. 95 - Noun
of M aterial after Measures § 13. 96 - Prepositions § 13. 97 -
Omission of b w ith bt § 13. 98 - D iversity of -m § 13. 99 -
Verbs with —m § 13. 100 - Construct with -m § 13. 101 -
Am biguities due to -m § 13. 102 - Pleonastic w vs. Asyndeton
§ 13. 103 - Adverbs & Particles § 13. 104 - Ellipsis § 13. 105 -
Prose Corpus § 13. 106 - Poetic Form & Sentence Structure
§ 13. 107 - Parallelism & U nit-L ength § 13. 108 - Distichs &
Tristichs § 13. 109 - Climactic Stichos § 13. 1 1 0 -R e la tio n of
Parallel Stichoi § 13.111 - Approxim ate Metric L engths § 13. 112
- Cliche § 13. 113 - Refrain § 13. J 14 - Strophe § 13. 115 -
Ballast V ariant § 13. 116 - Chiasm § 13. 117 - Word Order
§ 13. 118 - A nalytic Terminolog}7 § J 3. 119 - Analysis of Poetic
Sentences S tarting w ith Verbs (§§ 13. 120-144), w ith Subject
(§§ 13. 145-160), with Object (§§ 13. 151-155), with Preposi-
tional Phrase (§§ 13. 156-161), with Particles (§§ 13. 162-170).

XIV. L in g uistic A ffin it ie s . . . . . . . . 144


Classification of Languages § 14. 1 - Isoglosses § 14. 2 - Pairs
of Synonyms in Ugar. & Heb. § 14. 3 - Relations with Heb.
Poetry § 14. 4 - Phonologies of the Two ABC’s § 14. 5 - Sundry
Affinities § 1 4 . 6 - Causative Conjugations § 14.7 - a’ > e’
§ 14. 8 - Cardinal Numeral with Eth. Analogue § 14. 9 -
- Ordinal § 14. 10 - & > 6 § 14. 11 - Summation § 14. 12.

XV. P aradigm s . . . . . . . . . . . 149


Personal Pronouns (p. 149) - Numerals (pp. 150-151) - Nouns
& Adjectives (p. 162) - Classes of Verbs in G (p. 152) - qtl G

— XIX —
TABLE OF CONTENTS A nOr . 38

PAGE

(p. 153) - Inoperative G (p. 153) - yqtl G (p. 154) - Synopsis


of Verbal Conjugations (p. 155) - Prim ae n (p. 156) - Prim ae
h (p. 166) - Prim ae w/y (p. 157) - Mediae w/y (p. 167) —Tertiae
w/y (p. 168) — Med. w & T ert. y (p. J58).

XV I. T he U garitio T exts in T ran sliter atio n . . . . . 159

X V II. T h e C lassification of th e U oaritic T exts & t h e ir L ite r a r y


A f f i n i t i e s ................................................................................................ 257
Inventory of Texts w ith Description § 17. 1 - Classification of
the Texts § 17. 2 - 0 . T. Parallels § § 1 7 . 3-4 - Other Paral-
lels § 17. 6 - Accadian Parallels §§ 17. 6-13 - Bridging E arly
Greek and Early Hebrew L iteratures § 17. 14.

X V III. C uneiform S elections . . . . . . • • 297

S upplem ent : T exts 2001-2123 ................................................ • • 1*

XIX. G lossary . . . . . . . . . • • 347

XX. I ndices . . . . . . . . . . , 508


Forw ard Index of Personal Names . . . . . 508
Reverse Index of Personal Names . . . . . . 513
Forward Index of Place Names . . . . . • 619
Reverse Index of Place Names . . . . . . • 520
Forward Index of Divine Names . . . . . • 621
Index of Biblical Passages . . . . . • • 522
Index of Special Subjects . . . . . . . . 525
Index of Modern Authors . . . . . . • . 526
An English-U garitic Index (Prepared by H arry A. Hoffner, Jr.) 630

XXI. A dditio ns & C orrections . . . . . . • • 538

X X II. B i b l i o g r a p h y ................................................................... . • 549

P ublisher ’s N ote (1997) . . . . . . . 553

— XX —
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1. A im — The purpose of this Textbook is to provide a complete lin-


guistic tool for the study of the U garitic tablets. To every scholar who has
contributed a single correct interpretation, I am beholden. W hen I do not quote
secondary literature, it does not mean th a t I am either ignorant of the literature
or th a t I am laying claim to priority for an interpretation. A language m anual is
not the place for documenting every word w ith a secondary bibliography. Needless
to say, th e reader will find ample reference to the specific U garitic passages bearing
on any point made. If a word is now and then quoted w ithout a reference,
the reader will find th a t word with a documented discussion in the Glossary.
F or exhaustive references to the texts published prior to P R U II, the reader
m ay also refer to G. D. Young’s Concordance o f Ugaritic {Analecta Orientalia 36),
Rome, 1956.
1.2. D i s c o v e r y & D a te — Since 1929 the French expeditions directed
by Cl. Schaeffer a t the north Syrian port of U garit, have produced an
in term ittent stream of alphabetic tablets, most of which are written in a Semitic
language now known as U garitic. The tablets sta rt in the first half of the
fourteenth century B. C., though the oral composition of the literary texts
generally goes back to earlier periods. U garitic texts continued to be w ritten *
down to the la tte r part of the thirteenth century.
1. 8. D e c i p h e r m e n t — In 1930, H. Bauer, E. D horm eand Ch. Virolleaud
deciphered enough of the alphabet independently and almost simultaneously,
so th a t the work of any of the three would have sufficed to lay the foundations
for th e complete decipherm ent. D eciphering(1) an alphabet for a language with
known affinities, resolves itself to the cryptanalytic problem of monoalphabetic
substitution. The correct identification of a few letters (say five or six, including
two or three of high frequency) will provide skeletons of words th a t readily
reveal the identity of the rem aining letters. T here are two m ain ways of
startin g th e decipherm ent. (1)A frequency count, based on a sufficient quantity
of text, will reveal the letters representing the phonemes of high, interm ediate
and low frequencies respectively. (2) W ords can be guessed from position and/or
pattern. Thus the one-letter word a t the beginning of epistles is l ‘ to and
the cardinal num ber with the pattern x y x can be read as fft ‘ 3 ’.
1. 4. S i g n i f i c a n c e — U garitic has already revolutionized the study of the
Old Testam ent, though the ‘m opping-up operations’ will continue for m any years
to come, w ith rich results, in general and in detail. The full im pact of Uga-
(*) For the decipherment of Ugaritic, see Virolleaud, Syria 12 1931 15-23.

— 1 —
1.5*7 1NTBODU OTION AnOb . 38

ritic on Semitic linguistics, on the one hand, and on Near E ast cultural history,
on the other, is y et to be felt. As the evidence now stands, the most im-
portant change in the status of Semitics since Brockelmann’s Grundriss is the
addition of U garitic to the repertoire of the Semitic languages. This will sooner
or later necessitate the revision of nearly every section in the Grundriss. In
cultural studies th e importance of U garitic is greater still, because U garitic
literature was produced a t the crossroads of the Cuneiform and E ast Mediter*
ranean Worlds, and of Canaan and Anatolia, during the pivotal era of ancient
Near E ast history: the A m arna Age. T h at period witnessed the confluence
of the m ainstreams of Near E ast culture: Babylonian, Canaanite, Aramean,
H urrian, H ittite, E ast Mediterranean, E gyptian, etc. W hat the Hellenistic Age
was to later generations, the A m arna Age was to the earlier Near East. Into
th e A m arna Age flowed all the m ain currents of the past. Out of it flowed,
in varying degrees, the cultures of the Middle Assyrians, Phoenicians, Israel*
ites, Mycenaean Greeks, L ate Egyptians, etc. The significance of U garit is
in the course of unfolding.
1. 5. S t u d e n t ’s P r e r e q u i s i t e s — U garitic has already taken its place as
a m ajor language in the Sem itic family. Moreover, U garitology has reached a
stage of development enabling it to correct misapprehensions in long-known
Semitic languages and literatures. Y et the scanty representation of the Uga-
ritic vowels, plus the exegetical obstacles posed by a new literature, make it
desirable for the student to know a t least two Semitic languages, preferably
Hebrew and Arabic, before undertaking the study of U garitic which leans so
heavily on cognate phenomena.
1. 6. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n & P a r a l l e l i s m — The interpretation of the texts
began with the vocabulary and gram m atical elements th a t came to light hand in
hand with the decipherm ent of the alphabet; and the interpretation continues
to grow with every new te x t published and with every old tex t restudied. An
internal basis for interpreting the texts is the parallelistic structure of the
poetry whereby, if a-b-c is paralleled by a‫׳‬-b ‫׳‬-c‫׳‬, each element is sem antically
related to its correspondent in the parallel member. I f only one element is
obscure, as in a-b -c || a'-b '-x , the known c suggests a probable m eaning of the
unknown x. Occurrences of the same x in other contexts can refine and, under
favorable conditions, establish its meaning. Contextual evidence is more reliable
than cognate usage.
1.7. O t h e r M e a n s o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n — W hile a large portion of
the literary texts can now be translated correctly (*), the residue comprises nume*

(1l Thanks largely to parallelism. Lack o f parallelism often renders prose texts harder to
interpret than the poems.

— 2 —
A nOr. 38 INTRODUCTION 1. 8-11

rous difficulties th a t are gradually being solved (1) by new tablets (1), (2) by the
internal analysis of previously known U garitic texts, (3) by comparative Semitic
gram m ar, lexicography and idiom, and (4) by comparative literature: Hebrew,
Accadian, E gyptian, H ittite, etc. even as far afield as the Homeric Epics. Cog-
nate and comparative usage must, to be cogent, be in harm ony w ith the require-
m ents of the U garitic texts. B ut the internal analysis of the U garitic texts
can, and often does, solve problems w ithout cognate or comparative support.
1.8. P r o g r e s s s i n c e 1 9 4 0 — The interval between the Ugaritic Gram-
m ar (1940) and the Ugaritic Handbook (1947) was m arked by the publication of
new and extensive literary texts. This was not the case between the B a n d -
book and the Manual (1955). The tablets th a t were published between 1947
and 1965 were m ainly adm inistrative (texts 139-172) and filled only five pages
of the Manual (pp. 124-128). The prim ary basis for the greater progress in
this Textbook is the new m aterial published by Virolleaud in P R U II. N ext
comes the collateral evidence in the Accadian tablets from U garit published by
Nougayrol in P R U I I I and IV. Finally come the many secondary studies since
1966 on U garitic, including the comprehensive books of D river (1966), Gray
(1967) and A istleitner (1969).
1.9. S c o p e & L i m i t s — All three parts of this Textbook m ark an exten-
sive revision of their counterparts in UM. For obvious reasons, the emphasis
is squarely on the U garitic language itself. Yet, since th e value of U garitic
is not only per se b u t also for its bearing on Semitics and on Near E ast cultural
studies, I have made a num ber of comparative observations, especially in the
footnotes. To make room for them I have elim inated some of the footnotes
th a t appeared in UM provided such UM footnotes were not essential to a
description of the U garitic language.
1.10. C u n e i f o r m S e l e c t i o n s — The enlarged chrestom athy of the easier
passages in cuneiform is designed to familiarize the student w ith the script so
th a t he may know w hat letters resemble each other and hence which emenda-
tions are graphically possible and which are not.
1.11. S t a r t i n g t h e S t u d y o f U g a r i t i c — The beginner is advised to
learn the alphabet and paradigms, so th a t he may proceed w ithout delay to read
the cuneiform selections w ith the help of the Glossary. Upon finishing those
selections, he will be ready to study the gram m ar in detail and to read the cor-
pus of texts in P a rt II. *

(*) New tablets continue to come from excavations at U garit and w ill eventually come from *
numerous other sites where Ugaritio was used, especially from the provincial towns of the
Ugaritic realm. Since the mirror-written texts 500 and 501 come from Palestine, we shall not
be surprised if U garitic texts come from anywhere in Oanaan. Specifically, the mirror-written
tablets seem to have been current in Palestine before Joshua’s Conquest.

— 3 —
2. 1-2 SYSTEM OF EDITING AND TEXT REFERENCES A nOr. 38

CHAPTER II

SYSTEM OF EDITING AND TEXT REFERENCES

2. 1. E d i t o r i a l D e v i c e s — On the following pages, transliterations


are in italics, with uncertain letters in regular type. Normalizations are in
smaller type. Translations will appear in regular type with doubtful words in
italics. Restorations are in square brackets; scribal omissions in ( ) ; scribal
plusses in jj. Parentheses are used for readers’ aids like line numbers and
words added in translating. An exclamation point or question m ark refers to
the preceding letter; unless it is parenthesized, when it refers to the entire
word th a t it follows.
2.2. T e x t R e f e r e n c e s — The texts th a t have appeared in articles
are referred to by number, in the order th a t they were published. Numbers 1
to 299 are reserved for texts published in S y ria (1) ; numbers 300 to 399, in Revue
d ’a88yriologie; numbers 400-499, in various other publications; while numbers
600-599 are reserved for texts in U garitic script found a t sites other than
U garit. However, the two adze inscriptions, which were the first to appear
(in Syria), are labeled ‘ a ’ and ‘ b ’ so as to keep Yirolleaud’s num bering with
regard to tablets 1-48. For the same reason the seal inscription published in
Syria 10 1929 308 n. 1, is labeled ‘ c ’. The texts th a t have come out in book
form are designated by their ancient names (or their m ain characters). All the
alphabetic texts are listed, including the H urrian tablets and nos. 102-106 in
Accadian (*). I have not found it advisable to eliminate duplication in the case
of republished texts. Thus nos. 78, 79 and 88 form p art of cnt, while 53 has
been republished as 107, and p art 4 of A qht as 121; I regularly cite the later
edition of these texts. The P R U II texts have 1000 added to them so as to
preserve their sequence in Yirolleaud’s editio princeps. Thus P R U II te x t 1 ap*
pears in this Textbook as ‘ 1001 ’, PR U II te x t 189 appears in this Textbook as
‘ 1189 ’, etc. Some of the P R U II tablets had been published earlier and were
in the UM corpus. In such cases we cite the original UM numbers. Our
system of references, designed for simplicity, is such th a t it may be conve-
niently built upon as new texts are published. Yirolleaud has published all of

0 Or, in the case o f 137 and 138, that were to have been published in Syria, bat instead
appeared in UH through the generosity of Professors Ch. Virolleand and B. de ‫־‬Vaax, respectively.
0 The only interpretation ventured so far is E. Dhorme, ‘ Textes accadiens transcrits en
dcritare alphabdtique de Ras Shamra’ RA 37 1940-1 83-96.

— 4 —
A n Ob . 38 SYSTEM OF EDITING AND TEXT REFERENCES 2 .2

th e documents except nos. a and b, which have been reproduced photogra-


phically by Schaeffer; nos. 53, 54 and 95, edited by D horm e; nos. 69 and 70,
edited by D ussaud; 321, edited by T h u reau -D an g in ; and the two inscriptions
found in P a le stin e : 500 (from Beth Shemesh) published by E. G rant and 501
(from M ount Tabor) by S. Yeivin.

T able of R eferences to th e U garitic T exts

number place of publication

a Syria 10 1929, pi. lx , fig. 2


b pi. LX, fig. 4
c p. 308 n . 1
1‫ ־‬48 (1) LXI-LXXV
49 12 1931, pp. 19 3 2 2 4 ‫־‬
50 389
51 13 1932, 113‫ ־‬163
52 14 1933, 128‫ ־‬151
53 231
54 236‫ ־‬236
55 16 1934, 77
56 79
57 103
58 134 (A)
59 134 (B)
60 147‫ ־‬164
61 153
62 226‫ ־‬243
63 243
64 245
65 249
0 Text 3 has been republished in Syria 33, 1966, pp. 104-112.

— 5 —
8Y8TEM OF EDITING AND TEXT REFERENCES A nOr . 38

number place of publication

66 250
67 306-336
68 16 1935, 29-46
69 177
70 178
71 181
72 182
73 184
74 186
75 247-266
76 17 1936, 150-173
77 209-228
78 336-345
79 18 1937, 85-102
80 161
81 164
82 166
83 167
84 169
85 171
86 172
87 173
88 256-270
89 19 1938, 127
90 131
91 134
92 136
93 138

— 6 —
ANOB. 38 SYSTEM OP EDITING AND TEXT BEFEEENOBS

number place of publication

94 140
95 142-146
96 335
97 336
98 337
99 839
100 341
101 343
102 20 1939, 115
103 118
104 122
106 124
106 126
107 129
108 21 1940, 130
109 131
110 132
111 133
112 134
118 135-136
114 137
115 138
116 139
117 250
118 261
119 268
120 274
121 22 1941, 2

— 7 —
8YSTEK OF EDITING AND TEXT BRFERBNCB8 A nOr . 38

number place of publication

122 8-11
123 12
124 16
126 106-136
126 197-217
127 23 1942-3, 1 -20 (l)
128 137-172 (•)
129 24 1944-6, (•) 2
130 13
131 14
132 16
133 18
134 20
136 21
136 22
137
See § 2. 2, n. 1
138
139 ( = 1184) 28 1961, 22
140 ( = 1186) 23
141 ( = 1187) 23
142 ( = 1183) 24
143 ( = 1162) 26
144 ( = 1164) 27
146 ( = 1103) 29
146 ( = 1104) 32

0 ) Published in 1943.
(*) Published in 1945.
(*) Published in 1946.

— 8 —
A nOb . 38 SYSTEM OF EDITING AND TEXT BBFBBBNOBS

namber place of publication

147 ( = 1041) 33
148 ( = 1105) 34
149 ( = 1057) 35
150 ( = 1068) 36
161 ( = 1072) 37
152 ( = 1073) 38
153 ( = 1078) 39
154 ( = 1074) 40
165 ( = 1076) 40
156 ( = 1148) 41
167 ( = 1149) 41
158 ( = 1150) 41
169 ( = 1176) 42
160 ( = 1177) 42
161 ( = 1178) 43
162 ( = 1068) 43
163 ( = 1027) 43
164 ( = 1119) 44
165 ( = 1168) 44
166 ( = 1163) 45
167 ( = 1169) 45
168 ( = 1182) 163
169 ( = 1026) 165
170 ( = 1040) 167
171 ( = 1100) 170
172 ( = 1145) 172-3
300 R A 37 1940-1, 13-14
301 17-18
SYSTEM OP EDITING AND TEXT REFERENCES A nOr . 38

number place of publication

302 19
303 19
304 20
805 21
806 22
307 23
308 24
309 25
310 26
311 27
312 28
313 28
3 !4 2 9 -3 0
315 31
316 32
317 32
318 33
319 33
320 ( = 1185) 34
321 106-107
322 130-131
323 132-3
324 135
325 136-7
326 1 3 7 -8
327 138
328 140
329 141

— 10 —
AnOr . 38 SYSTEM OF EDITING AND TEXT REFERENCES 3.1

number place of publication

830 143
331 144
332 144
333 145
334 145
335 146
400 Memorial Lagrange, Paris, 1940, plates 1-11
401 ( = 1184) Orientalia 19 1950 374
6C0 BASOR 52 1933 4
501 Kedem 2 1946 32-41 & pi. Ill, 2
1001-1189 Lepalais royal d' Ugarit II, Paris, 1957, texts 1-189.
Aqht (*): La Ugende pMnidenne de Danel, Paris, 1936 (*).
Krt: I m Ugende de Keret, Paris, 1936.
nt (•): La (Ue88e *Anal, Paris, 1938.

CHAPTER III

THE ALPHABET

8.1. U g a r it ic ABC — Texts 320, 401 and 1186-1189 show that the
Ugaritic scribes learned their ABC in the following order:
a b g f y d h w z h f y k 8 l m d n z s ' p § q r £ < ) t i u &
The order of these thirty letters indicates that the last three may have
been appended to a preexisting alphabet ending in t like the familiar Hebrew
ABC. i and u may have been necessary for writing non-Semitic texts (notably
(!) That this poem was named after ‘ Aqht ’ is evident from 1 A q h t:l, where the tablet is
labeled: 1. aqht *belonging to the Aqht (E pic)’.
(*) In the introduction Virolleaud gives an account of the archaeology of the site, the
decipherment of the texts, etc.
(J) Unless the plate no. is given, the texts on pis. i-viii are indicated.

— 11 —
3 .2 3 THE ALPHABET A nOr . 38

Hurrian), or for that matter even Semitic Accadian, where syllables consisting
only of a vowel occur. Such syllables would hardly occur in Hebrew or Phoe-
nician where virtually every vowel must follow a consonant (aleph, of course,
being among the Semitic consonants). £ tends to be limited to loanwords, such
as S&w *horse ’ (borrowed from Indo-European) and khu ‘ chair ‫( ׳‬of Sumero-
Accadian origin); and even in such words £ tends to interchange with 8 as
the variants 88w and ksu show. There is a unit of measure that is written
either prk (1146:5) or prs (1059:7). In one tablet, the nominative krku (1146:12)
and genitive 6. krsi (:13) are forms of the same noun, although one is written
with £, and the other with 8.
3. 2. R elation to Hebrew ABC — The first 27 letters of the Uga-
ritic ABC are related, in their order, to the 22-letter ABC of the Hebrews
and Phoenicians. Moreover, the five letters constituting the difference, could
only have dropt out of the longer to form the shorter version. If we try to
make additions out of the five letters, there is no way (with reference to gra-
phic form or phonetic description) to explain their haphazard insertion. How-
ever, the dropping of the five follows from clear linguistic considerations. For &
shifted to b in Phoenician and Hebrew; hence h became unnecessary and was
dropt. Similarly, after t shifted to 8, the original £ became unnecessary and
was dropt. (It is interesting that the £ of the Hebrew alphabet stands in the
position of 8-reduced-from-t and not of original £). Also d shifted to z and
was dropt; % shifted to 9 and was dropt; and g shifted to * and was dropt.
Thus the Ugaritic alphabet (at least the first 27 letters) is typologically, but
not yet chronologically(1), earlier than the Phoenician-Hebrew alphabet. The
latter was developed for use in a dialect in which the following shifts had
taken place: b > b* d > z, g > *, 9 > 9, t > 8.
3. 3. A B C C h a r t — The native order of the U garitic ABC is not
suitable for alphabetizing in a work of modern scholarship. Thus, to list ah
‘ brother ’ near the beginning, but uhy ‘ my brother ’, near the end of the
Glossary would be impractical. Accordingly, for purposes of alphabetizing in
this book, the letters are arranged in the order of the 22-letter Hebrew al-
phabet with the 8 additional letters inserted where Semitists would be most
inclined to look for them:

(*) The simultaneous existence of both the Phoen. and Ugar. alphabets has long been clear.
A s of now, the Phoen. happens to occur first. Father A. Pohl, S. J., informs me that Phoen.
letters of the 18th century B. 0. are inscribed on unpublished antiquities.

— 12 —
A nOr . 38 THE ALPHABET

No. Ugaritic character Phonetic value Transliteration

1 *a, '&(!) a

2 IF *i, % *8 (1) i

3 *u, *6 , '6 ( 1) u
JZ
4 JI b b

5
‫ז‬ g 9

6
‫מ‬ d d

7 < / c ) d d

8
§== h h

9 w w

10
} z z

11 Kc> b
* b

12 b
f Me)

0) These are the certain values. Disputed values are discussed in § 4. 8.


(*) Note the variants <r ‫־‬V
and

— 13 —
THE ALPHABET A nOr. 38

No. Ugaritic character Phonetic value Transliteration

13 t t

14 ‫ש‬3 ( ?

16 y y

16 £>‫־‬ k k

17
nr 1 1

18
‫ד‬ m m

19 n n

20
V 8 8

21
i 8 4

<
c
22 C

23 <7 ^ ‫)*( ־‬ m a

24 P p
1 =

(‫ )י‬jf represents one of the two traditional pronunciations of h but not the original Semitic
phoneme, which is preserved in Ugaritic and which would be more correctly represented by t•
We avoid the latter for typographical reasons.

(‫ ף‬Note the variants and •

— 14 —
AnOr. 38 THE ALPHABET 3. 4-5

No. Ugaritic character Phonetic value Transliteration

25 9 $
‫ח‬

26 q g

27 r r

28 < ‫ז‬/ 8 &

29 ►‫־־‬ t t

30 ‫ז‬ t t

3.4. Word D ivid er — Words are often divided by a small vertical


wedge: T which we transliterate as a point (.).
3. B. A B C D efin ed S y lla b i c a l l y — Text 1189 defines the Ugaritic
ABC in terms of the Mesopotamian syllabary as follows:
obv.) a A (beginning of rev. brok
2) 6 BE 21) [P] [PjU
a) 9 GA 22) 9 $A
4) fr 5A 23) q QU
6) d DI 24) r RA
6) h U 2B) t §A
7) w WA 26) $ 5A
8) z ZI 27) t TU
9) b KU 28) [1] I
10) t TI 29) u U
(rest of obv. broken) 30) h ZU
Had this fragment been discovered in 1929, it would have served as the
key to the decipherment, for it provides the pronunciation of twenty out of

— 15 —
3.6. THE ALPHABET A n Ob . 38

the th irty letters of the U garitic ABC. B ut by 1966, when tablet 1189 was
discovered, the decipherm ent of U garitic had long been a fait accompli w ithout
benefit of bilinguals. Our interest in tablet 1189 therefore lies along other
lines. I t shows th a t in the Semitic W est, U sometimes had the conventional
value of hu, as distinct from U which stood for u or ,u. The use of K U to
represent h, ties in with the occasional interchange of K and H signs in the
Mesopotamian syllabary (1). The juxtaposition of HA with both h and shows
th a t 5-syllables covered both voiced ^ and unvoiced h.
3. 6. M i r r o r * w r i t t e n A B C — Texts 57 and 74 read from rig h t to
left (like Hebrew) and have therefore been term ed *m irror w ritten ’. A new
m irror tex t (R§ 22.06) has enabled Virolleaud to establish th a t in the m irror

version of the ABC, S and t fall together as Q , and h and fy as £ . A new letter,

, has appeared in this script and Virolleaud suspects it stands for §.

In any case, the convergence of § and t, and of h and h, suggests th a t the


phonetic repertoire of the m irror ABC is close to (and perhaps identical with)
th a t of the Phoenician-Hebrew alphabet of twenty-two letters. The fact th a t
both ‘ U garitic ’ tablets found in Palestine (namely, tex t 600 from Beth She*
mesh, and 601 from Mount Tabor) are m irror written, gives a potential impor*
tance to the m irror ABC, transcending by far the contents of the few m irror
tablets discovered so far. Both phonetically and in the direction of w riting,
these tablets run against standard U garitic usage b u t approxim ate the Phoe-
nician-Hebrew tradition. The fact th a t 600 and 501 have been found a t widely
separated points in Palestine suggests th a t the m irror texts may have been widely
used between Palestine and U garit, perhaps in a dialect more like Phoenician
or Hebrew than standard U garitic. Archives in the m irror ABC doubtless
aw ait discovery a t points between Beth Shemesh and U garit, for it is incon-
ceivable th a t this script, so widely distributed geographically, was lim ited to a
few documents th a t can be counted on one’s fingers.

(l) Of. L. Matoug, Archiv Orientdlni 27 1969 439.

— 16 —
A nOr . 38 ORTHOGRAPHY 4. 1-3

CHAPTER IY

ORTHOGRAPHY

4. 1. H o m o g r a p h s & H o m o n y m s — W ith the exception of the vow■


els th a t go with aleph, the U garitic alphabet indicates only consonants. This
leads to the presence of non-homonymic hom ographs(1); e. g., amt = *amat-
‘ handmaid ’ or *amat- 41 die ’, p — pa 4and ’ or ph/i/A ‘ m outh ’, mt — mat-
‘ man ’ or mdt- 4death ’, ,n = ‘fin- 4eye ’ or ‘ana 4he replied ’ or 'Ana 4he view-
ed ’, ym = yamm- (•) 4sea ’ or yfim- 4day There are, of course, also homo*
nymic homographs such as alp = *alp- 41000 ’ or ‘ ox ’ (•).
4 .2 . N a t u r e o f S c r i p t — The script is essentially the representation
of the consonantal alphabet by means of cuneiform writing. The inventor(s?)
combined the alphabetic idea (first found in Egypt, where, however, it was
combined with the simultaneous use of syllabic, logographic and determ inative
signs) with the Mesopotamian idea of inscribing wedges on clay with the stylus.
I t was not his intention to take over whole Accadian signs or to approxim ate
w ith wedges the forms of Oanaanite letters. W hile it is conceivable th a t a
few of the characters are cuneiform approximations of Canaanite letters (*) this
is not the case with most of the characters (*).
4. 3. D i r e c t i o n o f W r i t i n g Following Accadian usage, U garitic
is generally w ritten from left to right. Rarely does it tally w ith Canaanite
custom in going from rig h t to left (as in texts 57, 74, 500 and 501); cf. § 3. 6.

(') The distinction between homonym and homograph can be illustrated from E nglish; e. g;
4roe ’ and 4(to) row ’ or 4tare * and 4(to) tear (up) ’ are non-homographic homonyms, whereas
4(to) row ’ and 4(to make a) row ’ or 4(to) tear (up ) ’ and 4(to shed a) tear ’ are non-homonymic
homographs. The nature of Ugaritic writing is such that it does not give rise to non-homographic
homonyms like ‘bough ’ and 4bow ’ or 4llama ’ and 4lama
(*) The failure of the script to show gemination also gives rise to non-homonymic homographs.
(*) This phenomenon is so common in 80 many scripts that it is unnecessary to multiply
examples; suffice it to note English 4lig h t’ in the meanings of German leicht and Licht.
(*) In the case of i and there are resemblances with the Phoenician alphabet; compare

and with Phoenician 2^ 5 and ( 3 respectively. We may also note at this juncture

that it is gratuitous to point out similarities in form when there is no phonetic correspondence.
(6) See De Langhe I, table IY, for a tabulation of attempts to correlate the Ugaritic alphabet
with Accadian, Sinaitic, and West and South Semitic scripts. Of. also F. Rosenthal, Orientalia
18 1949 254-256.

— 17 —

3
4.4-6 ORTHOORAPH Y AnOr . 38

4. T h r e e A le p h s — The question arises why the aleph, and only


4.
the aleph, has three forms instead of one (l) ; see U. Cassuto, ‘ Le tre alef del-
l’alfabeto ugaritico OrientaUa 16 1947 466-477. In Proto-Sem itic and in the
conservative Semitic languages, syllables virtually always begin with a conso-
nant. For the needs of these languages, then, the consonantal alphabet is
adequate because virtually every syllable will be represented in the orthography.
However, in other languages, a vowel often constitutes the syllable. Now the
U garitic alphabet was also used to write languages in which the syllable could
begin with or consist of a vowel (cf. § 3. 1). For this reason, vowel letters were
necessary. (It was natural to take over the vowel distribution of Accadian
cuneiform, whereby all vowels are classified orthographically as a, i or u.
A fourth vowel, e, is not sharply distinguished orthographically from t; e. g.,
in the contemporary Accadian from Nuzu id-di-in may also be w ritten id-di-en\
cf. OrientaUa 7 1938 36 § 1 .1 1 .) However, such a procedure did not fit in
with the principle of the consonantal alphabet(*), which was appropriate for
the Semitic language of U garit. Hence a compromise was effected: three
aleph signs were used whose normal values in the U garitic texts were ’a, *i
and 'a respectively, while in H urrian aud Accadian texts they could stand for
a, i, u. Such is the tentative explanation of how instead of one aleph sign,
there are three, depending on the nature of the accompanying vowel.
4. 5. M a tr e s L e c t i o n i s — As has ju st been pointed out, in the Uga-
ritic texts, a, i and u do not represent simply vowels; they imply consonantal
aleph together with the vowel th a t follows it. However, there are sporadic
examples of vocalic representation; i. e., where an aleph-sign is used as a vow-
el le tte r. w ithout designating consonantal aleph. Thus the i of mria (acc.) is
vocalic in 51 : V I : 4 1-42 and cn t : IV : 86 ; i. e., = m-ri’a (cf. Heb. ‫)מחא‬. Note
th e ‘ normal ’ spelling mra (51 : V : 107). Similarly, compare §bia (128 : V : 19)
with $ba (126 : 36). Observe also th a t a is vocalic in yraun [ = abs. inf. yar&'u +
acc. p ro .]. aliyn . bcl (67 : I I : 6) ‘ Aliyn Bacl feared him ’ (cf. § 9. 29). Also
final - y is used sporadically as a vowel letter to represent 1‫ ־‬and -6: (1 0 1 6 :4 )
ily (5) ugrl = ,ilG ,agarita ‘ the gods of U garit ’, ky — kl (1016 : 7 ; 1 0 2 1 : 13)
‘ th a t ’, by (1015 : 10) = bi ‘ in me ’, hnny (1020 : 3) = bunnim ‘ favor me! cf.
Heb. ‫ * א לי‬,‫ י‬3 ,‫ ב י‬and ‫ני‬3‫ ח‬.
- v i • ‫י‬ , “ ‫י‬

4.6. V o w e ls I n h e r e n t in A le p h s — The inherent vowels of the


aleph signs are known, for example, from the syntax of nouns, whose final

(*) Normally the alephs are not interchangeable in any given form, bat there are a few
exceptions like maSmn = miimn ‘a seal ’ or tant = tunt ‘rain
(*) As observed in § 3.1 , the ABC texts show that originally the only aleph in the alphabet
was the one we transliterate as a; i and « were added, as their position at the end of the
ABO shows.

— 18 —
A nOr. 38 OBTHOOBAPHT 4.7-9

consonant is aleph. From the following three sentences it is evident th a t the


Semitic case endings are represented in km (nom.), ksi (gen.) and ksa (acc.):
(cn t : V I : 14) kptr (15) km . ibth ‘ Caphtor is the throne of his sitting ’, grS ym
Iksih (68: 12) ‘ drive Yamm from his throne lyhpk . ksa . mlkk (49 : V I : 28)
‘ will he not upset the throne of thy kingship ? ’.
4 .7 . R a n g e o f I n h e r e n t V o w e ls — The aleph signs not only indi-
cate either the long or short quantities of the inherent vowels a, i and u re-
spectively, but i can also imply the inherent vowels e (§ 4. 8 n. 1) and 6 (redu-
ced from *ay) as in in = *to- ‘ there is not ’ (cn t : V : 41), while u can sim ilarly
imply 6 (reduced from *aw) as in u = *6 ‘ either, or ’ (52 : 68, 64).
4 .8 . V o w e lle s s A le p h — W here comparative Semitic gram m ar calls
for vowelless aleph (i. e., aleph not followed by a vowel), the scribes nearly
always write i; e. g., r ii < *ra'S- ‘ h e a d ’, ?in < *9a'n- ‘ flocks (of sheep and
goats) ’, tihd < *ta'fcud- ‘ she seizes ’, tiki < *ta*kal(u) ‘ (they) eat ’, th(in <
*tibta'na ‘ ye (f.) sin etc., etc. (1). W hether this is by accident or design is a
moot question. All authorities agree th a t when a vowel follows aleph, the
aleph-sign with th a t inherent vowel is used. Differences of opinion arise only
when aleph is not followed by a vow el; in which case there are three points
of v ie w : some m aintaining th a t (1) the inherent vowel reflects the vowel
preceding the a le p h ; others holding th a t regardless of the preceding vowel,
(2) only i is u s e d ; and still others proposing th a t regardless of the preceding
vowel (3) any aleph sign can be used. As samples of the difficulties we m ay
note th a t in duplicate passages we encounter the same word now w ritten tant
(cn t : I I I : 21) and now lunt (cnt pi. i x : II I : 14). Note also the u of yuhd(m)
(61 : IV : 16, cf. 137:40) and yuhb (67: V:18) (*), versus the more common yihd
*he seizes ’ (though *yihb ‘ he loves ’ is not yet attested). A rule w ithout ex-
ception is hardly to be formulated. B ut it is likely th a t vowelless aleph tends
to be represented by the aleph-sign containing the vowel th a t precedes it.
Thus syllables ending in a* (*) and &’ tend to be w ritten as a ; in i*, i’, e* and 6’
as i; and in ‫*מ‬, ft* and 6* as u.
4. 9. F o r m s o f ^ ^ is regularly w ritten in tex t 77 to the
exclusion of Y - • For other instances of ‫—׳‬, see 60 : 4, 6, 7, 12, 18, and
73 : 3. A nother variant is (1062 : 2 0 ; 1125 : rev. 3). See also § 4. 12.
\
(x) Actually these particular examples reflect the sound shift a‫>״‬e* (§ 5. 16); i. e., re*8-, ?e’n‫־‬,
tiht6*n&- etc.
(*) These active qal forms may preserve a u-vocalization of the prefix of the imperfect;
cf. ‫( ונעבדם‬Deut. 1 3 :3 ) as against the normal ‫ונעבדם‬. This vocalization is attested in the
~s‫־‬r:
frequent .‫יוכל‬
‫ ))ג‬That is, if a* should be found under special conditions (as in loanwords), for normally a‫ >״‬e \

— 19 —
4. 10-11 ORTHOGRAPHY AnOB. 38

4. 10. E x t r a W e d g e s — Most of the variant forms of the letters arise


from the addition of a wedge (or less often two wedges) to a series th at
should normally be lim ited t-o three (or rarely to two) identical wedges. The fol-
lowing variants illustrate this ten d e n cy :

for i : | r — ; and l = = (113 : 29, 30, 37, 51, 64; 118 : 28, 32, 33, 39;

1143 :9 , 11, 12, 13 b u t not in lines 1, 3, 7).

for u : J j ’YY (1018 : 2; * n t: I I I : 46 and pi. ix : I I I : 14).

for d : JU (118:20: *nt: I I I : 46), JJJT(K rt: 234), J J Y J (1 A q h t: 162).

for h: j= = (1 2 :3 ; 1 8 :1 9 ; 113:65 [but p ~ in 113:72]; 1 1 8 :2 6 ;

K rt:9 1 , 171; * n t : I V : 4 7 and pi. x : I V : 1 2 , V : 17) and


| ---- (118 : 12).

for £: ^ (6 : 10 b u t Dote n o rm a l ^ in lin e 13).

for y : 11 (109 : 4, 6, 10 [but ^ in 109 : 3-10 p a ssim ] ; 320: 2).

for l : (118:12, 16; * n t: V I : 7, 8, 11 and pi. x : I V : 1 2 ) .

for n : Htt. (9 :1 1 , 12, 16, 17; 7 6 :1 1 :2 8 ; 1 0 9 :6 , 9; 1047:10, 11, 17,

18, 19, 20, 21; 1 A q h t: 160) and ► ► 3 :3 2 0 ;9 4 ;1 4 : 9) ‫►♦►־‬


‫)־‬.

for r : f c t p - (9 :11, 12, 13; 1077:2, 5, 7, 8, 9; also in 3 :1 5 ,2 3 b u t

not in 3 :4 0 ), ( 3 :1 , 2, 16), ( 3 :7 [bis]).

4. 11. O m i tt e d W e d g e s — Much less common is the dropping of one


of a series of wedges:
for d: m (103 : 5; *nt pi. x : Y : 8, 26).

— 20 —
AnOB. 38 ORTHOGRAPHY 4.12-13

for h : | ~ (3 A qht o b v .: 26, 29), which is tantam ount to p for h.

4. 12. O t h e r V a r i a n t s — Observe also the minor, unclassified variants:

for (1 1 0 :1 1 ; 156:11, 12; 3 0 0 :1 0 , 17; 8 1 1 :3 , 12 ;1029 :1 2 ;

1030: 7), (119:3; 305:1; 3 1 0 :5 ; 1185:3), (1024:3),

V (1031 : 13).

for 8: (150: 3).

for <?: t> -4 (305:1), (4 :1 0 , 30, 36 [bis], 49, 63, 68 [bis]). See
also § 4. 9.

for r : (3 A qht obv.: 21).

for 8: u (1 1 4 :8 , 9, 10), 4 > 6 : 1131) ^ ,(1131:5) ‫ ) ־‬b u t else-

where 8 is w ritten norm ally in 1131.

for t: (96 : passim), (80 : 4; 105 : rev. 8, 10; 1131 : 9 b u t ^


in 80: 2, 4 and in 106 : 2, 3, 8, rev. 2 and in 1131: passim) (1),

and small (1047: 16).

for 8: (1186:6)(*).

4. 13. C o n f u s e d L e tte rs — Sim ilar letters are sometimes confused:


i for h : grhU (109 : 1), Ithfggn (1001: rev. 13), b h r f h ! (75 : 1 : 41).
h for i: nni! (66 :18), w ill (75 : 1: 41).
I for u: y8u! (49 : V I : 13).
u for d: kdtw t (1111 : 3) as shown by 1112 : 19 and 1113 : 11.
p for h: Wrth! (3 A qht obv.: 29 ; cf. § 4. 11 above).
h for h: ph!r (1 3 7 :2 0 ); i. e., 8 horizontal instead of 8 vertical wedges.
y for #: h!m8 ( K r t : 116).
h for y: aryfh (cn t : V : 46) and perhaps m y! (126 : 27).

(1I See also D e Langhe I, p. 242, for additional variations and p. 241 for problematic signs.
(*) There is not mach point in listing all the careless forms of letters written by students
on practice tablets each as the ABO texts (1184*1189).

— 21 —
4. 14-18 OBTHOGRAPHT AnOr. 38

w for k: kfspm ( K r t : 205), kfbn (137 : 38).


k for w: w!y*n (126 : IV : 10).
p for k : abk!y (1 A q h t: 111).
I for d: d!ym ru (51: V I I : 50) || dym lk & dy&b[m\, d!t (64 : 2), ahd! (1129 : 9).
d for l: il! (5 1 :1 :3 5 ), unless id is ‘ (Mount) Ida ( = C rete)’ here.
9 for l: tdhl! (1013:21).
r for n : bn!y (138:3).
a for n : n!cmn ( K r t: 40).
a for k : ykfhp (55 : 27).
a for 9 : e9 !rm (19 : 3).
k for r : r!b* (51 : V I : 26), lym r! (68 : 17).
r for k: ak!l (56 : 17).
to for t: rbt! ( K r t : 109).
t for to: Ihmf (1035 : 5).
t for ‫״‬: i?!nn (1001: rev. 13).
g virtually identical with word divider in Dhorm e’s copy of 64, in #7y .!
uU (1081:12) and in yukl .! krm (1081 : 16).
4. 14. U n c l a s s i f i e d M is u s e d L e t t e r s — No sim ilarity of form can
explain art (1 A q h t: 112), which is to be emended to ar 9 ! as the parallel in
line 141 show s(1) [yet note also a r t . hkpt (1128:26) for ar 9 . hkpt] ; nor 9 m 9
(1099:36) for h!m 9 (cf. lines 27, 28).
4. 15. zip* & qft* — The most frequent source of confusion is perhaps
the identity of p* w ith ?, when p and * are not well separated by the scribe
(75 : I t : 33 et passim). Less often F looks like q.
4. 16. q j y — Sometimes q looks like e. g., cn t : V I: 19.
4. 17. t / * — Some of the scribes hardly distinguish * from t; e. g., in
*ttrt (19 : 16), the * and the t's are virtually the sa m e ; cf. btlt in 6 :1 9 as well
as w hat is perhaps to be read as h$th *one half thereof ’ in 1 : 10. For the
variety of angles a t which * may be tilted, see 3 : 3 , 4 ; 5 : 2 and 6 :1 8 , 19, 22.
4. 18. t l ‘ —' I t is often hard to tell t and * a p art; note for t

(6 :3 ) and ^ or ^ for t (4 and 6 : passim). This is particularly true in


th e H u m a n tablets, where our linguistic difficulties are thereby aggravated.
When a clearly w ritten * may stand for f in a H urrian text, we shall trans-
literate i.

(J) Does this point to the affricate value of # as ts, such as we find in Ethiopic and in the
Ashkenazic pronunciation of Hebrew f Also Egyptian transliterations represent Semitic t as an
affricate.

— 22 —
A nOr . 38 ORTHOGRAPHY 4. 19-23

4. 19. i f t — Jn the light of §§ 4 17, 18; it follows th a t occasionally £


will be hard to distinguish from t; cf. [*]ttrt (17 : 3).
4. 20. M o n o g r a m s — Monograms are not common. However, the scribe
of 321 frequently combines b with n ( f f *‫ ) ■»■*־‬and w with the word
divider ►»- f■). W ith the latter compare also ( = « > + .) in 111 : 4).

Note mm in 1019 : 4.

4. 21. © — The encircled * in the non-Sem itic 6 0 : 30, 36, 37, prob-
ably stands for $ or a sim ilar sound; cf. the circular letter in the m irror written
ABC (§ 3. 6).
4. 22. S c r i b a l E r r o r s — The U garitic tablets have their share of
scribal omissions and plusscs, the former being commoner. 1 1 5 5 :2 shows
th a t yr(H) ‘ m o n th ’ is to be read in 115 6 :2 . In 1167 :3-4, ksp seems to be
w ritten twice instead of once. As illustrations of haplography n o te : ank . (k)imr
(49 : I I : 22) *I, like a lamb ’, wHt em . a[r]y{y y)n (67 : 1 : 25) ‘ and thou shalt
drink wine w ith my kinsmen ’ ; the duplicate in K i t : 216 shows th a t bn(p)k
is to be read in K r t: 113 (this is haplography, for the shape of p is the begin-
ning of k). The following is dittography : lkr\k\t ( K r t : 298 f.). Here ‘ ’ may
be regarded as the repetition of the last part of the r rath er than the dupli*
cation of the first k. The twice w ritten word divider(?)(1) has the appearance
of $ in yrh . . t§rt (9 :1 1 ) ‘ the month of TiSrlt ’. The inversion of two letters *
in t grm (1082 : rev. 8), for tgmr ‘ total ’, seems scribal rather than phonetic,
though this type of error is rare in U garitic.
4 .2 3 . W o rd D i v i d e r — The word divider often(*), but not always,
separates words. I t is not usually w ritten a t the end of a line. However, it
occurs frequently a t the ends of lines in tex t 6 ; so also in 61 : 1 : 29 and
1 A q h t: 2, 35, 37 and 41 ; etc. The divider is not uncommonly placed after the
conjunction w and after prepositions. I t is more apt to appear after a pre•
position th a t has enclitic -m than after an unaugm ented preposition; thus klb
(49 : I I : 6, 7, 28) b u t km . lb (lines 8, 29) ‘ like the heart ’, or km . gn (62 :1:4)
‘ like a garden ’ but kfmq (line 6) 4like a plain ’.

(') Unless this is logographic for ‘ 2nd’, for Arab Christians have a First and a Second
Tidrin. The calendar of Ugarit is composite. Of the known months only the 7th, ttrt, is Ba- 4c
by Ionian; and surprisingly, only byr (the 2nd) is known from the Phoenician inscriptions (though
it occurs also in Nuzi). The others are *ft, itfbnm , gn, Jtt, m gm r, nql, pgrm and r ii-y n (each
preceded by yr&; and possibly [y]r&. dbb[m\ (1160:5) ‘ Month of Sacrifices’ parallel to month
names in lines 1, 3. See Glossary. Note the sequence: &yr, h,lt, gn, itb in 1088:11-15, frag. a.
(*) In a few texts (e. g., 7, 107) it is not used at all.

— 23 —
4. 24-30 ORTHOGRAPHY An Ob . 38

4.24. D i v i d e r w ithin Word — In 1 Aqht: 170, the word divider


is misplaced in the middle of a word : ym\.\$yn ‘ he goes to Although l.qh
is twice written with the word divider (1117: 18, 20), it is one word: laqabfi
‘ they received ’. Similarly, the personal name nrn is written n . rn in 1117 :12.
Accordingly l.m d (:19) may be Imd ‘ apprentice(s of) ’ (as in : 12, 15, 17); but
yet note a word md in 1054: 1. The scribe of 1098 writes bnSm repeatedly
but in line 6 he writes bn. §m with the divider in the middle of the word.
4. 25. Words on Two Lines — Often the lines do not agree with
the poetic divisions and sometimes even words are spread over two lines:
(49 : V : 15) &r#(16)m (not often in 49); (61 : 1 : 26) ySI(27)h, (28) y$q(29)mf (51:
VIII: 24) ba(2b)lp . id . rb t. k(26)mn (and often in 51); (68:21) qdq(22)d, (77:45)
8p(46)rhn, (77 :46) mn(A7)thn (and repeatedly in 77); (1 Aqht :82) ‫־‬km(SB)rbet .
iqlm, (1 Aqht :170) y§t(171)ql, (1 Aqht :171) b(172)kyt, (cn t:II:5 )
(en t : I I : 32) &Z(33)[/]Z *nt, (cn t : V I : 19) t$th(20)wy, etc. This is rare in the
administrative texts; yet note (1130: 11) tl(12)t ‘ 3 ’.
4. 26. D ivid er in 57 & 74 — The mirror written texts 67 and 74
make use of a longish vertical line for the divider.
4. 27. Ruled Lines — In texts 6, 10 etc. nearly all the lines of the
text are separated by ‘ ruled ’ lines. ‘ Ruled ’ lines sometimes mark the natu-
ral divisions of the text; cf. 2-5, 11, 13, 18, 52, 77 etc.(1). However, the line
after Krt: 104, far from marking a major textual division, is placed squarely in
the middle of what would be called a verse in O. T. poetry (i. e., between the
parallel members). In 1161 a line serves as colon ; before the line we read
(:8) hn hmt (9) tknn (then follows the line), (10) m tn . b n . *bdym (11) ilrb
*behold these shall testify: A., B. & C. ’
4. 28. Tabulation D ivid er — In tabulations, the scribe may put a
word divider in the middle of the line, so that the items are named on the
left, while the numerals are on the right (thus 112).
4.29. Wedged Lines — In 113, wedged lines ( »■■■‫־‬ ) are used
to show when one numeral applies collectively to several different items.
4. 30. E longated Signs — The scribe of 109 likes to prolong the
final horizontal wedge of the names listed at the beginnings of the lines so as
to make the names reach the mid-line word dividers (which are followed by
the pertinent statistics); thus :
X X y *-------------- t (109 : 3)
(l) A comprehensive study of the use of lines, with reference to scribal peculiarities, might reveal
some significant results. Among the phenomena are also (1) single lines at the ends of tablets (64-56
etc.), (2) double liues (28: rev. 5; 32: en d ; 50 : beginning; 51: V : 103; 6 1 :1 ; 62:52; 73: rev. 3; 106:
8; 321: passim; cu t: I I I : 28; etc.), (3) short double lines at the end of a column — particularly on
the obverse (49: I I ; 5 1 :1 ; 75 : I, I I ; 128 : 1, II), (4) triple lines (13: rev. 5; 43 : 3 ; 325: end).

— 24 —
A nOb . 38 PHONETICS 4. 31 • 5•!

10-0-0•■ t (109 : 6)

4 —— 4 ‫ ה‬------ ‫( ז‬109:9)
|| ‫— מ ה‬ ‫!( ז‬09:10)
4. 81. Orthographic Impact on L a n g u a g e — Orthography impo-
ses its requirements on the written language. For example, mit ‘ 100 ’ can
stand in the construct before a noun in the genitive; thus mit iqni (118 :pas-
sim) ‘ 100 (units) of lapis-lazuli In the spoken language the dual construct
mi'tS ‘ 200 ’ could also be followed by a genitive, but bookkeeping would be
impossible if mit iqni could mean either 100 or 200 units of the stone, and
alp iqni could mean either 1000 or 2000 units thereof. Accordingly the duals
mitm and alpm must appear in the absolute, so that the final -m rules out
the singular. Semitic idiom permits the numeral to stand in either the abs.
or const.; thus Heb. has ‫( שלשה אנשים‬abs.) or ‫( שלשת אנשים‬const.) for ‘ 3 men ’.
That Ugaritic speech permitted both is evident, but the written language for
clarity requires m itm .iqnu (1128:28) ‘ 200 [abs.] (units of) lapis-lazuli [nom.]’,
with -m, and does not tolerate mit iqni if ‘ 200 ’ is intended. Moreover, encli-
tic - to cannot be added to singular numbers if the latter would thereby take
on the appearance of duals.

CHAPTER Y

PHONETICS

6. 1. H e t e r o g e n e i t y — We have already noted (§ 3.6) that the ‘ mir-


ror ABC ’ embodies phonetic convergences (e.g., $jt and hjh) characteristic of
the Hebrew alphabet. Thug yph (in mirror text 57 : 9) =: normal Ugaritic yph
(1144:5) ‘ witness ’ (Heb. ‫ יסח‬in Ps. 27 : 12), Iht (in mirror text R§ 22.05) =
normal Ugaritic Iht ‘ tablet and (with x standing for 8/t) xafxrxmn (57 :2;
cf. line 11) = normal Ugaritic U. eSr Smn ‘ 16 (units) of oil ’ =. Heb. ‫מן‬# ‫ה עשר‬##.
Note that three originally different phonemes (Jj , ‫ = ש‬J ! , ‫ ) ^ = ש‬fall toge-
ther in the mirror ABC exactly as they do in the Phoenician-Hebrew alphabet,
in which all three converge in ‫ש‬. In a linguistically mixed community like
Ugarit, where the documents span most of the fourteenth and thirteenth centu­

— 25 —

4
5. 2*3 PHONETICS AnOb . 38

ries, it is no wonder th a t some of the tablets are peculiar phonetically. Thus


1045 has a large num ber of phonetic oddities for a short text. In three names
(all containing r), ^ appears instead of h (§ 5 .3 2 ) ; in one name, emphatic
stops appear for voiceless noneinphatics ( § 5 .3 1 ) ; in two names, voiceless stops
appear for emphatics (§. 6 .3 1 , 34) and in a name with two 'ayins, one is dropt
through dissimilation (§ 6 .2 6 ). There are dialects within Ugaritic, b u t tablet
1045 is simply a list of personnel and it is more practical to follow Virolleaud
in regarding it as an anomalous te x t composed by someone w ith a D0n-Uga‫־‬
ritic speech pattern, and refraining from positing a special dialect for this
particular tablet. Texts 76 and 77, on the other hand, have atypical phonetic
features pointing to true inner-Ugaritic dialectal differences. Our discussion of
the treatm ent of ‫ ל‬, j» and k in U garitic does not apply to texts 75 and 77
except when those two texts are specifically mentioned.

6 .2 . A / in S e m it i c & H u r r i a n — The much debated letter


V happens to be of low frequency in the Semitic texts and of high frequency
in the H urrian tablets. This has led to the widespread misapprehension th a t
its sound was not Semitic. However, the inclusion of ^ in the pure Semi-
tic ABC (§ 3. 1) leaves no doubt th a t it is to be included in the repertoire of
Semitic consonants.
6 .3 . V = d — W herever V appears in a word of Semitic deriva*
tion, it corresponds to Arabic ‫ ;ל‬hence our transliteration d (1)- However, in
the overwhelming number of case s,‫ ל‬is reflected as d : d ‘ of ’ = y>, dbh ‘ sacri-
fice ’ = £?‫ ל‬, dqn ‘ beard ’ = , etc. But there are residual instances of d
for ‫ ל‬: di* (62 : 4 ; 67 : V I : 20) ‘ arm while edr (3 A q h t : rev. 14 ; cf. 86:
4 and 322 : I I : 10) ‘ to rescue ’ (*) is cognate to . The presence of r and * in
both roots is striking and gives rise to the thought th a t either, or the combi*
nation, of them m ight condition the preservation of d (against the shift to d).
However, d appears in other words th a t require consideration. O m itting non-
U garitic words, and U garitic words from texts 76 and 77 (§ 6. 5), we note a
tendency for d to occur in some (but not all) words containing a laryngeal
or r ; (1) with h : hdt[ (6 : 34) (where the tex t is quite fragm entary), hdd (but
contrast ahd, § 5. 5); (2) with e:edt>t; (3) with <}: (kt)tfd (51 : V II : 41); (4) with
r : dm r ‘ soldier’ (cf. ^ ‫ ‘ ל‬b ra v e ’), drqm (67 : I : 5 -6 ; 3 Aqht : 3), drt (var.
dhrt(?;) ‘ a d re a m ’, Idr[ (6 : 8) (but contrast dry ‘ to s c a tte r’ in § 5. 4); and

(1l In UG and UH it was rendered S. In most recent publications, it is reudered z. Cf.


E. A. Speiser, BASOR 121 1931 1721‫־‬. A. Herdner is entitled to priority in identifying it with d
(see Syria 29 1952 169).
(*) Contained also in the pers. n. b*lm*&r (1155:3),
— 26 —
A nOb . 38 PHONETICS 5.4 8

(as noted ju st above) dr* and edr w ith both * and r. The fewness of the exam-
pies, the alL-too-frequent obscurity of their m eaning and derivation, and the
exceptions, warn us against prem ature conclusions. Moreover, il dbb (cf. ‫)בעל זבוב‬
and dd I ‘ premises ’ and dd II ‘ breast ’ have neither a laryngeal nor r.
5 .4 . P r o b le m o f d r e ‘ to s o w ’ — The preceding section complicates
more th an ever the puzzling etymology of dr® ‘ to sow ’. The presence of zr*
in Arabic, Syriac and Hebrew would point to Proto-Sem itic *zr®. Accordingly,
U garitic dr* ‘ to sow ’ was thought to be a conflation of two ro o ts : zr® and
drw (rj> ‘ to scatter ’ = W <‫׳‬a» = Heb. ‫ = זרה‬1‫)זי‬. But in the lig h t of § 5. 8, the
d of *drw m ight have been expected to rem ain d ‫ םי‬Ugaritic, since the root
contains r. Y et it appears as dry (1). Indeed U garitic dr* contains both r and
* like dr* and *dr. The simplest solution is to divorce U garitic dr* entirely
from and attribute the sim ilarity to a c c id e n t; b u t such sim plicity may
conform more to convenience than to tru th .
6 .5 . D i a l e c t i c T r e a t m e n t o f •d in T e x t s 75 & 77 — In texts 75
and 77, all of the few occurrences of Proto-Sem itic ‫ ל‬are retained unchanged:
d (77 : 45) = y> (in other tablets, always d) and ahd (75 : I I : 33, 34, 36)
‘ seized ’ = <l*.t (in other tablets, always ahd).
6. 6. *d > 9 — Semitic j» regularly shifts to 9 : ars ‘ earth ’ = j»;t, sin
‘ flocks’ = ‫ י״־׳^ס‬etc. Moreover, since the ABC has no special letter for j», we
may assume the alphabet was designed tor a dialect in which the shift d > 9
had taken place.
5. 7. *d = 9 in T e x t 75 — A gainst the U garitic norm (§5. 6), in 75
every reflex of J» appears as ?, showiDg th a t in the dialect of 75 (and presu-
m ably 77, where there are however no examples), d did not shift to 9 (*).
E x am p les: yzhq (75 : 1 : 12) ‘ he laughs ’ = %i (75 : I : 14) ‘ go out (f. 8.)! ’
which is cognate to and a»6h. (Accordingly, ym%a (76 : I : 37), which in
other tablets is always w ritten with $, reflects a Semitic root *md')>
5. 8. $ f o r j o r t — We render as <j because it corresponds to
£ in most cases where there are Arabic c o g n ates; thus $tfr ‘ young ’ s<js$
‘ to set (of the sun) ’ ( j ‘ to enter underground ’), (jlm ‘ youth ’ (‫לן‬1»)‫ י‬mtfd
‘ food ’ (ili;), ‘ to m ix ’ (j***), ntfs ‘ to trem ble ’ (J»»>), rtfb ‘ to be h u n g ry ’
('-?*) ‘ to long for ’), rfit ‘ to suck ’ (‫)^*<צי‬, ‘ gate(8) ’ ‘ to breach a w all’).
However, <} corresponds to t in the following w ords: (jni ‘ to be th irs ty ’ (tj»),
n<jr ‘ guard ’ (y^i), yqfi *to be alert ’ (kfc), and <}r *m ountain ’(cf. Aram. ‫טור‬,

(1l Similarly drt = ‫ ‘ זרת‬a span ’ ; cf. § 5.13 n. 2.


(*) It is hard to say whether ? polyphonoasly represents d aad % in 75 , or whetherin the
dialect of 70 d fell together with 9, even as in Iraqi Arabic J» and h fall together as t.

— 27 —
5. 912 PHONETICS AnOb . 38

Heb. ‫ )צור‬and mtfy ‘ to reach, arrive, ( or ^ ; also in 0. T. Aram, as in Dan.


4 : 8 , 17, 19) (‘). That is more akin to voiced palatal spirant j than to
emphatic dental or sibilant k is confirmed by the Human nomen agentis suffix
-<}l, as in mdr&l(m), hd$l(m) and ; which in syllabically written texts
appears as -uh-lu.
6. 9. ? = t — Except in the few examples cited in § 6. 8, t is reflected
in Ugaritic as ?. Thus ‘ shade ’ (Jb), %by ‘ gazelle ’ («^)> h% ‘ lucky ’ (tL ).
h%r ‘ court ’ (;lb*.), %r ‘ top ’ ( j^ ), *?m ‘ bone ’ e?m ‘ mighty ’ q% ‘ sum*
mer(fruit) ’ (hJ>).
5. 10. T abulation of ^ and ? Correspondences — Inasmuch as
there is no conditioning factor in evidence to explain a shift from b to Q in the
examples listed in § 5. 8, it has been proposed that not two, but three, Semitic
phonemes are reflected by ? and Q. To express the situation in tabular form:

Proto-Semitic phonemes 1 2 3

Arabic i b b

Ugaritic d

6. 11. *t = £ (or ? in T e x t 77) — b is regularly preserved unchanged in


Ugaritic as t, except in 77, where it shifts to ? : form iqnim (77 : 21-22) ‘ gems
of lapis lazuli ’ (elsewhere form iqnim) and l%pn (77 : 44) epithet of *II (else*
where l(pri).
5. 12. Convergence of •6 and •8 in 8 — 6 has shifted to 8 with
the result that both are expressed by 8:

Proto-Semitic 8 Proto-Semitic 8
Ugaritic Hebrew Ugaritic Hebrew
hm8 *ton b8r ‫בעזר‬
np8 *to nf ‫א‬1‫נע‬
n8q ‫ק‬#‫נ‬ er8 *‫עח‬
n8r ‫נעזר‬ *8r ‫עעזר‬

(*) The reader will recall that when Heb. ‫ צ‬corresponds to Aram. Q, the Arabic reflex is b ;
e. g., Heb. ‫ צ ל‬, Aram. ‫טללא‬, Arab. j b ‘ shade ’.

— 28 —
AnOb . 38 PHONETICS 5.13

Proto-Semitic 8 Proto-Semitic 6
Ugaritic Hebrew Ugaritic Hebrew
p? ‫&שע‬ 8 ‫שח‬
qd8 ‫קדש‬ 8b/ ‫שבע‬
q8t ‫קשת‬ 8d ‫שדה‬
r iS ‫ראש‬ 8kr ‫שכר‬
81/ ‫שבע‬ 8m al ‫שטאל‬
8km ‫שברק‬ 8m h ‫שטח‬
8m m ‫שטים‬ 8n’ ‫שנא‬
8pk ‫שסך‬ S^rm ‫שערים‬
8 r8 ‫שרש‬ 8pt ‫שטח‬
t8 e ‫תשע‬

The fact that also in Hebrew, 8 & 8 fall together in the consonantal orthography
as ‫ ש‬raises the question as to whether Ugaritic had both sounds represented
polyphonously by the single symbol . Inasmuch as the ABC is based
(albeit subconsciously) on the principle of ‘ one symbol for every consonantal
phoneme ’ it is likely that the shift 8 > 8 had taken place in the dialect for
which the Ugaritic alphabet was designed. There is no evidence in Ugaritic
of any difference between 8 < •8 & 8 < •8, as we find in Phoen. *10 ‘ ‫( ’ עסו‬cf.
Heb. 1)(‫)עשר‬. Accordingly, it seems that while the alphabet was created for
a dialect in which 8 had shifted to 8, there were other dialects in which 8 sur*
vived. Such was the case in Hebrew, where ‫ ש‬served polyphonously as 8 and 8;
and since 8 continued to be pronounced distinctly from 8, the Masoretes differ*
entiated ‫ ש‬from ‫ש‬.
5.18. Tabulation of Consonantal Shifts — In the following chart,
not only the consonants involved in shifts are indicated, but also consonants
that fall together with other consonants as a result of those shifts.

(l) This is the only case in Phoen. of •8 = D ; otherwise 8 and 8 = ‫ •ש‬Friedrich, Phim. Or.,
p. 20 $ 46 b.

— 29 —
5 .14-15 PHONETICS A n O b . 38

Proto-Semitic d d z t t 8 8 s ‫ז‬ 9 d b b c
g

Arabic d d t t 8 8 s t e
z ? ? 8 d h b

U garitic d do z t t 8 8 s t ? 1? 8 8 h b c
0
divergences
in U garitic
tex t 75, 77 d ?

Ethiopic d t 8 s 8 s t 8 8 b 6 C
z z 8 d b

Hebrew d t 8 8 8 8 t C e
z z 8 8 8 8 b b

Aramaic d dp) l t 8 8 8 t t t C e c
z 8 b b
Old Aramaic
divergences z 8 Q

Accadian d z z t 8 $ 8 S t 8 8 8 8 — b —

5. 14. C o n s e r v a t i s m — U garitio preserves Semitic phonetic structure


b etter than any known language outside of North and South Arabic.
5. 15. P r e s e r v a t i o n o f V o w e ls — The vowels inherent in the aleph
signs do not indicate th a t any of the three Semitic vowels (a, i, a), be they
long or short, havo been altered or dropt in U garitic in any positio n ; except
for the conditioned shift a’ > e16 .5 §) ‫ )׳‬and vowel harm ony (§ 5. 19).

O Sporadically d (§ 5. 3). ,
(*) A problem is raised by )1*1 and Targnmic ‫ = זרתא‬Heb. ‫זרת‬
1 vv
‘ a span ’. Tbe HebrewLexi•
eon of Brown-Driver-Briggs (p. 284 sub ‫ )זרת‬notes that the Syr. and Aram, are apparently
borrowed from the Heb. and that the etymology is obscnre. Ugaritic drt (||dr* = ‫ ׳‬acubit’)
in 1098 :1 ff. & 1118 :4 seems to = ‫ ‘ זרת‬a span pointing to a Semitic •dr + -t (for ‫ זרת‬is f.).
This woald confirm the old inference that Syr./Aram. is borrowed from Ganaanite, for otherwise
d (not z) would appear in Syr./Aram.
— 30 —
AnOb . 38 PHONETICS 5.16-19

6. 16. a* > e* — At the end of a syllable, a* shifts to e*(1). Thus ri§ =


re'S- < •ra'S-, in agreement with Aram. #‫ רא‬and Acc. r6S-. Similarly, yikl =
ye'kal < •ya'kal; of. Aram. ‫ יאכל‬, Assyrian Skul. The shift is thus an isogloss
cutting across Ugar., Aram, and Acc., spanning East and West Sem. Moreover,
close examination of the Heb. evidence reveals the shift in ‫ פ״א‬verbal forms
such as ‫*< יא&ף‬ya'8up, ‫ז‬1‫ר> יאד‬5‫ יא‬, ‫ יאויב‬, etc. (contrast ‫ יהלם‬, ‫ יחלום‬, ‫)יעמד‬. In addition
to the other examples of this conditioned shift in § 4. 8, note also mihd (1165 : 6)
‘ plated ’ < •ma'bfid-, and possibly mispt (1109 :4) ‘ an article (of clothing ?) ’ and
the place n. (?) milh (1109: 1).
6. 17. Long & — The Canaanite shift from (accented) &to 6 does not take
place in standard Ugaritic. Thus the f. pi. -&t normally remains unchanged, as
in ksat ‘ thrones’ (cf. Heb. ‫)*()כסאות‬. Note also ar (77:38) = 'fir- ‘ light’
(Heb. ‫ )אור‬or *&ra ‘ is bright ’, gan = ga'&n- ‘ pride ’ (Heb. ‫)נאון‬, §mal = Sim'&l-
‘ left ’ (Heb. ‫)&כאל‬. The preservation of & cannot be ascribed solely to the
earliness of the Ugaritic documents, for the shift to 6 is aheady attested in
the Amarna tablets.
6. 18. D ip h th o n g s — Regardless of position, the diphthongs •aw and
•ay are reduced to 6 and 6 respectively (cf. § 4. 7); e. g., u = *6 *or ’ (Syr. °{),
tk = tdk- ‘ midst (Heb. ‫) מוך‬, mt = m6t- ‘ (the god of) death ’ (Heb. ‫ מות‬, Syr.
ft®“ ), in — 'fin- ‘ there is not ’ (Heb. ‫)אין‬, bt = bfit- ‘ house ’ (Heb. ‫ בית‬, Syr. »),
qz = q6?- ‘ summer(-fruit) ’ Heb. ‫ לןיץ‬, Syr. ). Thus the diphthongs are
further developed in Ugaritic than in Heb. and Syr., for the latter preserve,
under certain conditions, the w and y of aw and ay. Note that ayy- is not
reduced (thus ayl ‘ deer ’ = ‫ )אןל‬unless vowel harmony is at work (§ 6. 19).
6. 19. Vowel Harmony — There are examples of vowel harmony, as
in nip =. 'ullftp-(*) ‘ prince, chief’ (vs. Heb. ‫)אלוף‬, udm (vs. Heb. ‫)אדם‬, urbt
‘ window’ (vs. Heb. ‫ )ארבה‬and irby ‘ locusts’ (vs. Heb. ‫)ארפה‬. Note also nom.
uhy (18 : 17) = ’abftya(4) ‘ my brother ’ vs. acc. ahy (49 : I I : 12) = *ab&ya ‘ my
brother ’. On the basis of so few examples it would be premature to set up
a law, but meanwhile it may be said that the cases at our disposal show the
assimilation of short unaccented vowels (in open or closed syllables) to the

(‫ )י‬Of. Z. Harris, Development 0f the Canaanite Dialects, Hew Haven, 1939, p. 36.
(*) tut (1153:3) ‘ ewes ’ seems to be the f. pi. in -6t (<-&t) corresponding to the f. 8g. tat
(49: I I : 7, 29) in -at. Perhaps with the passing of time the shift of & to 6 infiltrated the prose
of Ugarit. Poetry is more resistant to change than prose is.
(*) Of. the Ugaritic personal name written syllabically [TUR-*• u]l-lu-pi (Virolleaud RA 38
1941 11, line 11).
(4) However, it is also possible to normalize ’uh£ya ‘ my little brother ’ (— the *qutayl dimi-
native of ’afy-), in which case we are not dealing with vowel harmony.
5. 20-23 PHONETICS A nOb . 38

quality of a following accented vow el(1). This would account for the i in iy
‘ where ? ’ = ‫ איה‬vs. the a in ayl ‘ deer ’ = ‫( אןל‬see § 6. 18). — Observe th a t
(unlike vowel harm ony in the Assyr. branch of Acc.) Ug. vowel harm ony
does not regularly operate in response to inflectional vowel en d in g s; thus note
a (not ‫־‬u) in the apparently nom. a fry (138: 16), and a (not t) in the certainly
gen. lahk (138 : 18).
6. 20. M im a tio n — The final -m of mimation (in 8g. nouns) is dropt
except in a num ber of adverbs ending in -m, some of which are probably
adverbial accusatives; e. g., gm ‘ a lo u d ’ and bkm ‘ weepingly ’ (1 2 6 :1 1 2 ;
1 A q h t: 57, 58) (*).
5. 21. w - > y ---- Initial •w - becom es y - ; e. g., yrh (9 : 11) = yarfc- ‘m o n th ’
(Heb. ‫ )י ר ח‬or yarih- (77 :4) ‘ the moon(-god) ’ (Heb. ‫ ;) יתדו‬cf. Acc. warbu. The
originally ‫ סיו‬verbs provide abundant evidence of this shift; e. g., ybl ‘ to b rin g ’,
ydd ‘ to love ’, yld ‘ to bear ’ y$’ ‘ to go out ’, yrd ‘ to go down ’ and yff> ‘ to
sit ’. As in Heb. and Aram., this shift does not affect the conjunction w =
wa ‘ and ’ (*). The preservation of w - in wpt (see 61: I I I : 13 and especially
V I :13) ‘ to spit ’ is perhaps to be ascribed to onomatopoeia.
5 .2 2 . A s s i m i l a t e d n — n is assimilated to a following consonant(4);
at = ,atta ( < #,anta) ‘ thou (m.) ’, m$b = ma§9ab- ( < *man^ab-) ‘ stand or beam (of
scales) ’; gi (< •gint-), like bt (< •bint-), is a f. with - t ; the gender is indicated
by the adj. in g t . fyd& (1084:12) ‘ New W inepress (place n.). See § 9 .4 4 .
This principle does not affect third-radical n , a t least in verbal forms; e. g.,
ytnt, mgntm (§ 9. 46). If the full form of m ‘ from ’ in mab (1016: 11) *from
father ’ is (as is mostly likely) min, then -n is assimilated to the following
aleph as in Heb. ‫מ אב‬.
5. 23. -n h - > -n n - — -nli- sometimes becomes -n n - in verbal suffixes by
progressive assim ilation(1); see § 6. 17.

(1) The Arabic variants suggest the possibility of the vocalization ’u?buc for ufb*‘ finger ',
which would explain the *u- on the basis of the vocalic assimilation. I f this should prove to
be correct, we should have to consider the possibility of normalizing ,udmuc&t- for vdnvt ‘ tears’.
(*) So too in Hebrew, mimation survives vestigially in adverbial accusatives like ‫ ם‬3‫ ‘ ח‬gra-
tuitously’ and QQV ‘ daily ’. It is also interesting to note that in colloquial Arabic, nunation tends
to be limited to adverbial accusatives in -an; like d&'iman ‘ always ’ and taqiiban ‘ approximately’.
(*) This is because the w was not originally initial, for wa- is related to Eg. iw(cf. § 12.1).
The shift w- > y - took place before the syllable represented by Eg. i was dropt.
(4) So too \ofi Iqfy (§ 9. 46). Note also that n need not be assimilated in reduplicated bi-
consonantals; cf. knkn beside kkn(t).
(6) As in Hebrew; ct. aud . There is also the possibility that we are dealing
with a suffix -nil ‘ him ’. While in the Mosul area I frequently heard pronominal -nh; e. g.,
Sufttinfi ‘ I saw him ’.

— 32 —
A nOr. 38 PHONETICS 5. 24‫־‬34

5. 24. d > t — The voiced dental stop d is assimilated to the corresponding


em phatic t under the influence of the emphatics $ and q in §tq§lm (1005:4,
10, 14), the var. of the pers. n. $dq§lm.
5. 25. c- c > *- — The second cayin of the pers. n. *‫״‬btfn t is dissimilated *
in the atypical tablet 1045 : 4, 8 (see § 5 .1 ): cbdnt = cabdanat < •«abd-canat.
5. 26. m-m > l-m — In 51 : V : 101, Ihmd shows the dissimilation of the
first m to 1. The word elsewhere appears as mhmd ‘ pleasantness, choiceness ’ ;
e. g., lines 78, 94.
6. 27. - r > z e r o — In several instances r is d ro p t(1) when it is the last
consonant of a word : kt (cn t :V I: 18) stands for the name of the god K£r, while
ytb (1 A q h t: 108, 123) ‘ may he break ’ stands for yibr as is shown by the
duplicate passages (lines 137, 149).
5. 28. p § b — The variant Sbh occurs in K r t : 290 for Sph (as in the
duplicate, line 144) ‘ fam ily ’ with b fo rp ; cf. Heb. ‫טשפחה‬. Conversely, note p
for b in IpS ‘ garm ent ’ (cf. ,^~J, Heb. and Aram. ‫)לבש‬, where the voiced labial
is partially assimilated to the voiceless sibilant with which it came in direct
contact: cf. A. Herdner, Syria 23 1942-43 136.
6. 29. SpSfVQV — The p in $p§ ‘ s u n ’ originated as a transitional intru* *
sion between -m and Sam8- > •SampS- > SapS-; cf. Eng. ‘ Sampson ’ for ‘ Samson ’.
5. 30. t > d — The t of ttb ‘ Teshub ’ is voiced in partial assimilation to
the voiced g in the H u m a n pers. n. agdff) (1061 : 8).
5. 31. — The pers. n. usually written tlm yn, occurs as tlm yn with
the em phatic dental t for unvoiced non-em phatic t in the atypical 1045 : 7.
Conversely the pers. n. yptyn occurs as ypltn in 1045 : 4, with t for t. See § 5.1 .
6. 32. b > g — Thrice in 1045 (§ 5. 1), voiced & occurs for unvoiced b in
the pers. names ebdyr<j (: 2), (jyrn (:3 ), &<jr (:1 3 ) which appear elsewhere
as *bdyrh, hyrn, shr. Note th a t r occurs in all three. (The letter # does not
appear in 1045).
5. 33. m ^ b — bbqr ( K r t : 113) stands for bmqr (see : 216 f.) ‘ in the well ’.
The labial nasal is assimilated to the preceding labial stop. Conversely, *Anat’s
epithet y b m t. limm (2 A q h t: V I : 19, 25 ; cn t : I I : 33) has the variant y m m t .
limm (cn t : I I I : 9) with b > m under the influence of the following m.
5. 34. D i s s i m i l a t i o n s o f $dq — Though the d of §dq assimilates to
the emphatics in $tq$lm (§ 5. 24), it is dissimilated to t in the pers. n. $tqn
(1153 : 2, 3; 1154: 4, 6, 7). Moreover, the em phatic q is dissimilated to k under
the influence of em phatic 9 in the variant §dkn (1045 : 6).

0) This may prove to happen only when the consonant r ends the word. This is certainly
the case with the jussive yajbur and we should also consider the possibility that proper names
and construct nouns are under certain conditions without the short vowel terminations (cf. Acc.).

— 33 —

5
5 . 35*41 PHONETICS A nOb . 38

B. 85. d t > t t — As in Heb. — where • ’abbadt- > *ab(b)at(t) = ‫ — אחת‬the d


of the num eral * 1 ’ is assimilated to the f. suffix - t : aht. -d t- > - t t - is also
attested in verbs, where third radical d is followed by the t of a suffix (§§ 9. 7, 48).
5. 36. s - t > t - t — In causative verbal forms where t appears as the first
consonant of the root, preform ative & is always assimilated to the t of the
r o o t: rgm yftb (3 : 45) ‘ he shall send back word ’, ( K r t: 136) wi£b (137) mlakm
*and he sent the messengers back y££b (61 : V : 109) *he is seated ’. W hile
V£wb *to r e tu r n ’ and fy £ b ‫ ‘ ־‬to s i t ’ are the only common roots illustrating
this assimilation, note also tUkrn (128 : 1 :3 ) (1).
6. 37. q /g — In K r t : 223, £iqt occurs instead of £igt ( K r t : 120) ‘ bellow-
ing ’ (cf. Heb. ‫אנה‬# ‘ roar ’). (In bedouin and Iraqi Arabic, jj is commonly
pronounced g).
5. 38. L o s s of , a b e f o r e c in S a n d h i — For the loss of the 1 sg.
* preformative before *, see edbk (•) (3 A ght obv.: 22) ‘ I shall set thee ’ (cf. Pdbnh
in : 33) and w a n k . *ny (137 : 28) ‘ and I shall answer ’.
5 .3 9 . L o s s o f - h — Postvocalic h is sometimes d ro p t; e. g., b&rt
(49 : I I I : 6) ‘ in a vision ’; cf. bdhrth! ( K r t: 36) ‘ in his vision ’ (both tim es
parallel to Mm ‘ d re a m ’). Original h is regularly dropt in ‘ on top (of)’
(cf. ‘ back ’). The h of the 3 sg. pronominal suffix is now and then lost (*):
p*n (2 A q h t: I I : 11) ‘ his feet ’ for penh in duplicate passages, v fl (1 A q h t: 208)
‘ and upon it ’ for vflh, mddt ( K r t: 191) ‘ his beloved (f.) ’ w ritten mddth in the
duplicate (: 103). This also holds for the directive suffix - h : Smm ( K r t : 76)
‘ heavenward ’ = Smmh (: 168). The sense of the next passage as well as the
presence of amth in the parallel (line 167) shows th a t amt =. a m th : ( K r t: 63)
rh$ [y]d& . amt (64) u ^ t k ] cd i km ‘ wash thy hands to the elbow, th y fingers
to the shoulder ’. For loss of h in / Mk and ^ Mm, and -h t-> -tt- («) see § 9. 49.
5. 40. P a u s a l ly ( ? ) - a t > -ah — Parallel passages give us the equation
m lyrtt, (49 : IV : 27) = mhr£h (: 38). Does this mean th a t -at tended to become
-ah (as in th e ‘ pausal ’ forms of A rabic poetry) ?
5 .4 1 . A p p a r e n t A p h a e r e s i s in B i c o n s o n a n t a l I m p e r a t i v e s — For
the apparent aphaeresis of h-, y -, 1- and n- in imperatives, see §§ 9. 44, 46,
48, 49. Some of these phenomena are analogic, however. I t is also probable
th a t those imperatives often preserve original biconsonantal stems.

(*) The Heb. tribal name ‫ יש&כר‬appears to be a causative of the same root
(*) That the *a is lost in sandhi is suggested by 1) ‫ ואמנה‬Kg. 11:39) and ‫( ואמדוד‬Zech. 11:5).
Note that the Ugaritic examples do not occur at the head of an utterance, so that sandhi with
the preceding word may well have taken place.
(*) A s normally (with the m. but not f.) in Hebrew: Yp this hand’ < *yadaha,‫' ידיו‬bis hands
< *yadayha (but !‫ ‘ י ח י‬her hand ‫ ‘ ידיה‬her hands ’).
(«) Of. - t - > -tt (§ 9. 48) and’ -w t- > -tt (§ 9. 48).

— 34 —
A nOb . 38 PRONOUNS 5. 42—6. 1-4

5. 42. t( for ( , qk for k — In two words there is double represents-


tion of a stop, whereby the latter is both emphatic and voiceless nonemphatic.
(1) Thus, instead of fl 1dew ’, we find tfl in 1 Aqht: 200. This cannot be
dismissed as a scribal error because BaTs daughter Tly appears as Ttly (*)
in 67 : V : 11. Perhaps t shifted partway to t under the influence of 1, and
the intermediate position is reflected by the double writing tf. (2) The Caphto-
rian place name Hkpt appears once as Hqkpt (cn t : V I : 13) because the non-
Semitic palatal stop was not quite q or k but somewhere between them. The
same vacillating representation of this Caphtorian stop appears in the Phi■
listine loanword for ‘ helmet ’ which we find in the 0. T. as ‫ טבע‬and ‫קובע‬.

CHAPTER VI

PRONOUNS

6. 1. Independent N om in atives — The independent nominative per■


sonal pronouns actually attested are the 1 sg. (ank and an), 2 m. 8g. (at =
’atta), 2 f. sg. (at = *attl), 3 m. sg. (hw = huwa), 3 f. sg. (hy = hiya), 3 m. pi. *
(hm) and 3 f. pi. (Aw)(1). [See Glossary for ank =• *an&kn.]
6.2. a n ( k ) — Ugaritic, Hebrew and Phoenician are the ouly Semitic
languages with both forms of the 1 sg.: ank and aw; Heb. ‫ אנכי‬and ‫ ;אני‬for
the Phoen., see Friedrich, Phon. Qr. 44 § 110. Both forms may occur in the
same text (e. g., 49, 61, 67, Aqht). In 13 (see 13 : 7, 8, rev. 2) ank, which
is commoner than an in Ugaritic, is found to the exclusion of an.
6. 3. ‫ — וקטל אנך‬Thanks to the impetus stimulated by the frequent ‫וקטל אנך‬
construction in the Phoenician texts from Karatepe, we can at last isolate 3
pi. hm (m.) and hn (f.) ‘ they ’ (as well as confirm 3 sg. hw ‘ he ’ and hy ‘ she ’)
in : (52 : 68) wngS. hm . nfir (69) mdr*. w$h hm . cm . n $ r. mdr*. y . ntfr. (70) ntfr.
pt[h\ . wpth h w . p r§ . hedhm (71) ztfrb.hm ‘ and they met the Guard of the
Sown, and they cried to the Guard of the Sown: “ 0 Guard, Guard! Open!”
And he opened an aperture for them and they entered ’; and in 1002: w .
rgm . ank (: 38) ‘ and I said ’ ]rgm .h y (: 41) ‘ she said ’, }rgm. hn( : 49) ‘ they
(f.) said ’ ; and, without the conjunction, mtfy . hy (: 42) ‘ she arrived ’.
6.4. Casus Obliquus — The oblique case of the independent personal
pro. is attested for 3 m. sg. (hwt = huwat3 ,(‫ ־‬f. sg. (hyt = hiyat3 & ,(‫ ־‬m. pl./du.
(hmt). Accusatival: kbd hwt (cn t : V I : 20) ‘ honor him! ’, kbd hyt (cn t : I I I : 7)
(‫ )י‬A connection with re&aXuwx, which qualifies ‘ dew ’ in Homer (Od. 13 : 246) also merits 4
investigation.
(*) That hn ‘they ’ (f.) appears in 1002 : 49 (see § 6. 3 for the construction), is corroborated
by the f. pi. subject of yritn (1002 : 42) = ‫* יראתן‬ye (f.) feared ‘.

- 35
6. 5-8 PBONOUNS AnOb . 38

‘ honor her! kbd hmt (2 A q h t: V : 20) ‘ honor them (du.)! hn hmt (1161 :8)
‘ behold them (m. pi.) ’ (1). G en itiv al: diy hwt (1 A q h t: 129) ‘ the pinions of
h im ’, diy hyt (1 A qht: 137-138, 143) ‘the pinions of h e r ’ and diy hmt (1 A q h t:
115) ‘ the pinions of them (m. p i.)’.
6. 5. P o s s e s s iv e S u f f i x e s — All the possessive suffixes except 2 du.
are attested.
6. 6. P o s s e s s iv e 1 S g . — I f a noun ends in a long vowel, a reduced
diphthong or short i or 8, the possessive suffix 1 sg. is y — ya. Otherwise
(i. e., if the noun without the possessive suffix ends in short u), the possessive
suffix is normally -I (zero in the orthography). This means th a t the suffix is
normally -1 w ith regular (*) nom. singulars and with nom. f. p lu ra ls; but, how-
ever, with gen. and acc. singulars, oblique f. plurals, all duals and m. plu-
rals, it is -ya. The following iUustrates both varieties of the suffix: (2 A q h t:
I I : 13) winh birty (*) (14) npS ‘ and let m y soul (nom.) rest in my breast (gen.)’
( = 49 : I I I : 19). For -ya with acc. in - a : (138 : 12) prgm (13) Imlk Smy ‘ and
speak my name to the king ’, atn . bty (1002 : 62) ‘ I shall give my house ’, iph .
adty (1017 : 4) ‘ I see my lady ’ (4) ; with d u .: yd y (67 : 1 : 20) ‘ my hands ’ ;
w ith m. pi.: ahy (2 A q h t: I I : 15) ‘ my brothers ’.
6. 7. P o s s e s s i v e 2 & 3 S g. — There is no need to list the ample
documentation of 2 m. sg. - k = -ka ‘ thy ’, 2 f. sg. - k =. -ki ‘ th y ’, 3 m. sg.
- h =. -hu ‘ his ’ and 3 f. sg. -h = -ba ‘ her ’. Cf. U H §§ 6. 17-20
6. 8. P o s s e s s i v e 3 S g . - n — I t may be th a t there was another 3
sg. suffix: -n ( = m. -nu ‘ his ’ and f. -na ‘ her ’ ?; cf. § 6. 23 n.). Note y l f l . qSt
In (2 A q h t: V I : 24) ‘ he will make a bow for her ’ (•).

0) hn takes the acc., though this does not appear in the English translation of the passage:
(1161 :8) hn hmt ( 9 ) tlcnn ‘ behold these shall certify/testify ’.
(*) 1• e., unless the noun ends in a long vowel or reduced diphthong.
(5) Similarly, Iksiy (1002:13) ‘ frora/to/on my chair’.
(4) Two of the examples pointed out by A. Herdner in S y r i a 24 1 9 4 4 1 1 6 45‫ ־‬are ambiguous
because a participle might be followed by a gen. or acc. ; to wit, afyd y d y and 8 p u k s m y in
2 A qht : I I : 19, 21• On the other hand her citation of Ik b t y (passim in texts 122, 123) ‘ go (to)
my house! ’ is unquestionable. — In classical Acc. the regular 8g. noun takes -ya with the gen.,
but -I with the nom .-acc.; thus bit! ‘ my house ’ (nom.-acc.) vs. ana blti-ya ‘ to my hoase’ (gen.)
The divergences of Ug. from Acc. in this regard may be due to a tendency of the case endings
-u and -a to become ‫־־‬i by assimilation before the y of -ya. Even in Arabic we find this
in the preposition ia-j note laka ‘ to thee ’, lahu ‘ to him ’, etc. with a before all the suffixes
except li ( < *liya) ‘ to m e’. This tendency seems to be at work in Ugaritic for in addition to
the acc. examples pointed out above, there is at least one nom. form in which it has taken
place twice in one tablet; namely, My (1012:2, 3) ‘ my lord (nom.)’.
(6) Ginsberg (Orientalia 7 1938 6) regards the last two letters of qithn (76:I I :6) ‘ his bow
as representing two suffixes (each sufficient in itself), that can be arranged in reverse order as in
Ipnnh (76 : I I : 17). Of. also *mnh (67:V :20) ‘ with h er’, though -n can also be the additive to
ballast prepositions.

— 36 —
A n Or . 38 PRONOUNS 6. 916

6 .9 . P o s s e s s iv e 1 D u . — 1. c. du. -n y ‘ o u r ’ is established by adtny


(95 : 1, 5, 15) ‘ our (du.) lady ’ and em ny (95 : 10) ‘ with us twain The occur-
rence of this suffix -n y in Old E gyptian ( * ^ » and U garitic makes it
Egypto-Sem itic in origin, thus precluding the possibility th a t it m ight have
been an innovation in the one language or the other. Accordingly, E gypto-
Semitic had du. pro. for all three persons (and not only for the 2nd and 3rd
pers. as in Arabic). — This du. suf. m ust not be confused w ith the orthogra-
phically identical adv. -n y (§ 11. 3) (1).
6 .1 0 . P o s s e s s iv e 3 D u . — 3 c. du. hrn ( = ‘ t h e i r ghm ( K r t: 304)
*their (m. du.) voice ’, §pthm (62 : 60, 66) ‘ th eir (f. du.) lips ’ (*).
6. I I . P o s s e s s iv e 1 P I . — Provisionally 1 c. pi. -n (®nt.'V.^O) ‘ o u r ’
is to be vocalized like Heb. -nu (though Aram, and Arab, -na and Acc. -m are
not y et ruled out).
6. 12. P o s s e s s i v e 2 P I . — 2 m. pl. -km ‘y o u r’ and 2 f. pi. -k n ‘y o u r’
are conveniently contrasted in tex t 2.
6. 13. P o s s e s s i v e 3 P I . — For 3 m. pi. -hm ‘ t h e i r ’ and 3 f. pi. -h n
‘ th e ir ’, see 1 A q h t: 116 and 128:111: 16. For other examples of 3 f. pi. -h n
‘ t h e i r ’, see 1121:3, 4, 5.
6. 14. E m p h a s i z e d P o s s e s s i o n — To emphasize possession, the inde-
pendent nom. pronoun may be added, as in Hebrew or Arabic :§mk at (68:11)
i m k . at (68 : 19) (lit.) ‘ thy name (yea) thine ’.
6 .1 6 . P o l i t e S u b s t i t u t e s fo r P r o n o u n s — In the epistolary style of
U garit, as in th a t of Lachish, the w riter may even refer to himself as ‘his (or her)
servant ’, in deference to the addressee :cbdh (89 : 16); but cbdk in 89 : 6; 95 : 4, 18.
A senior colleague may call his junior (138 : 15) a by (16) bny ‘ my brother,
my son ’, var. b n !y . ahy (138: 3) ‘ my son, my brother ’; while the senior col-
league refers to himself as ‘ thy brother, th y sire ’: (138: 18) $ b . lahk (19)
ladnk ‘ reply to th y brother, th y sire ’.
6. 16. V a r i e t y o f 3 S g . A c c . — W hile the acc. suffixes are suffi-
ciently clear for translation purposes, we are still unable to define the conditions
determ ining when ‘ him ’ will appear as -A, -nh, -n n or -n. (In other persons
the orthography m ay not confront us w ith this variety, but the phonetic
differences may nonetheless be there.) P a rt of the answer is doubtless bound

(*) See UM, p. 351, for my reply to B. Wagner’s criticism (ZDMG• 102 1952 229-233) to the
effect that 1 du. - n y developed independently in both Bg. and Ug. We might add that since
duals tend to disappear in Semitic, Eg. and Indo-European, - n y is a survival, not an innovation,
in Eg. and Ug.
(2) Egypto-Semitic dual pronominal suffixes (as attested in Arabic, Ugaritic and Old Egyp-
tian) do not distinguish gender for either the gen. or acc.

— 37 —
6 .17*18 PBONOUNS A nOb . 38

up with the still enigm atic question of verbal aspects. Thus in Heb., the
imperfect with waw consecutive is VHBtth to the virtual exclusion of VUtOtth*
(or ‫)*ואמרנו‬. Y et we cannot lay down absolute laws regarding the jussive
because alongside of so-called normal forms like ;‫( עדכןי יהוד! דשמרןז‬Num. 6:24)
‘ may Yah we bless thee and guard thee we m ust reckon with J‫ךז‬3‫( ןיח‬Num. 6:26)
‘ and may He be gracious unto thee ’ (1). As for the indicative, though the
forms with n are regarded as the norm, there is so much vacillation, particularly
in poetry, th a t no satisfactory rules have been formulated. Cf. Deut. 32; e. g.,
v. 10: ‫יצרנהו כאישוןי עינו‬
:vs•
‫יכוננהו‬
- 1 ‫ן‬
‫ימבבנהו‬
: v : ‫ ן‬: ‫י‬
‫ובתהו ילל ישמן‬
___
‫ מדבר‬p
V
‫ימצאהו בא‬
- * s •
. The problem
a

in U garitic is quite likely related to th a t in Hebrew poetry and th eir solutions


should be sought together. The possibility of a not-too-rigid tendency hinging
on the sequence of verbs m erits future investigation.
6. 17. 3 M. S g . A c c . — ‘ him -h ( = - hu) -nh, -nn, - n : (62: 14) tSu
aliyn . bel Iktp (16) *■at . ktSth . t&lynh (16) b$rrt . (bkynh (17) wtqbrnh .
tStnn . bhrt,(18) ilm . ar$ ‘ she lifts A liyn B a'l; on the shoulders of *Anat she
places him ; she (cAnat) raises him into the heights of $ap&n; she weeps for
him and buries h im ; she places him in the grave of the gods of the earth ’,
(1 A q h t: 140) abky . w aqbm h . aStn (141) bhrt . ilm . ar$ ‘ I shall weep and
bury him ; I shall place him (etc.)’, (1 A q h t: 110) hm . it . Smt . hm iff] (111)
*%m . abk!y . w . aqbrnh || (: 126) hm . it . Smt . hm . it . [e?m] (126) abky .
waqbrn (with -n h alternating with - n in otherwise identical contexts) ‘ if there
is fat, if there is bone, I shall weep and bury him ’, ySlhmnh (*nt: 1 : 6) ‘ he feeds
him ’, iMynh (61 : III :16) ‘ I drink it ’, w yiqynh (cn t :1 :9 ) probably ‘ and he
drinks it ’, w tiqynh (1 A q h t: 217) ‘ and she drank it ’, tStnn (1 A q h t: 69) ‘ she
sets him ’, yblnn (51: V : 100, 102) ‘ they bring him ’, wyw-srnn (127 : 26) ‘ and
(itf)they in stru cts) h im ’, tShfann (1 A q h t: 161) ‘ they cause him to wake u p ’,
amlkn (49 : 1 : 18) ‘ I shall make him king ’, yfynnn ( 7 6 :1 : 12) ‘ he shows him
fav o r’ ; or with -n n j-n w ritten as separate words: ytn . nn (1008: 11) ‘ he has
given it ’, yqbr . nn (1 A qht: 147) ‘ he buries him ’, aM . n (67 : Y : 6) ‘ I shall
place him ’.
6 .1 8 . 3 F . S g . A c c . — The possible orthographic varieties for th e acc.
suffix ‘h e r ’ are the same as for ‘h im ’. However, the f. suffix ends in -a; e. g.,
-n n : (1019:9) w ytnnn (10) lahh . lr*h 'and m ay he grant it [ = f. irSt ‘ the
favor ’] to his brother, to his friend ’.

(!) W e are not as yet able to posit any inflexible relation between the verbal aspects and
the presence of n in the Ugaritio acc. suffixes. Thus the imperative ‘ expel him ’ is either grih
(cnt: I V : 46) or (unless preformative t/y- is to be restored at the end of the preceding line)
grinn («nt pi. x : I V : 24). Heb. has VTChj; a is quite rare (yet note )‫ ‘ וקבנ‬and curse him ! ’ in
Hum. 23:13).

— 38 —
A nOr . 38 PRONOUNS 6 .19-23

6. 19. 1 Du. A 00. — So far, this suffix (-ny, cf. § 6. 9) occurs only in qhny
(1001 : 8) ‘ take us twain ’.
6.20. 2 Sg. & PL, & 3 M. PI. A cc. — 2 m. sg. -k = -ka ‘thee 2 f.
sg. -k = -ki *thee 2 m. pi. - km ‘ you ’ and 3 m. pi. hm ‘ them ’ are all attested
as accusatives.
6. 21. D a tiv e S u ffix e s — The suffixes sometimes have dative force:
yblk (51: V : 79) ‘ they bring to thee yblhm . hr$ (51 : 1 : 38) ‘ he brings gold
to them argmk (5 1 :1 : 21) ‘ I tell to thee ’. There is no evidence to show
that there was a formal distinction between acc. and dat. suffixes (as there is
in Acc, but not in Heb., Arab., etc.).
6.22. D e m o n s tr a tiv e P ro . — The demonstrative hnd ‘ th is’ is
composed of h&n& ( = Jj‫ ‘ «״‬this ’) + d ( = , see § 6. 23). The combination is
rather like Heb. ‫ ‘ הזה‬this’ (< *han -f^>) but the preservation of the n in hnd
shows that a vowel follows the n (§ 5. 22) and points to b&n&, not •han-. So
far, hnd appears to be invariable regardless of the number or gender of the
noun it qualifies. With m. sg.: spr hnd (1005: 9) ‘this document’, 8pr . mlk .
hnd (: 13) ‘ this document of the king ’, .(: 10) §tq§hn (11) ‘bdh . hnd ‘ this $.,
his slave ’, lym hnd (1006 : 1; 1008: 1) ‘ from this day ’, bt . hnd ‘ this house ’
(1009: 14). With m. pi.: alpm . kkwm . hnd (1012 :32) ‘ these 2000 horses ’.
With f.: mlakty . hnd (1012 : 35) ‘ this mission of mine ’ or ‘ these two messen-
gers of mine ’ (1). Note that hnd always follows the noun.
6. 23. D eterm in a tiv e & R e la tiv e P ro. — The pronoun dfdt has
both determinative and relative uses as illustrated in the following paragraphs.
There have been various attempts to define the difference between d and dt.
Thanks to the new material in PRU II, we may now approach the question
on firmer ground. A quadrilingual vocabulary provides the vocalization of d
as dib-u ( = du). Yet djdt may well be inflected according to number,,
gender and case — side by side with an innovating tendency to treat d
indeclinably, at least regarding number and gender (and probably case too).
The m. 8g. d is cognate with Arab. nom. gen. \S\, acc. ‫ ;לן‬cf. Heb. ‫ זו‬and
Aram.‫די‬. The f. sg. is dt — d&t- like Arab. (cf. Heb. ntft); for the ending
-&t, cf. archaic Acc. f. sg. sat (to which case endings are rarely added). The
pi. is also dt but is possibly to be vocalized dat like the common pi. Sftt in

(‫ )י‬It is hard to say whether m lakty is morphologically f. sg. (referring to the mission) or
da. (referring to the two messengers constituting the mission). I f it is du., the abstract noun
‘ mission ’ stands for ‘ messenger cf. Ug. and Eng. ted t 1witness ’ (i. e., ‘ testimony ’) in the sense
of ‘ the witness ’ (i. e., who bears the testimony).

— 39 —
6. 24-28 PRONOUNS A nOr . 38

archaic Acc. B ut even as Acc. Sa tends to displace S&t and sat, Ug. d sometimes
appears in place of dt. Thus the determ inative and relative pro. may appear as

m. sg. f. sg. com. pi.

d = du/l/a dt = d&t- dt = dftt-

or as d regardless of gender or number.


6.24. M. Sg. d — Determinative: l{pn il dpid (51 : IV : 58 etc.) ‘ Ltpn
god of (du) mercy ’. Relative: (1121 : 9) rb . hrSm (10) d . §?a ‘ the chief of the
craftsmen, who (nom. du) has brought out’, ahd . alp . idtn . dahd (1129 : 11)
‘ 1 ox of I. which (acc. da) he/the j received’. (M. sg. is always d ; never dt;
note that pi. dt is contrasted with sg. d in 1129 : 8, 11).
6. 25. F. Sg. d t — Determinative: kt . il . dt . rbtm (51:1 : 81) ‘ a kt of
20,000 (shekels) ’. The noun kt seems to be f.; its pi. is ktt (1088 : 9).
6. 26. PI. d t. — Determinative : with m., *glm . d t . §nt (124 : 13) ‘bullocks
of a year’, pldm dt §*rt (1111:8) ‘ ^.-garments of wool’, (1 Aqht: 53) gpny .
d t . Arsp (54) d t . yrq . nqbny ‘ my trappings of silver, of gold my harnesses ’; with
f., drkt dt drdrk (68 : 10) ‘ thine eternal dominion ’ (lit., ‘ the dominion of thy gene-
ration-generation ’) — for the pi. ‘ ways ’ in the sense of ‘ dominion, power ’,
cf. ‫( חילך || דרכיך‬Prov. 31:3). Relative: with m., dt.tfirn (1018:22) ‘ (those)
who will guard ’, d t . erb (1161:2) ‘ (those) who entered ’, d t . tknn (1161 : 6) ‘ (those)
who are to establish ’; as an example in the acc. note (1129 : 8) Ui • alp • $Pr • d t .
afrd (9) hrth ‘ 3 oxen of S‫ >־‬which his plowmen took ’ ; with f., (1121 : 1) tmn .
m rkbt. dt (2) *rb . b t. mlk ‘ 8 chariots that entered the house of the king ’.
6. 27. d May R ep lace dt. — The replacement of dt by d is well at-
tested in the pi. In 306 : 1, d replaces dt in the following formula: (1036 : 4)
bdl. ar . d t . inn (5) mhr Ihm! ‘ merchants of Ar, who have no soldiers ’. Simi-
larly, ‘ (those) who work ’ appears as d t . tb*ln (1024 : rev. 6) or d . Win (1024 :
rev. 8) in one and the same tablet. Other pi. examples of d: d . ybl (1135 : 7)
‘ which (pi.) they have brought ’, bnS. mlk .d .b d . adn*m (1024 : 1, 26-27)
‘ personnel of the king who are under the supervision of A. ’, and (though the
interpretation is subject to difference of opinion) adrm . dbgrn (2 Aqht: V : 7)
‘ the dignitaries who are on the threshing floor ’. There is no doubt that d
is f. sg. in K rt: 142, 145 etc. because it refers to the Lady H ry; the lack
of vowels in the orthography prevents us from knowing whether this d (refer-
ring to a f. noun) corresponds to f. nt, which occurs in Heb. alongside ‫!את‬.
6. 28. P erso n a l vs. Im personal — The distinction between personal
and impersonal in certain pronouns (particularly interrogatives, but sometimes

— 40 —
A n Or . 38 PRONOUNS 6 . 29-33

also relatives) is widespread. E. g., my/mh (§ 6. 33), Heb. ‫מי‬/‫ מה‬, (rel. as
well as interrog.), xiqjxl, quisjquid, German werjwas and their Eng. definition
‘ who/what ? ’. In some languages, such as Sumerian and Hittite, words are
regularly classed as pers. or impers. (never m. or f.).
6.29. G eneral R ela tiv e — mn{m) serves as either the general relative
pronoun or the interrogative thereof. When personal, it is to be compared
with Acc. mannu(mme); when impersonal, with Acc. minti(me); cf. Orientalia 7
1938 42-43 §§ 2. 29, 31. Personal: mn . ib (cn t : I I I : 34) || mnm . ib (cn t : IV : 48)
‘ which enemy?’; in the following impersonal examples, note that the second
is nominalized: (125 : 81) mn . yrh . km[r^ ] (82) inn . kdvf! kr\t ] ‘ what month
is it that he is sick, what (one) that Krt is ill? ’. The foregoing are inter-
rogative; the following are not: Personal: mnm.Salm (1161:6) 4whichever
inquirers’; impersonal: mnm rgm (54:16-17) 4whatever word = : anything =
everything’, mnm Sim (89:13; 95:16; 1015:16-17) 4whatever (thy) welfare
(may be) ’.
6. 30. In d ep en d en t In d e fin ite P ers. Pro. — The independent
indefinite pro. used as subject is mnk (< manna + ka 4whoever thou art ’) which
can be pluralized : (1009 : 12) mnk (13) mnkm . I . yqh, mnkm . lyqti (1005 : 12)
4nobody shall take ’.
6.31. In d ef. Adj. P ro. — The general or indefinite pro. 0^(cf. JJ)follows *
the noun in Ihm . blhm ay wMy . bhmr yn ay (52 : 6) 4eat of any food and
drink of any wine ’ (cf. 4 ‫ או שכר‬any liquor ’ in Prov. 31 :4).
6.32. 4A ll, E v e r y ’ — The idea 4all, every’ is also expressed by the
common Semitic ^ k l l : k l . fir (67 : V I : 2 6 )4every mountain ’, k l . gbe (67 : V I: 27)
4every h ill’; note also kl in 1022:7, 8; cf. (95 : 10) cmny (11) kll. mid (12)
Sim 4with both of us all is quite peaceful ’. With genitive pro.: klhm (6 : 26)
4 all of them ’. Virolleaud restores [&]/&//& (1008 :10) 4its everything = all that
pertains thereto ’; the reduplicated form of kl occurs also in ]WkZ (1162 :rev. 9).
6. 33. In te r r o g a tiv e Pro. — The interrogative pronouns are my =
miya 4who ? ’ and mh = mah 4what ? ’: my bilm ydy mr$ (126 : V : 10-21) 4who
among the gods will exorcize the sickness ? ’; mh tarSn (49 : I I : 13-14 ; cn t :
V : 36) 4what dost thou (f.) wish ? ’, mh . yqh (2 Aqht: V I : 35, 36) 4what
does he get? ’. These interrogatives are always independent. For mn 4which?,
what?’ modifying a noun, see § 6. 29.

— 41 —


7.1-6 NUMERALS A n Or . 38

CHAPTER VH

NUMERALS

7. 1. L o g o g r a p h i c N u m e r a ls — We know as much as we do about


the numerals in U garitic because the scribes do not as a rule represent the
numerals logographically in the literary texts, and even in the adm inistrative
te x t the scribes frequently spell them out (contrast Acc. usage).
7 .2 . L o g o g r a m s f o r U n i t s & T e n s — The num erals are w ritten
logographically ( ^ = 1 and ^ = 10) in adm inistrative documents such

as 81, 82, 108,113, 116, 300, 301, 307, 324, 326 and 400 (')•

7.3. S in g u la r w ith o u t N um eral — The singular without a numeral


suffices to indicate oneness, even in statistical tablets, at the scribe’s discretion.
Thus, q$t . w . qle (3 2 1 :1 :4 ; et passim) ‘ one bow and one sling ’, $ql (111: 2,
3, 6, 7 ; 169 :2, 3) ‘ one shekel ’, yrh (109 : 9) ‘ one month ’. This usage occurs
in poetry too ; e. g., ‘glm . d t . Snt (124 : 13) *one-year-old bullocks ’.
7.4. D ual w ith o u t N um eral — Duality may be expressed without
the numeral by using the dual formation of the noun; e. g., attrn. (52:39)
‘ 2 wives ’, btm (52 : 45) ‘ 2 girls ’, tqlm (169 : 6 ; 308 : passim) *2 shekels ’,
kkrm . br<U (120 : 6) (*) *2 talents of iron ’.
7.5. E llip s is w ith PI. N um erals — Plurality (i. e., ‘ 3 ’ or over)
may be expressed by the numeral without mention of the thing counted, if
the latter is obvious from context. Thus in 1082 *1 fc<2-measure (of oil) ’ is
expressed by kd (8mn) lines 2, 3, 6-9 et passim); ‘ 2 &d-measures (of oil) ’, as
kdm (Smn) (lines 5, 10, 11); but ‘ 3 ’ as simply (lines 18, 21, rev. 4), ‘ 4 ’
as ar&* (§mn) (lines 4, 22) and ‘ 60 ’ as ttm (Smn) (rev. 10) without kd(m).
7. 6. S h orten ed Form s — The chief pitfall in the cardinals is the fact
that from ‘2 ’ to ‘ 10’ inclusive, the forms without -t may be used with either

(*) In 150:11-17 two small wedges are followed by a large on e: Perhaps the large

one is a measure (‘ X ’), so that the combination means ( 2X ’. The relation is multiplicative
rather than additive (for addition would favor the larger denomination coming first).
(*) This passage shows that the noun of quantity may be in the absolute state before the
noun of material.

— 42 —
A nOr. 38 NUMERALS 7.7-8

gender. The numeral in ‘2 ’ in one text is not morphologically feminine


even with a f. noun: £n Surtrn (92 : 3, 8, 17) ‘ 2 Surfs (du.) ’. £mn (1 Aqht: 43;
cf. § 7. 16), referring to &nt ‘ years cannot be an ordinal and is certainly a
cardinal, which is quite in keeping with Semitic grammar. However, in a
parallel construction (51 : I I I : 17; cf. § 7. 9), tit refers to dbhm and so we are
obliged to conclude that Ut though without -t, is the cardinal referring to a
m. noun. Indeed ftft is rare, and tit often occurs with m. (as well as with f.):
ft£ • yrtyrn (125 : 84) ‘ 3 months ’, tit • @zr[m] (119 : 16) ‘ 3 boys fft • AZbm (305 : 4)
‘ 3 dogs’, M • sswm (Krt:128) ‘ 3 horses’. Similarly, it is apparently used
with m. or f. (see § 7. 14, below), for tft is rare. Nor must the element *10 ’
as it appears in the numerals ‘ 11’ to ‘ 19’ inclusive, follow the Proto-Semitic
laws of agreement in gender. Thus 'Sr seems to correspond morphologically
to ‫ ע&ר‬as in *‫ ע&ו‬rubtf ‘ 18’ (with m.), while e8rh, to mfep as in mfep mbtf
(with f.). However, note the following hybrid forms imn *Sr 8url (92 : 1) ‘ 18
Surfs ’, hmS *Sr sp (93 :10) ‘ 15 sp’s ’. These /i-less variants may reflect a
readily intelligible tendency for the shorter forms to displace the longer; or
the loss of -h as in §mm for 8mmh (§ 5. 39) as has happened in Heb. mjPP and
0‫ זמימוז‬were ‫( ה‬instead of !‫ )ך‬is no longer consonantal. *
” ” 7. 7. ‘ 1 ’: m. ahd = *ab(b)ad- (>), f. aht{') = ab(t»)att- (§ 5. 35): ahd (1010:15)
‘ 1 (tree (*)) ’, @zr . afyd (119 : 19, 20, cf. : 3 and 112:5, 8) ‘ 1 boy ’, aft . afyt
(119 :10) ‘ 1 woman ’, p@t. dfyt (119 : 7,11) ‘ 1 girl ’, afyd . b . &nk(?) (49 : 1 : 18)
* 1 among thy sons ’, pdr . mlk . ahd (29 : 3, cf.: 1,2) ‘ 1 (for) Pdr-mlk ’, a h t.
I . *ftrt (19 :16, cf.: 12, 14, 15) ‘ 1 (bird [f.]) for 'Attart’. In the last two examples
note that the name may be unaccompanied by the preposition and followed by
the numeral, or accompanied by the preposition and preceded by the numeral.
While afyd usually follows the noun it modifies (1140:2-13; 1141 :4 etc.), it
sometimes precedes it: (1123:9) ahd (10) kbd ‘ 1 heavy (shekel)’, ahd . alp
(1129:11) ‘ 1 o x ’.
7. 8. ‘ P a ir / S e t ’ — ‘ One pair ’ or ‘ set ’ is expressed by ahdm ( = ‫אדוךים‬
in Ezek. 37 :17): trm . afydrn (1122 : 3) ‘a pair of tr’s ’, cf. 317 : 4 and 1179 : 2,3.
‘ More than one pair ’ or ‘ set ’ is expressed by $mdm : dual $mdm (3 1 7 :3 ;
1179 : 5, 7) = samdftm- ‘2 pairs’, pi. $mdm = §amad&m~ for '3 or more pairs’ as
in f t t . ?mdm (317 : 1 ; 1121 :8: 1179 : 4) ‘ 3 pairs ’, a r \f. ?mdm . apnt (1123 : 7)
‘4 pairs of wheels’ (cf. also 1123:4; 1141:1). Suppletion for equivalent terms
takes place also in Acc. (Orientalia 7 1938 44 § 3. 3) where ‘one pair’ or ‘set’

(l) The segol of ‫ אחר‬and ‫ אחת‬indicates ‘ virtual ’ doubling of the b. Cf. ‫החג‬ instead of
*habb&g. qito instead of *pabb&m, DTOIV (Dent. 32:36) instead of *yitnalft&m, etc.
(‫ ף‬The gender of the numeral ‘ 1 ’ is (unlike the other numerals) always used correctly.
(*) The noon (‘ tree ’) is unnecessary, because it is clear from context.

— 43 —
7 . 9 ‫־‬12 NUMERALS A nOr . 38

is iltGntitu, but ‘ more than one pair ’ or ‘ set ’ is expressed by a numeral followed
by tapal (see 1181 :side). Suppletion is evoked by the fact that ahdm and
ill§n(lta cannot be further pluralized. (The key text is 317, where we find the
sequence ‘ 3 pairs, 2 pairs, 1 pair ’).
7. 9. ‘2 ’: With this numeral the noun must be in the dual. The abs.
card, is used independently in in (1010: 13) ‘2 ’ (i. e., ‘2 trees’ as is clear from
context); in . b g t. mzln (1061 : 1) ‘ 2 (people) from G.-M. ’ (see also in in lines
2,16). The construct is: m. in = nom. tn&, gen./acc. tȣ, f. it = nom. tt&,
gen./acc. tt6. Examples of in: in . 8m (9 : 2) ‘ 2 (head) of small cattle ’, [£]n .
prm (1138 : 1) ‘2 bulls’, in spm (93 : 14), in . yrhm (109 : 3) ‘2 months’, in . bnh
(119 : 6) ‘ her 2 sons ’, in nerm (119:8) ‘2 lads ’, in . qlem (321:1 : 2, 3) ‘ 2 slings ’,
(61 : III :17) in . dbhm . Sna . bel . Hi (18) rkb . er p t. dbh (19) btt . wdbh . jwdbh, j
(20) d n t. wdbh . tdmm (21) amht 4Bacl hates 2 banquets; (yea) 3 (‘), the rider
of clouds; the banquets of shame and the banquets of baseness and the banquets
of the abuse of handmaids ’. The last passage belongs to a literary form
common to Ugar. and Heb. poetry (see Pr. 30: 15, 18; cf. Amos 1 : 3-16). One
less than the sum of the items is first stated and then the sum itself, sometimes
followed by the listing of the items. Cf. (cnt: I V : 79) tn . mtpdm (80) th t. cn t .
ar$ . ili . mthi, . Qyrm. It has been pointed out above (§ 7. 6) that in is used
with either gender (i. e., m. may occur for f.). However, the f. it is abundantly
attested in the administrative documents: i t . nirkbtm (1121:6) ‘ 2 chariots’,
i t . ptftm (119 : 19) ‘ 2 girls ’, i t . attm (119 : 7, 11, 18, 20) 42 women ’, i t . bth
(119 : 22) 4her 2 daughters ’, i t . q§tm (321 : 1 : 2, 26, 27, 29 et passim) 42 bows’.
Only the f. of tfkl* has appeared so far. The m. *kil’&m- is not yet attested
and we find only the const, of the f. *kil’atam-: to wit, klat — kil’at&/6: (67 : 1 : 19)
bMat (20) ydy, bMat. ydh (cn t : I : l l ) ‘ with both my/his hands’, (cn t: I I : 3)
Mat . tfirt (4) bht . ent ‘both doors of 'Anat’s house(s)’. Duality is also represent-
ed by kpl (98 : 5) || in (: 1, 2, 4); cf. Heb. ‫ כסאם‬. Adverbial tnm means 4twice ’
in 3 Aqht: 22.
7. 10. Number of Noun w ith 3 to 10 — The numerals from ‘ 3 ’
to ‘ 10 ’ inclusive usually go with nouns in the plural; note the illustrations
in the following paragraphs. However, the sg. sometimes ocours, as in i l i . Sd
(1079 :3, 6) ‘ 3 fields ’, and in 1024: rev. 4.
7. 11. ‘ 3 ’ : iltft) = talftt(at)- : (with f.) ffl . mat (Krt: 89) 43 hundred ’, tit
§urt (92 : 6, 16); (with m.) ilt sswm (Krt: 128) ‘ 3 horses ’ (also 1028 : 4 ; 1050 : 6,
8, 9 etc., cf. § 7. 6) and ilit (1108: 4).
7.12. ‘ 4 ’: arbe(t) = ’arba«(at)-: (with f.}arbe. mat (12 + 97:14)44 hundred ’,
arbe Surt (92 : 4, 5), (with m.) arb* . c?m (1010:9) ‘ 4 trees ’, arb‫״‬. irtnm

(*) Cf. § 7. 6 for reasou why we take ill as cardinal here.

— 44 —
A n O r. 38 NUMERALS 7. !3-18

(1 0 2 9 :9 ); cf. 6 5 : 3 , 6 , 1 1 ; 9 3 :7 , 13; 1 1 2 :1 4 ; 1 2 5 :8 6 ; 3 2 1 :1 1 :4 6 . Note


arb(e) in 112 : 9. W ith - t : arbet (308 : 20 ; 1062 : 10) ‘ 4 (shekels)’; cf. also 1108: 7.
7. 13. ‘ 6 ’ : hm§ bamifi- ; see 3 : 3 8 ; 66 : 2, 8, 10 ; 83 : 13 ; 119 : 17.
This form is used w ith m. (as well as f.); e. g., hm i .y m m (109 :4 , 6, 6, 8, 10)
‘ 5 days ’, hm S. innrn (1028 : 1) 4 6 soldiers ’. B ut hmH stands alone for ‘ 5 (she-
kels) ’ in 1062 : 8 et passim ; 1083 : 12 ; cf. 1108 : 3.
7. 14. ‘ 6 ’ : it{t) = titt(at)- (}/ tdi) : (with f.) tt &urt (92 : 7, 13), [t]£ . m a t.
n$ (1 2 :5 ) ‘ 6 hundred n$ (‫( ; )י‬with m. ?) tt • dd . §erm (12 : 1, 7) ‘ 6 pots of barley ’,
H 8pm (93 : 8); cf. also 110 : 1, 8; 310 : 10; tit (1108 : 5 ; 1131: 7) is rare ; note
t lt t . w . tU t. ksph (1127 : 13) ‘ his 6 (i. e., *3 and 3 ’ shekels) of silver ’ (*).
7. 16. 4 7 ’ : §be(t) = Sabbat)- : (with f.) §be . Snt (49 : V : 8-9 ; 75 : I I : 45 ;
128 : I I I : 22 ; 1 A q h t: 42) 4 7 years ’, 8be pam t (*) (6 : 26) 4 7 times ’ or in inverse
order p a m t. §be (52 : 20); (with m.) §bct . raSm (67 : 1 : 3 ) ‘ 7 heads ’, (67 : V : 8)
§bet (9) <}lmk; cf. 8 : 2 ; 75 : I I : 49; 1017 : 6 (w ithout - t : 1028 : 8 ; 1060 : 3).
7. 16. 48 ’ : imn{t) = tam&n6(t)- ; (with f.) tmn . qSt (306 : 14) 48 bows ’,
tm n . nqpt (4) (52 : 67 ; cf. 76 : I I : 46) 48 years ’, tmn §urt (92 : 2); in reverse
order (*) m\Jbt. ilm . tm n (62 :19) 48 dwellings of the gods ’ (cf. 110 : 5 ; 112 : 3);
w ith f. noun understood (1 A q h t: 42) §b' . in t (43) y§rk . t f l . tm n rkb (44) *rpt
4 7 years may Bacl afflict thee; 8, the rider of clo u d s’ (•); (with m.) tm n t.b n
um ( K r t : 9) 48 sons of a m other ’ but also w ithout - t : tm n . hzr . (1024: rev. 4)
4 8 swine ’.
7 .1 7 . 49 ’ : — tiS®- : Used w ith m. nouns: f f l . hbfnm (1 0 2 8 :6 ); cf.
also 6 3 :1 , 3 ; 8 5 :1 5 ; 1029 : 1. U nattested w ith f. nouns so far.
7. 18. 4 10 ’ : '§r = caS(a)r- : 112 : 1, 10, 16 ; 310 : 8, 9 ; used with m. (as
well as f.) n o u n s; e. g., e§ r . hsnm (1028 :1 , cf. lines 5, 7), see also 1030: 3 ;
but *Srt stands alone for 4 10 ’ (presumably, shekels) in 1062 :12 et passim ;
similarly, 110 8 :1 , 6, 8.

(‘) The context suggests that nf is a bird (cf. egr in line 5) The word may well be cognate
with Heb. ‫נץ‬.
(*) With the even numbers that are made by adding their halves, note the conjunction to in
tltt. to.tltt, whereas tt.tt, Sb“ and alp. alp (cf. §§ 7. 22, 24, 42) are asyndetic.
(s) It may be that the roots of p a m t 4a time ’ and p ' n 4 foot ’ are blended in the Heb. DPD
which means either, the commoner meaning being ‘ a time ’ but 4foot ’ also well attested. C f.‫רנל‬
which means not. only 4foot ’ but also 4a time ’ (Num. 22:28, 32, 33) = 0P0 (Hum. 24:10).
(■*) For the meaning, cf. the parallel 8b' . 8nt (75 : I I : 45) and Is. 29 :1 : 1 ‫ ה‬3‫ ל~ש‬9 ‫ שנח‬CD
‫חגים ינקסו‬.
(6) Usually the cardinal precedes the noun; rarely does it follow, except in statistical lists,
where it is quite common.
(8) The sequence 47 — 8 ’ in these formulae is common (cf. 42 — 3 ’ in § 7. 9); note also
(en t : V : 33) y‫״‬ny (34) il. b8bct . £drm. btmnt (35) ap. 8grt, (67: V 8 (8 ‫ ו‬bct (9) glmk. tmn. frnzrk.

— 45 —
7. 19-27 NUMERALS A n Or 38

7. 19. Sg. above 10 — When the numeral is above ‘ 10’, the noun is
often(1) in the sg., as regularly in Arab, and with a considerable number of
nouns in Heb.; cf. ‘Sr sp (93 : 10) ‘ 15 sp’s ’, Him, sp (93: 6) ‘ 30 sp’s ’ —
contrast 11. 7, 8, 12, 13, 16, where the pi. spm is used after the numerals 3, 4
and 6. Also contrast arb‘ . hrSrn (1024 : rev. 6) ‘ 4 craftsmen ’ with *St. ‘Sr . hrS
(: 7) ‘ 11 craftsmen ’.
7. 20. ‘ T e e n s ’ — In the ‘ teens’, the h of 'Srh indicates that the ‫ה‬
of ‫ ע&ו־וז‬was originally consonantal. As pointed out above, the genders of the two
component words need not be in the harmony that other closely related Semitic
languages require. Except in 1083 and 1131 and 1144, the first numeral is without
-t, and the second may or may not end in -h regardless of gender. However, the
scribe of 1083 consistently distinguishes the gender of his numerals albeit with
a peculiarity vis-k-vis Heb., Aram, and Arab, usage; to wit, he suffixes -t to
both the unit and the ten when referring to m. nouns; but cf. Eth. Ou»OP *
‘ 13 ’, etc. (see §§ 7. 25, 26, 27).
7. 21. ‘ 11 ’ : ‘St . ‘Sr = *a8t§ ‫׳‬aSar- (1024 : rev. 7), ‘S t. ‘Srh = 'aStft ‫׳‬iSrih(l)
(1083 : 4). The first element is cognate with Acc. iStOn ‘ 1 ’, which survives also
in Heb. and Elephantine Aram. 11‘ ‫’עשתי עשר‬.
7. 22. 12 ‫ ’ י‬: in ‘Sr = tn& ‫־‬aSar- (110 : 2, 9 ; 1087 : 1), in . ‘Srh (1098 : 2,
29, 33) or with inverted order ‘S r . in (1081:4,21; 1111:10). Note also
U . U (1127 :5) ‘ 6 + 6 ’ or ittm (1024 : rev. 9) ‘ twice 6 ’.
7. 23. ‘ 13 ’ : il i . ‘Sr = tal&t- ‫־‬aSar- (1028 : 2 ; 1029 : 7 ; 1031 : 10) and H[&].
‫[*״‬r]f (1083 : 10) ‘ 13 (shekels) ’.
7. 24. ‘ 14 ’: arb‘ ‘Sr = 'arbac- caSar- (110 : 3, 4, 7, 11), arb‘ . ‘Srh . Smn
(1083 : 1), [ar]&‫״‬f . ‘Srt. kbd (1144 : 6); and with inverted order ‘S r. arb‘ (1081 : 18).
Note also Sb‘ . Sb• (1128 :31) ‘ 7 + 7 ’.
7.25. ‘ 15’: hmS ‘Sr = bamis- *aSar-, hmS ‘Srh = bamis- ci8rih(t): hmS. *£r ymm
(109 : 7) ‘ 15 days ’, hmS *8r sp (93 : 10), (1 : 9) hmS (10) ‘Srh (also 1024 : rev. 9, 22),
hmS cS(r)h. (65 : 8) and hmSt. ‘Srt (1083 : 8, 14) ‘ 15 (shekels) ’.
7. 26. ‘ 1 6 ’: H *£r=rtitt- ®aSar- (110:12), H . ‘Srh . ym (1126:5); and
'Srt. tit (1131: 7) || Sb‘t . ‘Srt ‘ 17 ’ and tm n t. ‘Srt ‘ 18 ’ in 1131 : 4-6. (The sequence
of ‘ ten -|- digit ’ and -t twice, in *Srt. tit, are matched in Eth. OwC& * fDftJS'A't:).
7. 27. ‘ 17 ‫ י‬:Sb‘ . ‘Sr = Sab‫־‬- ‫־‬aSar- (1029 : 13), Stf . ‘Srh = Sab‫־‬- ‫־‬iSrih(f)
(1106 :14) (with f.); note also Sb‘t . ‘Srt (1131 : 4, 6).

(x) For farther examples, see also §§ 7.31, 32, 39, 41,42, 43. However, for instances of tbe
pi., cf. § 7. 36, which shows that the sg. is not used with the regularity of the Arabic. More
surprising is the pi. ymm ‘ (16) days ’ in § 7. 25, where a word so commonly used with numerals
does not follow the rule; contrast Heb. ‫( ארבעים יום‬Gen. 7:12) ‘40 days ‫( חטשים וטאת יום‬Gen.
7:24) '150 d ays’, etc.

— 46 —
A nOr . 38 NUMERALS 7. 28-40

7. 28. ‘ 18 tmn “§r = tam&n6 ca8ar-, tmn e&rh = tam&nO ®iSrih(!): Iran e$r
Surt (92 :1), tmn *Srh (65 : 6).
7. 29. ‘ 19 ’ : « * . 5 : 1029) •&‫ = )״‬tiS‫־‬- ‫־‬afiar-.
7. 30. T e n s — T he ‘ tens ’ end in -m = nom. -Oma, gen./acc. -ima.
7. 31. ‘ 20 ’ : *8rm = eifirOma (*): c$rm . tql (118 : 20) * 20 shekels (41 : 4)
m lkt (5) "§rm 420 ‫ ^־‬b-sacrifices ’ ; cf. also 3 : 43; 119: 29; 120 : 13, 14; 310 : 7.
7. 32. ‘ 3 0 ’: tttm = tal&t&ma: fffyn . *$r (12 :5 ) ‘30 b ird s’, Him sp (93 : 6),
Him, Surt (92 : 9), £lim . cilmg (1 2 0 :8 ; cf. 1 : 20).
7. 33. *40’: arb'm =. ’arbaeOma: (120 : 15) artfm . (16) im n . m r ‘40 (units
of) m yrrh oil ’, [a]rb‫״‬m (41 : 2).
7. 34. ‘ 6 0 ’: fym&m = bam(i)8ftma: (120 : 9) hmSm . kkr (10) qnm ‘ 60 ta-
lents of reeds ’.
7. 35. ‘ 60 ’: i£in = titt&ma: ££m (51 : V I I : 9), ttm sp (310 : 3, 6); cf. 1010 : 21.
7. 36. ‘ 7 0 ’: §bem = SabcOma: (62 : 1 : 18) $bem (19) rum m ‘ 70 buffaloes ’,
§b*m alpm (: 20) ‘ 70 oxen ’, Sbcm sin (: 22) ‘ 70 small cattle ’, Sbem aylm (: 24)
‘ 70 deer ’ ; cf. also 67 : V : 20; 75 : I I : 49.
7. 37. *80 ’ : tm nym = tam&niydma: im nym (61 : V II : 11; 67 : V : 21;
7 6 :1 1 :6 0 ; 1157:5).
7. 38. ‘ 90 ’ : Wm = tiS‫־‬ftma: t?m (51: V I I : 12; 1030 : 7).
7. 39. A s y n d e t i c T e n + D i g i t — No conjunction is used to join tens
with the digits th a t follow; thus eSrm . ahd . kbd (1028 : 10) ‘ 21 heavy (shekels) ’,
cSrm . arbe . kbd (110: 6) ‘ 24 heavy (shekels) ’, (116 : 4) c§rm (5) hniS (6) kbd
‘ 25 heavy (shekels) ’ (*), (1056:8) Him (9) ahd (10) kbd ‘ 31 heavy (shekels),
hrnSm . tm n . kbd (1024 : 25) ‘ 58 heavy (shekels)’, Hm . H . kbd(1084 :11)
‘ 66 (etc.) ’, W m kbd (1028 : 9) ‘ 96 (etc.) ’.
7. 40. A d d i t i v e l — T he digit can stand first, followed by l and then
the t e n : arbe . I ‘Srm (1030 :8) ‘ 24 ’, hm$ . I . eirm (1084 : 9) ‘ 26 ’, t m n t . I e8rm
(1131: 8) ‘ 28 ’, . I . e§rm (1026 :3) ‘29 ’, £mn . I . arVm (1025 : 5) ‘ 48 ’. A ten

(*) Or nom. -Ami, gen./acc. -4m i; i. e., with du. saflBx like Acc. e§r& 420 ’, §al&§& 430 ’, erbi
440 * and hanS& 450 ’ ; and Eth. from 420 ’ (O W ) through ‘ 90 ’ (1*A8). The du. suffix spread
analogically from ‘ 20 ’ (the du. of ‘ 10 ’), while elsewhere in W. Sem. the pi. suffix (appropriate
from 430 ’ to 490 ’ inclusive) is attached to 420 ’ analogically. In the segolate tens ( I
D,allpp ‘ 20 ’ ; J70 4 ?2 ‫; ’ בעים‬ j 90 ‘ ‫עים‬#‫ — ’ ת‬and similarly in Aram.) note that the
8g. stem (appropriate for the du., but not for the pi. which inserts a after the second consonant)
has spread analogically from 420 ‫ י‬in most of W. Sem. Contrast the sg. stem of 0 20• :4v9 &‫’ רי‬
with the pi. ‫ ‘ ע&רות‬tens, decades ‫ י‬from the same root.
1 * j

(*) It is not uncommon to have two (or more) variant measures with the same name: e. g.,
4 ton the short ton weighing 2000 pounds, the long ton weighing 2240 pounds. This phenomenon
is well known in the ancient Near E ast; thus ‫( שקל הקדש‬Exod. 30:13, 24 eto.) and ‫מאתים שקלים‬
2) ‫ באבץ המלך‬Sam. 14:26). To make sure of full weight, the careful buyer should use the
fool-proof term.

— 47 —
7. 41*44 NUMERALS A nOr . 38

may be added to a hundred in the same manner: hmSm . I . mit (1029:14)


‘ 150 hm&m . I . mitm (1096 : 2)*■250 ’; digits may follow (but no number is made
with 2 Z’s): (1031: 16) arb'm . I . mit (17) in kbd ‘ 142 heavy (shekels) ’, ttm . I .
mit . in . kbd (1080 : 10) ‘ 162 (etc.) \ (1028 : 12) ttm [. I .] m it. tU (13) kbd
‘ 163 (etc.)’.
7.41. H undreds — The sg. of ‘ hundred’ is mit = mi't- (not •mi’at-) and
is therefore orthographically distinguishable from the pi. mat = Sg.: mit
phm mit iqni (118 : 27-28, 29-30, 31-32, 33-34) ‘ 100 carbuncles, 100 lapis-lazuli
stones ’, m it. ti&rm (120 : 7) ‘ 100 Z.-trees ’; cf. 22 :10; 23:9 and 67 : IV : 3.
The sg. stem is also found in dual mitm ‘ 200’ (99:12; 1128:28; 1143:1;
cf. 90: 7 in § 7. 42); for the sake of clarity in the written language, the du.
mitm never appears in the construct (§ 4. 31). PI.: tit mat (Krt: 89) ‘ 300 ’,
arb* mat (12 + 97 :14; 120: 2) ‘ 400 ’, ti . mat (120 : 4) ‘ 600 ’, etc. Tens may
be added asyndetically: m it. eSr . kbd . yn . (b (1084 :6) ‘ 110 heavy (measures)
of good wine ’, m it. arbem . kbd . yn (1084 : 25) ‘ 140 heavy (measures) of wine ’,
t i t . m a t. tWn (1094: 1) : 330 ’. See also § 7. 40.
7. 42. T h ousands — The sg. of ‘ thousand’ is alp = *alp-; pi. alpm —
*alapft/ima: (90 : 5) tmn . kkrm (6) alp . kbd (7) [m)\tm . kbd ‘ 8 talents, 1000 (heavy)
shekels (plus)(1) 200 (heavy) shekels’, alp . kd . nbt (12 : 2, 8) ‘ 1000 jars of honey’,
[a)lp . arbe . mat (12 -j- 97 : 14) ‘ 1,400 ’, alpm (51:1: 28) ‘ thousands ’. Without
a numeral to define it, alpm in prose texts is always dual; e. g., alpm . &wm
(1012 : 24, 32, 38) ‘ 2000 horses ’. Note also alp . alp (1128 : 30) ‘ 2000 ’.
7. 43. Ten T housands — ‘ Myriad’ is rbt: rbt hr$ (77 : 20-21) ‘ 10,000
(shekels) (*) of gold ’; du.: rbtm (5 1 :1 : 31) ‘ 20,000 (shekels) ’; pi. rbbt (51 : 1 : 29)
‘ myriads ’. The largest number in these texts is 3,000,000: tU • ntat . rbt
(Krt: 89) ‘ 300 myriads ’.
7.44. Id io m w ith O r d in a ls — The ordinals from ‘ 2nd’ to ‘ 7th ’
inclusive are quite familiar from a poetic idiom that appears frequently with
variations. The simplest form has it that something is done for ‘ a day and
a 2nd; a 3rd, a 4th day; a 5th, a 6th day; (but) behold at sunrise on the
7th (such and such happened)’. Example: (Krt: 106) ym . win . lit . rbe ym
(107) hmS. td t. ym . m k . SpSm (108) b$be; cf. (Krt: 118) whn . §p§m (119) telf (*),

(*) Again note the absence of to; cf. § 7. 39. It is also of interest that the mention of so
many as 1200 shekels shows that the mina (though it may appear in 118:19, 20) was not ordi‫־‬
narily used in Ugarit. We may add in passing that in all probability 3000 shekels (rather than
3600) made ap the talent in Ugarit.
(*) See Brockelmann, Orundriss II, 280 f., § 194, for examples of the principle that in Semitic
languages the thing counted may be omitted, if it can be readily supplied by the hearer or reader.
(3) Additions may be inserted, enhancing the suspense. Thus in K r t: 114-119 a passage is
introduced after ‘ a 6 th day ’. Interruption may take place on the 3rd or 4th day : (K rt: 194)

— 48 —
A nOr . 38 NUMERALS 7. 45-55

mk.bSb* (124:25) ‘ 10 on the 7th ’, (127:21) hn ym (22) win ‘ behold a day


and a 2nd
7.45. F orm ation o f O rdinals — We have no internal evidence as to
the vocalization of the ordinals. Syntactically, there is a striking analogy with
the Acc. for in both languages the ordinal precedes the noun (contrast Heb.).
However, this does not mean that Ugar. ordinals are necessarily of the qatul
type as in Acc. Nor do we know if the Arabic type (qfttil) was used (*).
7. 46. D is tin c tiv e O rdinals — It is useful to remember that among
the ordinals, ‘ 4th ’ and ‘ 6th ’ are orthographically distinct from the cardinals.
7. 47. * 1st ’: no examples so far. ♦
7. 48. ‘ 2nd ’: in. *
7. 49. ‘ 3rd ’: Hi.
7. 60. ‘ 4th ’: rbe.
7. 51. ‘ 5th ’: hm l
7. 62. ‘ 6th ’: idt: rgm . yiib . b . i d i {8 : 45) ‘ he shall send back word
on the 6th ’.
7. 63. ‘ 7th ’: §be; f. m : (1 Aqht: 176) ed (177) m . Snt. ybk . laq(178)ht
‘ until the 7th year he wept for Aqht ’.
7. 54. ' 8th ’; f. imnt (sic! in 128 : I I : 24).
7. 55. F r a c tio n s — Except for ‘ ‫־‬4‫ )*( ’ ־‬and 44 ‫ ־‬the attested fractions
have prefixed m - and suffixed (f.) -t. The following citation, though difficult
to interpret, includes all the known fractions of this type: (Krt:16) milit .
kirm . tmt (17) m rtft. zblnm (18) m hm it. yitsp (19) rSp m idtt. film (20) ym . m§!b‘t*37

tlkn (195) ym. win. ajr (196) fp\f\m 6[f]lf, (K rt: 207) ylk ym. tain (208) tit . rb*. ym. (209) ajr
ipim . brb*. The use of 8 refrain yields the following scheme 4 behold a day and a 2nd + refrain
(with parallelism) + a 3rd, 8 4th day + same refrain + a 5th, a 6 th day + same refrain + bnt
on the 7th day + climactic variation of refrain’. Examples: (51 :V I :24) hn. ym . win. tiki (25)
ift bbhtm. nblat (26) bhklm. tit. rib1 ym (27) tifcl [i]#t . bbhtm (28) n&la[f] bhklm (29) •
ym. tiki (30) ift [5 \bhtmnblat (31) b[qrb hk]lm. mk (32) b§b[c] y[mm]. td . ift (33) bbhtm. n[6]la t.
bhklm‘ behold a day and a 2 nd, the fire eats into the house(s), the flame(8) into the palace(s);
a 3rd, a 4th day, the fire eats into the hoa 8e(8), the flame(8) into the palace(8) ; a 5 th, a 6 th day,
the fire eats into the house(s), the flame(8) into the midst of the palace(8); bnt on the 7th day,
the fire went from the house(s), the flame(8) from the palace(s)’, (2 Aqht : I I :32) hn.ym.wtn.
yilhm (33) ktrt. voyS[S\q. bnt. hll (34) snnt tit rb< ym. yfl(35)km ktrt wyffq (36) bnt hll snnt. bmj
(37) tdt ym. yflhm. ktrt (38) t0yS[lg] bnt hll. snnt (39) mk Wb[*] ymm tb* bbth. (40) ktrt. bnt hll.
snnt ‘ behold a day and a 2 nd, he feeds the songstresses and he gives the daughters of shonting
the swallows, to drink; a 3rd, a 4th day ... but on the 7th day the songstresses, the daughters
of shouting the swallows, departed from his house(8) ’.
(*) The Heb. pattern is the least likely for Ugar. because the nisbe suffix (’IV ) ‫ רביעי לשלישי‬etc.)
is not present in Ugar. Besides, in no case can tdt tally in formation with ’gfci, which has no d.

(*) Written logographically in 115:17.

— 49 —

7
1. 56*65 NUMERALS A nOr . 38

hn.MlI). (21) tipi died like bullsr, ‫ ־ ך‬, of sickness; 4‫ > ־‬pestilence gathered
up; - r , --------- ; 4‫ י ־‬behold they fell by the sword’ (1). The formation would
be maqtil(a)t-to judge from Heb. ‘4 ‫ ’־‬and ‫‘ מחצית‬4 ‫’ ־‬. (These Heb. paral-
lels were called to my attention by my students, M. Petruck and H. Stigers).
7. 66. ‘‫ ’־ך‬: h?t (cf. Heb. ‫)חצות‬, h§t!h (1:10) ‘ a half thereof’. A special
word for ‘ a half (weight)’ is n$p: n$p (111:6), iql . w . n$p (111:4), tqlm .
wn$p (111: 1). ‘4‫ ’־‬has suggested that Ugar. n§p is the half-shekel, but
the difficulty is that ‫ שקל‬stones usually weigh something over 11 grams and
‫ נצף‬stones something over 9 grams ; hence the archaeological evidence suggests
that if ‫ נצף‬is ‘4‫ \ ־‬it must be 4‫ ־‬°f some weight heavier than the shekel.
Yet Sift. w . n$p . ksp (1017 : 6) seems to mean ‘ 7 4 (shekels) of silver ’, and
similarly with all of the textual evidence.
7. 57. ‘4‫ ’־‬: Snpt (I : 10), which is borrowed from Acc. Sinipat(*).
7. 68. ‘4‫ ’־‬: miltt (K rt: 16) (*).
♦ 7. 59. ‘4 ’ : mrb‘t (Krt: 17), (1 Aqht:82) ytk . dm^th] km(83)rbet . tqlm
4he sheds his tears like quarter-shekels ’.
7. 60. ‘4‫ ’־‬: mhmSt (Krt: 18, 30).
7.61. (Krt:19).
7.62. ‘4‫ ’ ־‬: m m et (Krt :20).
The following adverbial numerals occur:
7. 63. ‘ T o g e t h e r ’ — ahdh (55:9 et passim in 56 and 56) 4together’
(cf. Heb. ‫)יחדיו‬.
7.64. 4A lo n e ’ — ahdy 4I alone’ : (51: V II: 49) a h d y. dym(bO)lk 4it
is I alone who shall rule’.
7.66. 4T w ice, T h r ic e ’ — In inm *twice’, we are probably dealing
with an adverbial accusative: (3 Aqht obv.: 22 ) inm . qdqd (23) tltid . *Z. udn
4twice on the head, thrice on the ear ’ (cf. lines 33*34).
7 .6 6 . 4 2 n d / 3 r d T i m e ’ — tnnth[]• (126: Y : 8) 4a 2nd tim e ’ ||
Utth [ ] (126 : V : 9) 4a 3rd tim e ’.

(‫ )י‬The fractions add ap to , which is greater than 1 . It is a mistake to expect modem


exactitude in sach matters. Thns 4The Bye of H orns, which contains the fractions 4 ‫ ־‬+
4 ‫ ־‬+ 4 ‫ ־‬+ ‫־‬ii' + 5‫־‬i + ‘5r totals only ■ 57 . To the Egyptians that was close enough to 41 ’. Qardiner
(Eg. Or. 197 § 266), not recognizing the approximate character of sach arithmetic, feels constrained
to presume that 4 the missing 4 ‫ ־‬was supplied magically by Thoth
(*) As far as the evidence goes, the only fraction in use at Ugarit (as in Egypt) with name*
rator other than ‘ 1 ’ was 4-|‫ •’ ־‬Since *4*’ is Acc. loan, it is possible that the forerunners
of the Ugaritians did not reckon with that fraction until they came into contact with the
Mesopotamians.
(‫ )י‬Written ideographically in 4 0 0 :1 :2 3 : J L

— 50 —
A nOr. 38 NUMERALS 7. 67-72

7. 67. ‘ B oth ’ — klatnm (4) ‘ with both ’: (Krt: 159) erb . b# . hmt Iqh (160)
im r. dbh. bydh (161) lla . klatnm ‘ he entered into the shade of the tent; he
took a lamb of sacrifice with his hands, a lambkin with both (hands)
7. 68. Ite r a tiv e s w ith - ( ’i)d — Bound forms of the word ‘ hand’, namely
-d (§ 8. 19) and -’id (cf. Acc. ida), are appended to numerals to form adverbs indi*
eating ‘ (so many) times ’: (89 : 6) l .p°n (7) adty (8) §b‘d (9) w. £&*id (10) mrhqtm
(11) qlt ‘ at the feet of my lady, 7 times this way ( = on my belly) and 7 times
that way ( = on my back), from afar, I bow ’ (*). With 8bcid compare $l£id as
in Utid . *I. udn (1 Aqht: 79 ; 3 Aqht obv.: 23, 34) ‘ thrice on the ear With *
this use of ‘hand’ to indicate ‘ times’, cf. ‘ foot’ as noted in § 7. 15, n. 3.
7. 69. D ig it + C orresp ond in g Ten — There is a literary formula
whereby a digit plus the corresponding ten is followed by the next higher
digit plus its ten. It seems to have an iterative force in (67 : V : 19) £kb
(20) em nh. $be. Mtfrn (21) [ ]ly . imn . Itmnyrn ‘ he lay with her 77 times
[ ] (yea) 8S times ’. However, cf. (75 : I I : 49) k§bet . Ub‘m . ahh. ym
[ ] (50) w tm nt. Itmnyrn (51) § r. ahyh ‘ like his 77 brothers ?[ ], and his 88
siblings’, (61 : V II: 9) tt • IWn . a h d . er (10) $bem . 8b!'. pdr (11) imnym .bel .m
[ ] (12) t&m . I fl. mr[ ] ‘ took 66 cities, 77 towns; 80 Bacl [ ], 90 Ba'l [ ] ’ (•).
7. 70. Other A dverb ial Idiom s — Although the next passage is in
part obscure, it contains further data on adverbial expressions with numerals:
(Krt: 92) hlk . lalpm . hdd (93) wlrbt. km yr (94) atr . t n . t n . hlk (95) a£r. fft • klhm.
7. 71. Nouns from N um erals — A few nouns are derived from nu-
merals. Thus mtn (lit.) ‘ repetition ’ is tantamount to the numerical pronoun
‘ another’ as in (cn t:IV :7 5 ) ap m tn.rgm m (76) argmn ‘also another word/
thing let me utter’. Possessive suffixes show that both numerical words are
used as nouns in (Krt: 206) inh . k!spm (206) atn . w . tltjth . hr$m ‘ twice her
(weight/price) in silver I shall give, yea thrice her (weight/price) in gold ’.
7. 72. N am es from N um erals — There are a couple of proper names
that may be derived from numerals. Krt’s daughter ttmnt (125 : 29, 39)
‘ Octavia ’ is associated with the numeral ‘ 8 ’. Less probably tty (321 : IV : 5)
may be related to ‘ 6 ’ (4).

(*) Probably adv. acc. like fata (§ 7. 65).


(*) Virolleaud showed that the formula is close to that in the Amarna tablets (Syria
19 193S 129).
(*) Ehelolf (apnd Friedrich, OLZ 1937 518 n. 1) compares 77 ktt-e-nu-un 88 ku-e-nu-vn ‘ 77
I killed, 88 I killed’ (in a Hittite epic). Note also the iterative 77‘ ‫ שבעים ו שבעה‬tim es’
in Lemech’s jin g le: ‫( שבעתים יקם־קין ולמך שבעים ו שבעה‬Gen. 4:24).
(4) Caution is indicated by ‫( ששי‬Ezra 10:40) and ‫( ששי‬Num. 13:22; Josh. 15:14; Jud. 1:10),
in neither of which the second ‫ ש‬is geminated.

— 51 —
7. 73. - 8.1*3 NOUNS A nOb . 38

7. 73. Verbs from N um erals — There are verbs that are derived
from numerals. Thus )/iny often occurs with the meaning ‘ to declare/repeat
e. g., ainyk (cn t : I I I : 19) ‘I declare unto thee’ || argmk; in 128 : I I I : 29 (*) this
verb seems to be used in the meaning ‘ to change’ (cf. Heb. specifically
‘ to change/break (vows)’. Verbs from other numerals may mean ‘ to do (some*
thing) for the nth time ’: e. g., yhmS . rgm (126 : V : 17) ‘ he says for the Bth
time’, (126 : V : 19) ytdi (20) ySbe. rgm ‘he says for the 6th (yea) the 7th time’.

CHAPTER VIII

NOUNS

8. 1. In fle c tio n a l F actors — The noun distinguishes two genders


(m. and f.), three numbers (8g., du. and pi.), three cases (nom., gen. and acc.)
and two states (abs. and const.) (*).
8. 2. M im ation — Except for the adverbial acc., there is no mimation
in Ugaritic. (If the proper names dbm [821:11:2; 322 : V I : 2] and $dqm
[321 : I I : 6] contain mimation, they are archaistic or borrowed).
8. 3. F . S g . — Both -at and - t occur as the suffix of the f. sg. (*). The
vooalization of aleph, the assimilation of consonants (mainly n) and the merging
of a semivowel (w, y) at the end of a syllable with the preceding vowel are the
clues. Examples with -a t: hmat ‘ butter’, $at 8p§ ‘ sunrise’, tat ‘ ew e’, almnt
‘ widow’, mknt ‘place’, ent. ‘now’ (1 Aqht: 164, 161) or ‘(the goddess) cAnat’
(passim), Snt ‘ year ’ as in (51 : V I : 42) *glm . d[f] (43) Snt ‘ bullocks of a
year = yearlings ’ (cf. pi. in 1 Aqht: 176) or ‘ sleep’ as in bSnth (1 Aqht: 151)

(•) The text is imperfectly preserved.


(* )A sa matter of fact, Egypto-Semitic has three states: abs., const, and status pronontinalis.
The latter is well-known in Egyptian, but no vestige has been hitherto pointed out in Semitic.
Yet note const. ‫( א ת־‬as in # ‫ ) א ת־ ה אי‬with nouns, versus status pronominalis ‫( *א*ת‬as in ‫)א)תי‬,
in Heb. Cf. dpt ‘ boat ’ vs. ^ *U . dptct.J ‘ his boat ’. The phenomenon is
actually phonetic rather than morphological, for if the word ends in a closed syllable, it normally
takes the ‘ construct’ form even thoagh a pro. snf. beginning with a consonant is added; note
‫ אתכם‬exactly like £?*‫ א ת־ ר א‬., whereas the ‘ pronominal ’ state is due to the phonetic fact that the
suffix begins with a vowel which opens the last syllable of the stem: *‫אויתו‬, !‫אויתד‬, ‫ אויתנו‬etc. Con*
trast ‫ א תר ם‬and ‫*תם‬1‫ ‘ א‬them ’ with identical meaning and syntax.
(*) When the last syllable of the stem, to which the f. 8g. suffix is attached, is doubly closed,
only -at is used.

— 52 —
A n Or . 38 NOUNS 8.4-5

*in his sleep ’ (1). Examples with - t : Ibit (•) ‘ lioness mit ‘ 100 ’, mlit as in
&nt. mlit (100: 7) ‘ a fall year ’ (*), hmt (Krt: 75, 167) ‘ (city) wall ’ ( = b&mit- <
•!i&nuyt‫ ;־‬cf. pi. hmyt = b&miy&t- in 2 : 28), similarly kst ‘garment’ (cf. Acc. knsit-);
aht (= *afc(b)att- < **at(t)adt-) ‘ 1 ’, bt (= bitt- < •bint-) ’ daughter ’, gt ( = gitt- < •gint-)
‘winepress’ and perhaps 8mt (1 Aqht: 117, 131, 145) ‘fat’ (4). While the context
is obscure, pit = pi’t- (6 : 15) may be the sg. ‘ corner ’ while pat = pi’&t- (Krt:
105 etc.) is pi.; cf. sg. mit, pi. mat.
8.4. F. S g. w ith o u t S u ffix — As in all the Semitic languages there
are certain nouns that are f. even though they have not the f. suffix -t in the
sg.; thus uz ‘ goose’ is f. as shown by the adj. in uz . m ra t. mlht (1128:20)
*a good, fat goose’; also f. are u d m (*) (§ 8.71), um (*) ‘ mother’, hrb (with f.
adj. in *nt:I:7) ‘ sword’, e$r (referred to by f. numeral in 19:16; pi. *$rm,
19: 17) ‘ bird ’, npS (with f. numeral in 134: 9), dual parts of the body, names
of quite a few utensils, vessels, etc. In the pi., such nouns often take the f.
termination (thus umht ‘mothers’), but there are exceptions; e. g., uzm ‘geese’
is still f. (as the adj. shows) in spite of the suffix -m : arbe. uzm . mrat (1128: 21)
‘ 4 fat geese ’.
8. 5. D u a l — No Semitic language uses the dual more widely than
Ugaritic. The du. is formed by adding -&1n(a/i!) (nom.), -6m(a/i!) (gen.-acc.) to
the stem (with f., -tftm[a/it], -t6m[a/il]); in the construct -m(a/i!) is dropt. Like
Arabic (contrast Heb. etc.) Ugar. uses the du. with all nouns, even when two
objects do not form a natural pair; e. g., §mdm (68:11) ‘ 2 sticks’, tlhnm
(en t : I I : 30) ‘ 2 tables ’; Mnm (1003 : 5) ‘ 2 tongues ’, dnbtm (1003 : 7) ‘ 2 tails ’.
Nouns are regularly in the du. after the numeral ‘ 2 ’. The following are du.:
(ym .) ymm (49 : I I : 26) ‘ (a day,) 2 days ’, mtnm (75 : I I : 39) ‘ loins ’, qrnm (76 :
1 : 30) ‘ horns ’, rhm (49 : I I : 34, V : 15-16) ‘ millstones ’, mznm (’) ‘ scales, balan-

(') To judge from fat and Snt, the noun of ‫ ם״י‬verbs is of the ‫נ ה‬# ( < *Slnat-) type rather than
the ‫?* < ( {ואת‬i’t-). (The former is the norm in Arabic [e. g., a ]; the latter is the commoner
in Heb. [cf. neh,
v v
‫רדת‬,
v v
‫לד ת‬
w
etc.], though note also ‫דעה‬, ‫ה‬-‫ זלד‬etc.).
••1

‫ ))י‬Cf. the proper name *bdlbit (321: I I I : 38); also note tgr. mtpit (300: rev. 8) referring to a
group of professional tgrm. ___
(*) In Heb. and Acc., forms of 1/mV become a quasi-numeral; cf. Orientalia 7 1938 231•
(4) The meaning ‘ f a t’ is favored by parallelism with ‘bone’. Usually 8mn (49:111:0) de-
signates vegetable fat ( = olive oil), whereas H mt may refer to human fat in the Aqht story.
(5) Probably many other place-names — certainly Jjbr (§ 8. 71) — as well as ar$.
(6) Doubtless other such nouns designating females like *atn ‘ 8he-as8 ’ and rfym1girl
(7) — m6zan&m-; |/ wzn . The ]iresence of aleph and the 1088 of the second vowel in Heb.
‫ מוזגי ם‬is due to contamination with ‫ אזנים‬€ears’. But note ‫ טזגים‬and ‫ מחנים‬in the large Isaiah
•-: •‫י*־־‬
scroll from Qumran; for the references, see E. Y. Kutscher, The Language and Background of the
Isaiah Scroll (in Hebrew), Jerusalem, 1959, p. 515.
— 53 —
8.6-8 NOUNS A n Or. 38

ces \ rhtm (51: V III: 6; 67 : V : 14) || ydm (51 : V III: 6; 67 : V : 13) ‘ hands
mitrn ‘200’, m$b(m ‘tongs’, qrytm (cn t : II i 7) ‘ 2 cities’ (but qrtm in line 20),
rbtrn ‘ 20,000 ’, thmtm ‘ the 2 Deeps ’, mizrtrn ‘ doubled garment ’, m$ltm ‘ cym-
bals ’, and mM'ltni (52 : 31) ‘ 2 effigies ’. Duals are common in administrative
lists; e. g., mitrn ‘200’, alpm ‘2000’, Iqlm ‘2 shekels’ kkrm (120:6; 1148:2)
‘ 2 talents ’, etc.
8.6. PI. of N a tu ra lly Du. Nouns — Though a noun may designate
an object that comes naturally in pairs, it may appear in the pli when more
than 2 are meant. Thus beside du. qmm ‘ (2) horns ’, occurs also qrnt (2 Aqht:
V I: 22) ‘ (more than 2) horns ’; kpm ‘‘(2) palms ’, kpt (cn t : I I : 13) ‘ (more than 2)
palms ’; enm ‘ (2) eyes ’, ent ‘ wells ’ (1). As in Heb., yd appears in the du.
(;ydm — ‫ )ידץם‬when the meaning is literally ‘ hands ’. For derived meanings,
the f. pi. suffix is attached; thus c§ r. ydt (1127:9) ‘ 10 hand-objects ’ (cf. Heb. ‫)ידוית‬.
8. 7. M . PI. & PI. Them es — The m. pi. ends in -&ma (nom.), -ima
(gen.-acc.); e. g., (nom.) rpum ‘ shades (of the dead)’, mrum ‘ commanders’;
(oblique) lalpm mrim (1100:1) ‘ for the fat oxen’, rpim, llim (124:14) ‘ of
kids’, iqnim (51:V :81) ‘ of lapis-lazuli stones’, l$bim (cn t:II:2 2 ) ‘ for the
soldiers ’. In the construct -ma is dropt; e. g., (nom.) rpu . Ifl (124 : 8), mru . ibrn
(113:64; 114:3; 116 : 12), mru . skn (113 : 63; 114:2; 115 :13), gnu . hd (51:
V II: 36) ‘ the enemies of Hadd ’; (obi.) btk . rpi . ar[$] (128 : I I I : 14) ‘ in the
midst of the shades of the earth ’, (116 : 1) np$m (2) bd . mri (3) skn ‘ clothes
in/from the hands of the m. s. ’, mri dm (124:13) ‘ fatlings of the gods ’. As in
Proto-Northwest-Semitic, the pi. stem of sg. qa(/i/u)fcl is qa(/i/a)tal in Sift . raSm
(67 :1:3) ‘7 heads ’ (contrast sg. riS) (*). The pi. of bt ‘ house ’ is bhtm (•),
though it is often to be translated as 8g. (along with other words for
dwellings).
8. 8. F . P I. — The f. pi. ends in 4‫־‬tu (nom.), -ati (gen.-acc.); e. g., ksat
‘ chairs ’ (4), l$in mrat (1100: 2) ‘ for the fat flocks ’. Some nouns, both m. and
f., without the f. ending in the sg., take the f. suffix in the pi.; e. g., sg. apn
‘ wheel ’, u$lf ‘ finger ’, grn ‘ threshing floor ’, kdr ‘ vulture ’, ksu ‘ chair ’, Ih
‘tablet’, mdbh (3:41) ‘altar’, mpr ‘rain’, mff> ‘dwelling’, ntb ‘path’ (2 Aqht:
V I: 48-44), Sm ‘ name ’, fffyn ‘ table ’ and perhaps trb$ (Krt: 286) ‘ courtyard ’
have the pi. u$b% gm t (121:11:6,9; Krt: 112 beside gmm in the parallel

(') It is the same word (not homonyms) that designates ‘eye’ and ‘w ell’: the semantic
development is ‘eye’ > ‘well (of tears)’: cf. 123 : 27.
(‫ )״‬But cf. § 8. 9.
(*) Probably = bahatfima. The introduction of h into a hollow root reminds one of Lo*» and
as compared with Heb. ‫ בו ש‬and ‫רוץ‬.
(*) Perhaps also mtnlat (K rt: 114, 217) ‘ women who fill ’ and the tribal name mrat (109:7).
— 54 —
A nOb . 38 NOUNS 8.9-13

Krt: 215), kdrt, ksat, Iht, mdbht (8 : 24), mfrt, mibt (52 :19) (*), ntbt (1001: rev. 7),
gmt (68 : 11, 18; 75 : 1 : 29), ilhnt (*nt: I I : 36) and perhaps trb$t (Krt: 141).
The pi. of urn (52 : S3) ‘ mother ’ is umht (128 :1 :6 ; cf. Aram. ‫)אטהתא‬, that of *
amt (76:1:16) ‘ handmaid’ is amht (51:111:22; 1089:9; cf. Heb. ‫)אמהוית‬,
that of qrt ‘ town’ is qrht (109:1; 1147:1; 1173:2-3), while that of ilt
(cn t: I I : 18) ‘ goddess ’ is Uhl (61: V I : 48, 50, 52, 54; 126 : IV : 5, 9; cf. Heb.
‫אלהים‬, the pi. of ‫)אל‬. (In 51 : V I : 47-64 the corresponding m. is Um. The *
broken context prevents us from equating with certainty Uhm in 3 : 12 with
‫)אלהים‬. Beside the normal pi. aht (76 : I I : 16) = ,abftt- as in 8g. (76:11:20),
note the double f. ahtt (77 : 36) ‘ sisters ’ (*).
8. 9. PI. in -m & - t — The following m. noun has plurals in -ftma and
-&tu: sg. rig ‘head’, pi. ragm, ragt and rigt (rig is properly the sg. theme < *ra’S‫; ־‬
rag is the pi. theme ra’aS-). The morphology of m. pi. h(m (in the prose texts
1099:25, 32; 1146 :5) = Heb. ‫ חטים‬in the collective sense of ‘wheat’ is clear.
Whether frft (in the poetic texts 126: I I I : 9; K rt: 82, 173) is f. sg. or pi. is
hard to say.
8. 10. S g. C o lle c tiv e — Some nouns, sg. in form, function as collec*
tives. Contrast the collective hzr with the pi. hrgm in (1024 : rev. 4) £mn ffzr (5)
w . ar&*. hrgm ‘8 “ swine” and 4 craftsmen’; similarly (: rev. 10,11) U.tm . hzr\\
hmg . egrh grm ‘ 12 “ swine ” || 16 singers ’.
8. 11. C o lle c tiv e in eith er Sg. or PI. — The collective for ‘ flax,
linen’ is either sg. pit (like ‫ פשת‬in the Gezer Calendar) or pi. pitm ( = Heb. ‫)פשתים‬.
8.12. G raphic C onvergence of M. D u ./P I. & P. S g ./P l. — From
the following nouns in sg., du. and pi., it will be observed that while each of
the numbers was pronounced distinctively, m. du. and pi. fall together ortho-
graphically, as do also f. sg. and pi. M. sg.: tfzr ‘lad’, qle ‘sling’; du. flzrm,
qlfm\ pi. tfzrm, qlem. F. sg.: att ‘ woman’, qgt ‘ bow’; du. attm, qglm; pi. ait,
qgt. Cf. texts 119, 321 for examples.
8. 13. T r ip t o t ic S g . — For the sg., the case endings are: -u (nom.),
-i (gen.), -a (acc.). Note: (nom.) (51 : V III: 12) km (13) ibth, (67 : I I : 15) km (16)
tbty ‘ the throne of his/my sitting’, ledb . km (61 : V : 108) ‘ a chair is se t’;
(gen.) tht ksi (68 : 7) ‘ under the throne ’, $Ict . alp . mri (1128 : 16) ‘ ribs of fat
beef’, Imri (1100 : 8), klli (49 : I I : 23; 51 : V III: 19) ‘like a kid/lamb’, q$ . mri
(cn t: 1 : 8 = 61 : V I : 67-68) ‘ the breast of a fatling ’, ml rpi (2 Aqht: I I : 28
et passim) ‘the man of rp” (epithet of Dnil); (acc.) (51 : V : 107) gt. alp . qdmh .

(!) Some other nouns with preformative m- doubtless come under this heading but direct
evidence is still lacking; e. g.9 the sg. of miknt ‘ tabernacles’ might well be *m8kn as in Heb.;
the same may be said of msdt (51:1:41) 'foundations9•
(*) A familiar double fern, in Heb. is ‫‘ קשתות‬bows9 or ‫‘ דלתות‬doors9; contrast Ugar. and
Acc. qaS&t- or Acc. dalit-; an Acc. double fern, is ?ub&rt&tu ‘ (slave)girls9(Orientalia 71938 27,§4.5).

— 55 —
8.14-16 NOUNS A n Or. 38

mra (108) wtk . pnh ‘ he placed an ox before him, a fatling even in front of
him ’, lla (Krt:68. 161) ‘ kid/lamb Contrast the nom. kriu (1146:12) with
the gen. b . torsi (: 13).
8. 14. D ip to tic S g. — Some names may be diptotic (with gen.-acc. sg.
in -a). In an Assyrian letter from Ugarit, there is the gen. u-ga-n-ta (Syria
16 1935 189, line 5) and it is therefore possible that ugrt is diptotic; e. g.,
fymyt ugrt (2 : 28) = b&miy&tu/i agarita ‘ the walls of Ugarit ’. Similarly, a£r
bel (62 : 7; 67 : V I: 24-25) — *atru-bacla in the light of “KI-rfU*‫( ״‬Virolleaud,
RA 38 1941 7 line 10); cf. also ina qfiti *gu-pa-na (ibid, line 18) and TUR-"#a-
di-ya-na (ibid. p. 11 line 3) = personal n. bn hdyn. Syllabic spellings indicate
that names with the suffix -&n are diptotic; e. g., contrast nom. mnu-H-ya-nu with
gen. mnu-ri-ya-na (PRU III 32-33, R§ 16.129 : 3, 6, 11,14), etc. Similarly con-
trast nom. mpu-lvr-zi-/nu with gen. mpu-lvr-zi-na (PRU III 36, R§ 16.37 : 1, 9), etc.
8. 15. F in a l V ow el In d ica ted by -w/y — The presence of a case
(or other vowel) ending may he indicated by final -y or - w ; e. g., the proper
name bn . *gw (321 : H I : 20), where the -w would not appear unless it remained
consonantal through the presence of a following vowel.
8. 16. S ta tu s C onstructu s — The const, state precedes its gen., as
is normal in the Semitic languages. Furthermore, with a single exception,
nothing can he interposed between the const, and its gen. Thus Smn. rqh
(120: 5) ‘ perfumer’s oil ’, nsk . ksp (113 : 74; 114 : 6; 115 : 14) ‘ casters of silver,
silversmiths ’. A noun may be in the construct before a finite verb (*); this
must be quite common although the orthography indicates it only in m. du.
and pi. and in f. du., where the -m is dropt: aU • i^ b (62 : 64) ‘ the 2 wives
(that) I have wed ’, ybn . aSld (52 : 65) ‘ 0 sons (that) I have begotten!’. There
can be more than one const, in a cluster, in which event all but the first
must be gen.: tpt • np§ (127 : 34, 47) 4the cause of the short of spirit =
the cause of the wretched ’. Since nothing should stand between the const,
and its gen., an adj. modifying the const, must be placed at the end of the
combination: [£]d . bn . hrmln . in (300 : rev. 11) 4a 2nd field of the Son(8) of
Hrmln ’. However, there is one quite common exception: enclitic - 7n, which
is often attached to a noun in the const. This is .particularly troublesome to
the student because the const, du. and m. pi. with enclitic -m look, in the
orthography, exactly like the corresponding absolutes; and quite similarly, the
(!) This is well recognized for Acc., as in the construction aw&t iqba ‘ the word (that) he spoke
Heb. has numerous, though not generally recognized, exam ples; e. g., the opening words of Qe-
n esis: ‫ ב ר איי ת ברא‬lit. 4in beginning of he-created ’ (the sense is 4When God began to create
the heavens and the earth, the earth was ch a o tic------’). That we are not to emend ‫ ברא‬to
‫ ברא‬is shown by ‫( ת חל ת דבר‬Hosea 1:2) and ‫□ דבר‬V2t (Num. 3:1); cf. followed by the finite
verb in temporal clauses equivalent to a when-clause in English.

— 56 —
An Ob . 38 NOUNS 8. IT-19

f. sg. or pi. with enclitic -m is indistinguishable orthographically from the f.


du. abs. Aside from the survivals of this -m in Heb., there is another suffix
in Heb. which comes between the const, and its gen.; namely, unaccented ‫־ה‬,‫־‬,
indicating motion toward: ‫( ארצה כנען‬Gen. 11:31) ‘ to the land of Canaan’.
Since it is the unusual (survival), rather than the norm (which frequently
results from analogic leveling), that constitutes the clue to the antiquity of a
language, it appears that there was once a time when the direct sequence of
const. + gen. was not obligatory. This is borne out by Egyptian where an adj. (*)
a .

or possessive suffix (*) can intervene: | ^ j | Q ^ ipfy.t wr.t iwnw

‘ the great cave of Heliopolis ’, j ^ ^ LL! 0^1 f his-t ‘ his game of


the desert’ (see A. Erman, Aegyptische Grammatik, 4th ed., 1929, § 214,
pp. 85-6) (*).
8. 17. V o c a liz a t io n — Most nouns have to be vocalized on the basis
of their counterparts in the related languages. Such external evidence yields
conclusions that are necessarily tentative. Here, to illustrate the nominal
formations, we shall devote most of our attention to instances where some
internal evidence is afforded by the aleph signs, the assimilation of consonants
and the reduction of diphthongs.
8. 18. U n ic o n s o n a n t a ls — There are three uniconsonantal nouns,
consisting solely of an open syllable: g ‘voice’, p ‘mouth’, § ‘a head of small
cattle’. They may well be inflected thus: nom g/p/SO(4), gen. g/p/Si, acc. g/p/S&
(cf. Acc. p& in nom., pft in acc., pi in gen.).
8. 19. A Bound U n ico n so n a n ta l — There is another uniconsonantal
noun *d ‘hand’ fossilized in the frequent combination bd ‘ in/from the hand(s)
(of) ’. Cf. 322 : I I : 2 for the personal name bdil ‘ From-the-hand-of-’Il ’. This
short form (vs. yad-) is not an innovation but a survival. It occurs in Arab.
^ jJ >Syr. , the Canaanite gloss ba-di-u (Amarna 245 : 35), Heb. ‫ ‘ בדים‬handles ’

(‫ )י‬For Phoenician, Arab, and Acc. examples, see JNES 8 1949 112; Orientalia 22 1953 230.
(*) See JNES 8 1949 113-4 for Phoen. and Heb. examples. Cf. also Arab., as in
*his promise [acc.] to his messengers ’ (Qoran 14:48; v. 47 in some editions) according to a variant
(and preferable) vocalization.
(*) Egyptologists do not use transliteration symbols in exactly the same way as the Semitists.
The transliteration of Egyptian in this volume follows standard Egyptological usage. There are
accordingly discrepancies between the symbols used in the Egyptian transliteration, on the one
hand, and in the Ugaritic (and other Semitic) transliterations, on the other. The importance of
comparative Egypto-Sem itic studies will eventually necessitate a uniform system of transliteration,
though the working out of such a system will be difficult because of complications on the
Egyptian side.
(4) Perhaps Sy (1001:8) = 50-ya ‘ my S’.

— 57 —

8
8.20-23 HOUNS A n Or. 38

(< ‘ ia-the-hands ’) (1), etc. (Orientalia 20 1951 121). This explains why Eg.
has the value d and need not be explained any longer as derived from yad in
violation of the acrophonic principle !Gardiner, Eg. Gr. 455) (*). Accordingly *d-
‘ hand ’ is Egypto-Sem itic.
8. 20. B i c o n s o n a n t a l s — The common Semitic biradical nouns attested
in U garitic are: ab = ’ab- ‘ fa th e r’, ah(t) — *ah- ‘ b ro th e r’ (’afc&t- ‘ s is te r’),
amt = *am(a)t- ‘ h an d m aid ’, U(t) — *il- ‘ god(dess) ’, irt = *ir(a)t- ‘ breast, c h e s t’,
bn = b(i)n- ‘ son ’ (f. bt = bitt- ‘ daughter ’, similarly f. gt = gitt- < •gint-),
dm — dam- ‘ blood’, drt = dart- ‘ a sp a n ’ (cf. Heb. ‫ \זךת‬yd = yad- ‘h a n d ’,
m ym = may&m-(?) ‘water ’, mt = mut- ‘man, husband’, c§ = ci§- ‘tr e e ’, pit =
pi’t- •‘corner’ p n = pan- ‘face’, = &(i/a)m- ‘n am e’, §nt = Sanat- ‘y e a r’, 8pt =
&ap(a)t- ‘ lip ’, fat ‘ew e’, pi (*) ‘b re a st’.
8. 21 N o m i n a l F o r m a t i o n s — The following paragraphs contain illu-
strations of the nominal formations arranged typologically, ranging from simple
monosyllabic nouns to the more complex varieties. The illustrations tend to
be limited to words whose orthography contribute to the analysis of the form.
W here comparative evidence also contributes essentially to the classification, cf.
the cognates listed in the glossary.
8 .2 2 . qatl-: abn = *abn- ‘sto n e’, ahl ‘t e n t ’, akl ‘food’, alp ‘o x ’, aps
‘e n d ’, arz ‘c ed ar’ ar$ ‘ cow ’, ar§ ‘e a rth ’, apr ‘place’, and the place name
Mb = uhal-bi.
‫ע״נ‬: ap (’a p p - < *anp-) ‘ nose’ ; f. apt (’a t t a t - < • ’antat-) ‘w om an’.
‫ע״ו־‬: ym (y6m- < *yawm-) ‘d a y ’, tk ‘m id st’, tr ‘ b u ll’.
‫ע״י‬: bt (bet- < *bayt-) ‘house’, zt (1095 : 3; 1096 : 2) ‘olive (tree)’, yn ‘w in e’,
en ‘e y e ’, cr ‘a s s ’, qz, ‘sum m er’ ; f. hmt ‘t e n t ’, 8bt ‘gray (hair)’. Possibly also
ib ‘enem y’, if it is ’6b-(< •*ayb-).
‫ע״מ‬: ym = yamm- ‘se a ’, the adj. dq ‘sm all’, the deity hd ‘H a d d ’, ad
‘father, lo rd ’, f. adt ‘la d y ’, am t ‘ elbow ’, and the adj. dl, f. dlt ‘poor’.
‫ ל״ו‬: ah. ‘ meadow ’ (cf. Heb. ‫)אחי‬.
Original biradicals with long medial vowel : ql = q&l- (*) ‘ voice ’, qm ‘ foe ’;
f. bmt ‘b a c k ’, alt.
8. 23. qitl-: ikl — ’ikl- ‘e a tin g ’.
yp: cz — cizz- ‘g o a t’, pi. ezm (1153:4).

0) For the .nominalization of a prepositional phrase, cf. also 1) ‫ והעליה‬Sam. 9:24) ‘ the
thigh and the-upon-it’ = ( the thigh and the fat on i t ’.
(*) For hieroglyphs going back to Egypto-Semitic words not surviving in the Eg. lexicon,
cf. 4 ^ which is used for the 8yl. though c$n- ‘ eye’ is not attested in Eg. texts.
(3) Heb. would point to tad-, but ‫‘ שד‬breast’ (sic! as in Is. 60:16; 66:11) and the rare
•‫׳׳‬
jo would point to tad-• while normal Arab, ^ jo would point to tadl.
(4) So following Aram, and Eth., though q61- ( < *qawl- zz Arab.) is also conceivable.

— 58 —
A nOr. 38 NOUNS 8. 24-40

‫ע״י‬: dn = din- ‘ju d g m e n t’, *r ‘c ity ’.


T V : f. iSt = *iSSftt- ‘ fire ’.
Biradical f. (of root normally 9 = :(‫ם״י‬i’at- ‘going o u t’, dct ‘an ac-
quaintance ’.
8. 24. qutl-: udn = ,adn- ‘ ear ’ ; f. utpt ‘ quiver ’.
‫ ע״ו‬: fir = g&r- ‘ m ountain ’.
T V : urn — 'amm- ‘ m other ’.
8. 26. qatal-: adm — ,adam- ‘m an k in d ’, all ‘ g a rm e n t’ (vs. var. al = ,all‫)־‬,
asm ‘g ra n a ry ’, knp ‘ w in g ’.
‫ל״י‬: adj. dw — (daw6 < *daway-) ‘ sic k ’.
8. 26. q a til- : f. afrt ‘*Afcir(a)t’, adj. mlit = mali’t- ‘fu ll’.
8. 27. qitii-: bir (place name), lim ‘ people’, Sir ‘m eat/bread’ ; f. rim t *
*corals ’.
8. 28. qatal-: ugr the god ‘ U g a r’, f. ugrt ‘ U g a rit’; the personal names
gpn =. syl. gu-pa-na and SrS = syl. Su-ra-Su/i.
8. 29. qutul-: rum ‘buffalo’ ; f. urbt ‘ w indow ’ ; place n. udm.
8. 80. qatil- (i. e., G participle): r*y ‘ shepherd ’, Siy, f. Sibt ‘ draw er (of
w ater)’ ; m. pi. aklm ‘e a te rs’, r*ym ‘shepherds’ (with consonantal - y vs. Heb.
‫) לעיט‬, gzzm ‘ shearers ’; f. pi. bkyt ‘ weepers ’ (1).
8. 31. qat&l-: gan = ga’&n- ‘p rid e ’; f. pi. atnt ‘asses’.
8. 32. qit&l-: ipd (1162:3), if it equals Heb. *rtDK.
8. 33. qatil-: y ly = yaliy- ‘kinsman ’, asr ‘ prisoner’ ; note the accusatives
mrafmria ‘ fatling ’ and sbaj$bia; f. Ibit = lnbi’t- ‘ lioness ’.
8. 34. qattal-: ayl = ,ayyal- ‘d e e r’; -1- -&n, m. pi. *rbnm (1161 : 1) ‘(hu*
man) pledges’.
8.36. qittil-: imr = *immir- ‘lamb’.
8. 36. q a ttal- : m. pi. Salm (1161 :5) ‘in q u irers’.
8.37. qa(t)til-: adr = ■a(«l)dir- ‘great’.
8 .3 8 . q i(t)lil- < *q atiil- : ibr = *i^b)bir- ‘buffalo’. *
8. 39. qattftl- < *qatt&i-: ulp ‘ch ief’ (the norm alization ,allftp- is confirmed
by syl. vl-lu-pi).
8. 40. a - F o l l o w e d b y 3 C o n s o n a n t s : the anim al names anhb(m),
anhr, annh ; f. almnt = ,almanat- ‘ widow’; cf. the problem atic agzrt, agzrym.

(x) It is hard to tell whether noaas of professioa written qtl are q&til-, qattftl- or q&tAl-. Heb.
cognates favor q&til- in ytr —‫ ‘ יוצר‬potter’, khn = 1^‫ ‘ הן‬priest’, nqd = ‫‘ לקר‬herdsman’, etc.
B at fyrS ‘craftsman’ might be qatt&l- like Heb. thTI or q&til- like Heb. t h h ; and yqi ‘ fowler’
might be q&til- like Heb. tfpV or q&tdl- like (Hos. 9 :8). If mdm (114:4; 115:4) proves to
mean ‘ surveyors’, it is interesting to consider the implication that Ugaritic may have mfldd-
(like the Arabic, e. g., for the participle of the simple conjugation. However, note also trrm
(115:8), which, if it is participial, goes with the Heb. ‫ ס) בב‬.

— 59 —
8.41-46 NOUNS A nOr. 38

Cf. a-followed by 4 consonants in the loanword argmn ‘ tribute var. irgmn


(1134:1).
8.41. i - F ollow ed by 3 C onsonan ts: irby ‘ locust ’ and the loanwords
izml (1126 :2 || ktn), iqnu ‘lapis-lazuli’.
8.42. u - F ollow ed by 3 C on son an ts: u$bc(t) = *u9buc(&t)- ‘finger(s)’,
udmct = ,admucat- ‘ tears ’.
8. 43. R ed u p lica ted Nouns of qatqat-, qitqit- and qutqut- Types: epep =
«apeap(p>- , eye’; qdqd ‘head, pate’ may stand for qudqud- (cf. Heb. as well
as qadqad- (cf. Acc. qaqqadu); qlql (56 :8) is a certain kind of vegetable (used
in hippology), which might be a 8g. like qalqal- or a broken pi. qaiaqil- (cf. ‫קאןל‬
in Num. 21 :5). Beside kbkb ‘ star’, occurs kkb, which can be compared with
Heb. ‫כב‬1‫ = ( כ‬W. Sem.) on the one hand, or Acc. kakkabu on the other. Simi-
larly, gngn and ggn ‘the inwards’. Alongside kkn{t) ‘jar’, cf. the possible
restoration kn[kn\ (1 Aqht:147). So far no *krkr has turned up alongside Mr
‘talent ’ (Heb. ‫) פכר‬. With long ‫&־‬-, note reduplicated dr-dr ‘ eternity ’ = ‫ללר לר‬
(Ex. 3:15).
8. 44. Q u ad ricon son an tals : the plant names ergz and dprn; ffhn ‘table’
(Heb. ‫ ;)?זלחן‬krpn = karpan- ‘cup’, hnal = §(a/i/n)m*&l- ‘left’; hnzr = b(a/i)nzir-
‘swine’, cf. Heb. ‫חזיד‬. For a noun with five dissimilar consonants, note
the stone called algbt (1127 : 16); cf. ‫( אבני אלגביש‬Ezek. 13 : 11).
8. 45. Q u in q u econ son an tals of the qtltl type include qblbl and ysmsm{t).
The latter is derived from an adj. (ysm ‘beautiful’); qtltl is common adjectiv-
ally in Egypto-Semitic (1).
8.46. P r e f o r m a t i v e m - : mgdl = magdal- ‘to w er’, mdbh(t) ‘ altar(s)’,
mdbr ‘ d esert’, mdr*(*) ‘the sow n’, mhmd ‘choicest p a r t’, m h rtt) ‘tilth ’, m la k(*)
‘ messenger ’, mlbS ‘ clothing, ’ msgr, mspr ‘ story ’, mcrb ‘ sunset ’, du. m$btm ‘ tongs ’,
m rym ‘a h e ig h t’, ‘k n ife’, mSkb (b[#]dr. mSkb [1151:6] ‘ in the bedroom ’;
perhaps mSkbt [1152:4] is the pi.), m$kn(t) ‘ten t(s)’, mtpd, m tp t; f. mhmrt,
mfdpt, mlhmt ‘ w ar(s)’, m phrt ‘assem bly’, m$rrt (1111:9), mrbdt (1111:11)
‘coverlets’ (cf. Heb. ‫)מרבזיים‬, mrhqt ‘distance’, mrkbt ‘chariot(s)’. W ith -&n
added: mfysrn ‘deficit’.
‫ פ״א‬: The only example so far is (the f. du.) mizrtm = mi*zar(a)t&m- ‘ double
robe’. Arab. points to a miqtal- formation. However, even for original
maqtal- of ‫ ם׳א‬nouns, we may expect i if cases appear in new texts. (The

(1l For Eg. examples, cf. wt&d ‘ to be green’, Coptic TpojypiO ‘to become red ’.
(*) Also possible, though less likely, is passive partic. madrfic-.
(‫ )י‬The second syl. is here vocalized with -a - in the orthography. While this vocalization
is the most frequent, it must be remembered that mqtl(t) may have other vowels; maqtil(a)t- is
the formation of fractions; for maqtftl-, see the preceding footnote.

— 60 —
A nOr. 38 NOUNS 8. 47-52

town-name mahd (1059 : 1) ( = syl. ma-a-ha-di) probably does not stem from
the standard Ugaritic dialect).
‫ ם״נ‬: m$b = massab- ‘ a stand ’, du. mphrn ‘ bellows ’; but no assimilation
of ‫ ם‬to b : mnhy(k) ‘ thy tribute/gifts ’.
‫פ״ו‬: mzn = mftzan- ‘a certain weight’, du. mznm, ‘scales’, msd(t) ‘found-
ation(8) ’, m,tb(t) ‘ dwelling(s) ’.
‫מ״ו‬: mdb ‘flood’; cf. other hollow roots like mqr ‘spring’, f. mknt ‘place’.
‫ ל״י‬: men (ma'nfi < •macnay-) ‘response ’; similarly mdw ‘ illness ’ and mtn
‘ repetition ’; f. mMt (1089 : 5, 8) ‘ beverage ’.
V'V: contrast m#l ‘a sh e lte r’ with m$ltm (f. du.) ‘ cym bals’.
8.47. P refo rm a tiv e n-: nblu (8:4), pi. nblat ‘flames’. *
8. 48. P reform ative t---While a common formation is taqtal- as in trbtfj)
= tarba?- ‘courtyard’, it is not the only formation that can underlie tqtl.
Cf. tbrrt ‘freeing’, tgmr ‘total’, tdrq ‘gait’, tdmm ‘abuse’, trmmt ‘offering’.
In the case of D infinitival nouns, the form is taqtil-/taqtilat-; thus tbrrt ‘ freeing,
manumission ’ is probably tabrirat- as in (1005 : 9) ktb . spr hnd (10) dtbrrt. $(q$lm
(11) cbdh. hnd ‘he has written this document of the manumission of this
his slave’.
‫ ם״א‬: tidm (te'dim- < *ta'dim-) ‘ rouging ’, tintt ‘ womankind ’, tUr(m) ‘ t. tree(s) ’
( = Heb. .( ‫תאשור‬
‫ם*י‬: trt\\y n ‘wine’ (cf. Heb. ‫)תירוש‬. *
8. 49. Names w ith t- or y- — Note t- in the proper name tgri (321:
I I : 24) (with which we compare ygrS ‘ Expeller ’, the name given to a staff in
68: 12) and in tb$r (1175: 1) who is called k ll.b t §p§ (: 2) ‘the bride of the
Temple of the Sun ’; for further examples of y- note the personal names ydln
(300: 9), ynhm (321 : 1 : 37), y$me (400 : V I: 16), ytpt (321 : I I : 4) (l) (cf. y - in
Heb. ‫יצחק‬, ‫יעקב‬, !‫ יהוד‬etc.), and y - in the geographical name yrgb.
8. 50. Name w ith S- — The causative preformative $- appears in the
proper name §ctqt (127 : 1, 2, 13) ‘ She-who-removes-(8ickness)’.
8. 51. S u ffix es C on vergin g as -y — Several distinct suffixes fall
together in the orthography as -y: (1) gentilic -iyy2) ,‫ )־‬f. -ay, and possibly (3) -&y—
8. 52. G e n tilic - y : ubr'y (108 : 1; 113 : 28), ug‫׳‬ry (321 : 1 : 45), ugrty (64 :
8, 9) ‘ the Ugaritian’, bn . td n y (321 : 1 : 19) (*), il$y (300 : rev. 16), ttUm'y (64: 29,
30; 327 : 8), ary (113 : 8), arny (108 :2; 113 : 27), adddy (311 : 3). gbely (64 :

(‫ )י‬While names of this type are sometimes verbal forms with an understood divine name
omitted (§ 8. 65), others may be truly nominal. Cf. Heb. ‫ ‘ ילקוט‬a bag’ and the animal names
‫( ינשוף‬Heb.) and , which has found its way into English as ‘jerboa’.
(*) Cf. the town of [u]lm (321:1:1).

— 61 —
8. 53-56 NOUNS A nOb . 38

27, 28; 327:6), b n .g z r y (400:111:1), hpty (113:49), hrnm y ( A q h t : passim),


b n .h g b y (3 0 1 :1 1 :6 ), xfby (108:8), kbyy (?) (300: rev. 19), klby (300 :rev. 4),
y i . k n 'n y ( 1) (311:7), rrUky (311:6), m'rby ( 64 : 2 6 ; 6 6 : 1 0 ; 113: 57), nem n .
m$ry (311: 6), enqp[a]t[y\ (314 : rev. 8, 11), *rgzy (309 : 27), bn . citry (3 0 1 :1 : 4),
bn . r§py (301: I I : 17; 4 0 0 :1 : 22), §lmy (113 : 18), §erty (23 : 9; 64: 25; 327 : 7),
tlfyny (113 : 11), tlrby (109 : 4; 113 : 12), im ry (111: 4 ; 113 : 20), tney (112 : 11),
spr Umlk i?y (127 :le ft edge), ‘the scribe is Tlmalk, the I c- i t e ’, £qdy (300:rev.
17), etc. 1080 uses the following gentilics to designate the towns of the men
listed: apsty (: 1), qmnzy (: 3), ykn'm y (: 5, 15), m*qby (: 11), qrty (: 12).
Note ‘ Horite ’, ‘ H ittite ’ etc. in (2 : 21, 29) ulp . hry . ulp . h t y . vlp . aliy (30)
ulp . tbr. In 1090, hty (: 4) ‘ H ittite ’, alty (: 8) ‘ Alashiyan, Cypriote ’, hry ( 13 ‫)נ‬
‘H u rria n ’ recur. The following are m. pi. of the gentilic: atrym (1089:3)
‘ Assyrians ’, m$rym (1089 : 7, 10) ‘ Egyptians ’ (*), g t . mIkym (115: 5). htyt (1099:
3) ‘H ittite w om a/en’ is either f. sg. or f. pi. Unless we are dealing with dit-
tograpliy, the following is a double gentilic: b n .m lk y y (3 0 1 :1 1 :1 ). Nouns
like uhryt and atpyt ‘destiny, lo t’ are f. of the gentilic and end in -iyyat-.
8. 53. G e n t i l i c o f P l u r a l N a m e — The gentilic of the following gram*
m atically pi. place name is formed by suffixing - y to the sg. stem : Ibrty
(1060 : B : 7) is the gentilic of the town name Ibnm (113: 2) = syl. *la-ab-nu-m a.
8. 54. S u f f i x e d -ay — F. -y fam iliar from Heb. nto, Sarah’s earlier
name, occurs in f. personal names. I t is present in the names of BaTs three
daughters; to wit, p d ry bt ar, fly bt rb and ar$y bt y°bdr; p rd y is also men*
tioned in 77 : 26 and in the H u m a n document 4 : 62 (*). The verb shows th a t
(Iqht) tigdy (1083 : 2) is a woman. K rt’s wile is called (mtt) hry ( K r t : 143, 203)
while D nil’s is (mtt) dnty (2 A q h t : V : 22) (*). Also note rhm y (§ 8. 61) and
’Afcir(a)t’s handm aid dmgy (7 5 :1 :1 6 -1 7 ). This suffix may possibly occur out-
sid e of p ersonal nam es in nemy ‘ p lea sa n tn ess ’.
8. 66. S u f f i x e d -4y- ? — If qryy equals ‘contentious’, we m ust also
reckon with a suffix -&y-.
8. 56. D i r e c t i v e -h — The directive suffix -h is either locative as in
amth ‘ to the elbow ’, ar$h ‘ earthw ard ’ ( K r t : 29), §mmh ‘ heavenward ’ or tern*

0 ) ‘ Jael the Canaanite ’ ; note, however, that y*l is m., not f. like Heb. ‫ יעל‬.
(*) Vs. tnfrm * Egypt ’.
(*) It is clear that tly and arty contain tl 1dew ’ and art ‘ earth ’ as is appropriate for Ba'I’s
daughters. Apparently fyry is ‘the free-born woman’; cf. Arab, and Heb. )/btr. The wife of dnil
(Aqht: passim) is fittingly dnty (dn-|- f. -t -}- -y). Observe that rlymy is based on r\m ‘ girl ’,
long known from Jud. 5:30.
(4) I take mtt to be a title like ‘M istress’ or ‘Lady’. Literally, mtt seems to mean ‘ girl ’
even aS (tldn) mt (67: Y : 22) means ‘ (she bears) a lad ’. For the semantic development, cf. gzr
‘ boy ’ nsed also as an honorific title for men.

— 62 —
A n Or . 38 NOUNS 8. 57-61

poral as in *Imh (1 A q h t : 154) ‘f o r e v e r I n the adm inistrative texts it some-


times designates the place where deliveries are m ade; e. g., (1090:4) kd l My.
(6) mahdh ‘a jar(ful) for the H ittite(s) in Ma’h a d (109 : 1) t88lmn (2) ilrbh ‘they
shall deliver to I l r b
8. 57. A b s t r a c t s i n - t ? — In some instances, - t may conceivably be the
abstract suffix -ftt rather than -(a )t ; e. g., abynt ‘ wretchedness ’ and pltt ‘ wallowing ’.
8 .5 8 . S u f f i x e d -n often represents -&n; plus pi. - m : ‘rbnm (1161:1)
‘(human) pledge(s)’. The vocalization is shown in the proper names rpan
(800: rev. 14) and bn . hran (307 : 1; 809 : 8). Note the common nouns zbln
(126 : V : 12, 15, 18, 21) ‘sickness’ and hrSn; cf. Acc. fcnrS&nu ‘m ountain’; and
the adj. (or noun used as adj.) eqltn in (67 : 1 : 1 ) ktm h$. Itn ( = ldt&iia). btn . brh
(2) tkly . bin eqltn ( = -t&na) ‘ when thou sm itest Leviathan, the evil serpent, (yea)
destroyest the crooked serp en t’. Note also numerous proper names such as hdtn
(321: I I : 3; IV : 8), bn . y*rn (321 : I I I : 10), Ifpn, Ibnn (124 : 20), ncmn (64 : 41;
128 : I I : 15), bn . *rmn (301 : I I : 13), eitm [ (322 : I I : 4), $dqn (323 : I I I : 8) = syl.
$i-id-qa-an, bn . $rptn (321 : 1 : 46), qdmn (64 : 40), bn . tkwn (300 : rev. 21), bn.
tlmyn (321 : 1: 31) , bn . tbrn (301 : I I : 4).
8. 59. N a m e s w i t h & w i t h o u t -n — The same pers. names often
occur both w ith and w ithout -&n; e. g., arsw or arswn, ihy or ihyn, Uy or
ilyn, bn 8p8 or bn 8p8n, gtr or gtrn, hny or hnyn, ydd or yddn, ky or kyn,
kbl or kbln, krw or krwn, krt or krtn, mtn or mlnn, ss or ssn, ebd or ebdn, edy
or cdyn, *my or *myn, pdy or pdyn, §pr or $prn, qrw or qrwn, 8mm or 8mmn,
tl8 or tl8n, etc.
8. 60. G e n t i l i c s p l u s -n — Some names have gentilic -iy plus -&n:
bn . atflyn (321: I I I : 19), bn . slgyn (301 : I I : 7), bn . rpiyn (1046 : 8), 8p8yn (321:
I I : 25), bn . tlm yn (321 : 1 : 31).
8. 61. C o m p o u n d N a m e s — Some gods have names of the type ‘ A-
and-B ’, which apparently arose by identifying and combining names in the
pantheon or in some cases by combining a god’s name with one of his ep ith ets:
atrt-w-rlym (52 : 13) = atrt-w -rhm y (52 : 28), kfr-w-hss, mt-w-8r (52 : 8), qd8-
w -am rr (51 : I Y : 13), tkm n-w-8nm ( 1 : 3 ; 2 : 26), and perhaps n k l- 10 -ib (77 : 1).
Rarely is the conjunction om itted: ib-nkl ( 4: 47, 48) and qd8 . am rr (cn t : V I :
11). The names can be split for use in poetic parallelism : (51 : I V : 16) qd8.
yuhdm . 8b‘r (17) am rr . kkbkb ‘ Qd§ began to shine, (yea) A m rr like a star ’,
(2 A q h t : V : 10) hlk . ktr (11) ky°n wxfn . tdrq . hss ‘ the gait of K tr he sees, yea
he sees the tread of Hss ’ (1).

(*) The fusing of two names into one is widespread in time and area. It is particularly
common in ancient Near East divine names. Thus ‫ אלהים‬iTTP is a single entity and mast not
be viewed as resulting from the conflation of manuscripts any more than Amon-Re.

— 63 —
8. 62-67 NOUNS AnOr . 38

8. 62. N a m e s w i t h il — W hile proper names deserve an exhaustive


analysis th a t lies beyond the scope of this manual a few salient features are
noted here. A common type of name is il plus a god’s n a m e : iIhd (321 : I I I :
33) *H add-is-(m y)-god *76*1 (322 : V : 2) 4 Bacl-is-(my)-god ildgn (321 : I I I : 9)
* 1Dagan-is-(m y)-god ilrSp (1082:5) 4Ra§p-is-(my)-god il§p§ (304 : 12) ‘Sap§-
is-(m y)-god’. Inasm uch as the king is divine, ilm lk (127 : 59; 3 0 8 :2 4 ) 4T h e-
king-is-(m y)-god’ falls into this category. W ith the elements reversed: ymil
(322 : Y : 4) 4Y a m m -is-(m y )-g o d c f. ‫״‬nil (1066 : 3).
8. 63. N a m e s w i t h ebd — A nother frequent type of name is ebd plus a
god’s n a m e (1): ebdyrh (321:111:26) 4Slave-of-Yarih ’ (*), ‫״‬bdnkl ( 321 : 1 1 : 4 3 )
4Slave-of-N ikkal’, ebdym (300: 18) 4Slave-of-Y am m ’, *b d .S h r (308:19) 4Slave-
of-S. ’, [‫]״‬bdhgb ( 4 0 0 : 1 : 2 3 ) 4Slave-of-Hagab ’, *bdhmn ( 3 2 2 : 1 : 3 ) 4Slave-ot-
Uamman ’ (see under ebd in Glossary for these and other names such as ‫״‬bdilm,
ebdbel, ebdktr, cbd‫״‬n, ‫״‬bde£tr, etc.).
8. 64. N a m e s i n A d o r a t i o n o f K i n g — A similar type of name,
in adoration of the king, is represented by ‫״‬bdmlk (300: 2, 16; 319: 6) 4Slave-
o f-th e-k in g ’. The name &p[£\mlk (1052:1) reflects an international trend to
identify the king with the sun -g o d ; this was commonly done during the A m arna
Age by the kings of the Egyptians and H ittites.
8. 65. N a m e s w i t h A t t r i b u t e o f a G o d — The first element may
describe the nature or function of the god whose name constitutes the second
elem ent: §dq$lm (300 : 28) 4S lm -is-ju st’, $dqil (321 : I I I : 4) 4,Il-is j u s t ’, dw . il (*)
(314:12) 4,Il-is-judge ’, ipt,b‫״‬l ( 119: 13; 300: rev. 2, 24; 319 :2 ) 4Bacl-is-ruler ’
dmrb‫״‬l (322 : I I : 5) 4Bacl-is-(my)‫ ־‬strength ’, dmrhd (322 : V I : 7) 4H add-is-(m y)-
s tre n g th ’. W ith the order reversed: bclm‫״‬dr (1155:3).
8. 66. N a m e s C o n t a i n i n g V e r b — The name may consist of a divine
name serving as su b ject of a finite verb, and eith er elem en t m ay stan d first:
Iflyskn (323:111:9) 4Bacl-governs’, yknil (314:15) 4’Il-prepares/exists’. The
divine name may be o m itted : ykn (327 : rev. 2) 4He (i. e., the god)-pre-
pares/exists ’.
8. 67. N a m e s w i t h G t V e r b — A few names are made of il followed
by a G t infinitive in the genitive: ilSlm4 (*)(29 : 113) ‫״‬G od-of-hearkening’, ilttmr
(300:11) 4God-of-fruitfulness ’.

0) If mtW (1137:4) is 4 Man-of-Bad ’, it is of the same general type; cf. Heb. ‫מתו שלח‬
4Man-of-S. 4 ‫ מתו שאל‬Man-of-El ‫י‬.
(*) Probably yrfy has different vocalizations depending on the meaning: yarb- when it denotes
4month ’ (Acc. warb-, whose exact Heb. reflex is ‫) ירח‬, and yarib, when it means 4moon (god) ’
(Heb. .(‫י ר ח‬
‫ ))ג‬Note the word divider, which is rare in this name that appears frequently in Aqht.
(4) =ili3tamci (syl. ili-iS~tam-i).

— 64 —
A n Or . 38 NOUNS 8. 68-72

8. 68. ‘ F a t h e r ’ N a m e s — Names may express the paternity of a god:


“ttrab (1046 : 12; 1066 : 1) ‘ 'Afctar-is-father rSpab (321: I I I : 46) or abrkp (321 :
1 : 35) ‘ R aSp-is-father’, abmlk (314 : 8; 323 :IV : 10) ‘T he-king-is-father
8 69. ‘ S o n ’ N a m e s — N am es’ m ay also consist of bn plus (1) a god’s
name, bn . nkl (3 2 1 :1 : 40) ‘ Son-of-Nikkal, bn . it (321 : I I : 41) ‘ Son-of-’Il ’‫״‬, bn .
$p[$] (321: IV : 6) ‘ Son-of-SapS ’ (similarly, bn .ilk, bn . *n t, bn . rkp, etc.); or (2) the
name of an emblematic anim al or plant: bn . f l (321 : I I I : 17) ‘S on-of-the-fox’,
bn . h/nzr (400 : 1 : 14) ‘ Son-of-the‫ ־‬swine ’, bn . §r{n (1063 : 1) ‘ Son-of-the-
crab ’, bn . arz (321: I I : 46) ‘ Son-of-the-cedar ’ ; or (3) the name of a p lac e :
bn . gled (3 0 1 :1 : 14) ‘ Son-of-Gilead ’ (‘). The bn . ym n (400 : I I : 3) may mean
‘ S 0 n- 0 f‫־־‬th e - 8 0 uth ’ or ‘ Son-of-the-right-hand ’ (*). To judge from the Arabic,
bn . edl (307 : 8) == ‘S o n -o f-th e-iu st’. (Some bn-A names may be trib a l:
‘ Sons-of-A ’).
8 .7 0 . P a t r o n y m i c s , F r a t r o n y m i c s & T o p o n y m i e s — I f the name
of a person is further identified, he can be called the son of his fath er; e. g.,
Smmn .b n .'d k (1060 : A : 12). B ut instead of such patronym ic identification,
we sometimes m eet fratronym ic n am es; e. g., rkpab. a h . ubn (300: 6) ‘ R.,
brother of U. ’. A nother way of identifying an individual is to indicate his
town by a gentilic; e. g., krw . klmy (1060 : B : 4), atn . b$ry (1060: B : 6). (Also
a m an’s profession or title may be added to his name).
8. 71. C o m p o u n d N a m e T r e a t e d a s S i n g l e N o u n — Note th a t
*bdrpu (1099 : 15) is treated as a nom inative in -u, even though the name
means ‘ Slave-of-R. ’ calling for the gen. rpi.
8. 72. A d j e c t i v e s — The adj. is inflected like the noun and, w hether
the adj. is attributive or predicative, it agrees with its noun in gender, num ber
and case:
m. sg .: m lk . rb (118 : 26) ‘ the great k in g ’ (*), tq l. ksp .(b (6 : 12) ‘a she*
kel of good silv er’, d d . g d l ( 12: 1, 7) ‘a large p o t’, trfr. fidi ( K r t : 100-101,189)
*a new bridegroom ’, k s . q d i f (cn t : 1 : 13) ‘a holy c u p ’.
f. s g .: a i t . adrt (119 :16) ‘a free/noble w om an’, hrb . mlht (61: V I : 57 ;
cn t : 1 : 7 ) ‘a good sw ord’; with f. place name : udm . r b t. vmdm £rrt ( K r t: 134,
2 1 0 2 1 1 ‫‘ )־‬G reat Udm and L ittle U d m ’, (128: IV : 19) hbr rbtf (20) h b r. ( n l
‘ G reat H. and L ittle H .’.
f. d u . : i t . attrn . adrtm (119:7, 18) ‘ 2 free/noble w om en’, kpthm . mtqtm
(52:60) ‘their lips are sw eet’.

(‫ )י‬Snch identifications are meant linguistically, not geographically.


(*) Of. ‫ ‘ בנימן‬Benjamin’.
(‫ )י‬Gf. the personal name ilrb (321: I I I : 41, I V : 15) ‘ Ood-i8-great *.

— 65 —

s
8. 73-75 NOUNS AnOr. 38

m. pi.: (1090: 1) Urn (2) rbm ‘great gods’, allm.lbnm (1106:4) ‘white
garments’, l alpm mrim (1100: 1) ‘for the fat oxen’.
f. pi.: [£]l£. a tt. adrt (119: 16) ‘3 free/noble women’, a n yt. ?m/id[/] (319:
1) ‘seized ships’, 1 $in mrat (1100:2) ‘for the fat flocks’.
8. 73. C om parative & S u p er la tiv e E x p ressio n s — The compari-
son of adjectives is not indicated by a special formation: ncm n . em q . n§m
(2 A qht:V I:45) ‘Ncmn, the strongest of men’, dmqt kfy't (77:50) ‘the
finest, the youngest of the K&tarat’, §@rthn abkvn (128:111:16) ‘I shall raise
the youngest of them to the status of first-born ’.
8. 74. Compounds — Ugaritic shares with the other Semitic languages
a disinclination toward forming compounds. However, there are a few virtual
compounds like blmt ‘not-dying = immortality’ (125 : 15, 99) and Smergm
(1100: 3) ‘hearers of a word’ (perhaps — ‘revelators’ rather than ‘judges’ or
‘spies’). Also (as Rosenthal and Singer have discovered independently) aplb
(|| bmt) is made up of ap ‘face’ + lb ‘heart’, designating the front of the
body or some part thereof.
8. 75. Loans — Among the loanwords, some were borrowed from the
Indo-Hittites, notably in the realm of hippie terminology: ssw(1) ‘horse’, mryn
(syl. mar-ia-ni on 400: side after col. 1) ‘ charioteer ’; and XovSqo? suggests the
* final -t of hndrt (55 : 6) is the nom. case ending cognate with Gk. - 0$, Lat.
-us. Hittite is a m in the expression 8p8 am ‘ the Sun of Arinna ’ (as noted by
Friedrich). The designations of Hittite court personnel such as tpnr (syl. tup-
pa-nu-ri), hbrtn[r] (syl. hu-bur-ta-nu-ri) and utryn ‘crown prince’ (text 118) are
non-Semitic, but the first two may be Hurrian (rather than Hittite) as first
suggested by Virolleaud (see also A. Goetze, ‘ Hittite Courtiers and their Titles ’,
Revue hittite et asianique 12 1952 1-14). Of Hurrian derivation are hd<jl(m),
kttyiim) and mdr0l(7ri) as the Hur. nomen agentis suf. -Ql (syl. -uh-lu) shows.
* The month name tSrt is Acc. tagrft-. It would be impractical here to attempt
an exhaustive analysis of all the loanwords. However, we may note in passing
that the un-Semitic correspondences of b = v_» and d — j in brdl =
‘iron’ (cf. Heb. ‫ ב ח ל‬, Acc. parzilla) are due to foreign origin. Cf. b/p in the
variant spellings of the loanword spsg (2 Aqht: V I : 36) or [£]p&7 (1106:8) vs.
8bsg (1112 : 14) ‘white glaze’. The cognates of tryn ( = Heb. ‫ ;?יךי^ & ?יךיו*ן‬Acc.
8ariam) ‘armor’ (for warriors or war horses; cf. 1123:5-6) are generally con-
sidered to be loans into Semitic via Human (*). In 52 : 15 agn ( || iit ‘fire’) is
probably the Indo-European word for ‘ fire ’ that appears in Sanskrit as ‘ agni ’,
and in Latin as ‘ignis’.
(l) Note the different forms of the labial in Sanskrit aiva, Persian asp, Eg. Q s8m.t.
(*) See R. de Vaax, Leg institutions de VAncient Testament II, Paris, 1.900, p. 55; and
W. A. Ward, JAOS 80 1961 327.

— 66 —
A nOr. 38 VERBS 8. 76-77-9. 1-2

8. 76. C ognate vs. A lien B orrow in gs — It is as a rule harder to


establish the elements borrowed from cognate sources because of the closeness
of the dialects and because so many of the dialectal differences are not reflected
in the consonantal alphabet.
8. 77. F oreign Nam es — Proper names are the richest source of foreign
elements. As is well known, nkl is ultimately from the Sumerian Nin-gal.
Then again, tpllm .m lk (118:16) is the Hittite king usually called Shuppilu-
liuma. Hurrian elements are common : iwr ‘ lord ’ occurs in (antn . bn .) iwr . [ ]
(813 : 7), iwrdr (64 :1) and perhaps itvrhf (300 : 13, 26); artjb (119 : 4) Nuzu
ArteSub, cf. klttb (300: rev. 14) and tbttb (300: 15). The foreign names at
Ugarit constitute a major area for investigation and merit a detailed study
that cannot be undertaken here.

CHAPTER IX

VERBS

9. 1. An A rea of D isa g r eem en t — The Semitic verbal system is


shrouded in considerable obscurity and even the ‘tenses’ of so well known a
language as Hebrew are still a moot question. It is therefore not surprising
that the Ugaritic verb is the subject of debate. Some of the differences of
opinion hinge on a disputed issue in Ugaritic linguistics: the interpretation of
the vowels inherent in the aleph signs.
9. 2. D oes a yaqattal T ense E x ist in U g a r itic ? — Does yqtl
represent a future yaqattal (like Acc. iqattal) as well as a past yaqtul (like Acc.
iqtul)? As long as the discussion is based on verbs with three strong conso-
nants, we are not likely to arrive at any conclusion. But if we turn to verbs
where the orthography is informative, we shall get farther. In UG (p. 60,
n. 2) I followed Ginsberg who pointed out that yqh occurs to the exclusion of
*ylqh and that iqh (K rt: 204) ‘ I shall/may take ’ is incompatible with a form
corresponding to Acc. iqattal. More than two decades have passed and more
forms of Iqh are available but there is still no trace of *ylqh. In the admi-
nistrative texts, past action (qtl) is sharply distinguished from future action
(yqtl); cf. § 9. 3. Regularly yqh (1006: 12; 1008: 17; 1009: 13) is the future
‘he will take’ vs. Iqh (1 0 2 5 :4 , 6; 1 0 8 3 : 2 ; 1117:18, 20; 1 1 5 5 : 3 ; 1166:3)
‘he has taken’ so that yaqattal can have no place in the scheme. The ortho-
graphy of the Qumran Scrolls is now b e in g u s e d to revive th e e x is t e n c e of
yaqattal in Ugaritic and Hebrew, although what we have said about yqh in Ug.
is just as cogent for ‫‘ יקדו‬he will take’ in Heb. There are a number of imper­

— 67 —
9. 3-4 VBRB8 An Or. 38

fects (always with acc. suffixes!) like ‫( ישופטני‬Manual of Discipline 10:13) ‘ he


will judge me’, to be vocalized ‫ ישפטני‬vs. Masoretic ‫ י שפ טני‬. How this can be
equated with Acc. iqattal escapes me. The vowel after the first radical is *a
(not a , as in Acc.); and the second radical is not doubled as it is in Acc.
(for the subjunctive or pi. is always iqattalu ; never *iqatlu as it would be if the
second radical were not geminated). Just as the imperative (and const, inf.)
‫ שפט‬with the acc. suffix is ‫( שפטני‬which can be written ‫ שופטני‬at Qumran), ‫ישפט‬
with the suffix is analogically ‫ ישופטני‬at Qumran. If the Qumran forms are
used to posit a yaqattal in Heb., then we shall have to posit corresponding
forms in the Heb. inf. and imperative which have no counterpart in Acc. or
any other Semitic language. An explanation might rather be sought in the
imperative which has an interplay of (1) qutl (cf. f. sg. in Heb. ‫ ק ט לי‬, Acc.
pursl), (2) qtul ( ‫ ק טל‬and without hamza) and (3) qutal (Acc. paras). The
rest can be accounted for analogically; i. e., ‫ קטל‬: ‫ יקטל ” קטלני‬: ‫ • ןק)ו(טלני‬Contrast
R. Meyer, *Spuren eines westsemitischen Prasens-Futur in den Texten von
Chirbet Qumran’, Von Ugarit nach Qumran, Berlin, 1968, pp. 118-128.
9. 3. P rose vs. P o e tic S y ste m s — As noted in § 9. 2, the prose texts
distinguish the past (qtl) from the future (yqtl). Thus in 1161:2 erb ‘they
have entered (as pledges) ’ is morphologically distinct from tknn (: 9) *they
shall establish’. Cf. also pdy ‘they ransomed’ vs. tttbn ‘they will restore’
(1006 :12, 17; see § 9. 6). Most of our evidence for the verb, however, is in
the poetic texts. Accordingly, in the following paragraphs we shall be discuss-
ing primarily the verbal system in the poems; not the system in the jejune
administrative and epistolary tablets.
9. 4. The qtl and yqtl T en ses — We use the orthographically descrip-
tiv e term s qtl and yqtl in stead of the ‘ p e r fe c t’ and ‘ im p e r fe c t’. The conse-
cutions qtl-yqtl (wyqtl) (*) and yqtl-qtl (qtl-qtl etc.) (*) show that these forms are
not solely evoked by considerations of time or aspect, for other elements (such
as sequence) may enter the picture. If yqtl had to be called a tense, *universal
tense’ would be justified inasmuch as it often refers to the past as well as to
the present or future. In fact yqtl is the regular narrative form and we shall

(‫ )י‬E. g., (51: V I I : 21) tfrq. ktr. wjyss (22) yiu gh wytfy ‘ Ktr-w‫ ־‬H8s laughs, he raises his voice
and shoats’ (cf.: V :87-88). However, tkq may well be inf. abs. as indeed mast be in (51:
V :82) . btlt. ettt. tdc! (83)p*nm. totr. arg *the virgin *Anat rejoices, she speeds the feet and
darts to earth’. Note also tym|| yfrm in (127:20) ttib. imr. tolfym(21) mgt. wytrm‘she slaughters
a lamb and he eats; a lambkin, and he dines’; although the construction might be more faith-
fally represented as ‘ she slaughtered a lamb and he ate; a lambkin that he might dine’.
(*) E. g., (51: I V :8) ySm?. qd(S). wamr[r\ (9) mdl. «r. find. pfyl (10) St.gpnm ‘QdS-w-Amrr
hears, he saddles an ass, hitches a donkey, places trappings’, although there is no proof that
the verbs after y8m° are not inf. abs.

— 68 —
A nOb. 38 TEEBS 9. 5*7

often translate it as a historical present; e. g., ttbe. btlt. ent (49 : IV : 30) ‘the
Virgin cAnat departs’.
9. 5. C onversive w — As in Heb., conversive w belongs properly to
the prose, but not to the poetry: (1013 : 16) w . hm . h t. (17) el .w . likt (18) cmk
‘and if the Hittite comes up, I shall send (messengers) to thee’. The tense of
wlikt is the same as ‫‘ ושלחתי‬I shall send’ (vs. ‫‘ גולחתי‬I sent’ or ‫‘ וסלחתי‬and I
sent’). Cf. wtb in (1006:12) w . pdyh[mf] (13) iw rk l. m\t (14) ks p .b yd
(15) birtyrn (16) \k f u]n£. inn (17) l[h]m cd tttbn (18) ksp . iwrkl (19) w£b . lunthrn
‘ and Iwrkl has ransomed them with 100 (shekels of) silver, from the Beirutians —
[because] they have no kinsmen — until they will restore the silver to Iwrkl
and return to their own people’.
9. 6. T h em atic V ow el of q tl — That qtl consists of three open syl-
lables is evident from internal as well as comparative criteria. The ‫ ם״א‬verbs
show that the first vowel is a: a/id (76 : I I : 6) ‘he seized’, atwt (51 : IV : 32)
‘ she came ’, waspt (1002 :49). The ‫ ל*א‬verbs indicate that a follows the third
consonant: Sna (61 : I I I : 17) ‘he hates’, tlhn . i l . dmla (61 : 1 : 39) ‘the table of
’ll that is full ’. Internal evidence regarding the thematic (= second) syllable
is not as abundant as we might wish. The only incontestable ‫ ע״א‬perfects are
lik ‘ he sent ’, sid ‘ he served ’ and $il ‘ he asked ’ (1). Of these, only the last
has been known from Northwest Semitic. The danger of generalizing and as-
suming that only perfects of the qatila type occur in Ugaritic, is highlighted
by the fact that ‫זאלןי‬0‫( ו‬Jud. 4: 20; cf. Gen. 32 : 18; Ps. 137 : 3 etc.) and v.U
tell nothing about the norm in Heb. and Syr. [But the personal n. bn flril
(10:6; 1071: 6) = TUR-*,£a-6t-#tt (RA 38 1941 11 line 7) contains the qatala
verb ( = Heb. a?) vs. qatila (‫])מת‬. The yqtl of the above ‫ ע״א‬verbs in Ugaritic
has the thematic vowel -ar-: ilak (1 sg.), tsad (3 f. sg.) and we may safely infer
*i§al. Since the normal West Semitic qtl corresponding to yiqtal- is qatila (var.
qatala), we would not in any event expect qatala perfects for yil’ak‫ ־‬, yis'ad- or
yiS’al-. The paucity of evidence does not justify dogmatism pro or con the
existence of qatala in Ugaritic. The insistence that qtl must be vocalized qatila
for all verbs should await the attestation of at least one ‫ ע״א‬verb whose yqtl
is written ycuc (c = consonant) while its qtl is written cic.
9. 7. Conj ugation of q tl — qtl is inflected as follows:
3 m. sg : qatala (*): npl (75 : I I : 54) ‘ he fell ’, 8kb = Sakiba (67 : V : 19) ‘ he
lay’, tlf (2 Aqht: V : 31) ‘he departed’, mtjy (51 : I I : 22, V : 106) ‘he came’,

(*) In 125:51 Sib may conceivably be a noun and the proper name bclsip (329:2) must be
used with caution. Furthermore, mip (13:6) is in a broken context.
(‫ )״‬This normalization is meant only to represent the norm in West Semitic. When cognates
point to qatila, special normalizations are indicated.

— 69 —
9. 8 VERBS A n Or . 38

Smh = fiamiba ( 4 9 : 1 1 1 : 1 4 ) ‘ h e r e j o ic e d ’, ngt ( 7 6 : 1 : 4 0 ) (n o t G ; § 9 . 3 2 ) , Sql


( 1 2 4 : 12) ‘ h e s la u g h t e r e d ’.
3 f. sg.: qatalat: atwt ( 6 1 : I V : 32) ‘ s h e c a m e ’, hlkt ( 8 : 6 ) ‘ s h e w e n t ’,
Iqht ( 1 0 8 3 : 2 ) ‘ s h e t o o k ’, y$at (3 A q h t o b v .: 3 6 ; cf. 1 2 6 : 6 1 ) ‘ s h e w e n t o u t ’,
mtfyt ( 6 1 : I I : 23) ‘ s h e c a m e ’.
2 m . s g . : qatalta: ytnt (49 : V I : 14) ‘ th o u g a v e s t ’.
2 f. s g . : qataltl rfibt = ragibti (61 : I V : 33) ‘ th o u a r t h u n g r y ’, (}mil (6 1 :
I V : 34) = gami'ti ‘ th o u a r t th ir s t y ’.
1 s g . : qataltl(1): yblt (51 : V : 8 9 ) ‘ I b r in g ’, edbt (61 : V I : 38) ‘ I m a d e ’,
8met — Samict1 ( 6 4 : 7 ) ‘ I h e a r d ’, rgmt ( 6 8 : 7 ) ‘ I t o l d ’, ydct (1 2 5 : 33) ‘ I k n o w ’,
ydctk (3 A q h t r ev . 16) ‘ I k n o w t h e e ( f .) ’ (*).
3 m . d u . : qatala (as in A r a b ic ): la Smm (4 9 :1 1 :2 5 ; 61 : V I I I : 2 2 2 3 ‫)־‬
‘ t h e h e a v e n s (du.) were stopt\
3 f. d u . : qatalta (cf. Ga‫״‬s): ylt — yalatta < *yaladta ( 6 2 : 6 3 ) ‘ t h e y b o r e ’.
1 d u .: qtlny: qlny ( 9 5 : 7 ) ‘ w e h a v e p r o stra ted o u r s e lv e s ’, [m]^ny (6 7 :
V I : 5) ‘ w e c a m e ’.
3 m . p i.: n&u ( 1 2 6 : 1 1 1 : 12) ‘ t h e y r a is e (d )’.
3 f. p i . : I t m a y w e ll b e t h a t b o th g e n d e r s are qatala a s in sta n d a rd H e b .
I t is a lso p o ssib le t h a t o n ly t h e m . is qatala, w h ile th e f. is t h e P r o to -S e m itic
qatala a s in A c c ., E th ., O ld A r a m . |,n d sp o r a d ic a lly in H e b . (*). I t is h o p ed t h a t
n e w t e x t s w ill c o n ta in th e ‫ ל״א‬fo rm s t h a t a lo n e can s e t t le th e q u e stio n . N o
lig h t is sh e d b y e x a m p le s lik e t h e fo llo w in g : (1 A q h t : 1 7 1 ) erb .b(l72)kyt.
bhklh ‘ th e w e e p in g w o m en e n te r e d h is p a la c e ’, tbe bbth (2 A q h t : I I : 39) ‘ t h e y (f.)
d e p a r te d from h is h o u s e ’.
2 m . p i . : qataltama (?): (51 : I I I : 3 0 ) mgntm (31) tr .U . dpid . hm Q%tm
(32) bny. bnwl ‘ h a v e y e b e s o u g h t I d r , g o d o f mercy, or e n tr e a te d t h e cre a to r
o f c r e a t u r e s ? ’.
2 f. p i . : qataltin(n)a(?): yritn(*) ( 1 0 0 2 : 4 2 ) ‘ y e f e a r e d ’ a n d p o s sib ly Izn
('n t p i. x : I V : 16).
1 pi .: qtln: no e x a m p le s .
9 . 8 . A g r e e m e n t w i t h S u b j e c t — I t u se d to b e t h o u g h t t h a t w h e n
a qtt h e a d s th e s e n te n c e , or w h e n i t is p rece d e d o n ly b y w, m . is u sed in s te a d
o f f . : Smh . btlt. ent ( 5 1 : V : 82) *th e v ir g in 'A n a t r e jo ic e d ’, (51 : I I : 28) Smh rbt.
a\trt] (2 9 ) ym ‘ th e la d y , ’A tir (a )t o f t h e sea , r e jo iced ’, ?hq . blit. ent (51 : V : 87)

(1l Or qatalta with Arabic.


(*) If the restoration is right, ]anfc. n£»[t] (1002:15) is ‘ I lifted ’ (naSe’t! < *naSa'ti).
(‫ )י‬Of. 1) ‫ ועיניו ר(מרי‬Sam. 4:15) and the Ktib of Deut. 21: 7; Jer. 2:15; 22:6 etc.
(4) yritn = yari’tin(n)a (Heb. ‫ )ןראתן‬shows that the qtl of the strong verb does not have the
connecting vowel -A - that appears in the Acc. permansive (kaSd-A-ka).

— 70 —
A nOr. 38 VERBS 9 . 9-10

or w$hq . bltl. [*ntf] (3 Aqht rev.: 22) ‘ (and) the virgin ,Anat laughed ’. (That
such a rule is wrong is shown by y$at. k m . rfy. np$J1] ‘his soul went out like
wind’ in 3 Aqht: 36). We are simply confronted with abs. inf. followed by
the subject to express the narrative past; see § 9. 29. Accordingly, regardless
of word order there is so far no obligatory exception to the agreement of the
finite verb (qtl or yqtl) with its subject in number, gender and person.
9. 9. S equence of P re fix e d & T h em a tic V ow els — In 1894
Barth (ZDMG 4 8486‫ )־‬published his discovery of the law that the prefix of
yqtl in the simple active conjugation was vocalized with i when the thematic
vowel was a (otherwise the prefix was vocalized with a); i. e., yaqtul- (var.
yaqtil-) but yiqtal-(1). As Ginsberg has demonstrated (Orientalia 8 1939 319-322),
Barth’s law is fully operative in Ugar. This is evident from 1 sg. forms.
*aqtul-: amlk (49 : 1 : 34) ‘I shall rule’, ahpkk (67 : I I I : 12) ‘I shall upset
thee’, amt (2 Aqht : V I : 38) ‘I shall die’, anhn (49:111:18) ‘I shall rest’;
cf. Heb. ‫ ינוח‬, ‫ ;מות‬, ‫ יה&ןד‬, ‫ח&ד‬: .
*aqtil-: atn (77 : 19, 22) ‘I shall make (lit.give)’, ard (67 : V I : 26) ‘I shall
go down’, atbn (49:111:18) ‘let me sit’, aSr (77:1) ‘I sing’, aStk (3 Aqht
obv.: 17) ‘I shall set thee’; cf. Heb. rptfj, *‫יו‬#‫ י‬.
*iqtal-: Uak(*) (61 :VII :46; 1002:41) ‘I shall dispatch’, ki£al . hm
(1022:3) ‘that I should ask them’, ibqc (1 Aqht: 109, 124, 138) ‘I shall split
open’, Uhm (67:1:20) ‘I shall eat’. imh§ (1 Aqht: 196) ‘1 shall smite’, ispa *
(49 : V : 20) and ispi (67 : 1 : 6) ‘I (shall) eat’, iqnu (62 : 21), iqra . Urn (52 : 1) ||
iqran.ilm (52:23) ‘I invoke/proclaim the gods’, iSlh (77:21) ‘I shall send’,
iber (1002:52) ‘I shall lead’, itrlxa (127 :18) ‘I may dine’, ank.iphn (1002:
36) ‘I see him’; cf. Heb. ‫ יבויש‬, ‫ יחם‬, ‫ י ח כ ם‬.
9. 10. Moods — ‫ ל״א‬forms show that yqtl may stand for yaqtulu, yaqtula
or yaqtul.
yaqtulu: (49 : 1 :6 ) tgly . dd (7) il w tbu. qr§. (8) mlk . ab . Snm ( = 61 :
I V : 2324‫‘ )־‬she leaves t h e ------of ’ll and enters t h e -------- of the king,
father of Snm ’, ('nt: I I : 25) ymlu (26) Ibh . Mmht ‘ her heart is full (yimla'u) of
gladness ’, ymln (126 : V : 28) ‘ he fills ’, (51 : V II: 49) ahdy. dym(bO)lk . 7 . ilm .
dfymru (51) ilm . wn§m . dy§b{h2)[m] h m lt. ar§ ‘I alone am he that will rule over
the gods, that will command gods and men, that will dominate the multitudes

(1J There is evidence also for u as the vowel of the prefix in the G yqtl of a few verbs.
Thus yukl (1081:16) ‘ he will have usufruct (of a vineyard )’. Cf. also yufyd and yuhb. Heb.
( ‫)י**כל‬,?‫*ח‬$‫י‬, ‫( •י**הב‬cf. ‫ ו&הב‬in Malachi 1 :2) can (but need not necessarily) be explained as con•
taining u in the prefix. There is one common G yqtl with u in the prefix; to wit, ‫•יוכל‬
(2) Contrast the atypical tlik (1010:4) 1thou dispatchest (a message)’, which may possibly
turn out to be D (tala‫״‬ik-).

— 71 —
9.11 VERBS A nOr. 38

of the earth’, wySu . enh . wxfn (76 : I I : 14) ‘and he lifts his eyes and sees’,
tSu . abh (1 Aqht: 09) ‘ she lifts her father’, tSu . knp (76 : I I : 11) ‘she raises
wing’, tbu (127:6, 7) ‘she enters’, (52:21) iqnu . §mt (22) [b]n. $rm. These
and other passages (127 : 4, 5 etc.) suggest that yaqtulu is indicative as in Arabic
rather than subjunctive as in Acc.
yaqtula : iqra . ilm . n[emm] (52 : 1; cf. 122 : 2) ‘let me invoke the good
gods ’, iqran . ilm nemm (62 : 23) ‘ let me invoke, I pray, the good gods ’; cf.
ispa (49 : V : 20). The following examples are of interest because they show
that this mood is not limited to the first person (as in Heb.): (75:1: 36) ym fiy.
aklm (37) wym%a. cqq!m ‘ he comes upon the eaters and reaches the devourers ’,
(61: V II: 47) yqra . mt (48) bnpSh . ystrn ydd (49) bgngnh ‘Mdt calls from his
throat, the Beloved meditates (note energic -n) in his inwards ’. yaqtala (*) cor-
responds, at least morphologically, to the Arabic subjunctive.
yaqtul: ym§i . lar§ (49 : V : 4) ‘ he reaches earth ’, wy$i (Krt: 85, 87) ‘ and
let go out’, yspi (121 : I I : 10) ‘he eats', and ispi (67 :1:5), (3 Aqht obv.: 24)
t$i. km (26) rfy . np§h ‘ may his soul go out like wind ’. The last is instructive
because the verb clearly has jussive force; cf. line 36, where the fulfilment of
the oath is expressed by q tl: y$at . km . rh . np$[h] ‘ his soul went out like
wind ’. As in Heb., Arab, etc., the 2nd person of yaqtul is used to make the
negative imperative: (125:26) al tk l.b n (27) qr . cnk . mh . ri§k (28) udmet
‘my son, do not exhaust (takalli) the well of thine eyes, nor the brain of thy
head with tears’. It seems that yaqtul was also used to indicate the past as
well as the jussive: ybn means ‘may he repair’ in 1 A qht: 118, 132 but ‘he
repaired’ in: 119, 133. As is well known, the jussive is in full use in Heb.;
e. g., ‫* < יכ(ם‬yaqum, DfeP < *yaSim as against indicative ‫* < יקום‬yaq&mu, < *yaSlmu.
9. 11. E n erg ic — The energic is yqtln but the orthography does not
usually tell whether it ought to be read yaqtulan or yaqtulanna (*). To be sure, *
when the form with the acc. suffix is written with two w’s, a vowel must se-
parate them and therefore the form (without the acc. suffix) must be yaqtulanna;
e. g. (49 : I I : 31) bhrb (32) tbqe7m . bhtr. tdry(BB)nn . biSt. tSrpnn (34) brhm . t(hnn.
bSd (36) tdr*nn ‘with a sword she cleaves him, with a fan she winnows him,

(*) A. Herdner (Syria 24 1944-5 117) questions the existence of yaqtula as more than a mere
survival. Thus she holds that yqra and tfi might both be jussives with the final alepb signs
reflecting the preceding vowels. This, however, fails to reckon with the shift of a* > e’, whereby
a final - a sign must reflect a following a-vowel. Moreover, i8pi is distinguished from ispa, and
ym$a from ym$i (all the verbs mentioned are in § 9.10).
(*) I am inclined to see the survival of -anna in Heb. (Gen. 27:21, 26),
(Gen. 32 : 30 ; 37:16), ‫ א‬3‫־ד‬1‫( אציג‬Gen. 33:15), ‫“?א‬,‫( ל'?ר‬Gen. 38:16), ‫( אסר ה־נ א‬Ex. 3:3), ‫א ^ק ה־נ א‬
(1 Kg. 19:20) etc., etc.

— 72 —
AnOb . 38 VERBS 9 .1 2 1 3

with fire she burns him, in the millstones she grinds him, in the field she
sows him ’, . nn (127 : 10) ‘ she washes him In (127 : 37) r d . Im lk. amlk
(38) Idrktk. affmn (= : 52-54) ‘ descend from the kingship that I may rule, from
(the throne of) thy dominion that I may sit thereon ’, the final •n may be the
pronominal object as indicated by the translation. With one n, yaqtulan is also
conceivable: (2 A q h t:II:12) aijbn.ank (13) w . anhn ‘I will sit and rest’
( = 49 : I I I : 18), mid . tmth$n ('nt: I I : 23) ‘ much smites she (indeed) ’, q l. Ilfl.
ttnn (76:111:33) ‘she (indeed) gives voice to Ba'l’, (2 A qht:V :26) b d .d n il.
ytnn (27) q§t *in the hand of Dnil he (indeed) puts a bow ’, bkm . tmdln . er
(1 Aqht:67) ‘weeping she saddles an ass’ (1).
9. 12. L ax U se of Moods — The moods are not necessarily used
with rigidity. Thus (Krt: 303) tSan (304) ghm . wt?hn = (67 : I I : 16) tSa (17)
ghm . wt$h ‘they lift their voice and shout’ (*). Similarly, tlhm . rpum (124 : 21)
= tlhm n. rpum (: 23) ‘the r. (m. pi.) eat’, tlkn (Krt: 194) = ylk (: 207) ‘they
go’, tmprn (49:111:12) ‘they rain’ ||#& (: 13) ‘they flow’ (both with m. pi.
subject), alk (1 Aqht: 194) = alkn (: 195) ‘so that I may g o ’. Alongside the
exceedingly frequent wtfn (49:1:21; 51 :VII :37; 6 7 :1 :1 1 ; 1 Aqht :214,
218; 3 Aqht obv.: 1 1 , rev.: 15) ‘and he answered’, note the somewhat less
common w tfny (*) (76 : I I I : 5) with the same meaning and in the same context.
Cf. yks (67 : V I : 16) || yhdy (: 19).
9. 13. V oice — Ugaritic probably has internal passives for all the active
conjugations, although the consonantal orthography usually makes it hard to
prove the presence of a passive in specific instances. E. g., (1107 : 7) mlbS (8)
y tn . Ihm almost certainly means ‘ clothing will be given to them ’ (ytn = yOtan-;
cf. Heb. ‫ )ימן‬but the orthography makes ytn = yatinu ‘they will give’ also pos-
sible. Even ancient Heb. possessed such qal passives, but they are preserved
in the Massorah only when the consonantal orthography requires them;
thus ‫ימן‬, ‫ןח‬5‫ י‬or ‫ןם‬9‫ י‬. Otherwise the Massoretes transform them into some
conjugation found in Mishnaic Heb. such as the niphal; thus the passive
qal ‫זמר‬£‫ *ל‬will appear in the Massorah as ‫מר‬#‫ י‬because of the two following

(l) The following consecutions suggest that the ‘ energic’ is a stylistic variant rather than
a form with a special meaning:
yqtln — yqtln — yqtl: (2 A qht: I I : 12) a[f]6n. ante (13) w. anfyn. wtnfy birty (14) npi ( = 49:
111:18-19) ( I shall sit and rest and my soul shall repose in my breast’.
yqtl — yqtln: ydd. wyqlfn (51: I I I : 12), (51: I V : 13) yfybq. qdf . wamrr (14) yStn . afrt.
Ibmt. er 1Qdd-w-Amrr embraces; lie sets ’Atir(a)t on the donkey’s back ’.
(‫ )י‬Cf. (du./pl.) tqtln — tqtl in (49: I I I : 6) 6mm. 6mn. tmtrn (7) nfylm. tlk. nbtm (— : 12-13)
‘ the heavens rain oil, the wadies run with honey’. In Heb. there is no functional difference
between ‫ יקטלו‬and the rarer [‫•יקטלו‬
(s) Observe the unique 2) ‫ דעני׳‬Kg. 1:10) alongside the ubiquitous [£?) •

— 73 —

10
9.14-15 VBRBB A nOb . 38

conditions: (1) the consonantal text permits it, and (2) Mishnaic Heb. has no
passive qal. Cf. § 9. 31.
9. 14. P e c u lia r itie s of yqtl — The inflection of yqtl is not devoid of
pitfalls and obscurities.
In 2 and 3 pi. (and almost certainly 2 f. sg.), -na and similarly, in du.,
-ni are sometimes dropt (in Arabic -na and -ni appear only in yaqtnla; but not
in yaqtnla and yaqtul); but see § 9. 12.
In 3 du. and pi., t- often displaces y-. This Canaanitism is also found in
the Amarna letters(1) and in Heb. regularly with 3 f. pi. and sporadically with
3 in. pi. Cf. OrientaMa 16 1947 10 and Deut. 6 : 20- 2 1 ; Ezek. 37 : 7; Job
19: 16.
With tShfann (1 Aqht: 161) ‘they cause him to wake up’, I am inclined
to compare the Assyrian subjunctive of the ventive 3 m. pi. iprusftninni with
(see Von Soden, Akk. Gram., p. 9*, paradigm 8). In Acc., pi. -a (common
gender) is often attested for the 2nd person though not otherwise for the 3rd.
In Ugar. it is apparently used with the 3rd as well in -ann — -ftni-nnfi. That -a
normally occurs for the m. pi. is shown by tSu.ilm (137:29) ‘the gods lift’,
tbun (128 : IV : 21) ‘they enter(ed)’ and the imperatives du (1 Aqht: 120) ‘fly!’
(m. pi.) as well as Su (137:27; cf. 62:64) ‘lift!’.
9. 16. C on ju gation of yqtl — yqtl is inflected thus:
3. m. sg.: yaqtul-(*): (2 Aqht : II : 10)yprq . J$b . wy$hq (II) p en .lhdm
ytpd (cf. 49:111:16) ‘he parts “his teeth” (*) and laughs; a foot he sets on
the footstool’, yptli (61 : V II: 26) ‘he opens’, (76 : 1 : 12) U . y%hq . bm (13) lb .
wygm d. bm kbd ‘ ’ll laughs in his heart and chuckles in his liver’, y§mh (76:
111:38) ‘he rejoices’, ktr §mdm y n h t. wyper . Smthm (68: 1 1 , 18) ‘Ktr brings
down two sticks and gives (them) their names ’.
3 f. sg.: taqtul-: (62 : 18) t(bh . §bem (19) rumm ‘she slaughters 70 buf-
faloes ’, tg*rm . ettrt (68 : 28) ‘ 'Attart rebukes ’, ('nt: I I : 7) tmh$ . lim . hp y[7n]
(8) t$m t. adm . § a t. Sp£ ‘ she smites the people of the sea-shore, she destroys
the folk of the sunrise’, (2 Aqht: V : 21) tSm* (22) m tt. duty . l*db . imr ‘Mis-
tress Dnty hears, she prepares a lamb’ (cf. 127 : 19), ttbc . b tlt. ent (49 : IV : 30)

(‫ )ג‬For the consecution of (3 m. du./pl.) t q t l — y q t l , cf. (K rt: 300) ttb *. m la k m (301) l y t b ‘ the
two messengers depart, they do not s i t ’ (unless y t b is q t l ) .
(*) These captions are not meant to be taken too literally. Thus some of the illustrations
here have the thematic vowel a e. g., yiptafc- yiSmab‫־־‬, etc.
(3) indicates ‘ narrowness’. E. Ulleudorff ( O r i e n t a l i a 20 1051 272) rightly compares this
with fpx<*; 6&6vt<i>v (Odyssey 1 : 6 4 ) ‘ the barrier of the teeth ’ = the narrow separation between
the two rows of teeth.

— 74
A nOr. 38 VERBS 9 .1 5

‘the virgin 'Anat departs’, wttbe Ptqt (127:2) ‘and §. departs’, (128: I V : 15)
t(bh . Smn . [m]r[i]^ (16) tpth . rhht . yn ‘ she slaughters the sleekest of her
fatlings, she opens a flagon of wine’.
2 in. sg .: taqtal-: whm . a t . trgm (13 : 5, rev. 8) ‘ and if thou sayest’.
2 f. sg.: fcaqtallna: Although the verb is not of the simple conjugation,
the suffix is illustrated in (49 : II : 13) mh (14) tarSn ‘what dost thou (f.) wish?’
(of. § 9. 34).
1 sg .: ,aqtul-: examples in § 9. 9.
3 c. du.: (y/t)aqtul&(n1): ym . ymm . yctqn (49 : I I : 26) ‘ a day, two days pass ’,
(San (Krt:303) and tSa (67:11:16) ‘they lift’, attm . t$hn (52:39, 43) ‘both
women shout’, (49:1:31) pcnh . Itmfiyn (32) hdm ‘his feet do not reach the
footstool ’, cmy . penk . tlsmn ('nt: I I I : 16; cf. pi. ix : I I : 22) ‘ thy (f.) feet will
run to me ’, (1003 : 5) Unm . tlhk (6) Smm . ttrp (7) ym . dnbtm ‘ the 2 tongues
lick the heavens, the 2 tails swish the sea’.
2 c. du.: tqtl(n): taqtul&(n1) : thtan (61: V III: 20) ‘ ye twain will be crushed ’,
(51: V III: 16) al (16) tqrb ‘do not draw near!’.
3 m. pi.: y/tqtl(n): (y/fc)aqtulft(na): xfnyn (cn t: IV : 49) = t'nyn (76 : I I : 3) ‘ they
reply/say ’, (124 : 21) tlhm . rpum (22) tStyn = (: 23) tlhmn . rpum (24) tStyn ‘ the
r. eat, they drink’, (bun (128 : IV : 21) ‘they enter(ed)’, (61 : Y : 100) yblnn firm .
mid . ksp (101) gbem . Ihmd . hr$ (102) yblnn udr ilq$m ‘the mountains bring
him much silver; the hills, the choicest of gold; the udr brings him ilq$a ’ || (51:
V : 77) tblk . firm . mid ksp (78) gbem . mh,md . hr!} (79) yblk . udr . ilq$m ‘the
mountains bring thee much silver; the hills, the choicest (etc.)’, (51:111:25)
tmgnn . rbt . afirt ym (26) tfjvyn . qnyt ilm *they beseech the lady ’A!ir(a)t of
the sea, they entreat the creatress of the gods’, nSrm . trhpn (3 Aqht obv.: 20,
30-31) ‘eagles soar’, (52:67) Um . nemm . ttlkn (68) §d . t$dn . p a t . mdbr ‘the
good gods walk the field, they tread the corners of the desert’, (49:111:12)
§mm . Smn . tmfrn (13) nhlm . tlk . nbtm ‘the heavens rain oil, the wadies run
with honey’, tlkn (1 2 1 : I I : 6) *they go’, (128 : I I I : 17) tbrk . Um . tity (18) tity .
Um . lahlhm (19) dr i l . ImSknthm ‘ the gods bless, they g o ; the gods go to their
tents, the generation of ’ll to their tabernacles’, (117:7) ilm (8) tfjrk . iSlmk
‘may the gods guard thee and give thee peace’.
2 m. pi.: taqtalfi(na): ubapkm . ubqV.t. npSkm . vJbqtt. tqU (2 : 23) ‘whether
in your body or in a sin of your soul or (any) sin ye have sinned’.
2 f. pi.: taqfculna: th(in ( = tibte'na < *titta'na) (2 : 14) or tqUn (2 : 15) ‘ ye
sin(ned)’, ( = taq&tifaa ?; cf. § 9. 36).
1 pi.: naqtul— . While the following examples are not all of the simple
conjugation, they suffice to illustrate the prefix: nmlk (49 : 1 : 20) ‘ we shall
make king’, (61:111:33) nmgn (34) [ ]1‫ מ‬. rbt . airt . ym (35) [»]$? . qnyt .

— 75 —
9.16-19 VXRBS A nOr. 38

ilm ‘we beseech [?] the lady, *A£ir(a)t of the sea, we entreat the creatress of
the gods’, dbfyn . ndbh (2 : 24) ‘our sacrifice we sacrifice (/is sacrificed)’, (126:
14) bhyk . abn . n!Smh (lb).blmtk . ngln ( = : 98-99) ‘our father, in thy life we
rejoice; (in) thine immortality are we glad’.
9. 16. P r o c litic l----- The proclitic l is found with both qtl and yqtl.
It is possibly to be read like Heb. and Acc. 1<1 instead of Arabic la; cf. ‫לו יהי כדברך‬
(Gen. 30: 34) ‘ verily let it be according to thy word ’. It should be noted that
generally it is hard to tell if we are dealing with l ‘ verily ’ or Z‘ not ’: Irgmt.
Ik (61: VII :23; 68 : 7-8) 'verily I tell thee’ or ‘have I not told thee?’, (2 Aqht:
1 : 24) Itbrknn . lir . il aby (25) tmrnn . Ibny bmot ‘ verily thou wilt bless him to
Idr-’il, my father; (yea) commend him to the creator of creatures’ or ‘wilt
thou not (etc.)?’, (128 : I I : 13) ll\pn (13) [iZ] dpid . Ubrk (16) [krt\ f . Itmr . nemn
(16) [film] il ‘O Ltpn, god of mercy! Mayest thou bless Krt of the I c, even
favor N'mn, Lad of ’l l ’ or ‘wilt thou not (etc.)?’.
9. 17. E m phatic k- — When the emphasizing proclitic ki(1) is used, the
verb is thrown to the end of the clause as in Heb. (Gen. 18:20; Ps. 49:16):
(61: I I : 13) hlk . bcl . at\t\rt (14) kten ‘ ’A£ir(a)t eyes the going of Ba'l ’, (51 : I I : 26)
ksp . [a£\rt (27) kt‘n ‘ ’A£ir(a)t sees the silver’, him . il . kyphnh (51 : IV : 27) ‘as
soon as ’ll sees her ’, il attm . kypt (52:39) ‘ ’ll would tup the two women ’,
(62:1:14) Iktp (15) cn t . ktSth ‘on the shoulders of 'Anat she sets him’, gm .
latth . ky$h (2 Aqht: V : 15) ‘aloud he cries to his wife’ (similarly 51 : I I : 29,
V II: 52-53).
9. 18. bl w ith yqtl — bl may mean ‘surely’ (cf. ‘yea’) rather than
‘not’ (cf. Heb. ‫‘ בל‬not’, jS ‘nay’) in the following: (51 : V I: 6) b l. a§t. ur\bt].
bbhtm (6) hln . bqrb [M]lm (7) vfn . ali[yn] bel (8) a l . tM. u[rb]t. bbhtm (9) hln .
bq[rb h]klm ‘ “ I shall surely put a window in the house(s), a casement in the
midst of the palace(s) ” (cf. also 51 : V : 123-4); and Aliyn B a'l rep lied : “ Do
not put a window in the house(s), a casement in the midst of the pa-
lace(s)!’” .
9. 19. al w ith yqtl — The last citation also illustrates ,al ‘not’ (Heb. ‫)אל‬
which may be used with yqtl to form the neg. imperative or a neg. clause of
purpose: (61 : V III: 15) al (16) tqrb (*) . Ibn . ilm (17) mt . a l . y°dbkm (18) kim r.
bph ‘do not approach the god M&t lest he make you as a lamb in his mouth! ’;
cf. also a l. t§mh ('nt: V : 29) || a l . thd ‘ do not rejoice! ’ and (1013 : 21) a l. tdhl!
= ,al tidfcali ‘ do not fear! ’ (f. sg.). However, al is, for practical purpo-
* ses of translation, to be taken as an asservative particle in passages like (61 :

(x) To be distinguished syntactically from ki ‘ when, if ’ (§ 12.3).


(*) Jussive 2 du. tiqraba (without -»).

— 76 —
AnOr . 38 VERBS 9. 20-23

V III: 1) idk . al . ttn . pnm (2) “m .tfr ‘then surely set face toward the
mountain’ (’).
9. 20. Im p erative — The imperative (of the simple conjugation) has
presumably three vocalizations corresponding to the three types of yqtl; to
wit, q(u)tul goes with yaqtul-, q(i)til with yaqtil- and q(i/a)tal with yiqtal-.
Probable examples of q(u)tul: (rd (cn t: I I I : 44) ‘drive out!’, rgm (18:2;
8 9 :3 ; 95:2) ‘speak!’; of q(i)til: tn = tin (49:11:12) ‘give, grant!’, 8t = Sit
('n t:III:12) ‘put!’; of q(i/a)tal: Ihm (52:6) ‘eat!’, pth (52:70) ‘open!’, rkb
(K1‫־‬t : 74) ‘ride!’, §ntc (51 :V : 121) ‘hear!’. The certain examples are limited
to the all-too-rare ‫ ע״א‬forms like sad (2 Aqht: V : 20) ‘ serve! ’.
The f. ends in -1 as in all the Semitic languages: %i (75 : 1 : 14, 19) ‘get
out!, di (126: V :49) ‘fly!’, li (127 : 2) ‘prevail!’.
The following shows that the m. pi. ending is -n:pr . wdu (1 A qht: 120)
‘flee and fly!’.
Since there is no -n in the following f. pi., it may be that Ugar. also pos-
sessed the suffix -a for the common gender pi. as in Acc.: 8mc ilht ktr[t] (77:11)
‘ hear, KdtaiAt goddesses! ’.
As in Heb. and Acc., -a may be attached to the m. sg .: 8a . ydk (Krt: 75)
‘lift thy hands!’, 8a . <jr (51 : VIII : 5 = 67 : V : 13-14) ‘lift the mountain!’.
The presence of the third radical -y may reflect -a in: npy (2 :4, 19, 20 etc.),
8ty(m) (51: IV : 35,36; 62 : 6) ‘drink! ’, tny (67 : I I : 9; 127:28; cn t: V I : 22) ‘ repeat,
tell! ’; contrast the imperatives without -y where -a has not been appended; cl .
l%r . [mg]dl (Krt: 73) ‘rise to the top of the tower!’, (51 : V : 80) w bn.bht.
ksp . whr$ (81) b h t. (hrm . iqnim ( = : 95-97) ‘and build houses of silver and
gold; houses of gems, lapis-lazuli! ’ (*).
9. 2 1. I m p e r a tiv e p lu s mc — The enclitic that may follow the im-
perative is mc: cms mf . ly . aliyn . bel (62 : 1 : 12) ‘load on for me, I pray, Aliyn
Ba'l! ’, 8me . mc (49 : V I: 23; 61 : V I : 4; 127 : 41; 2 A qht: VI : 16; 3 Aqht rev.:
23) ‘hear, I pray!’, ph me (128:111:28) ‘look, I pray!’, 8skn me (61:1:21).
9. 22. P a r t ic ip le — The participle of ‘active’ verbs (or, more precisely,
of qatala verbs) is presumably qatil- The part, of ‘statives’ is presumably
qatil- (or qatil-?) for the qatila class and qatul- for the qatula class. The part,
is inflected like the noun.
9. 23. A c t iv e P a r t ic ip le — The sg. part, is not as a rule orthogra-
phically distinguishable from the 3 sg. qatala. Thus qtl might stand for qatala as

(x) The positive force of al may be due to a common linguistic phenomenon; to wit, the use
of a negative question to imply a positive fa c t; e. g., ‘ is it not s o t ’ = ‘it is so ’. B y the same
token, bl ‘surely’ may conceivably be the negative bal; e. g., ‘ shall 1 not put a window?’ =
‘ I shall surely put a window ’.
(*) It is also conceivable that the forms with -y are ‫ל״י‬, while those without -y are ‫•ל״ו‬ *

— 77 —
9.24 VERBS A nOb . 38

well as qfttil-; similarly, qtlt, for qatalat as well as q&til(a)tr-. However, in ‫ל״א‬
verbs the distinction may be clear: (2 Aqht: I I : 19) ahd ydy . b§(20)krn . mc7nsy
Mbct yn (21) spu . ksmy . b t . bcl [mnt](22)y . bt . il . (h . ggy . bym . ti% (23) rh$ .
np9y . bym . rt ‘ a holder (Abidu) of my band in drunkenness, who carries me
when I am sated with wine; an eater (8&pi’u) of my offering in the house of
Ba'l, of my [portion] in the house of ’ll; a plasterer of my roof on the day
of mud; a washer of my clothes on the day o f ----- ’. That the first word is
part. + -m in nhtm . htk (52 : 43) is favored by the 11mmnnm . m{ . ydk (: 44)
both meaning ‘thy staff is lowered’.
Note also the following participles:
m. sg .: imh$ . mh§ . ahy (1 Aqht: 196) ‘I shall smite the smiter (m&bie-)
of my brother ’ (of.: 201 etc.), (67 : V I : 8) m tfny. lbcl . npl la(9)r§ ‘ we two came
upon Ba'l lying (n&pil-; cf. Deut. 2 1 : 1 etc.) on the ground’, (128 : I I : 26) ynq .
Z11&. a[Qrt (27) (*). td . hilt [ent] ‘ one who sucks (y&niq-) the milk of ’Atirat,
one who suckles (m^is-) the breasts of the Virgin 'Anat ’. I am inclined to see
participles in the following interesting passage: (62 : rev. 63) spr ilmlk Sbny (54)
Imd . atn . prln . rb (55) khnm rb . nqdm (56) iy.n q m d mlk ugr[t\ (57) adn
yrgb bel . trmn ‘ the scribe (s&pir-) is ’Il-malk the Sbn-ite; the student (*) (14mid-)
is Atn-prln, chief of the priests and chief of the “ herdsmen ” (*), the I '-ite ;
Nqmd is the king of Ugarit, master of Yrgb, lord of Irmn ’.
The following might be the f. sg. part. Abidat- as well as ,afcadat: a h d t.
plkh (61 : I I : 3) ‘(she) takes her spindle’.
m. pi.: ynqm (52:24, 61) ‘sucking’, erbm (52:26) ‘those that enter’,
gzzrn ‘ shearers ’.
f. pi.: (1 Aqht: 171) b{YI2)kyt ‘weeping women’.
9. 24. P a s s iv e P a r t ic ip le s — There may be two passive participles
for the simple conjugation.
(1) Perhaps mtrht ‘bride’ is matrftkat- (jy&), mihd (1155:6) ‘plated’ is
me’bdd- (< *rna’b&d-) and mdd ‘ beloved ’ is mftdftd- < *mawdM-. Similarly ni'ms
(see above § 9. 23) may be pass, ma'mds- ‘ loaded one ’ rather than act. (despite
that the latter gives a smoother English translation). Less likely is widr* ‘ the
sown’ such a pass. part.
(2) Heb. #‫ לטו‬suggests a pass, qat&i- («) part, in hrb l$t ‘ a sharpened sword
(f.); similarly, cf. Heb. ‫‘ ברקי‬blessed’ with brkt (1 Aqht: 194) = barftkat-1| mrrt

(J) Note that this part, is which agrees with the Heb. (‫ )מ^צץ‬vs. Arab. (e. g., )•
(‫ ף‬I. e., he who has learned the poem and dictated it to the scribe.
(,I Cf. the title of M esha: ‫ ל‬pi <herdsman ’ (2 Kg. 3:4).
(*) The h may well be reflected in the u of luk if wht. luk (1021:4) means ‘ and behold I
( = -i suffixed to ht) am sent ’.

— 78 —
A nOr. 38 VERBS 9. 25-28

(: 195) = marfirat-; f. pi.: (1122:1) tit mrkbt (2) §pyt bhr§ ‘ 8 chariots plated
(?ap&y&t-) with gold’. With negative 1&: ISbm (1003 : 8) ‘unmuzzled, unfettered’.
9. 25. I n f i n it iv e — In all the Semitic languages, notably Arabic, many
nouns may he regarded as infinitives. However, we limit ourselves here to
instances where the verbal force is still felt. We can distinguish two infini-
tives, construct and absolute, as in Heb.
9.26. C o n s tr u c t I n f i n i t i v e — In the following examples, it may
incidentally he noted that the const, inf. with ba- constitutes the equivalent
of a temporal clause: bnSi . enh . wtphn (51 : I I : 12) ‘upon lifting her eyes, she
saw’, (K1‫־‬t : 60) bbk . krt (61) 6dm* nemn . film (62) il ‘as Krt wept (baki); as
N'mn, lad of ’ll, shed tears ’, (Krt: 26) y"rb . bhdrh . ybky (27) bin . rgmm .
wydme ‘he enters his room, he weeps; while repeating (tani) words, he sheds
tears’. For this construction followed by cognate genitive participles, cf. (75 :
I I : 53) bskn . sknrn . bedn (54) ednm. Purpose is expressed by l + inf. in (127 : 11)
np§h. llhm . tpth (12) brlth.ltrm ‘ his desire she opens to eat; his appetite, to
dine’. We are also dealing with an inf. in crb §p§ (128: V : 18) ‘sunset’ =
Acc. erfib SamSi.
9. 27. A bsolute In fin itiv e — The abs. inf. (qat&lu) may precede or follow
the verb it emphasizes, as in Heb.: Skr tSkr (Krt: 97-98), mzl ymzl (Krt:
99-100), r$b . rtfbt = rag&bu ragibti (51 : IV : 33) ‘ thou (f.) art indeed hungry ’, fimu.
firait = gam&'u gami‘ti (51 : IV : 34) ‘ thou (f.) art indeed thirsty ’, ysp i. spu (121 :
I I : 10). As the last two examples show, the cognate inf. abs. ends in -n ; cf.
also, b t . k r t . bu . tbu (127 :3) ‘she enters the house of Krt’. When enclitic -m
is added,as in (1013:19) lakm (20) Uak = la*aku-ma *il'aku ‘I shall surely send’, mtm .
amt = m6tu-ma ‘am&tu (2 Aqht: V I : 38) ‘ I shall surely die ’ and brkm. ybrk (128: I I :
18) ‘ he verily blesses ’, the construction is one familiar from Old Babylonian (e. g., i-
ii-ru-um-ma i-fi-ir ‘ he surely took away ’) and Old Assyrian (e. g., kd-ba-tii-ma til-
kd-ba-at ‘thou shalt surely honor’); see J. Lewy, Orientalia 15 1946 410-5 (1).
9. 28. Im p erative U se of A bs. In f. — The abs. inf. may be used
instead of the imper. as in Heb.: d& . ahdh wy$q baph (56 : 9; 56 : 20) *mix (it)
together and pour (it) into his presence ’. With most verbs the abs. inf. is not
orthographically distinct from the imper. but y§q here (also in 66 : 5, 7; 66 : 22)
is definitely abs. inf. (the imper. is §g). It is therefore likely that other in-
structions in the hippological documents (texts 65, 56) are expressed by abs.
inf.; e. g., dk (above) and St (55 : 10) ‘put!’.

(*) This construction is probably the cine to the origin of the -umma added to Harrian loans
as well as native Acc. words, followed by forms of ep£§u, in the Nuza tablets; e. g., 8t-ru-um—
ma ep&u ‘to testify’ (for this and other examples, see Orientalia 7 1938 21-31). We may note,
at this juncture, Ugar. -m with the non-cognate abs. inf.: my bilm ydy mrf grim zbln (126:Y :
10-11, 14-16, 17-18, 20-21) 4Who among the gods can expel the sickness, exorcizing the disease f \

— 79 —
9 . 29-31 VERBS A nOr . 38

9.29. P a st U se of A bs. In f. — The abs. inf., heading the sentence


or preceded only by the simple conjunction, and followed by the subject, is
commonly used to express past time. (Translations using the historical present
should not obscure for the student the unmistakable pastness of the construe-
tion). E. g., a r k . yd (B2 :34) ‘ the penis became long ’ (since yd is f., ark
cannot be qatala; cf. § 9. 8), vfn bn . ilm . mt (49 : I I : 18) ‘and the god Mdt
replied’, w*n . r b t. atrt ym (49 : 1 : 25) ‘and the lady, ’A£ir(a)t of the sea, replied’
where *n is abs. inf. *an& (rather than 3 m. sg. of qtl). Note the construction
‘(«0 +) abs. inf. + independent nom. pro.’ to express specific action in past
time. It occurs repeatedly in 62 : 68 if.: wng§ . hm (52:68) ‘and the}7 met’,
w!}h hm (:69) ‘and they shouted’, ivpth hw (:70) ‘and he opened’ nfrb.hm
(:71) ‘and they entered’. Note also wtbe ank (1021:6) ‘and I departed’.
This construction occurs in Phoenician (passim in Azitwadd’s inscriptions from
Karatepe) and occasionally in 0. T .; e. g., ‫ אני‬naith (Ecc. 4 : 2) ‘and I praised ’,
‫( ונהםו*ןד היא‬Est. 9 : 1) ‘ and it was reversed ’, or (with noun as subject) ‫ח םםרים‬1‫זל‬£‫וני‬
(Est. 3:13) ‘ and documents were sent’. [I am inclined to attribute such Ug.
parallels that are restricted to late 0. T. books (for Ecc. and Est. are postexilic)
partly to the reunion of far-northern Jews with their Judeau coreligionists
during the Restoration. Some of those far-northerners had been settled by
Solomon in Phoenicia and Syria (2 Chron. 8 : 2- 6) and must have been stranded
there upon the collapse of the United Monarchy in the reign of Rehoboam.]
9. 30. Abs. Inf. w ith Same or D iffe ren t R oot — The abs. inf.
may also have the force of a finite verb in conjunction with a finite verb of
the same or a different root: (cn t : I I : 30) tht$b . bn . fhnm . ymh (31) - d t. dm .
d m r. y$q. Smn ‘ she slays ,twixt the 2 tables, shedding (yam&bu)----- the blood
of soldiery, pouring (ya§&qu) oil’, ('nt: I I : 20) tfr (21) k s a t.lm h r .fr tlhnt (22)
l$bim ‘she hurls chairs at the troops, hurling (ta'&ru) tables at the soldiers’.
9. 31. In tern a l P a ssiv e — It is likely that the internal passive of the
simple conj. was used more extensively in Ugar. than in Massoretic Heb.,
where it is vestigial; cf. y tn .b t.lb el.k ttm ('nt: V : 11) ‘let a house be given
(yfttan-) (*) to Ba'l like the gods ’, rgm . lil. ybl (62 : 52, 59) ‘ word to ’ll is brought
( = yftbal-) ’, (51 : Y : 104) ktlakn (105) fjlmm ‘when the lads were sent (tuPak&ni)’,
ylak(l) ktr.w hss (51 : V : 103) ‘K.-&-U. is sent’. However, the orthography
often allows the possibility of the N (see § 9. 32): (67 : V : 16) <8pr by(16)rdm .
(*) The passive ‫ כ[ל‬of this verb survives in Massoretic Heb.; cf. Lev. 11:38; Num. 26:54;
32:5, etc. Actually the passive ‫ לןל‬was common in biblical Heb. but wherever the consonantal
text allowed it, the Massoretes pointed it as ‫( נסעל‬or ‫) פ ע ל‬, under the influence of postbiblical
Heb., where passive ‫ כן ל‬does not exist. Accordingly, they could change ‫ יקטל‬to ‫ יקטל‬but not
‫ ימן‬to ‫ _ ע תן‬Of. § 9. 13.

— 80 —
A nOb . 38 YBBBS 9. 32 34

ar§ ‘ thou shalt be counted among those that go down into the earth lyrgrn .
laUyn brl (51: V : 74) ‘let it be told to Aliyn Bacl ’, (125 : 20) ikm . yrgm . bn il
(21) krt ‘How can Krt be called a son of ’l l? ’ (cf. 51 :V :74; 52: 12), ybn
&t. lbcl (51 : IV : 62) ‘ let a house be built for Ba'l fdb . km (51 : V : 108) ‘ let
a chair be set’, t§t. i£t. bbhtm (51 : V I : 22) ‘fire is set on the house(s)’.
9.32. Sym bols for the C on ju gation s — If we were to use the con.
ventional names of the Heb. (and Aram.) conjugations, many phonetic incon-
gruities might mislead the reader. We therefore employ a safer terminology
similar to that used by Ungnad and others for Accadian.
G = ground stem; ‫ קל‬.
Gt = G plus infixed -t-; ‫ )א(םתעל‬.
N = ‫ נפעל‬.
D = with doubled second radical; ‫ פעל‬.
tD = D with preformative t ; cf. ‫ ; התפעל‬note tdrq (2 Aqht: V : 1 1 )
‘tread, gait’ and other conceivably tD verbal nouns of the
jiis type, as suggested by Aistleitner, Biblica 22 1941 222.
R = reduplicated; ‫ פלפל‬.
L = with lengthened vowel (a) after first radical; cf. ‫לל‬1‫ ם‬.
§ = with preformative S; ‫ שפעל‬.
§t = § plus infixed -t-; ‫ המתפעל‬.
Other rare conjugations may turn up in the course of time. It would be
no surprise to find, for instance, Dt, tR and tL.
9. 33. Gt — qtl is not attested sc far. The prefix of yqtl is vocalized
with -i-; e. g., *m/b$ (cn t:III:43) ‘I shall fight’, (126: V : 25) [a\nk (26) ihtri
‘I shall work magic’. Gt is the reflexive of G and does not ordinarily take a
direct object. Note how the same verbs are Gt without acc. and G with acc.:
(Krt: 166) yr!th$ . wyadrn (157) yrh§ . ydh ‘he washes and rouges himself, he
washes his hands ’, ('nt: II : 5) whin . en t . tm(6)th§ . be7nq . tht$b . bn (7) qrytm
tmh§ . lim hp yfm] ‘ and behold 'Anat fights, violently slays the folk of the 2
cities, she smites the people of the sea-shore ’. Further examples of G t: (49:
V I: 24) ik . tmth(26)8 • • align . bel ‘ how canst thou fight with Aliyn Ba'l ? ’,
('nt: I I : 23) mid . tmth$n . w fn (24) lht$b . wthdy ‘ much she fights and beholds,
slays and looks’, cd . t§tf . tmth$ ('nt:II:29) ‘ till she is satisfied she fights’,
(68: 13) trtq$ bd Ifl km n£(14)r butffth (= : 20-21) ‘thou shalt swoop from the
hand of Ba'l, like an eagle from his fingers ’. The imper. takes a prothetic
vowel unless it is preceded by a vowel, as when the conjunctions wa- or pa-
are prefixed; contrast the two Gt imperatives in: i§tme . wtqtf udn (127:42)
‘ hear (iStami‫ )־‬and be alert (wattaqig) of ear! ’; cf. also pUbm (49 :1:2) without i.
9. 34. N — The existence of this conj. is evident upon comparing N tntkn .
udm'th (Krt: 28) ‘ his tears are shed ’ with G ytk . dm^h\ (1 Aqht : 82) ‘ hel

— 81 —

ll
9.35-36 VERBS A nOr. 38

sheds his tears’. Here N serves as the passive of the G and we have noted
other possible cases of this in §9. 31. In other verbs N has reflexive force as
often in Heb.: t[r]th$ . wtadm (K rt: 62) *thou shalt wash and rouge thyself’,
(49 : I I : 13) mh (14) larSn . Ibtlt. cnt what dost thou wish, 0 virgin 'Anat? ’ (*).
The problematic nkbd (1 :2) might conceivably be an N partic. = Heb. ‫נכבד‬
‘ honored ’.
9. 35. D — In the yqtl of D (as well as § and doubtless R and L), the
preformative is vocalized with a (not u as Arabic and Acc.) (*): abqt = *abaqqit-
(49 : IV : 44) ‘I (shall) seek’ (cf. Heb. ®,‫)אבק‬, aqrb (77 : 27) ‘I shall bring near ’
(cf. Heb. 8) ,( ‫ אקרב‬Aqht obv. : 21) arhp . an[k e]l (22) a qht‘ 1 shall soar over Aqht’(*)
(cf. Heb. ‫)ארחף‬, stfrthn . abkrn (128 : III :16) ‘I shall raise the youngest of them
to the status of first-born’, yhmS . rgm (126 : V : 17) ‘he says a 5th time’,
ySbe. rgm (126 : V : 20) ‘he says a 7th time’ (*).
There are unquestionably many examples of D but they are not often orthogra-
phically distinguishable from some other conjugations, notably G. While it is not
always safe to do so, inferences may he ventured on the basis of cognate usage.
The part, is quite distinct from G because of the preformative m -: tk l. nik\y =
takftlli mukalliya (1 Aqht: 202) ‘thou shalt destroy the destroyer’, mrtftm (51: III:
41) ‘sucklings’, f .: mmlat = mumalli'at-(Krt: 217, cf. 114) ‘the woman who fills’.
The vocalization of the D part, is provided by the syllabic spelling of
mnhm, as mmu-na-hi-mu (see sub nhm in Glossary).
9. 36. L — As in Heb., with ‫ ע״ו‬, ‫ ע״י‬and probably V'V verbs, L (active p&lil-
passive p&iai-) is quite likely used instead of D : (51: I I : 10) tfpp . f r . i l . dpid
(11) ttjzy . bny . bnwt ‘she exalts (ta«&pip-) TQr, god of mercy, she honors the
creator of creatures ’, (51 : IV : 38) hm .y d . i l mlk (39) yhssk(*). ahbt. fr . ifrrk
‘ if the love of ’ll, the king, moves thee; if the affection of I 6r arouses thee ’,
trmmn . hk[lm] (51: V :116) ‘they erect the palace(s)’, trmm . hklh (51 : V I : 17)
‘they erect his palace(s)’, (51: V : 72) b it. arzrn ykllnh (73) hm . b t . Ibnt.
tfm snh■‘as a house of cedars, let him finish it ; or as a house of bricks, let him
* raise it ’, tknn (1161:6, 9) ‘they shall establish’, ttpp . anhbm ('nt: IV : 89)
*hares leap ’; passive: xfrr (77 : 30) ‘ he is aroused ’; imper.: M(•) . rmm . M[Zw]
(51 : V : 114) ‘hurry, erect the palace(s)!’.
(x) The a precludes taking tadm, tarSn as G, since *‫־־‬a’ becomes -e*. For G, i is called for:
yifyd (49: V : 1) ‘ he seizes tispk (1 A qht: 66) ‘ may she gather thee tirlcm (52:33) ‘ may she be
long tiki (51: V I : 29) ‘ she eats
(*) Here Ugar. agrees with Heb•; for E[$b. ‫ אקטל‬does not reflect *u-, which should appear
in this position as ‫• א‬
(3) Of. n$rm. trbpn (3 Aqht obv.: 20) 4eagles soar \
(4) For numeral roots in D, cf. Gen. 41:34 and 1 Kg. 18:34•
(*) Of. (128:111:25) wtb88.atrt (26)ndrh 4and *Atirat remembers his vow(8)’.
(6) The laryngeal agrees with that in Eth. fc6sa as against Acc. b&u.

— 82 —
A n Or . 38 VERBS 9. 37*40

9. 37. P a ssiv e — The internal passive of L (less likely D) may occur


in ymnn (52 : 37) = yam&nan- ‘it is lowered ’, part, mmnnm (52 : 40) — mnm&nan-
(+ -m) ‘lowered’.
9. 38. § — The § is the regular conj. for expressing the causative. This
feature is peculiar to Ugar. among the known dialects of Canaan, However,
the matter resolves itself to a difference of proportion rather than of elements,
for the § exists on a limited scale in Heb. Though the -stem is the predo-
minant causative in Aram., the H-8tem (the norm in Heb.) occurs dialectally
(e. g. Biblical Aram.) and quite a few § causatives (some of which cannot pos-
sibly be borrowed from Acc.) are found. Northwest-Semitic contains all three
types as well as the Y-causative which is regular in Phoenician and sporadic
in Hebrew (see JKF 2 1951 50, 59; note also the unmistakable Y inf. in
2] ‫ ישיב ישיבני‬Sam. 16:8] and the possible one in 2] ‫ בעת יביא‬Chron. 24:11]).
Saqtala: §qrb (2 : 18) ‘ they sacrificed ’ (imper. also possible).
yaSaqtil-: y$$il (= yagaS’il-) (1023 : 5) (*), aSsprk ( = *agaspirnka) (2 Aqht: V I : 28)
‘I shall make thee count’, aShlk (‘n t : V : 32) ‘I shall cause to flow’, a$rb'
(2 Aqht: V : 3) ‘I fetch’, y&rb* (2 Aqht: V : 12-13) ‘he fetches’, (2 Aqht: I I : 32)
yWim (33) k£rt. wy^$\q . b n t. hi1 (34) snnt ‘he feeds the K6£ar&t and gives the
swallows, the daughters of shouting, to drink ’, tilhm tiSqy ilm (2 Aqht: V . 29)
*she gives the gods to eat and drink ’, (128 : IV : 17) elh . fch . Wrb (18) elh . t&rb.
qbyh ‘she causes his bulls to enter into his presence, into his presence she causes his
gazelles to enter ’, t§§hq (1017 : 5) ‘ she causes to laugh ’, ItMhm (127 : 49) ‘ thou dost
not feed’, Wrb (128:11:22) thou causest to enter’, tShfann (1 Aqht :151)
‘they cause him to wake up’; ItSSy (1001:5).
Saqtil: f. sg. (Saqtili): §lhm (2 Aqht: V : 19) ‘feed!’, §rhq (*nt:IV:84) ‘re*
move! ’. For other examples (m. as well as f.), taken from the weak verbs,
see also §§ 9. 48, 60, 52.
mugaqtil-: mSspdt (1 Aqht: 172) ‘ wailing women’, m$nq[t\ (128 : I I : 28) ‘wet*
nurses ’.
const, inf.: qdi . yuhdrn . $bcr (51 :IV :16) ‘Qd§ began to shine'. The
fem. name §*tqt (127 :2, 13) may be the § inf. f.
9. 39. St, in Biblical Heb. no less than in Ugar., is common with ffywy:
t§thwy (51: IV : 26) ‘ she prostrates herself’. The 2nd person of the yqtl displaces
the imper. of this verb: ('nt:VI:18) lpen . ki(r) (19) hbr . wql . t$th(20jwy .
wkbd hwt ‘ at the feet of K£r bow and bend, prostrate thyself and honor him ’.
Another St seems to occur in tStSh (1001 : 11).
9. 40. Other C au sative C o n ju g a tio n s? — There is no evidence for
an H-causative or ’-causative. Though the meaning is clearly causative in

(1l Heb. ‫ לי^איל‬suggests the meaning ‘he lends

— 83
9. 41-44 VERBS A nOr 38

amlkn (49:1:18) ‘I shall make him king’ and nmlk (49:1:20, 26) ‘we shall
make king’, the verbs might be D. The only example of a conceivable Y-
causative is wy$i (Krt: 100), since the meaning ‘ and he brings out ’ is favored
by the var. wybl (: 189). However, the possibility of a scribal error or of
another interpretation (‘and he goes out’, though unlikely, is conceivable vs.
the var. wybl) prevents us from positing the existence of a non-S-causative on
so little evidence.
9.41. R ed u p lica ted B ico n so n a n ta ls — Note the quadriconsonantals
of the R type: wykrkr (51: IV :29) ‘and he turns (yakarkir-)The following
might be inf. abs. as well as imper. (§ 9. 28): (55:4) ‘m ix!’.
9. 42. q tll — The only attested verb of the qtll class is *$hrr and even
it seems to be defective, being limited to the qtl aspect: (52:44) h i. c$ r. th rr.
liSt (45) w$hrrt. Iphmrn ‘ 10, the bird roasts on the fire and burns over the coals ’,
n r t. t'Zm. SpS. $hrrt (49 : I I : 24) ‘ the torch of the gods, §ap§, bums ’.
9.43. 4 D iffe r e n t C onsonants — Note the verbs with four dissimilar
consonants: (68: 22) yprsh ym (28) w yql. lar§ ‘ may Yamm collapse and fall to
the ground ’, (68 : 25) yprsh,. ym . yql (26) lar$ ‘ Yamm collapses, he falls to the
ground ’, (51:1: 34) k h t. i l . nht (35) . hdm il! (36) dprSa (dfi-parSa’a). bbr (37)
ncl i l . d . qblbl (1). Observe in passing that the last word is a quinqueconso-
nantal of the qtltl type.
9. 44. ‫פ״נ‬: n is assimilated to a following consonant: ypl (68: 6) ‘befalls
(yappul-)’, wySu . cnh (76 : I I : 13, 14) ‘and he lifts (yi&Sa'u) his eyes ’, Spthm . y£[g‫]׳‬
(52:49) ‘he kisses (yiSSaq-) their lips’, tdr (128:111:23) = G active tadduru
‘they had vowed’ or G passive tuddaru ‘they had been vowed’. For absence
* of n in imper. (e. g., Sa ‘lift’ in K rt:75), cf. § 5. 41.
G t: ytSi — yittafii’ (2 : 17, 26) ‘let it be carried’.
The presence of n shows that a vowel follows and reflects another couju*
gation like N or D.
D : (1 A qht: 70) yh[6g] (71) wynSq ‘he embraces and kisses’ (*), (49 : V I : 17)
yngfyn (18) krumm .m t.'z . Ifl (19) ez . yntkn . kblnm (20) mt .'z . bel . ez ‘ they gore
like buffaloes — M6t is strong, Ba'l is strong — they bite like serpents — M6t
is strong, Ba'l is strong’.
The N (or D ?) as well as the G of npc may occur in (1 Aqht: 66) yn p f.
bpalt. bsql yp* bytfl (66) ur. The G again occurs in (: 72) tpe baklt. Sblt. tp*[ ]

(x) Note that the second letter of prsly and pri* is r, suggesting that the parent language
possessed vocalic r. Cf. Acc., in which the quadriconsonantals have either r (p rid , etc.) or I (blJct,
etc.) after the first consonant. Instead of the conventional ipparSad/ibbalkat, it might be more
accurate to normalize IpprSad/ibbUcat. The same would hold for other Sem. languages including Ug.
(‫ נ שק )י‬is used in both G and D with the meaning ‘to k iss’ in Heb. as well as Ugar.

— 84 —
A n Ob . 38 VERBS 9. 45-48

(73) ur and (1 Aqht: 159) 8r8k . bar§ . al (160) yp*, (1 Aqht: 13) kape . il .
bgdrt . kl-l (14) h(h, ('nt : IV : 48) mnm . ib . yp‘ . lb*l . $rt . Irkb . *rpt (49)
[w]en . yimm . y*nyn . lib . ypc (50) lbel . $rt . Irkb . *rpt.
9. 45. ‫ — ל״נ‬As in Heb.(1), 3rd-radical n is not assimilated; e. g., ytnt (49 :
V I : 14) ‘ thou gavest’ mgntm (51 : I I I . 30) ‘have ye besought?’.
9. 46. Iqh — As in Heb. the l of / Iqh (K1‫־‬t: 159) ‘he took’ is assimilat*
ed as if it were n : (Krt: 203) hm . hry . bty (204) iqh ‘ if I may take (,iqqab-)
Hry to my house’, yqh ‘he takes’, tqh ‘she takes’. Also as in the ‫ ם״נ‬verbs
the l is absent in the imper.: qh ‘take (qab)!’.
9.47. ‫ם״א‬: G imper.: irS = ,iraS (2 Aqht :VI :17, 26) ‘request!’, pass. *
part, mihd (1155 : 6) ‘plated’ (me'bfid- < •ma'bM-); N (or D?) tarSn ‘thou (f.) dost
request’ (§ 9.34). In the Gt of ‫ פ״א‬verbs, in (,n t : 1 : 22) y tm r. bcl
(23) bnth ‘Ba'l sees his daughters’, but not in yitmr (137 :32) ‘he sees’.
9. 48. ‫ — פ״ו & ם״י‬Since initial w- becomes y-, ‫ פ*י‬falls together with ‫פ״ו‬
when the first radical heads the form. An exception is / topi ‘to spit’ (pro-
bably D), where the preservation of the w is perhaps to be ascribed to onoma-
topoeia: wptrn (51 : V I : 13) and cf. yqm . xoywptn (51 : III :13) ‘he arises and
spits'. Note also (128 : I I I : 20) wtqrb . wld bn Ih (21) wtqrb . wld . bnm Ih ‘and
she comes to term bearing him one son, and she comes to term bearing him
two sons ’, where wld may be the inf. abs. wal&d- (for the preservation of w- in
this root, cf. the noun ‫ ולד‬in Heb.). Ugar. does not have the shift (as does
often Heb. analogically: *©‫ )״‬when the w does not begin the word: wywsrnn
(127:26) ‘and they instruct him’ (D).
qtl .ytn t (49 : V I : 14) ‘thou gavest’ (*), lyrt (67:1:6) ‘mayest thou go
down’ (yaratta< •yaradta), yblt (51 : V : 89 ; 1021 : 1, 3) ‘I bring/brought’. Since
lym hnd ‘ from this day = from now on ’ governs the qtl (1006 : 1- 2), the verb
ytn (1008:4), introduced by lym hnd, must be yatana ‘he has given’. Note
also ybl (1135:7) ‘they have brought’.
yqtl: atn — ,atin- (Krt: 206) ‘ I shall give ’, abl = ’abil- (1001 : rev. 3) ‘ I
shall bring’, tld = talid- (77 : 5) ‘she bears’, trd (62 :1:8) ‘she descends’, id k .
lttn .p n m .* m — (49:1:4, IV : 31-32) ‘then she sets her face toward — ’,
(51: V III: 10) id k . a l . tin (11) pnm . tk . qrth ‘ then set face toward his city ’»
(1 Aqht: 16) ap.q8th.lttn (17) ly ‘thou shalt also give his bow to m e’, ('nt:
I I I : 23) abn . brq . dl td*. 8mm (24) rgm ltd*. n8m . wltbn (25) hm lt. ar$ ‘ I under-
stand lightning that the heavens do not know, a word that men do not know
and that the multitudes of the earth do not understand ’, td* (1012: 19) ' she

(') The correspondent of the exception in Heb., \/ ntn (e. g .,‫)נ ת ת‬, is not an exception in Ugar.
(*) In Ugar. and usually in Phoenician ( to give ’ is }/ ytn as against Heb. ‫•נ תן‬

— 85 —
9 .4 9 VERBS A nOr. 38

knows’, w[tti\Tn .wtldn mi (67 : V : 22) ‘and she conceived and bore a lad’, tldn
(52:52) *they (du.) bore’, nrd (62:1:7) ‘let us descend’.
A variety of forms such as the abs. inf. and the 3 m. sg. of the qtl, yqtl
and part, fall together in the orthography: (118:25) dybl.Hp8 (26) m lk .r b .
Vlh ‘which he brings to the Sun, the great king, his master’, ivybl. tr h . hdi
(Krt:189) ‘and the new bridegroom brings’ (1), (Krt: 79) wyrd (80) krt.lg g t.
edb (81) a k l. 1qryt ‘ and Krt goes down from the roof(s), he prepares food for the
town’ (*), U . ytn (Krt: 150) ‘ ’ll gives ’, ('nt: I I : 30) ymh (31) [ ]d<. dm dm,r . y$q .
8mn ‘shedding---- the blood of soldiery, pouring the oil’, mi. wSr . ytb (52:8)
‘Mt-w-Sr sits* (cf. 127 :23); cf. yblhm hr§ (51:1:38) ‘he brings them gold’.
The first radical is absent in the im per.: in = tin (77 :1 7 ; K r t : 143) ‘ g iv e !’,
lord . bt hpit ar§ (51 : V I I I : 7-8; 67 : V : 14-15) ‘and go down (rid) to the in•
firmary of the e a rth !’ ; f. s g . : ?t ( 7 5 :1 :1 4 , 19) ‘get o u t! ’ ;m . pi.: tb — tibu
(126 : V :24) ‘s i t ! ’ (*)
G t: ('nt : III : 43) t’7nth$ w (44) itrt . hr$ ‘ I shall fight and get me
(,ittaritc^'iwtarit) gold’. Imper. without prothetic i- (because of sandhi) when
preceded by wa-: wtqfj = wattaqig (127 :30, 42) ‘and be alert!’.
S : qtl : 8rd = Sdrada (Krt: 169) ‘he presented (with offerings)(4) ’, =
S6ga*a (1121: 10) ‘he brought out’; yqtl: y$$i (128: V: 24) ‘he will bring forth
(ya§6?i*) ’, y bn . aSld Su (52 : 65) ‘ 0 sons (that) I begot (*a§61id-), lift up! ’; imper.:
8rd = Sdrid (Krt: 77) ‘present (with offerings)! ’; part.: m8$u . q(rh (2 Aqht: I :
28, 46) ‘one who brings out (muSdgi’a) his incense’; passive yqtl: (51 :V : 109)
wytib . lymn . aliyn (110) bel ‘ and he is seated (yatfitab-) at the right of Aliyn Ba'l ’.
9. 49. ‘‫ — ’ם״ה‬As in Heb. ‫ י ״לו‬the h of fhlk is absent in the G yqtl and
imper. so that in these forms (and Gt) the verb is to all intents and purposes
treated like ‫)*( ם״י‬. While f him lacks the h in the yqtl, it has it in the imper.
yqtl: ytm t. dlt tlk (1001: 22, 24) ‘ the poor fatherless girl goes ’, tlkm .
rhmy (52 : 16) *Rhmy goes (taliku-ma) ’, ylk ym . win (Krt: 207) ‘ they go (yaliku)
a day and a second’, (49 : I I I : 12) 8mm . 8mn . tm(rn (13) nhlm . tlk . nbtm ‘the
heavens rain oil, the wadies run with honey ’; (68 : 24) ylm . qdqd . zbl (25) [ym]

0 ) Quite likely ybl is yqtl because it is paralleled by the causative yqi (K rt: 100), which is
yqtl (§ 9. 40).
(*) Since 'db is not yqtl, perhaps yrd is not (yet see § 9.4, n. 2).
(‫ )וי‬Unless £0b& ‘return!’ is intended. Forms of ytb and ft twb are often indistinguishable
in the orthography and equally conceivable in the context. Thus (126: V : 24) fh . bny. lmtb[t]km
(25) Ikfyt . zblk[m\ *sit/retnrn, my sons, on/to your seats/abodes, on/to the thrones of your
lordships! ’, watb. Intbt (1001: rev. 7) ‘ I shall sit/return by/to the paths ’, ytb (1002:37).
(4) As G. D . Young informs me, the meaning and conjugation correspond with those of
* (s) Otherwise, h is present; e. g., hlkt (8 -j-31:5) ‘ she w ent’, afhlk(ent:V : 32) ‘I shall make
go ’ (contrast Heb. ‫) אן׳ליך‬.

— 86 —
A nOr. 38 VERBS 9. 50

bn . enm . tpt • nhr ‘ it strikes the pate of Prince Sea, ’twixt the eyes of Judge
River’ (cf. :16-17); ylm . b[n e]nk . $mdm (1001:16) ‘strikes ’twixt thine eyes
with a clu b -------
passive: ytn (1107 : 8) = y(itan- ‘ it shall be given ’.
imper.: I k .'m .k r t (Krt: 124) ‘go (Hka) to Krt!’ (and I k . Ipny ‘go before
me!’ in 1001 :10) but (68: 14) hlm .ktp zb l.ym bn ydm (15) [tp\t nhr ‘strike
the shoulders of Prince Sea, ’twixt the hands of Judge River’ (cf. :21-22).
Gt: bel ylk wy$d (75 : 1 : 34) ‘Ba'l goes and hunts', ttlk (67 : V I . 26) ‘she
goes’.
9.50. H o llo w verbs (‫ע״ו‬,‫ — )ע״י‬qtl :bat (1 Aqht : 213, 214) = b&’at
‘she came’, M>.& = waSatta (l) (54:18) ‘and thou shalt place’, nht (95:14)
‘I rested’, St (51 :IV : 10) ‘he set’.
yqtl, YV (*): wykn . bnh . bbt (2 Aqht: 1 : 26) ‘ and may a son of his be (yaknn)
in the house’, tqm (1001 : rev. 9) ‘she rises’, hlh.trm (52:32) ‘ 10 they rise
(tarftma)’, (49 : V I: 12) ytb . cm . bel . $rrt (13) §pn ‘he returns to the lord of the
heights of Sap&n’ (cf. 127 : 25).
yqtl, ‫ע״י‬: aSr ■= ,afiira (77:1, 40) ‘I sing’, yb d . ivySr (2 Aqht: V I : 31) 'he
chants and sings ’, h lk . ahth . bcl . ifn (en t: IV : 83) ‘ Ba'l eyes his sister’s going ’,
ySt m$b . mznrn (77 : 34) ‘he sets the beam of the scales’, fyrb . tSt. b1?r[t] (1 Aqht :
207) ‘ the sword she puts in the scabbard’, Udn . dn . almnt (127 : 33) ‘thou dost
not judge (tadiuu) the case of the widow’, (52 : 32) hlh .t$h .ad ad (33) whlh .
u m .u m ‘ 10 they cry (tasifca) “ father, father” and behold they cry “ mother,
mother'‫’ ׳‬, a#hkm (122 : 2) = ash • km (123 : 9) ‘I invite/call you’ (cf. 123 :19).
yqtl, a-class: yark = yi'ar-ki (77 : 39) ‘may he illuminate thee’; indie. yF&ru.
part.: (76 : I I : 24) n fn bar§ iby (25) w tfp r. qm . ahk ‘we shall plant mine
enemies in the earth, yea in the dust those that rise against (q&mi) thy brother *;
stative: m t. cdiyn bcl (67 : V I : 9) ‘dead is Aliyn Ba'l‫( ׳‬cf.: 23 ; 1 Aqht: 91) (*);
cf. nr (117 : 18 ; 1015 : 9) ‘shines’.
const, inf., bep = baefipi (76 : I I : 23) ‘in flight’,
The imper., inf. and 3 m. sg. qtl and part, fall together orthographically.
The context provides the clue or at least limits the possibilities; thus qtl in

(‫ ף‬The imper. and abs. inf. are also possibilities (§ 9. 28).


(2) The to is preserved in the (DT) form ktgwln . 8ntk (1001:4) ‘ when (f) thy. teeth speak (f)!
|| tn pic.
(*) mt mayalso be qtl, in which case the formation wonld be the same except for the short
vocalic ending -a ; cf. Heb. 3 = ‫ מ ת‬in. 8g. qtl or m. 8g. part. We may note that the $ere here
is retained like naturally long vowels under conditions when short vowels are reduced to Swa;
contrast ‫( מתי מלח מ ה‬Is. 22:2) ‘the dead of war ‫ י‬with ‫* < ( מתי םס©ר‬mutay-maspari) (Gen. 34:30)
T * J ....................... » : * • * :

‘ (lit.) men of number = few men ’. Was there a long g distinct from both i, on the one hand,
and the £ reduced from *ay, on the other 1

— 87 —
9. 51‫־‬52 VERBS A nOr. 38

('nt : IV : 85) S t. alp . qdmh . mria . wtk (86) pnh ‘he placed ( = S&ta) an ox
before her, a fatling even in front of her’. It has been pointed out (§ 9. 28)
that St ‘place!' is more likely abs. inf. than imper. in 65 : 8 ; 56 : 18, 19. Either
is possible in $h ngr U (126 : IV :4) ‘call the carpenter god!’.
G t: yitn — yattin- (55 : 8) ‘he urinates’(1).
For examples of L, which displaces D, see § 9. 36.
§: hn . ibm . S$q (1012 : 27) ‘behold the enemy exerts pressure (&a$iq-) ‫ ; ׳‬rgm .
tt$b (89: 14) ‘may she return (tatatib) word/report‫ ; ׳‬rgm. Mb (96: 17 ;117 : 13)
‘return (f. sg. tatibi) word!’. The S preformative becomes t in all forms in
which the first strong consonant of the root is t.
9. 61. ‫ — ליו‬It is not unlikely that ‫ ל״ו‬is kept distinct from ‫ליי‬ in Ugar.
to a greater extent than in most of the Semitic dialects. Note particularly
the 3 f. sg. qtl: atwt = *atawat (61 :IV :32) ‘she came’. It is risky to gene-
ralize from aSlw (Krt: 149) ‘let me repose ’ because the w is atypically preserv-
ed in this root in Heb. as in ‫( עליתי‬Job 3 : 26), adj. ‫ ע ל י‬, noun ‫ ע לי ה‬. How-
ever, observe also the jussive tdu = tad’u in (1 Aqht: 133) hrgb (134) tp r . wtdu
‘ Hrgb, mayest thou flee and fly! ’. Yet we may suspect that ‫ ליו‬is to some
extent treated like ‫ליי‬.
9.52. I n fle c tio n of ‫ — ליי‬The forms of the ‫ ליי‬verb are:
q tl: pdy (1006 : 2) ‘ he redeemed (padaya) ‫ ׳‬, clt (1001 : 9) ‘ she went up («alat) ‫ ׳‬,
bnt (61 : V I : 36) ‘I built (banfiti)’, mfit (49 : I I : 19) ‘I came’, tnt (68:8) ‘I declared
(tanfitl)’, Q%tm (51 : III :31) ‘ye entreated (ga?6tum-) ‫ ; ׳‬stative (qatila): Stt (51 : I I I :
14) ‘I drank (Satiti)’; passive: 3 f. pi. $py (1122:6) ‘they have been plated
(?upiya) ’.
Contrast abs. inf. (directly before subject) *9.29§) ‫) מ‬, with qatala (after
subject) ely (51:1:24; K rt: 166) and perhaps cny{h) in 126 : V : 13, 22. Yet
note also: (2 : 27) wnpy gr (28) h m y t. ugrt, ed . Ihm . Sty ilm (51 :V I: 65) ‘until
the gods ate (and) drank’, m$y rpum . Igrnt (121 : 1 1 : 6) ‘the r. arrive at the
threshing floors’ (cf. 128 : I I : 11), and m$y . hy (1002 : 42) ‘she arrived’ (which
can only be abs. inf. because of the f. subject); with pro. suff.: npynh (51: I I : 5).
In the yqtl, the last radical is preserved as y only when it is followed by
a vowel (*).
yqtl with -y: wxfny . krt (126:24) ‘and Krt answers’, (Krt: 210) ymtfy
. ludm . rbt . (2 11) wudm [tr\rt ‘he reaches Great Udm and Little Udm', k r t.
kybky (Krt: 39) ‘ Krt weeps ’, (49 : 1 : 32) riSh . lym&y (33) apsh ‘his head does

(‫ )י‬For the root / tyn, cf. the Ktib 2) ‫ שיניהם‬Kg. 18: 27,18.36:12). This Gt has been trans-
formed into a secondary root 1‫ שתן‬and is treated as ‫ ;הפעיל‬thus the p art.1) ‫ משתין‬Sam 25 : 22,34).
(*) Bat not necessarily even then: e. g., t‘ln . Imrkbthm(121: I I : 4) ‘ they mount their chariots’.
Cf. Heb. (‫ יעא)ן‬and Acc. ilh (preterite) and ilia (present).

— 88 —
A nOr. 38 VERBS 9.52

not reach its t o p y!jly (1 Aqth : 31), y$ly . erpt (1 Aqht: 39), tbky . ptft (1 Aqht :
34) ‘Pgt weeps’, (49 :1:6) tgly , dd (7) il wtbu qr§ (8) mlk ab . 8nm (cf. 2 Aqht:
V I : 48-49) ‘ she leaves t h e ---- of ’ll and comes into t h e --------of the king,
father of Snm ’, (cn t: I I : 24) wthdy *nt (25) ttjdd . kbdh . b$hq . ymlu (26) Ibh . M m ht.
kbd . *nt (27) t$yt ‘ And cAnat beholds, she swells her liver with laughter, her
heart is filled with joy, for in ‘Anat’s hands is victory ’, (Krt: 108) wtmtfy . ludm
(109) rbt! . w l . udm . irrt ‘and thou shalt go to Great Udm and Little Udm’,
(49 :1:31) pcnh . Itmtfyn (32) hdm ‘his feet do not reach the footstool’, Uty .
krp[nm y]n (51: V I : 58) ‘they drink wine from a goblet’, (cn t:III:2 5 ) a tm .
wank{26) ibtfyh ‘come and I shall show i t ’, iStynh (51:111:16) ‘I drank i t ’,
(49 : I I : 32) tdry{33)nn ‘ she scatters him ’.
yqtl without -y: %fl . b$rrt. $pn (49 : 1 : 29) ‘ he goes up into the heights
of £*>ap<in’, (1 Aqht :176) ‘d (177) m . §nt . ybk taq{178)ht ‘until the 7th
year he weeps for Aqht’, wyfn (77:23-24) ‘and he says’, ym$ . Iq rt. ablm
(1 Aqht: 163) ‘ he reaches the City of Mourners ’ (cf. 128 : Y : 18), wyb.d (1 Aqht:
130, 144) ‘and he looks’, wlen (49 :1:19; 61: I I I : 27; 1 Aqht: 190) ‘and she
replies’, wtfl (76 : I I I : 30) ‘and she goes up’, t§t . kyn . udmet (62 : 1 : 10) ‘she
drinks tears like wine’.
imper.: m. sg .: *l (Krt :73, 74) ‘rise!’; f. sg .: atf = ’at1 (*nt pi. ix : I I I :
16) ‘come!’ 11atm = *atima (cn t:III: 25), m!j . lq<U . amrr (cn t : V I : ll) ‘go,
0 QdS-(w-)A mrr! ’; m. pi.: du = d(a)*fi (1 Aqht: 120) ‘fly’.
part.: m. sg.: bny . bnwt (61:111:32) ‘creator of creatures’, mlk . bny
(1007 : 7) ‘the king who builds’, r*y ‘shepherd’; f. sg.: q n y t. dm (61 : I I I : 30)
‘creatress of the gods’; m. pi : &qym (1092:8), r*ym (1098:44) ‘shepherds’;
f. pi.: bkyt (1 Aqht: 171-172, 183), ‘weeping women’; passive: $py (?aptty-)
‘plated’ occurs as m. du./pl. §pym and f. pi. $pyt in 1122:2, 4.
Const, inf.: bbk = ba-baki (Krt : 60) ‘in weeping’, bin = ba-tani (Krt:
27) ‘in repeating’ and perhaps wkmtf . dm (1001 : rev. 12) ‘ and as the gods
arrive’; with poss. sufi.: bm bkyh = bama bakyihfi (K rt: 31) ‘in his weeping’.
The -y is kept also in llfim Uty $htkm (128 :IV :27, V : 10, V I : 4) ‘I have
called you to eat (and) to drink (la-fiatyi?)’ and wb . ely skn . ydc . rgmh (10 2 1: 8)
‘and when the steward goes up, he will know his word’.
probably D : yaqattilu/a: tkly (67 :1:2) ‘thou destroyest’, Ukly (49 : I I : 36),
ySqy . bn qdS (2 Aqht: 1 : 14) ‘he gives the sons of holiness ( = gods) to drink’;
yaqattil: (67 : V I: 16) yks (17) mizrtm ‘he covers (yakassi) with a (doubled) mantle’;
part, mkly = mukalliy- (1 Aqht: 202) ‘destroyer’,
§: In the dedicatory inscriptions dicly(t) means ‘ which So-and-so has
erected ’: (69 : 1) skn . dJflyt (2) tr y l . Idgn . pgr (3) [£] walp laid and (70 : 1)
pgr . d$°ly (2) *zn . Idgn belh (3) [£ wa]lp . bmhrt. In the following SSqy is
probably abs. inf. with imper. force (§ 9. 28) because it is addressed to a woman

— 89 —
12
9. 53-54 VERBS A nOr. 38

and the -y cannot well be explained as due to the addition of -I (which, to


judge from Heb. and Acc., is not attached after -1 of the f. sg. imper.): (2 Aqht:
V : 19) Slhm . Mqy (20) ilm ‘ give the gods to eat and drink!
9. 53. V'V — The data on V’V verbs are all too sparse and no one root is
so far attested as both yql (cf. indie, and subjunc. j£j) and yqll (cf. juss. >j£j).
qtl: nf(t (1001: 9) *she leaped ’ occurs in the sentence riftt. um . *I t . baby
(1001 :9) ‘my mother leaped, she went up against my father’.
yqll: (1. yfll (1 Aqht: 41) ‘the dew (that) falls’, h i . e$r . thrr . liitt (52 :
44) ‘ 10 the bird roasts on the fire ’, (°nt: I I : 27) kbrkm tfill bdm (28) dmr . hlqm .
bmme . mhrm ( ||: 13-15) ‘for to the knees she wades in the blood of soldiery
to the neck in the gore of troops ’, ym<j . Imrrt tfill. bnr (1 Aqht: 156), (1 Aqht:
157) ylk . mrrt (158) ttfll . bnr\ k . ypdd . mlbi (1106 : 58, 60) ‘when the gar-
ment wears out’.
yq l: ygz (1153:5) ‘he shears’; tpr (1 Aqht:134) ‘mayest thou flee’.
yfynnn (76:1 : 12) ‘he shows him favor’ may be G yafcunn- plus acc.-nn
(less likely yafcuun plus acc. -») or L yab&nin- plus acc. -n.
part.: gzzm ‘shearers’.
imper.: pr . wdu (1 Aqht:120) ‘flee (m. pi. purru) and fly!’; with acc.
-n y (l) : hnny (1020:3) Heb. ‫‘ הנני‬favor me’.
inf.: brnk (1001 : 5) = ba-runni-ka ‘ in thy shouting ’= ‘ when thou shoutest ’.
D yqtl: arnn (1001 : 6) = *arannin- ‘I shall shout’.
§ qtl : m (1 1 2 2 : 8).
9.54. h { w f y ) y G & D and h wy St. — The doubly weak verb‘to
live’ is somewhat problematic for it seems to occur as f hwy and ]/ *hyy (cf.
the similarly treated verb in Heb.: ‫ היה‬or ■ ‫‘ הוד‬to be’). It is possible that
these seeming variants are identical, the w being assimilated to the y, when
they are not separated by a vowel.
yaqtal: yh is more likely yafcu (< •yabw) than *yatri (cf. Heb. ‫)יחי‬: §ph .
l(pn . lyh (125:23) ‘shall not the offspring of Ltpn live?’, (2 Aqht: 1 :37)
npS . yh . dnil (38) [mt rp]i b rlt. @zr . mt hrnmy ‘by my soul may Dnil, man
of rp\ live; by my life, the hero, man of hrnmy ’ and (in broken context) y h .
mlk (26 : 9). The f. th may appear in wth . fbt (1001 : rev. 4) ‘and long live
goodness! ’.
qtl: h w t. aht (76:11:20) ‘mayest thou live (baw€t!)(*), (0) my sister’,
part.: hy . aliyn Ifl (49 : I I I : 8, 20) 4Aliyn Ba'l is alive (b»yy-) ’.

(x) As shown by the gen. -y in r*y and ly (line 5), acc. -ny is 1 sg. (not da.) here.
(*) Used as a greeting. When it heads the sentence, qtl frequently lias optative force in
Arabio.

— 90 —
A nOb . 38 VERBS 9. 55-61

D : (2 Aqht: V I : 82) ap a!nk . ahwy (88) aqh[t] ‘ I would even immor-


talize (,ftfcawwiyu) Aqht’, (1 Aqht: 15) hwt (16) l . ahw ‘him would I not have
kept alive (,abawwi)?’. Cf. also ahw (1001:19).
St: see § 9. 39. For the root of yUhwy ‘he bows down’, see hwy in
the Glossary.
9. 55. f y r y — Note yqtl in : yr §mmh . yr . Mmm (52 : 38) ‘ he shoots
heavenward, he shoots into the heavens’.
9. 56. }/ ndd : ydd (76 : I I : 17) ‘he wanders/strides’.
9. 57. f wdy(?) : (51 : VI : 32) td . iU (33) bbhtm ‘the fire departs from the
house(s) ’; cf. <£>5 •
9. 68. / twy : (127 : 43) k§z . §zm . tdbr (44) wtfrm ttwy.
9. 59. fU dy : ydy (126 : V : 18, 21) ‘he will drive out’, ltdy (127 : 47) ‘thou
dost not drive out’.
9. 60. p h — The root of ph ‘see! ’ (128 : I I I : 28) has not yet been deter-
mined to general satisfaction. Forms like the following are inconclusive: him.
ahh . tph (125 : 53) ‘as soon as she sees her brother’, him . en t . tph (cn t : I I I : 29)
‘as soon as ‘Anat sees’, pht (49 : V : 12, 14) ‘I have seen’, bnM ‫״‬nh wiphn
(1 Aqht:76, cf. : 29) ‘on raising her eyes, she sees’, him . U . kyphnh (51 :
IV : 27) ‘as soon as ’ll see her’. A new approach has been proposed to me
by Mr. Anson Rainey, who compares phy occurring in 118:15 in connection
with Niqmad’s tribute to Suppiluliuma, with PRU IV (p. 41 lines 16 ff.) where
Suppiluliuma has seen (i-ta-mar-ma) the loyalty of Niqmad in terms of the
latter’s tribute (lines 21- 22). This collocation of passages prompts the equa•
tion phy = am&ru *to see’ so that the root of the Ugaritic verb would be phy.
9. 61. M otion to or from — ‘Motion to ’, is often expressed without
a preposition: bth.ymfiyn (2 Aqht: I I : 24) ‘he goes to his house’, wtbu . qrS
(49 :1:7) ‘and she enters t h e ------’, (49 : 1 : 31) pcnh . Itmjjyn (32) hdm riSh .
lymtfy (33) apsh ‘his feet do not reach the footstool, his head does not reach
its top’.
crb may be followed by b : \frb . bhdrh (Krt: 26) *he enters his chamber ‫׳‬
(cf. 2 Aqht: I I : 26). But note the absence of the preposition in (Krt: 204)
a&rb . <}lmt (205) hzry ‘ I may cause the girl to enter my court ’.
‘Motion from ’ followed by preposition : (Krt: 79) wyrd (80) k r t. 1ggt ‘and
Krt descends from the roof’; further examples in §§ 10. 5, 1 1 .

— 91 —
10.1 PREPOSITIONS AnOr . 38

CHAPTER X

PREPOSITIONS

10. 1. bfl ‘ fro m ’ — The most interesting feature of Ugar. prepositions


is the meaning ‘ from ’ for both b and l (1). The ambiguity of b and l is trouble*
some in reading Ugar.: b is either ‘in(to), by, with’ or ‘from’, while l is either
‘to, for’ or ‘from’. However, even in the 0. T., Heb. la- and ba- sometimes
mean ‘from’. Note ‫* ל‬from’ in: ‫( לא ימנע־טוב להלכים בתמים‬Ps. 84:12) ‘he will
not withhold good from! (*) those who walk in perfection ’; 2) ‫ אל־תעצד־לי לרכב‬Kg.
4 :2 4 ) ‘don’t prevent me from! riding’ (vs. ‫‘ עצרני יחוד! מלדת‬Yahwe prevented
me from bearing’ in Gen. 16 : 2 with -‫( לשבט ;)ם‬Josh. 8 : 12)'= ‫( משבט‬Josh. 4 :
2, 4); 2) ‫ השיב את־דמשק ואת־חמת ליהודה בישראל‬Kg. 14:28) ‘he (Jeroboam II) restor-
ed Damascus and Hamath from! Judah (== Sam’a l!) into Israel’ (*). Students
have called my attention to other examples: ‫( ובא לציון נואל‬Is. 5 9 :20) = fj|e1
ex Sidiv 6 Quofievog (Rom. 11:26) (W. B. Wallis); ‫ למבול ישב ו»שב יהוד■ מלך למולם‬.‫יהוד‬
(Ps. 29 : 10) ‘ Yahwe has been enthroned from! the flood, yea Yahwe has been
enthroned as king from! eternity’ (M. G. Kline); similarly ‫ אל‬in ‫לשבר אל־יומף‬
(Gen. 41 :57) ‘to get provisions from! Joseph’ (M. Petruck). Examples of ‫ב‬
‘from’ are not uncommon: 1) ‫ ומיד־מי לקחתי כפר ואמלים עיני בו‬Sam. 1 2 : 8) ‘and
from whose hand have I taken a bribe so that I have to hide my eyes from!
him?’ (i. e. ‘so that I can’t look him straight in the eye’), as is proved by
‫( אעלים עיני מכם‬Is. 1:15); ‫( בעבר הירדן ימה‬Josh. 5 :1 ; 12:7) ‘from! Transjordan to
the sea’, ‫( באדם‬Josh. 8 : 16; i. e., Qre = 2) ‫)מאדם‬, ‫ במלך‬Kg. 23 : 33; i. e., Qre =
‫( ירעם בשמים ;)ממלך‬Ps. 18:14) = 2) ‫ ירעם מן־שמים‬Sam. 22 : 14); ‫לקחת מתנות באדם‬
(Ps. 68:19) ‘Thou hast taken gifts from! mankind’; ‫לססתי ברכבי פרעה דמיתיך רעיתי‬
(Cant. 1:9) ‘I liken thee, 0 my darling, to my mare from the stud of Pha*
raoh’, 2) ‫ בשער אפרים עד־שער הסנה‬Kg. 14 : 13) ‘from the Gate of Ephraim unto
the Gate of the Corner’, and possibly (though the text is difficult as the im*
mediate sequel shows) 1) ‫ מן־השלושה בשנים נכבד ויהי להם לשר‬Chron. 11 : 21) ‘of the

(‫ )י‬to ‘from' has not yet occurred in the poetry, and is so far attested only once in the
prose: (1015:10) wum (11) timfi . mab ‘and may Mother derive pleasure from Father’; cf. (with
Virolleaud) ‫( ושמח מא שת נעוריך‬Proverbs 5:18) ‘and derive pleasure from the wife of thy youth’.
(*) Normally ‫ מנע‬is followed by ‫ ‘ מן‬from ’ (Gen. 30:2 etc.).
(*) For the historic context, see C. H. Gordon, The World of the Old Testament, Doubleday
(Garden City, N. Y.), 1958, p. 219.

— 92 —
AnOb . 38 PREPOSITIONS 10. 2-4

three, he was more honored than [‫ ב‬vs. normal ‫ ]! מן‬the (other) two, and became
their c h ie f’ ; note ‫ ם = ב‬in ‫( קמתי מתעניתי ובקרעי בגדי‬Ezra 9 : 5 ) ‘ I rose from m y
fasting and from! m y rending my g a rm en t’ ; th e am biguity o f ba- ‘ fro m ’ or
‘ i n ’ in Canaan explains Am arna *stu ‘ i n ! ’ as in (Amarna 1 3 6 :8 4 ) i d - d u - v l
bitu U - tu (35) p a - n i - i a ‘ th e house was shut i n ! m y face ’ ; note also Aram . ‫ב‬
‘ fr o m !’ ( O r ie n ta lia 20 1951 507). Other exam ples o f ‫ ל‬and ‫ ‘ ב‬fr o m !’ in Heb.
are to be found in U H § 10. 1. T h at a preposition m ay serve as both ‘ i n ’
and ‘ from ’ is common in E g y p to -S e m itic ; cf. A cc. ina ‘ in, fro m ’ and m
‘ in. from ’. A s for la- ‘ from ’, note N eo-B abylonian la-qat6 — i§tu q&te ‘ from
the h a n d s’.
10. 2. P r e p o s i t i o n s + - m — Often ba ‘ i n ’ and ka ‘ lik e ’ and occasion*
ally la ‘ to, fo r ’ take enclitic ma-: exam ples in §§ 10. 4, 9, 10. T his is match-
ed in Heb. where the sam e prepositions appear as ‫ ב‬or ‫במו‬, ‫ כ‬or ‫( כמו‬cf. U*;
E th. h‫ ״ ״‬, never w ithout -ma) and ‫ ל‬or ‫ •למו‬Cf. § 10. 14 for em + - m .
1 0 .3 . T e m p o r a l a h r — P ossib ly a h r = ’a&r(6) ‘ a fte r ’ in a h r 8p$m
( K r t : 209 = : 195-196) ‘ after sunrise ’.
1 0 .4 . b ‘in , w i t h ’ & O t h e r U s e s F a m i l i a r fr o m H e b . — ba has a
variety of uses th at are closely paralleled, for the m ost part, in H e b .:
‘ (with)in ’ : tbcl n . b . u g r t (1024 : rev. 8) ‘ they (w ill) work in U garit ’, (77 :
45) h n b p y s p (4 S )r h n ‘ 10 in m y m outh is their c o u n tin g ’, b i r t . l b n n (1 2 4 :2 5 )
‘ in th e heart o f Lebanon ’, (1 A q h t : 34) tb k y . p $ t . bin . lb (35) td m f . b m . k b d
‘ P g t cries w ithin (her) heart, sheds tears w ithin (her) liv e r ’, ( 1 2 8 :1 1 :1 6 ) il .
k s . y i h d (17) [b]yd . k r p n . b m (18) [ym n] ‘ *II takes a cup in the hand, a goblet
in the right h a n d ’, (1 A q ht :216) k s . b d y . q b ' t . b y m n y ‘ the cup in m y hand,
the goblet in m y righ t hand ’, M . b d . y § n . h r§ (300 : 3) ‘ a field in the hand(s)
o f Y ., the artisan ’ ; cf. 51 : V I I : 17, 26; 67 : V : 18-19; 75 : 1 : 1 2 -1 3 ; 116 : 2;
1 A q h t: 147, 159. A common use o f b d ‘ in the hand(s) o f ’ in the administra*
tiv e lists is ‘ under the supervision o f ’ ; e. g., 8bc . I m d m . b d . s u m (1050 : 3)
‘ 7 apprentices under the supervision of S in a ra n ’ (sim ilarly 1051 :3 , 4 ; 1052 :
1 -9 ; 1076 : 1).
‘ (up)on’ : y m h s b k tp (4 9 : V : 2) ‘ he sm ites on th e sh ou ld er’, b g r n . y h r b
[ ] (1 A qht :30) ‘ on the threshing floor it d r ie s ( 1), b n tb . p & (2 A q ht :V I :4 3 )
‘ on th e path o f sin ’ 11 b n tb . g a n ‘ on the path of pride ’ (*). R elated to th is
m eaning is b ‘ against ’ as in clt b a b y (1001 : 9) ‘ she w ent up against m y father ’,
* I t .b k (1001: 10) ‘ she w ent up against t h e e ’.

(‫ )י‬Cf. Jud. 6:37.


(*) Also note (75:1:30) bhm qrnm (31) km . trm . wgbit (32) km . ibrm (33) wbhm . pn bel
‘ on them are horns like balls, and humps like buffaloes and on them is the face of Ba‘l ’ ; cf. the
horned, human faced ‘Bull of Heaven’ in Mesopotamian mythology and art.

— 93 —
10. 4 PREPOSITIONS A nOr. 38

‘ into (*): a r d . b a rs (67 : V I : 25) *I shall go down into the earth ’ (cf. 62 :
7-8), (128: I V : 24) y d . b tf . tSlh (25) h r b . bb§r . t§tn ‘a hand she extends into
the bowl, a knife into the m eat she p u ts ’, h r b . t 8 t . bt?r[th\ (1 A q h t: 207) ‘she
puts the sword into its scabbard’; cf. 18 : 19-22 ; 51 : VI : 2 2 -2 3 ; 5 6 : 5, 7, 9
= 56 : 20-22 ; 62 : 1 5 -1 8 ; 67 : I : 6 -8 ; Krt : 26, 159 ; 1 A qht : 67, 74, 172 ;
2 A q h t : V : 26 ; cn t : I I I : 12 and perhaps cn t : 1 : 2 1 (cf. 49 : I : 29).
‘ w ith ’ (instrum ental): (49 : II : 81) b h rb (32) tb q cn n ‘ w ith a sword she
cleaves h im ’ , y m h s . b $ m d (49 : V : 3) ‘he sm ites w ith a stic k ’ , (67 : 1 : 19) b k la t
(20) y d y U hm ‘I shall eat w ith both m y h a n d s’ ; cf. 75 : 1 :4 0 .
‘ w ith ’ (material): s p y t bhr$ (1122 : 2) ‘plated w ith g o ld ’ ; sim ilarly, (1166 :
6) mi'hd . b (7) a r b e . m a t (8) hr$ ‘p la te d w ith 400 (shekels) of g o ld ’ .
‘a m o n g ’: (51 : V I I I : 8) ts p r . b y (9 )r d m ar$ ‘thou shalt be counted am ong
those who descend into the e a r th ’ ( = 67 : V : 15-16) (*). For convenience we
m ay classify b w ith num erals here: (1024 : rev. 1) [£]&* . b . h r tm (2) [7]/1 b . tfjr m
‘ 7 plowm en, 3 doorm en’ ( < ‘ 7 am ong plowm en [etc.]’); cf. A cc. 7 ina ainmati
‘ 7 cubits ’ = Heh. ‫( ארבע בא מה‬E x. 26 : 2) ‘ 4 cubits ’ . T he U g. shows that even if
th is idiom is derived from A c c ., it appears in native dialects o f Canaan in the
Amarna A ge, so th at the P entateuchal passages containing it need not be late
borrowing directly from A cc. in E x ilic tim es.
‘ for’ (of price or equivalence): (1097: 1) c8r §(pm (2) b h m $ . t e t ‘ 10 §. ’ s
for 5 (jars) of o il’ ; see also line 4. Seven exam ples of this usage occur in
1108 : 1 -8 ; e. g . , lb§ . a h d (2) b . e8 rt ‘ 1 garm ent for 10 (shekels o f silver)’,
IM . in . b . i ( m ) n t . cS rt ( : 8 ) ‘a scarlet garm ent for 1 8 ’; see also 1115: 1 - 5 ;
1138 : 1, 2, 3. W ihle the follow ing looks different in translation, it is basically
the sam e usage: (1 1 6 1 :2 ) cr b (3) b . m i n . b n . a y a h ‘they have entered (as
pledges) for M. th e son of A . ’
‘o n ’ (temporal): bSbe ymm (2 A q h t : 1 : 16) ‘on the 7th d a y ’ , brbc (K rt:
209; cf. 124 : 25) ‘on th e 4th (day) ’ , b y m q% (121 : 1 : 5) ‘ on a day o f sum m er’ ,

(‘) That y9qbaph(texts 55 & 56: passim) means ‘pour into his presence’ (not ‘into his nose’)
is evident from the parallel provided by E. Ebeling’s Assyrian hippie fragments. They show
(1) that the Acc. translation of what appears in Ug. as yfq, is Sap&ku, and (2) that the food is
simply shown to the horse (not forced into his nose): cf. tukallam ‘ thou art to show ’ (the horse
what he is to eat or drink). Texts 55 & 56 (plus a new tablet which Virolleaud calls ‘Hipp. c ’),
like the Kikkuli text and the Ebeling fragments, represent a wide tradition in the care and
training of horses. See G. H. Gordon, Orientalia 22 1953 232.
(*) In contexts like my bilmydy mrf grim zbln (126: V : 10-12,14-15,17-18,20-21) ‘who among
the gods can expel the sickness, exorcizing the disease f ’ and in bilm *nyh (126: V: 12-13, 16,
19, 22) ‘ none among the gods answers him ’, it is hard to decide whether the b should be clas-
sifted as a variety of b ‘ in ’ or b ‘from’. The same difficulty holds for Heb.: ‫וישחיתו בישראל‬
‫( ביום ההוא שנים ועשרים אלף איש‬Jud. 20 : 21, cf. : 25) ‘and on that day they destroyed 22,000
men rrom/in Israel’. But no difficulty confronted the Ugaritians or Hebrews because to them
the word was one and the same (§10.1).

— 94 —
AnOr . 38 PREPOSITIONS 10.5

(11 5 5 : 1) b . y rn . h,dt (2) b . y r h . p g r m ‘ on th e day o f th e new moon in the


m onth o f P . ’
‘a fte r ’ (temporal): (1 A q h t:1 7 9 ) bSb* (180) S n t ‘after 7 y e a r s’ ; contrast
( : 176) *d (177) S ift . S n t ‘until th e 7th y e a r ’ . B elated to this usage is b S n t
(1106 : 1) ‘every y e a r ’ (< after each year) and b . t i t . S n t (: 57) ‘ every 3 y e a r s ’
( = 1107 : 12-13).
‘ w hile, as, in, by (etc.) (*)’ (see § 9. 26): b n S i* n h . w y p h n (1 A q h t: 134-5)
‘ on liftin g his eyes he s a w ’ ( c f .: 120; 51 : I I : 12; 2 A q ht : V : 9, V I : 10), b m
b k y h w y S n (K r t:3 1 ) ‘ as he w ept he fell a sle ep ’ ; cf. K rt : 32-3 3 , 150-161.
Cf. also bsfjsfj SpS (77 : 3) ‘ when the sun sets ’ .
L ike ‫ ב‬in H eb., ba (or la (*)) m ay be om itted before th e const, state of
b t ‘h o u se ’ (*): (124: 23) tlh m n . r p u m (24) tS ty n b t . ik l ‘ th e r. eat, th e y drink
in th e dining h o u se ’ and (if b th p tt is to be divided into b t b p # ) (6 1 : V I I I : 7)
w r d . b t h p # (8) a r$ ‘ and go down into the i n f i r m a r y o f th e earth ’ ( = 67 : V :
14-16), *rb . b t (1 1 2 1 :2 ) ‘th ey entered the h o u se ’ . H ow ever, the om ission is
not obligatory: *rb b b th . k t r t (2 A q h t : I I : 26) ‘ th e KStarat entered his house ’ ,
n p S . b . b t (1 1 9 :2 9 ) ‘ (so m any) people in th e house (o f— ) ’ .
baqirbi is the ballast variant (§ 13. 113) of ba; e. g., (51 : V II : 17) y p t h .
b ln . b b h tm (18) ur[6]t . b q rb hW(19)m ‘ he opens a window in th e house(s), a
casem ent in th e m idst o f th e palace(8).
W ith 1 sg. pro. suffix: b y = bi (with m ater lection is!) in (1 0 1 5 :9 ) p n .
SpS . n r (10) b y ‘th e face of the Sun ( = t h e king) shines on m e ’ .
1 0 .5 . b ‘ f r o m ’ : (1107 :6 ) b . b t (7) m l k ‘ from the house o f the k in g ’ ,
(61 : IV : 36) $[y] (37) b k r p n m . y n . b k(s) . Zir? (38) d m . *$m ‘ drink w ine
from jar(s), the blood o f vines (*) from cup(s) o f g o ld ’ , (1 2 6 :1 1 1 :1 3 ) k l y (14)
Ih m . [b]dnhm k l y (15) y n . b h m th m ‘spent is bread from their jar(s), spent
is w ine from their bottle(s) ’ , bp h . r g m . ly $ a . bS p th . h w lh (68 : 6 ; cf. 1 A q h t :
7 5 ,1 1 3 e t passim) ‘ from h is m outh the word goes forth, from h is lips h is ut-
tera n ce’ , t t f . b b th (2 A q h t : I I : 39) ‘ th e y departed from his h o u se ’ , (cn t : III :
44) ( r d bcl ( I V : 35) b m r y m § p n ‘ the one who drove out Ba'l from th e h eights
o f Sap&n’ , (5 1 : V I : 32) td . iSt (33) b b h tm . n[6]Za/ . b h k lm ‘ th e fire departs
from the house(s), th e flame(s) from the palace(s)’ y n q m . b a p . d d (5 2 : 59, 61)
‘su ck ing from the nipple o f th e b rea st’ , (1 A q h t : 145) w y q h b h m (146) a q h t

(>) Thus the cause or object of a stative verb may be expressed with b as in bfyylc. abn.
ntbnb (125:14) ‘we rejoice, O our father, in thy life’.
(*) Note the omission of l in led . bt ilm rbm (1090:1) ‘a jar for the House of the Great
Gods’ || kd l iftnm (:3) ‘a jar for I .’, etc
(») e . g . , ‫אביך מקום לנו ללין‬-‫( היש בית‬Gen. 24:23) and ,2) ‫ אל־ תו מ ת בי ת יהוד‬Kg. 1 1 :1 5 ).
(4) ‫( ודם־ענב ת ש תה־ח מר‬Dent. 32:14; cf. Gen. 49:11).

— 95 —
10. 6 9 PREPOSITIONS AnOr. 38

‘ and he takes A qht therefrom ’ , baph (3 A q ht obv. : 26) *from his nose ’ , wy*dr'k .
byd . btlt . [fnt] (3 A q h t : r e v .. 14) ‘and he w ill save thee from the hand o f the
V irgin ‘A n a t’ (cf. P s. 37 : 40), trhs . n n . bdet (127 .1 0 ‫‘ )־‬she w ashes him (clean)
o f s w e a t e t c . etc. N ote the partitive use in Ihm . blhm a y wSty . bhmr
yn ay (52 : 6) ‘ eat o f any bread and drink o f any liquor o f w ine ’ . N ote also
causal ‘ from ’ as in : bwi . n$q . whr . bhbq . hmhmt (5 2 :5 1 ) ‘from k issing
there is conception; from em bracing, p reg n a n cy ’ .
10.6. bl ‘ w i t h o u t ’ (cf. Heb. ‫בלי‬,‫)בלא‬: (K rt :90) h p t . d b l . s p r {91) i n n .
d b l . h g ‘ c o n sc r ip ts who are w ithou t number, officers who are w ithout reckon-
in g ’ .
10.7. btoa ‘ b e t w e e n , a m o n g ’ : (6 8 :1 6 ) y l m . k tp zb l y m . b n . y d m .
t p t (17) n h r ‘he strikes the shoulders of Prince Sea, betw een the hands of Jud ge
R iver’ , (68: 24) y l m . q d q d . zb l (25) [ym ] bn . en m . t p t • n h r ‘he strikes the
head of Prince Sea, betw een th e eyes o f Jud ge R iv e r ’ (1), y l m . b[n ,] n k (1001:
16) ‘strikes betw een thine e y e s ’ , n*m t . b n . a h t . b‘l (76 : I I : 16) ‘th e fairest
am ong B aT s sisters ’ , tht$b b n . ilh n m (cn t : I I : 30) ‘ she slays ’tw ix t the tables ’ .
10. 8. ba«d- (cf. Arab. jJo and Heb. 48: 127) :(‫ )בעד‬I p n k (49) U Slhm . y t m .
bed (50) k s lk . a l m n t ‘thou dost not feed the fatherless before thee, nor the
widow behind th y b a c k ’ . Orthographically indistinguishable is bcd in bed *Im
(1019:6) ‘for e v er ’ , which m ight correspond either to Heb. ‫ בעוד‬or ‫( בעד‬i. e.,
b prefixed to ed elm [§ 10 .1 2 ] = ‫) ע ד עולם‬.
10. 9. ka ‘ l i k e , a s ’ : (K r t: 192) k m . ir b y . tS k n (193) M . k h s n . p a t (194)
m d b r ‘ like the locust th ey inhabit the field, like th e grasshopper th e corners
o f the d esert’ , (51 : I V : 62) y b n . &t . lb*l ( V : 63) k m ilm . w hz,r . k b n . a tr t
‘ a house shall be built for Bacl as (for) th e gods, yea a court as (for) the sons
of ’Atir(a)t ’, S p th n . m tq tm . m tq tm . J d rm n [ m jt ] (52 : 50) ‘ their lips are sw eet,
sw eet as grap es’ , k m tm . tm tn (125: 102) ‘w ilt thou die like m ortals?’ , k k lb ||
k i n r (125 : 2, 15-16, 100-1) ‘like a dog || like a c u r ’ , (128 : V I : 6) el . k r t t?bu n .
k m (7) r g m . £rm ‘th ey came into K rt’s presence as the bulls had sa id ’ (lit.,
‘ like th e speaking of the b u lls’); cf. 49 : I I : 6-8 = 28-29 ; 49 : V I : 17-21 ; 52 :
33-35 ; 7 5 : 1 : 30-33 ; K r t : 28-29; 3 A qht obv. : 24-26, 28-29. N ote k m h m in
(128: I I I : 22) m k . Mb* . § n t (23) b n . k r t . k m h m . t d r (24) a p . b n t h r y (25)
k m h m ‘10 in 7 years the sons o f K rt were as th ey had been promised, also
th e daughters o f IJi-y were s o ’ (*). Note correlative k m ----- k m t ‘lik e ------- so

0) These passages, where the sense is fixed by parallelism, have shown that ‘between the
hands’ means ‘on the back’ in Zech. 1 3 :6 ,and ‘between the eyes’ means ‘ on the head’ in
Ex. 1 3 :9 ; Deat. 6 :8 and 11:18.
(*) If the problematic 2) ‫ כמהם‬Sam. 19:38,39) (var. |‫ כמה‬in: 41) is not a proper name, it is
perhaps to be compared with Ugar. kmhm. Clearer is 2) ‫ בהם ובהם‬Sam. 24:3) ‘thus and s o ’.

— 96 —
1 0 .1 0 PREPOSITIONS A nOr . 38

too ’ : (1005 : 2 ) k m . §pS (3) d b r t . k m t (4) b r . $tq§lm ‘ like th e sun th a t is


free, so too is $. free ’ .
10. 10. I ‘ t o , f o r ( e t c . ) ’ — T he vocalization o f l as la is lik ely from
com parative evidence, la brings out an assortm ent o f relationships, m uch as
in H eb. (1). It can be w ritten as a separate word follow ed by th e word divi-
der (10 1 8 : 17, 19, 21; etc.):
‘ t o ’ (m otion): a p . y$b . y tb . Ih k l (127 :25) ‘ also Y?b returns to th e
p a la ce’, (128 : I I I : 18) t i t y . ilm . la h lh m (19) d r il . I m ik n th m ‘th e gods go to
their ten ts, th e generation o f ’l l to their ta b ern a cles’, h y n . *ly . I m p h m (51 :
1 : 2 4 ) ‘ H yn w en t up to the b e llo w s’, f i n . Im r k b th m (121 : 1 1 : 4 ) ‘th e y m ount
their chariots ’, (67 : V I : 5) [m ]^ n y (6) ln em y . ar$ . d b r (7) l y s m t . M . & hlm m t
‘ w e (du.) cam e to th e pleasantness o f the land o f D b r ,. to the d elig h t o f
the field(s) of S h lm m t’ (cf. 49 : I I : 19-20), (121: I I : 6) m $ y r p u m . Ig r n t ‘ th e
shades cam e to the threshing floors’, (118: 25) d y b l . Up& (26) m l k . r b . belh
‘ w hich h e brings to the Sun, the great king, his m aster ’ ; cf. 68 : 2 5 -2 6 ; 127:
2 7 -2 8 ; etc. (*).
‘ a t ’ ( l o c a l ) : (51: I V : 25) lp en . il . th b r . w tq l (26) tS th w y . w tk b d h ‘ at
th e feet o f T1 she bows and bends she prostrates herself and honors h im ’
(cf. 51 : V I I I : 26; 89 : 6; 95 : 5), lp ‘n h . y k r c . w y q l (76 : I I : 18) ‘ a t her feet he
kneels and b e n d s’, (51 : V : 109) w y tib . l y m n . a l i y n (110) b el ‘ and he was seat*
ed at th e righ t o f A liyn Bacl ’. Cf. I p n k ( 1 2 7 : 4 8 ) ‘ at th y face = before
t h e e ’ — H eb. ‫ ;לפניך‬sim ilarly, Ik . I p n y (1001 : 10) ‘ go before m e ’.
‘ a t ’ (tem poral ) : Iql . rpi[m ] (1001 :rev . 2) ‘ at the sound o f th e r . ’
‘(up )on’ : y tb . Ikfyt (49 : 1 : 30) ‘ he sits on th e th r o n e ’, (2 A qht : V : 27)
Ib r k h . ] fd b (28) q tft ‘ on his knees be sets a b o w ’, (67 : V I : 14) y $ q . cm r (15)
u n . Iri&h . ep r . p l t t (16) l . q d q d h ‘ he pours the a s h e s of m ourning on his
head, th e dust of w allow ing on his p a te ’ ; cf. 4 9 : 1 1 1 : 1 5 ; 51 : IV : 14-15;
62 : I : 14; 67 : V I :8; 1 A qht : 5 9 -6 0 ; 2 A q h t : I I : 11; cn t : I I I : 2. W ith
- n : In . kfyt (137 : 25,27, 29) = I k h t 0 23) ‘ on the throne ’.
‘ to ’ (person addressed): note the letter h e a d in g s: (18 : 1) l . r b . k h n m
(2) r g m ‘ To th e high -priest, sp e a k !’, (89: 1) l . m l k t (2) a d t y (3) r g m (4) th m
. t l m y n ‘ T o the queen, m y lady, speak! T he m essage o f T lm y n ’ (cf. 9 5 : 1-4),
( 5 4 : 1 ) th m . i w r d r (2) l . p l s y (3) r g m ‘ So says Iw iri-dar(ri): To P lsy sp e a k ! ’;
a l . tr g m . la h tk ( 1 2 5 : 3 1 ) ‘ do not tell to th y sis te r ’, ( 6 7 : 1 1 : 8 ) r g m . Ibn .

(*) For the affixation of -mA, cf. the doublets Im. nkr (K rt: 102) and volnkr (E r t: 191).
(*) T he follow in g exam ples show that the second preposition may be o m itte d : ( K r t : 108)
wtmgy . ludm (109) rbt . tel . udm • trrt 4and thou shalt come to Great Udm and to Little Udin’,
(without second{) (K rt:210) ymgy • ludm . rbt (211) wudm [tr]rt 4he comes to Great Udm and
Little Udm’.

— 97 —
13
10.11 PREPOSITIONS A n Or . 38

Urn . mt (9) iny . lydd U tfzr ‘ speak to the god M6t, declare to Tl’s beloved,
the hero ’ ( = 51 : V III: 29-32; cf. 117 : 13; 127 : 28-29; cn t : V I : 21- 22; 2 A qht:
1 :24-25).
‘for’ (advantage): (59 : 1) kd yn (2) Iprt ‘a pitcher of wine for P r!\ Idgn.
pgr (69 : 2) ‘ a stela for Dagan ’ (cf. 1004 : 1-22), (Krt: 80) ‘db (81) akl . 1qryl
(82) h (t. \b t. hbr ‘ he prepared food for the city, wheat for the community ’,
(128: I I I : 20) wtqrb . wld bn Ih (21) wtqrb . wld . bnm Ih ‘and she comes to
term to bear him one son, and she comes to term to bear him 2 sons’ (cf. 128:
I I : 23), arh tz$ l*g\h (128 :1:5) ‘the cow moos for her calf’, (1 Aqht: 173) ybk
laqht (174) fizr . ydme . Ikdd . dnil (175) m l . rpi ‘he weeps for Aqht, the hero,
sheds tears for the child of Dnil, man of rp’’, (125 : 25) al (26) tdm .ly ‘do
not mourn for me ’ (cf. 125 : 30); cf. 62 : 1 : 12 ; 2 Aqht: V : 23-24.
‘ for ’ (purpose): walp lakl (69 : 3) ‘ and an ox for food ’, (77 : 36) ahtth
la(B7)bn mznrn ‘her sisters are for (attending to)the weights of the balances’;
with inf.: (127:11) np$h . llhm . tpth (12) brlth.ltrm ‘she opens his desire to
eat, his appetite to dine’.
‘to’ (indirect obj. with passive): ytn . bt lbel (cnt : V :11) ‘a house
will be given to Ba'l’, yld . bn ly (2 Aqht:II: 14) ‘a son is born unto m e’,
(76 : I I I : 36) w . ibr . lbcl [yl]d (37) wrum . Irkb. erpt ‘yea a bull is born unto
Bacl, even a buffalo unto the rider of clouds ’; cf.: 3-4; Krt: 152-153; cf. 51: V : 74.
The idiom $mel ‘to hearken unto (the voice of) = obey’ is the same as
in Heb. (17 :1 8 ) :(‫ )שמע ל‬y$me . uhy (19) Igy ‘ may my brother hearken unto
my voice’.
‘t o ’ (additive, in numerals): §be . Ubem (67 : V : 20) ‘ 77 (tim es)’ \\tm n .
Itmnym (: 21) ‘ 88 (tim es)’, which favors Virolleaud’s explanation (GLECS 1120)
of in Firm as ‘ 2 + 20 = 2 2 ’ vs. G aster’s ‘ 2 from 2 0 = 1 8 ’ (JAOS 70 1950 10);
for literary considerations demand ‘ 77 || 8 8 ’ (and not the impossible ‘63 || 7 2 ’);
e. g., ‘77 || 88 ’ occurs also in H ittite literature.
‘b y’ (in oaths): (1018 : 17) l . (18) hy . np[$\ ‘by the life of the soul (of— ) ’
(or more literally ‘ as the soul [of - -] lives ’). This use of la is reminiscent of
Arab, la prefixed to verbs in oaths.
I + pnm ‘ in the presence of ’: Ipn . 16 (1012 : 29) ‘ before (= Heb. ‫ )לפני‬the
enemy’; cf. 1015:8; 1018:19, 21; see also sub pn{m) in Glossary.
10. 11. I ‘ from ’: (127 : 37) rd . Imlk . amlk (38) Idrklk . atbnn (— : 62-64)
‘descend from the sovereignty that I may rule; from thy dominion, that I may
sit thereon’, (cn t: IV :46) grSh . Iksi . mlkh (47) Inht . Ikht . drkth ‘drive him
from the seat of his rule, from the couch, from the throne of his sovereignty!’
(cf. 49 : V : 6- 6; 68 : 12-13), (67 : V I : 11) apnk . l(pn . i\ (12) dpid yrd . Iksi . ytb
(13) Ihdrn w l. hdm . ytb (14) Zar? ‘thereupon Lfpn god of mercy descends from

— 98 —
A n Or . 38 PREPOSITIONS 10. 12-13

his throne, sits on the footstool and from the footstool sits on the ground’,
(Krt : 79) wyrd (80) krt . 1ggt ‘and Krt goes down from the roof’, (2 Aqht :
Y : 31) tbc ktr (32) lahlh . hyn . tb* . lmS(33)knth ‘Ktr departed from his (Dnil’s)
tents, Hyn departed from his tabernacles ’ and perhaps (49 : I I : 26) ym . ymm .
tftqn . lymm (27) lyrhm ‘a day, 2 days pass, from days to months’ and (1 Aqht:
175) lymm . lyrhm (176) lyrhm Unt . cd (177) Sift . Snt ‘from days to months,
from months to years, until the 7th year’ (cf. 49 : V : 7-8). The same idiom
occurs in 1) ‫ ולבקר לבקר‬Chron. 9 : 27) ‘and from morning to morning = around
the clock’ (1).
10. 12. fad(6) ‘ up to, u n t i l ’ may be local or temporal: (Krt: 156) yrt!h$ .
wyadm (157) yrh$ . ydh . amth (158) u§bcth . cd . tkm ‘lie washes and rouges
himself, he washes his hands up to the elbow, (from(*)) his fingers up to the
shoulder’, (1 Aqht: 176) cd (177) Sbct Snt ‘until the year’, cd clm (1006 : 6, 15) *
‘to eternity, forever’.
1 0 . 13. *al(6) brings out several relationships (*) much as in Heb.:
‘ o n ’: (51 : V III: 6) Sa . <}r . H . ydm (6) hlb . l%r . rhtm ‘lift the mountain

(l) The reason that many such northernisins (=: Ugar. and Phoen. parallels) occur only in
postexilic O. T. prose is due in large measure to the fusion of exiles from Israel (and from still
farther north) with the Judean exiles. (For the different problem of the poetic parallels, see
§ 17.4). Since the Samaritans precluded any restoration of northern Israel, the Israelites were
brought around to joining their Judean brethren whom history had not stript of hope. The
northern tribes did not all disappear; their reunion with Judah is stressed in virtually all the
O. T. prophets and in the N. T. To the contrary, the impact of the northern dialects on post-
exilic, and indeed on all postbiblical Hebrew, is enormous. (The m. pi. suffix -in, so common in
postbiblical Heb. is not due to Aram, but to dialectal Canaanite. It is normal in Moabite, and
dialectal in non-Judean O. T. compositions such as Prov. 3 1 : 3 [ 1 ‫ מלכק‬and Job 18:2 ;26 :4 ;34:
3; 3 8 :2 ; e tc .[‫ •)!מלק‬The Phoeu. combination of the three prepositions ‫( ל מב־‬for examples, see
J. Friedrich, Phoniz. Oram. 116) occurs in the postexilic 1 Chron. 15:13 (‫ •)למברא שונה‬The nor-
thernisms in Ecclesiastes need not be attributable to composition on Phoenician soil but rather
to the impact of northern exiles on the Hebrew language. (Actually Ecc. may have been written
in or near Babylonia. Thus ‫' ענה‬to answer’ in the sense of ‘to p ay’, reflects Acc. ap41u ‘to
answer, to pay’ and the expression ‫( והכסף יענה אוד־הכל‬Ecc. 10:19) ‘ silver pays for everything’
must have arisen on soil where Babylonian was the language of commerce.) For further evi-
dence, see my ‘North Israelite Influence on Postexilic Hebrew’, Eretz-Israel 3 1954 85-88, and
‘The Origin of the Jews in Elephantine’, JNES 14 1955 56-58. Cf. § 9. 29.
Even though 18.63:3) ‫ )אגאלתי‬occurs in poetry, it may possibly be a late prose northernism.
The verb. 1 form (with both personal prefix and personal suffix) has not yet appeared elsewhere
in the poetry of Canaan, but is known from about 20 occurrences in the Amarna tablets from
Canaan; e. g., taSapparta (Amarna 102:10 from Byblos).
(‫ )י‬In ‘from----- to ’, ‘ from’ is omitted here as in *nt------ pclmh ‘-(from) now and unto eter-
n ity ’ (1 A q h t: 154,161).
(3) It is hard to fix the meaning of cl in 1001: rev. 5 not only because the context is unclear
but also because the verb may be from f/ytb or from f^twb: [b]tnm wttb . 4 . Unt. trt1j[9] ‘male
serpents; and they (sit on)/(return against) the female serpents; they wash themselves’.

— 99 —
10. !4 PREPOSITIONS A n Or . 38

on the hands, the hill on top of the hands! ’ (note that is the ballast variant
of *1; of. § 13. 116).
‘over’: el bt . abh . nSrm . tr[hpn\ (1 Aqht : 82) ‘eagles soar over his
father’s house’, (3 Aqht obv.: 30) *Ih . n$r[m) (31) trhpn ‘eagles soar over him’,
hm . tepn . *I . qbr . bny (1 Aqht : 150) ‘if they fly over my son’s grave’,
(3 Aqht obv.: 22) hlmn . trim qdqd (23) tltid . cl . udn ‘ strike him twice (on)
the head, thrice over the ear! ’ ( = : 33-34).
‘on account of’: (49: V : 12) qlt . clk . pht (13) dry . bhrb . elk (14)p h t.
grp . bi§t (15) elk [pht] ‘disgrace on account of thee I have seen, scattering
by the sword on account of thee I have seen, burning in fire on account of
thee I have seen’.
‘against the account of, owed b y’: (1010: 9) arb*. e?m (10) el . ar 14 trees
are owed by Ar’ (cf. also lines 12, 13, 16); kd . §mn . el . hbm (1082: 1) ‘a
jar of oil owed by H. ’ (cf. also lines 4-22 and rev. 4-9).
with obj. of ^mlk: (51: V II: 49) dym(hO)lk . cl . dm ‘he who will rule
over the gods ’.
‘into the presence of’ (familiar from Aram.(1)): (127:39) *l (40) abh .
y*rb ‘he enters into the presence of his father’, (128: I V : 17) clh . trh . tg*rb
(18) elh . t&rb . ?6?/h ‘into his presence his bulls she causes to enter, into his
presence she causes to enter his gazelles’.
el and l are sometimes possibly substituted for each other, like ‫ על‬and ‫אל‬
in Heb.: (1012 : 25) Im (26) l . ytn . hm . mlk . cly ‘ why hasn’t the king given
them to me?’. Virolleaud (PRU II p.. 28, n. 1) sees still other examples in
this text.
10. 14. *m (= Heb. and Aram. OP: Syr. jl*.) means ‘to ’ (local or tem-
poral) as well as ‘with’ (var. *mn(*)).
‘to ’ (local): (54:10) lak (11) cmy ‘send to m e!’ (cf. 138:7-8), lytn .
pnm . *m . bel (67 : 1 : 10) ‘ then they set face ( = go) to Bacl ’ (cf. 49 : I : 4-5,
IV : 31-32; 51: IV : 20-21, V : 84-85, V III: 1-4; 2 Aqht: V I : 46-47; etc.), Ik .
em . krt (Krt :124) ‘ go to Krt! ’, *my . p ‘nk . llsmn (cn t : I I I : 16) ‘ thy feet shall
run to me’, (with enclitic -ma; cf. § 10. 2) (Krt : 301) idk . pnm (302) lytn .
*mm . pbl (303) mlk ‘ then they set face to(ward) King Pbl ’; (temporal): *m .
*Im (cn t : V : 39) ‘ to eternity/forever ’ (*).
‘with’: (89 : 12) *m . adty (13) mnm . Sim (14) rgm . tt£b (15) l . *bdh
‘ (concerning) whatever peace (may be) with my lady, may she return word to

(*) See Orientalia 9 1940 31.


(*) E .g ., «»» . qrt (1083:3) || *»» . bn. aglmn (: 5); here cm(n) is ‘ to the credit o f’ vs. ,I
‘against the account o f’. In 1143:1, 3 cmn contrasts with l (:8 , 10, 12).
(‫ )י‬Of. Aram. ‫ דר ודר‬DP (Dan. 3 : 33).

— 100 —
An Ob . 38 PREPOSITIONS 10.15-17

her servant’ (cf. 96 : 16-18; 117 : 11-13), *mny (96 : 10; cf. 117 : 9) ‘with us
two ’, (2 Aqht: V I : 28) aisprk . cm . b*l (29) §nt ‘ I shall cause thee to count
years with BaT; (67 : V : 8) *mk . §b*t (9) tflmk . £mn . hnzrk (10) emk . pdry .
bt . ar (11) emk . tfly (sic!) . b t . rb ‘with thee, thy 7 lads, thine 8 swine, with
thee Pdry, girl of light, with thee Tly, girl of rain ’; with - n : *mn nkl Mny
(77 : 32) ‘with Nikkal is my wedding’, (67 : V : 19) Skb (20) *mnh ‘he lay
with her’, (1012 : 34) emn . (36) mlakty . hnd ‘with this embassy of mine’;
cf. 1021 :16, etc.
With 1 sg. pro. suffix: *my (1015 :19) ‘to m e’; -y may be a mater lectionis.
10.15. tafct ‘ u n d e r ’: tfyth (*nt : II : 9) ‘ under her’ ||*ZA ‘over her’, tht .
*nt . ar$ (cn t:IV :8 0 ) ‘under the springs of the earth’, tht ksi (68:7) ‘under
the throne’; note th(t) (1 Aqht: 109).
‘a t’: yql . tht p*ny (1 Aqht: 124) ‘may he fall at my feet’.
‘instead of’ (?): In administrative lists, tht may indicate a replacement:
y*dd . tht bnarbn (1053 : 1; cf. also lines 2, 3) ‘Y. instead of B. ’ (Virolleaud,
however, suggests that tht means ‘ under the supervision of’ and is synonymous
with bd; cf. § 10. 4)
10.16. tdk (lit. ‘midst’) is the equivalent of *m ‘to(ward)’ in the following
(cf. § 10. 14): (cn t : V I : 12) tdk . a l . tin (13) pnm tk . hqkpt ‘then surely set face
to(ward) H(q)kpt’ (cf. 51: V III: 10-11; 67 : I I : 14-15, V : 12; 76 : II : 8-9; cn t :
pi. ix : I I : 23)’, tk pn- — qdm ‘in front of’ in (61 : V : 107) it . alp . qdmh .
mra (108) wtk . pnh ‘he set an ox before him, a fatling even (*) before his
face’; btk ‘in the midst of’: btk . $rrt . $pn (51 : V: 117) ‘in the midst of the
heights of $ap&n’, (75:1:21) btk . mlbr (sic!) (22) ilUy ‘in the midst of the
wilderness of I. ’ .
10. 17. yd ‘ w ith ’ — As Virolleaud has noted, yd ‘hand’ can be used pre-
positionally to mean ‘with’ (like Acc. qa-dv). In a royal land-grant (1008) id
‘field’ is followed by yd gth, yd \k]rmh, yd [k]lklh ‘with its wine-press, with
its vineyard, with all-that-pertains-thereto ’; and similarly (1121 : 1) tmn .
m rkbt. dt (2) *rb . b t . mlk (3) yd . apnthn (4) yd . h%hn (5) yd . trhn ‘ 8 chariots *
that entered the house of the king with their (spare?) wheels, with their arrows,
with their javelins’. Cf. also 329:14, 15, 17, 18.

0 For this idiomatic (and, from our Indo-European viewpoint, otiose) use of wa‫׳‬-, note
‫( ואעלה כא ש מחניכם ובאסכם‬A m .4:10) ‘and I brought the stench of your camp up even into
your nose(8)’ . Cf. § 12. 1.

— 101 —
11.1-3 ADVERBS A n Or. 38

CHAPTER X I

ADVERBS (»)

11. 1. S u ffix e d - h — The terminative suffix -h (unaccented -ah (*)) is


employed often locally and sometimes temporally: Smmh (62 : 38) ‘ heavenward ’,
ar$h (Krt: 29) , earthward’, m(th (Krt: 30) ‘on the bed’, amth (Krt: 157) ‘to
the elbow’ ||*d . ikm (Krt: 168) ‘to the shoulder’; pclmh (1 Aqht: 1 5 4 = 161)
‘and to eternity, forever’ || pdrdr (*).
1 1 .2. S u f fix e d - t — The ending -t, corresponding to unaccented -a in
Heb.(4), figures in the adverb £mt(*) ( = Heb. ‫טה‬$ ‘there’): (54: 16) mnm (17)
rgm . d . t§me (18) imt ‘whatever word that thou mayest hear there’.
11. 3. S u ffix ed -ny — Adv. -ny is so far found suffixed to adverbs,
adjectives, prepositions or numerals. With adv. (local): hn + ny (96 : 10) or
hi + ny (101 : 3; 117 : 9; 1013 : 8, 12) ‘here’, lm + ny (95 : 14; 117 : 11; 1013 : 9)
‘there’. With adj. (modal): e%m + ny (68:5) ‘violently’ || (u/d)Z + ny. With
prep.: cmny (1016:14) ‘here, with m e’ (vs. ‘there, where you are’). With
num.: §be + ny (62:64) ‘sevenfold’. As in Eg. (JKF 2 1951 57), the adv.
uses of -ny are not to be confused with pronominal 1 du. -ny. Other probable
examples of adv. -ny that require further study are belny (128: V : 20) and

0) The adverbial namerals have been mentioned in Chapter VII (§§ 7. 63-70).
(*) Note the penultimate accent in Heb.: ‫ ימימה‬, ‫ סי מ ה‬# ‫ א ר צ ה‬. Ugar. - h shows that the ‫ה‬
v * v » : ‫־‬ » » : -

was originally consonantal. However the weakening of ‫־־‬h is already noticeable in Ugar. (§5.39).
(s) Of. the nouns used with temporal adverbial force in ent . brfy . pclmh . cnt pdrdr (1 A qht:
154 = : 161-162) ‘now flee for aye, now and forevermore!’.
(4) Of. also -1 of the 3 per8. independent pronouns; e. g., hmt = ;‫ ד&ך‬. Contrast f. 8g. - 1,
t -

who8e Heb. reflex i8 accented. The Ugar. correspondents of three types of Heb. ‫ __ה‬may be
schematized as follows:
Heb. U gar.

g lm t
accented ‫מלמה‬
1 : ‫־‬
-t

‫הפה‬ , ‫&טה‬ 1 tm t, h m t
‫י‬ •• V T

unaccented <
ar$h -h
‫ארצה‬
T ! ‫־‬

(6) Without -t, tm (Heb. ) as in E r t : 199; -t is not present when a suffix is added (§ 11.3).

— 102 —
A n Or . 38 ADVERBS 11. 4-5

bnp&ny (129 : 20). Cf. ‫( שבענה‬Job 42 : 13) with ibeny (N. Sarna); note also ‫כלנה‬
(Prov. 31: 29).
11. 4. S u ffix ed -m — Final -m, which is frequently adverbial, repre-
sents several different suffixes. Some examples are doubtless simple adverbial
accusatives with raimation: i. e., -am corresponding to the ending in Heb.
adverbs like ‫ ‘ חנם‬in vain ’, ‫* רירןם‬empty-handed ’ and ‫מם‬1‫ ‘ י‬daily ’. Others stand
for -uinma as we know to be so for the inf. abs. (§ 9. 27); hence, I would
normalize gar&Summa in my bilm ydy mr§ grim zbln (126 : V : 10-21) ‘who among
the gods will drive out the sickness, expelling the disease?’. Others may
stand for -am like Acc. qirbum Mbili ‘in the midst of Babylon’. (Phonetically,
the Hebrew suffix in ‫ ‘ פתאם‬suddenly ’ and ‫ם‬1‫ ‘ אתמול שלש‬previously ’ could cor-
respond to this -tun (‘) ). Some may correspond (in form, if not in origin) to
oblique duals, like Heb. 4‘ ‫ארבעתים‬-fold’, 7‘ ‫שבעתים‬-fold’ (*). Ugar. -m may in
some cases correspond to Acc. -ma and in others conceivably to Acc. -mi.
Furthermore, Heb. ‫ במו‬, ‫ כמו‬, ‫ למו‬suggest -ma for Ugar. bm, km, Im (*) and per-
haps *mm (§§ 10. 2. 14). Useful studies on adverbial -m published by E. A. D.
Singer (Bulletin o f the Jewish Palestine Exploration Society 10 1942-3 54-63),
R. De Langhe (Musion 59 1946 89-111), M. Pope (JCS 5 1951 123-128) and
other’s have advanced our knowledge but the complex origins of Ugar. -m
require further investigation.
11.5. A d v e r b ia l -m — Examples of adverbial -m are: (1) gm ‘aloud’:
gm . y§h il (49:1:15,111:22) ‘Ml cries aloud’, (62:1:10) gm (11) t$h ‘she
cries aloud’ (cf. 2 Aqht: V : 15; cn t : pi. x : IV : 2). As far as the certain contexts
go, gm is always used with the verb ‘to cry/shout’ and should not be rendered *
like Heb. ‫גם‬. gm is composed of g ‘voice’ and enclitic -m. (2) bkm ‘weeping(ly)’
(< ]/ bky 4‫ ־‬-m) suits the context well in (1 Aqht: 57) bkm . tmdln . er (68) bkm .
t$md . phi ‘ weeping she saddles an ass, weeping she hitches a donkey’. How•
ever, in other contexts where weeping may prove to be inappropriate, bkm
might conceivably mean ‘and so’; bkm . ytb . bcl Ibhth (51 : VII : 42) ‘(weep-
ing/and so) Bacl returns to his house(s)’, (76 : III : 30) wH . bkm . barr (31)
bm . arr . wb§pn ‘ (weeping/and so) she goes up into Arr, into Arr and into
Sap&n’. (3) ipim (Krt: 107, 118, 196, 209, 221) ‘at sunrise’. (4) (K rt: 205)

(l) Adv. -u is Common Semitic; cf. also ^ ^ ^ .


(*) Since Ug. m eans'127, it is possible that in ancient Heb. ‫ ארכעתים‬meant ‘8 7 and
‫ שבעתים‬meant ‘14’, etc. The idiom also occurs in $l<; forrA (Herodotus 1 : 86) ‘14’. Cf. 7 u 7
(Gilgamesh Epic 11:157) <14’.
(3) Not only in poetry, but occasionally in prose the preposition may be ballasted with - ‫ומ‬
to serve as the climactic variant. Note that in at least one administrative list, Im(1076:6) is
the climactic variant of l (: 3, 4, 5).

— 103 —
II. 6-10 ADVERBS A n Or. 38

ink . k!8pm (206) atn . w . tilth . hr$m 'I ’ll give twice her (price) in silver,
yea thrice her (price) in gold’. (5) One of the two occurrences of §lmm may
be an adverb with - to in qh krt Slmm Slmm (Krt : 130-1, 274-5) ‘take, Krt,
offerings in peace!’. (6) mmfm (3 Aqht : rev. 12; cnt : V : 33) ‘with gore’.
(7) mrh,qtm, (89 : 10; 95 : 6) ‘from a distance, from afar’ (var. mrhqrn in 1012 : 3).
11.6. P r e p o sitio n s P a r a lle le d by - to — Sometimes a preposition
used in one parallel member, is balanced by - to in the other: (Krt : 159) Iqh
(160) imr . dbh . bydh (161) lla . klatnm ‘he took a lamb of sacrifice in his
hand, a kid in both hands’; note l?r || £kmm (Krt: 166-167), krpnrn || bks (51:
I I I : 43-44, V I: 58-59; 67 : IV : 15-16; but cf. 51 : IV : 37).
11.7. Verb w ith - to — Enclitic - to can be added to a verb especially
for ballast in a short hemistich: hm . tqrrn . Imt (1001:5) ‘if thou sayest to M6t’.
11.8. C onstruct Noun w ith - to — Enclitic - to can be attached even
to a noun in the contruct: (K rt: 166) rkb (167) ikmm . hint (cf. : 74-75) ‘he
rode on the shoulder(s) of the wall ’, krpnrn yn (51 : III: 43, V I: 58; 67 : IV :
15; but cf. 51: IV : 37) ‘a jar of wine ’, ilm . ar$ (62 : 18; 67 : V : 6) ‘gods/ghosts
of the earth ’, bnm . U (126 : 10) == bn il (: 20) ‘ a son of ’ll ’ .
11. 9. A d v erb ia l bt — bt ‘house’ may be used adverbially (like Heb.!‫)ביו‬
as in bt . ikl (124:24) ‘in the house of eating’, (128:11:21) a(t (22) tqh btk
‘ the woman thou takest into thy house ’ (1). However,, b- is sometimes prefixed
to bt (119:29; 125: 100).
11. 10. M iscella n eo u s A dverbs — The following miscellaneous ad*
verbs are arranged alphabetically:
Conceivably ahr = ,afcr- ‘afterwards’ in (77 : 32) ahr (33) nkl yrh ytrh
‘afterwards Yarib obtains Nikkal in marriage’.
al = *al ‘surely, not’: idk . al . tin . pnm (51 : VIII : 1, 10-11) ‘then
thou shalt surely set face’, a l . trgm . lahtk (126 : 31) ‘do not tell to thy sister’.
See §§ 9. 18, 19.
ap = ’ap ‘also, even’: ap ab kmtm . tmtn (126: 102) ‘Father, wilt thou
also die like mortals?’, (67 : V I: 26) ap (26) en t . ttlk . wt$d ‘even cAnat walks
and strolls' ; cf. 61 : 1 : 20; 62 : 42 ; 96 :13 ; 126 : 101; 127 : 25; 128 : III : 24,
28; 1 Aqht: 16. Note that ap is little more than a conjunction joining
nouns in tbh . alpm . ap $in (124: 12) ‘he slaughters oxen, also sheep’.
apnk ‘ thereupon ’ regularly heads the sentence: (49 : 1 : 28) apnk . *ffr .
‘r? (29) y"l . b$rrt $pn ‘thereupon *Attar the terrible goes up into the heights
of Sap&n’ (see also 67 : V I : 11; 126 : 46). If the poetic structure calls for a
parallel adv., apnk----- aphn are used correlatively (frequent in Aqht): (2 Aqht:

(*) In the last example, bt my simply be the ace. of the goal of motion; cf., similarly, bt .
krt . bu . tbu (127 : 3; also note 128 : I V : 21) ‘she verily comes into Krt’s house’.
— 104 —
A nO r. 38 MISCELLANEOUS PARTICLES 12.1

I I : 27) apnk . dnil (28) mt . rpi . ap . hn (*) . (jzr . ml (29) hrnmy . alp . y(bh
*thereupon Dnil man of rp*, forthwith the hero, man of hrnmy, slaughtered
an ox’; see also 1 Aqht: 19-20; 2 Aqht: V : 18-15; for apnk without aphn,
see 1 Aqht :38; 2 A qht: V : 28). Note apnnk (122 : 5) = apn\n\k (?); and
a(p)hn (2 A qht: V : 5).
idk — ’id(&/6)ka ‘then’: idk . Utn pnm . *m . bel (cn t : IV : 81) ‘then she
set (her) face toward Bacl ’ (61 :IV : 20; K r t: 301 ; 2 Aqht: V I : 46).
bl = bit *surely ’ (§ 9. 18): bl . nmlk (49 : 1 : 20) = b it. nmlk (: 26) ‘ we
shall surely make king’.
ht ‘now’: Iht (1 Aqht: 167) ‘from now, henceforth’; ht follows the verb
in t§mh ht (49:1: 11) ‘let her/them rejoice now’; elsewhere it introduces the
sentence (with or without w— ) ; (68 :8) h t . ibk (9) belm (*) . ht . ibk . tmh§ . h t .
t$mt . $rtk ‘ now thine enemies, (0) Ba'l, now thine enemies thou shalt smite,
now thou shalt destroy thy foes!’; (138: 10) wht . &hy (11) bny . y$al ‘and
now let my brother (yea) my son ask’, [w^at y§me uhy (18:17) ‘and now let
my brother hearken’.
kn = kin(nal) ‘thus: kn . npl . bel (75 : II : 54) ‘thus fell Ba'l’. Cf.
Heb. ‫ כן‬.
mid ‘much’: (1016:9) pn . SpS. nr (10) by . mid ‘the face of the king
shines much upon me ’; mid . tmth$n (cn t: I I : 23) ‘ much smites she ’ (cf. 128 :
III :13); used (apparently in const, state) with substantive: mid . ksp (51: V :
77, 100) ‘much silver’. Cf. Heb. *‫ז‬1«‫ נ‬.

CHAPTER X II

MISCELLANEOUS PARTICLES

12. 1. C oord in atin g C on ju n ction s — The normal coordinating con-


junction is w = w» (passim) and it is not uncommonly followed by the word
divider (see 89 :9 ; 95:13; frequently in 109 and 119; etc.). Less often
p — pa (J) ‘and’ occurs (e. g., 61: IV : 69, 60; 76 : I I I : 10; 100: 4); it seems
to have adversative force in pd . in . bbty . ttn (Krt: 142) ‘but what is not
in my house shalt thou give’. More often than not, p serves as a sentence

(*) aphn is normally written as one word. The divider here suggests that the elements are
ap ‘also’ + hn ‘behold’.
(*) Note the use of -m at the end of a phrase, like Acc. -ma.

— 105 —

14
12.2-3 MISCELLANEOUS PARTICLES A n Or. 38

connective and calls attention to the sentence that follows it (see 1018: 17).
Like w, p is often followed by the word divider (1012:28; 1018: 17). It is
virtually a causal conjunction in (1010:4) Im . tlik . ‘my (5) iky . a$kn (6)
. Ib t. dml (7) pank . atn (8) ‘§m . Ik ‘ Why dost thou send to me (saying):
“ How can I supply logs for the Temple of Dml?”, since I am allocating the
logs to thee!’ It is similarly used, paralleling the same use of w, after a
question introduced by Im in (1012 : 25) lin (26) l . ytn . hm . mlk . *ly (27) w .
hit . ibm . S$q ly (28) p . / . aU . atty (29) n‘ry . th . Ipn . ib ‘Why hasn’t
the king given them to me? For the enemy is pressing against me and
I must not place my wife and children in jeopardy before the enemy’, ap
sometimes serves as the simple conjunction, as in alpm . ap . §in (124:12;
etc.) ‘large and small cattle’. Asyndeton (the oldest way of joining(‘)) also
occurs: (62 : 54) rb (56) khnm rb . nqdm ‘ chief of the priests (and) chief of the
“ herdsmen ” ’. The varietj' of words meaning ‘ and ’ shows that the ‘ and ’-idea
is an innovation in Nostratic (*), for the diversity typifies not only Egypto-
Semitic (*) but Indo-European (4) as well.
12.2. ‘ E ith er , o r ’ — u = *6 ‘or’: uilm . tmln (125:22, 105) ‘or do
gods die?’ (cf. 128:111:29); u ----- u is correlative ‘either------or’ or ‘both-
- - and ’: (52 : 63) uymn (64) uSmal ‘ both right and left; cf. 2 : 23.
12.3. S u b o rd in a tin g co n ju n ctio n s:
ahr = ,abr- ‘after’: (61 : V : 106) ahr m<jy k£r whss (107) M — ‘ after
Ktr-w-Hss came, he placed — ’. Cf. §§ 10. 3; 11. 10.
him ‘as soon as’; him . ent . tph . ilm (cnt : III : 29) ‘as soon as cAnat
sees the gods’, (51 : I V : 27) him il . kyphph (28) yprq . l§b . wy$hq ‘as soon

(1) Thus hieroglyphic Eg. still lacks a regular word for ‘ and ’; while in the Sem. languages,
archaizing texts often omit the conjunction (e. g., for Acc., see Yon Soden, A id e . O r a m . 241 § 186 d).
(*) We do not use this term to imply a parent language from which the Semitic, Hamitic,
Indo-European and several other linguistic families are descended, but only to designate the
organic common features that those families share.
(*) The best documented example of the ‘ and ’-innovation in Egypto-Semitic is the ubiquitous
Coptic A.vu1 ‘and’, which does not occur in classical Eg. The common conjunction w aisorigi-
nally an existential adverb meaning ‘there is/are’ related to (j Iw (§ 12. 9), which actually
appears as a conjunction in such passages as (j ^ Q o (J | & 6

t.lc m w&>t Iw % {n)qtJc m w&*t Iw p r . t w . n . l c - r - } 1r w t p V m w & t ‘thy bread is from the Bye of Horus,
and thy beer from the Eye of Horns, and thine invocation-offerings on earth are from the Eye
of Horns ‫( י‬Book of the Dead 125, conveniently reproduced in A. de Buck, E g y p t i a n I te a d h u jb o o k ,
Leiden, 1948, p. 122, lines 9-10).
(4) Greek xat; Latin e t , - q u e\ Swedish o c h , 6 a m t) the host of ‘ and’ -expressions in Hittite; etc, etc.

— 106 —
A n Or . 38 MISCELLANEOUS PARTICLES 12. 4

as ,II sees her, he parts “teeth” and laughs’, him . ahh . tph (125 : 53) ‘as
soon as she sees her brother’. So far him introduces only clauses that contain
the verb ph ‘to see’ (cf. also 137 : 21). Moreover, the him clause always pre-
cedes the main sentence.
hm ‘if’: (1 Aqht : 148) knp . nSrm (149) bel y(br . bel . ytbr . diy (150)
hmt . hm . tfpn . cl . qbr . bny ‘may Ba'l break the eagles’ wings, may Bacl
break their pinions, if they fly over my son’s grave’, (1 Aqht: 139) hm . it .
§mt . it (140) czm . abky ‘if there is fat (and) there is bone, I shall weep’,
(Krt:203) hm . hry . bly (204) iqh ‘if I may take Hry into my house’, hm .
attm . t$hn (52 : 39) ‘if the 2 women shout’ (cf. : 42-43), (49 : III : 2) whm .
hy . a[ltyn tfl] (3) whm . U • zbl . bc[l ar$] ‘and if Aliyn Ba'l is alive, yea if
the prince lord of earth exists’, whm . at . trgm (13 : 5, rev. 3) ‘and if thou
sayest’; cf. also 51 : IV : 61; 1001.: 5; 1002 : 62. See § 12. 5.
&=:ki ‘when, if, because, for, that’ (1)i (67 : 1 : 1 ) ktmh? . IIn . btn .
brh (2) tkly . btn . *qltn ‘when thou smitest L6tan the evil serpent, thou de-
stroyest the crooked serpent’, k . yra§ . (56 : 21) ‘if a horse tosses his head’,
k . yihd . ak!l (56: 17) ‘when (a horse) takes food’, k . yg*r [&&w] (66:23) ‘if
a horse “ roars’” , kbh . bit . Itbf (51 :III : 21) ‘because in it shame is seen',
(49 : 1 : 13) kmt . aliyn (14) tfl . khlq . zbl . bel (15) ar$ ‘because Aliyn Ba'l is
dead, because the prince, lord of earth, has perished’, (49:111:20) khy aliyn
bel (21) kit zbl bcl ar§ ‘for Aliyn Ba'l is alive, for the prince, lord of earth,
(still) exists’. Note also 1001:4. Object sentences (especially after yde) can
be introduced by k: (49 : III : 8) widc . khy . aliyn 6‘1 (9) kit zbl bel ar$ ‘and
I may know that Aliyn Ba'l is alive, that the prince, lord of earth, exists’,
yd‘t . krhmt (125 : 33) ‘I know that she is compassionate’; cf. 67 : V : 16-17.
For k ‘ that’-of-predication, cf. arbe . kdw . &[r<] (125 : 80) ‘4 (months) that Krt
is sick’. In the following, where the subject stands first, the k is strengthened
by - m : aqht . km . yib . Z/h[m] (3 Aqht: 29) ‘Aqht, when he sat down to eat ’.
Cf. § 9. 17.
*d = *»d- ‘ until ’: ed . t§be . tmth? ('nt: I I : 29) ‘ she smites until she is
satisfied ’, (52 : 67) ed . ilm . n*mm . ttlkn (68) M t$dn . pat . mdbr ‘ until the
good gods walk the field, (yea) tread the corners of the desert ’, ed . tStf • bk
(62 : 9) ‘until she is sated with weeping ’.
12.4. P a r tic le s of E x iste n c e & N o n e x iste n c e — Existence is
expressed by it — *it(6t) (Aram. ‫אית‬,‫איתי‬, cf. Heb. ‫) י^י‬: (cn t:III:1 7 ) rgm (18)
it ■ ty ‘ a word is to me = I have something to say ’; other examples are in
§ 12. 3 (under hm and k) ; cf. 1129 : 1 . Nonexistence is expressed by in = *da‫ ־‬: (var.

(q The uses ot ki are about the same as those of Heb. 3‫ •י‬For the variant spelling ky (with
mater lectionis) in some of the prose documents, cf. 1015: 7; 1021:13.

— 107 —
12.4 MISOBLLANBOUS PARTIOLBS An Or . 38

inn) : in . bt 16*/ (cn t : V : 46) ‘there is no house to Ba'l = Bacl has no house ’,
in . dcln (cn t : V : 41) ‘ there is none who is above him ’, in . Smt. in . c%m (1 Aqht :
117, 131) ‘there is no fat, there is no bone’, in bilm *nyh (126 : V : 12-18, 16,
19, 22) ‘none among the gods answers him’. Nonpossession can be expressed
by inn l- in the administrative texts; e. g., (306 : 1) mdfrtflm . dinn (2) msgm .
Ihm ‘ mdr&l- troops who have no msg's; cf. also 1035 : 4 -5 and § 13. 7.
Other negatives are:
/ = 1&: mnkm lyqh (1005 : 12) ‘nobody shall take’, USlhm (127 : 49) ‘thou
dost not feed’, ltdn (127:33) and Uipt (127 :34) ‘thou dost not judge’, (68 :
17) ez . ym lymk . lln@$n pnth . lydlp (18) tmnh ,Yamm is strong, he is not
vanquished, his joints do not quake, his frame does not collapse' , contrast the
positive and climactic parallel without neg. /: (68:25) yprsh . ym . yql (26)
lar$ . tn(j§n . pnth wydlp . tmnh ‘Yamm sprawls, falls to earth, his joints quake,
his frame collapses', Cf. 49 : I : 31-34; 1001 : 5; 1002 : 62 and J. Obermann,
JBL 65 1946 233-48. For negating a qualificative, note ISbm (1003 : 8)
‘ unfettered ' , 1 . 0 (1084 : 2) ‘ not good ’.
al =. *81, with 2nd person yaqtul, forms the neg. imperative (§ 9. 19): al .
tpl . al . tSthwy (137: 15) ‘do not fall, do not bow!’, al . trgm (125: 31) ‘ do
not tell!’, (51 : V III: 15) al (16) tqrb ‘do not draw near!’, al . tSt (51 : V : 126)
‘do not put!’, al . tSrgn (2 Aqht: VI :34) ‘do not deceive me!’, bn . al tbkn
(125:25) ‘my son, do not weep for me!’ || (126:25) al (26) tdm . ly ‘do not
mourn for me!’. Less often we find ,al yaqtul expressing neg. jussive (here
tantamount to neg. purpose clause): al . jfdbkm (51 : VIII : 17) ‘let him not
make you’ == ‘lest he make you’, [a]/ . y§m‘k (129 : 17) ‘let him not hear
thee!’; cf. 1 Aqht: 169-160. Accented and independent al may appear with
enclitic -m in ydbr . trmt . aim . qhny . §y . qhny (1001 :8) ‘T6r-M6t says:
“ Nay! Take us (twain), O Sy, take us (twain)----- ’” .
bl =. bal (Bteb. ‫ )?ל‬is used like in but with jussive force in: (1 Aqht: 44)
b l . U • bl rbb! (45) bl . Sr* . thmtm . bl (46) 0 n . q l . 6*/ ‘ let there be no dew no
showers, no surging' of the 2 Deeps, no goodness of BaTs voice ’ (1). Note that
bl means ‘without’ (like Heb. ‫ )בלי‬in : bl . spr (K rt: 90) ‘without number || bl
hg (Krt: 91) ‘without reckoning’, blmt (125 : 15) ‘ without death = immortality ’.
12. 5. In te r r o g a tiv e s :
iy = *6y6 (cf. Heb. ‫ ‘ ) איה‬where ? ’: (49 : IV : 28) iy . aliyn b'l (29) iy .
z b l. 6*/. ars ‘ where is Aliyn Bacl ; where is the prince, lord of earth ? ’ ( = : 39-40).
ik = ’Gk(a) (cf. Heb. ‫‘ ) איכה» אין‬how ?, why ? ’ : ik . m<jy . gpn . tougr
(*nt:III:33) ‘why have G. and U. come?’, (61:111:28) ik . tmgnn . rbt (29)
atrt . ym . tfayn (30) qnyt . ilm ‘why do ye beseech Lady ’A!ir(a)t of the

(‫)י‬ bl negates it in bl . it . bn . Ih (2 A q h t: 1 :21) ‘he surely has no son’.

— 108 —
A nOr. 38 MISCELLANEOUS PAATIOLES 12.6-7

sea or entreat the creatress o f the g o d s ? ’ (sim ilarly 5 1 : I I : 21, IV : 31, 32, etc.),
ik . al . yhdt . yrh (3 A q h t : obv. 9) ‘ how w ill he not renew the moon ?; w ith
pronominal suffix: (1010 : 6) iky . aSkn (6) c$m ‘ how can I deliver lo g s ? ’; w ith
en clitic -m : ikm . yrgm (1 2 5 :2 0 ) ‘ how can it be s a id ? ’.
h = ha (Heb. “f j ) m ay possibly occur in Mlm (20 :3 ) ‘ is there p e a c e ?
= is all w ell? = Heb. ‫ ם‬1‫ל‬#‫’ ה‬.
hm seems to introduce the second part of a double question like Heb.
51) : ‫ אם‬: III : 30) mgntm (31) tr . il . dpid . hm . fctm (32) bny . bnwt ‘have
ye besought T6r, god of mercy, or entreated the creator of creatures ? ’.
See § 12. 3.
lm — lama, (Heb. ‫ ‘ )למה‬w h y ? ’ : (137 : 24) I m <jltm . ilm . ri£[Z](25)A;m .
l%r . b r k tk m ‘ w hy, 0 gods, have y e lowered your heads on top o f your k n e e s? ’;
lm . tlik . cm y (1 0 1 0 :4 ) ‘w hy dost thou send (a m essage) to m e ? ’ ; cf. 5 1 :
V I I : 38-39.
m y ‘w h o ? ’ (126 : V : 10-20).
mh ‘ w hat? ’ (49 : I I : 13-14; 2 A q h t: V I : 36-36; ° n t: Y : 36).
12. 6. V o c a t i v e l & y — T he com m oner o f the vocative interjections
is l : ( 5 1 : V : 1 2 1 ) 8m* . l a l i y n . bel (122) b n . I r k b . er p t ‘hear, 0 A liy n Bacl;
perceive, O rider o f clou d s! ’ , lm* . Ib tlt . en t (3 A qht o b v . : 12 = 49 : III : 23)
‘ hear, O virgin cA n a t!’ and sim ilarly 49 : I : 16-17; 51 : V I : 4; 127 : 16, 41;
1 A q h t : 90. L ess frequent, but w ell attested, is y = y& as com m only in A rabic
and occasionally in Syr. and A ram .: y . n tfr ( 5 2 : 6 9 ) ‘0 g u a r d !’ , y$p8 (49 :
IV : 36, 46) ‘O SapS!’ , y .a d ad (52 : 4 3 ) ‘ 0 father, fa th er!’ , y b n (127 : 55) ‘ O
m y s o n ! ’ , y k r t ( 1 2 8 : 1 1 : 2 1 ) ‘ O K r t ! ’ . V ocatives not infrequently appear
w ithout any interjection; e. g., the exam ple in § 1 2 . 5 sub lm .
12. 7. E x p r e s s i o n s f o r ‘ 10, b e h o l d ! ’ . — ‘ Lo, b eh o ld !’ is expressed
in th e follow ing ways:
hn = Mnn6 (Heb. ‫) הנ ה‬: hn ym win (51 :V I : 24; 127 : 21-22; 2 A q h t:
I I : 32); ‘behold a day and a 2nd! ’ , (77 : 45) hn bpy sp(46)rhn ‘ behold in my
mouth is their c o u n tin g !’, (K rt: 118) whn . 8p§m (119) b§be ‘and behold a t
sunrise on the 7th (day)!’; to emphasize a sentence w ith a verb: whn . aitm
t$hn (52 :46) ‘ and 10 the two women shouted ’ , hn . 8ph . yitbd ( K r t : 24) ‘ 10
the family perished’.
h i m ay em phasize the sentence it introduces: h i {}Imt tld . b[n ] (77 : 7)
‘ 10 th e girl w ill bear a son ’ , (62 : 47) h i *$r (48) t h r r I ti t ‘ behold th e bird
roasts on the fir e ’ ( = : 4 1 ) ; -k ( = -kaf) (l) is som etim es suffixed: (2 A q h t : V :
12) hZA; . qU . y b lr i . h i . y$(13)rbc . q tft ‘ behold he brings a bow, behold he

(l) This may be the 2 sg. pron. suffix, as is known to be the case with the k of Eg. m.k
*look thou!, behold!’ (see mk, below).

— 109 —
12. 8-9 MISCELLANEOUS PARTICLES AnOr. 38

fetches an a r c ’ ; w ith adv. - h (§ 11. 1): h Ih U p l k lh . tr m h lh . t$h (52 : 32)


‘10 from below, 10 th ey rise, 10 th ey sh o u t’ . A lso - n m ay be added: (cn t :
II : 5) w h in . *n t . tm (6 )th $ ‘ and 10 *Anat fig h ts’ , w h in . en t . Ibth . tm fiy n (®nt:
II : 17) ‘ and 10 cA n at reaches her h o u se ’ .
m k : m k . b§be . $ n t ( 1 2 8 : 1 1 1 : 2 2 ) , behold in 7 y e a rs’ , m k M b ' (124: 25)
‘ behold on the 7 t h ’ , (Krt: 107) m k . SpSm (108) M b c ‘ behold at sunrise on the
7 t h ’ . It is hard to divorce Ugar. m k from E gyp tian m .k ‘ look thou (m.)!,
b e h o ld !’ (1). It m ay also be observed that m k is often used clim actically, when
hn, with the sam e m eaning, is used up to the clim ax.
1 2 . 8 . I n t e r j e c t i o n a l m y ‘ w o e ! ’ ? — P ossibly m y is to be rendered
‘ w o e ! ’ (instead of interrogative ‘ w h o ? ’) in (67 : V I : 23) m y . Urn . bn (24) dgn .
m y . hmlt . air (25) bel ‘ W oe, O people of D agon ’s son; woe, 0 m ultitudes of
’A£ru-Bacl a ! ’ . B u t the interpretation is not settled.
12. 9. S u f f i x e d - n — Further study is indicated for - n as suffixed in
hln (§ 12. 7) and th e prepositions emn and In (§§ 10. 10, 14). South Arabic is
o f particular interest for in it occur bn and In ‘ f rom’ , bedn beside bcd ‘a fter’ ,
ebrn beside ebr ‘ toward, against ’ , cmn beside em ‘ w ith ’ , nsrn beside nsr ‘ toward ’.
N ote also Phoen. ‫ ‘ ק‬in ’ (A zitaw add I I : 11; and Cooke, North-Semitie Inscrip•
tions te x t 33 : 1 in the lig h t o f 01'ientalia 21 1952 121). T he w idest-spread
example is A rab.-A ram .-Canaan. min (*) ‘ from ’ (cf. m ‘from ’).
CJg. has another possible exam ple of -n in wn ‘ and ’ : wn . in . bt . lbel
(61: IV : 50 = ®nt: V : 46) ‘ and Bacl has no house ’ . (Cf. wn en in 7 7 : 3 1 pro*
vided th at th e verb proves to be active G ‘ and he answered ’ rather than pas-
sive N w nen ‘ and it was an sw ered ’). It is tem p tin g to norm alize wan on the
assum ption that we are dealing w ith the sam e morpheme th at appears as the
waw conversive with yqtl in Heb. (e. g., ‫) ויקרא‬. T h at utterances m ay be begun
by this wan in U g. and Heb. strengthens the identification. T he fact th at
initial w- in wa/wan- does not sh ift to y- in N orthw est Sem itic indicates that
i t was not initial when the shift w- > y- took place. T his favors m y view
( Orientalia 22 1953 231) that wa- (< *iwa-) is related to (j ^ iw, an adverb o f
existence, frequently used before finite verbs in E g. T hat Sem. wa ‘ a n d ’ is
not originally a conjunction is clear from m any considerations (e. g., its use
in Arabic oaths such as & \} ‘ by A lla h ! ’); th at it is an inflectional elem ent in
‫־‬Oth ‘ and he w ill w a tc h ’ (as is also wan in ‫ ‘ ו י ^ ר‬and he w a tc h e d ’) is proved

f1) I ain inclined to regard this as a loan from Egyptian. There were Egyptians stationed
at Ugarit; cf. and mqrym (sub mgr) in Glossary. That Egyptian was on occasion spoken
in Ganaan is known from the Romance of Sinuhe.
(*) See § 10. 1 n. 1 for the lone occurrence of m(n) in Ugaritic.

— 110 —
A nOr. 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIO STRUCTURE 13.1-4

by the fact th at it is indispensable as part o f a compound tense, for if th e ‫ו‬


is dropt, the tense is changed. (A detailed study o f w aw conversive a gain st
the background o f /j ^ has been published in J N E S 12 1953 24 8 -5 2 by
G. D. Y oung.)‫״‬------------ N. B .: It is not y e t clear th at - n is of one origin in
(1) whin, (2) prepositions and (8) wn.

CHAPTER X III

SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE

13. 1. E a r l i e r T r e a t m e n t s — T he pioneer work on U g . sy n ta x by C.


Brockelm ann, ‘ Zur S yn tax der Sprache von U g a r it’ in Orientalia 10 1941
223-240, was revised in U H § § 1 3 . 1-96 and again in UM § § 1 3 . 1-96. T he
follow ing paragraphs constitute a new revision incorporating the evidence of
P R U II (i. e., tex ts 1001-1189).
13. 2. S i m p l e E x i s t e n t i a l S e n t e n c e s — T he sim plest sentences are
nom inal, expressing existen ce, and con sistin g o f only one member. T hus th e
introductory formula for m essages: thm N (67 : 1 : 1 2 ; 137 : 1 7 ; etc.) ‘ (this is) th e
m essage o f N (that fo llo w s:)’; cf. ( 5 1 : 1 : 1 3 ) m£& . il m%ll (14) hnh ‘ (there is)
th e dw elling o f ,II; (there is) the shelter o f his so n s ’ ; w ith apposition: yldy .
Sfyr . wU[m\ (52 : 53) ‘ (they are) m y chidren, D aw n and D usk ’ . N e x t com e
nom inal sentences o f tw o members each: ftpr ilmlk (62 : 53; 127 : left edge) ‘the
scribe is Ilm lk ’, mlkn . aliyn . bcl (cn t : V : 40) ‘ our k in g is A . B. ’, udm .
ytnt! . il (K rt: 135) ‘U dm is a g ift of Ml’ , §mk at N (68: 11-12, 19) ‘ th y nam e
is N ’ , attm . alt . il (52 : 42, 48) ‘ th e 2 wom en are the w ives o f Ml ’ , btm . b t .
il (52 : 45) ‘ the 2 girls are the daughters o f ,Il ’ ; with predicate fir st: ebdk . an
(67 : I I : 12) ‘I am th y sla v e ’ , ebdk . Ifl (137 : 36) ‘ Bacl is th y s la v e ’ J| bn . dgn .
asrkrn (: 37) ‘ D agan’s Son is your captive ’ . N om inal sentence w ith prep. 4■pro.
( = local adv.): bhm . qrnm (75 : I : 30) ‘horns are on th e m ’ ; the sam e plus
prep.+noun ( = adv. o f manner): (cn t : I I : 9) thth kkdrt . r/[£] (10) elh . kirbyrn
kp ‘ under her are heads like v u ltu re s; above her are hands like locusts ’ .
13. 3. E x i s t e n t i a l S e n t e n c e s w i t h it — A s the preceding para•
graph shows, existen ce may be expressed b y the m ere m ention of th e en tity .
H ow ever, existence m ay be indicated by it before the en tity : it . yn (52 : 74)
‘ there is w ine ’ , it . zbl (49 : I I I : 3) ‘ the prince exists ’ .
13. 4. P o s s e s s i o n — P ossession is indicated th u s: (1) w hat is possessed +
(2) it + (3) l ‘ t o ’ follow ed by the possessor: (cnt : III : 17) rgm (18) it . ly ‘ I
have a word ’ .

— I ll —
13. 5-14 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STBUOTUBB AnOr. 38

13. 6. S i m p l e N o n e x i s t e n c e — N on existence is indicated by in (var.


in n ; cf. §§ 12. 4; 13. 7): in . $ m t . in . *?7n (1 A q h t: 117) ‘ there is no fat; there
is no b o n e ’ , in . dclnh (61 : IV : 44) ‘ there is none who is above h i m ’ ; as
subject of a verb: in b ilm *nyh (126: V : 12-13, 16, 19, 22) ‘ none am ong the
gods answers h i m ’ .
13. 6. J u s s i v e N o n e x i s t e n c e — N on existence w ith jussive force is
expressed by bl: b l.fl.b l rbb! (1 A q h t:44) ‘ let there be no d e w ; let there be no rain ’.
13. 7. N o n p o s s e s s i o n — N onpossession is expressed b y : (1) in + (2)
subject + (3) l ‘ t o ’ follow ed by the nonpossessor: in . b t . lb*l (51 : IY : 60) ‘ Bacl
has no house ’ . In the adm inistrative texts, inn m ay appear instead of sim ple
in as in (306 : 1) inn (2) msgm . Ihm ‘ they have no msg's ’ (see also 1006 :
16-17 and § 12. 4). For a different m ethod of expressing nonpossession, note
(1) w + (2) l follow ed by nonpossessor + (3) inn + (4) subject: (1121 :6 ) w . I .
t t . mrkbtm (7) inn . utpt ‘ and 2 chariots have no q u iver’ . See also § 12. 4 n.
13. 8. C a s e S y s t e m — T he Sem itic three-case system is attested in
U garitic. In UG § 7. 8 I expressed the possibility th a t there m ight be the
beginnings o f th e breakdown of case distinctions. T he countenancing of this
possibility has been opposed by som e (e. g., Friedrich and R osenthal) but sup*
ported by others (e. g., Brockelm ann and Cassuto). It is m y present policy
to uphold w herever possible th e operation o f the case system . I t is not that
I deny the possibility of case confusion in Ugaritic; but at this stage o f U garitic
studies, w e should seek order and avoid chaos. Only when th e confusion o f
cases is established by clear exam ples should we reckon therew ith.
13. 9. O b v i o u s F e a t u r e s — For banalities such as nom. subjects, acc.
direct objects, and gen. after prepositions; see, for exam ple, cn t : V I : 15 ; 49 :
V I : 28; 68 : 12 respectively.
13. 10. D o u b l e A c c u s a t i v e — N ote the double acc.: (with &) in Spq .
Urn . kfr£m . y n (61 : V I :51) ‘ he caused th e throne gods to drink w in e ’. M. P ope
(rejecting adverbial -m ) m ay possibly be righ t in seein g double acc. in a S h lk
S btk dm m , Sbt d q n k m m cm (cu t : V : 3 2-33 : 3 A qht rev.: 11-12) ‘ I shall m ake
th y hoar-head run (with) blood, the grey of th y beard (with) g o r e ’ (JCS 5
1951 126-7). Cf. § 13. 45.
13. 11. A c c u s a t i v e o f M a t e r i a l — A cc. of m a ter ia l-w ith -w h ich :
(cn t : I I : 38) wtrh? (39) [£]/ . §mm . Smn . ar$ ‘ and she washes w ith the dew o f
heaven (and) fat o f e a r th ’.
13. 12. A c c u s a t i v e o f G o a l — On the acc. for goal-of-m otion, see § 9 . 61.
13. 13. D i r e c t i o n — D irection-tow ard can be indicated by -h ; usually
locally; less often, tem porally (§ 11. 1).
13. 14. E x h a u s t i v e S i n g u l a r — T he concept of ‘ every sin gle x ’ is
expressed by the sg. noun follow ed by its gen. pi.; bn$ bn§m ‘ every single

— 112 —
AnOR. 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13. 15-22

man ’ (lit. ‘ man o f men ’) or, w ith the sam e m eaning, m n k m n k r n (lit. ‘ any-
body o f anybodies ’) in th e legal formula bn§ b n # m (or m n k m n k m ) ly q h ‘ nobody
shall take (it aw ay from S o -a n d -so )’ ( 1 0 0 8 : 1 6 - 1 7 ; 1 0 0 9 :1 2 -1 3 ).
13. 15. D u a l — T he dual is in full use. A noun modified by th e nu-
meral ‘ 2 ’ m ust be in th e dual ( 1 0 9 : 3 etc.); also an adj. m odifying a dual
noun, m ust be dual ( 5 2 : 5 0 ; 1 1 9 : 7 , 18). See §§ 6. 9; 7. 4, 9; 8. 6; 9. 7, 15.
13. 16. L o g i c a l P l u r a l — T he sim ple stem' o f a noun m ay be used to
indicate plurality or indefinite n u m ber: (*nt: I I : 9) th th . k k d r t . ri[£] (10) *lh .
k ir b y m k p ‘ under her are heads like vultures; above her are hands like 10‫־‬
o u s ts’. Cf. H eb. ‫( תךלי הנפש והרכש קח־לך‬Gen. 1 4 : 21) ‘ g iv e m e th e people and
take th e possessions for th y s e lf’, ‫( לכלב תשלכון אתו‬E x. 2 2 : 3 0 ) ‘ y e shall throw
it to th e d o g s ’.
13. 17. P I . W o r d s f o r ‘ a D w e l l i n g ’ — Words for dw ellings are
often pi. in form though th ey are to be translated as s g . ; unm istakably b h tm
and probably m S k n t are d istin ct from sg. b t and * m S k n (Heb. ‫משכן‬, pi. ‫)משכנות‬,
and th ey show th at h k l m w ith sg. m eaning m ay also be pi. in form rather
than sg. + - m (1).
13. 18. N e e d f o r A w a r e n e s s o f D u a l — T he student o f U g . m ust
alw ays be prepared to detect duals (§ 8. 5). W hile, for exam ple, it is tem p tin g
to compare il m (2 A q h t : V : 20, 29), referring to K tr-w -H ss, w ith ‫ ‘ אלהים‬God ’
as plural o f m ajesty, the comparison is probably wrong. More lik ely ilm is
dual, referring to K ir and to H ss, the tw o nam es th at are fused into K lr-w -IJss.
13. 19. F e m i n i n e s w i t h o u t I n d i c a t o r — For f. nouns w ithou t f.
suffix, see § 8. 4.
1 3 .2 0 . A g r e e m e n t o f A d j e c t i v e s — Adj. m ust agree w ith noun
in case, number and gender (§ 8. 72).
13. 21. C o m p a r i s o n — There has not y e t appeared any special forma-
tion for the com parative or superlative degrees. T hus §{jrthn (128 : III : 16)
‘ th e you n gest o f th e m ’.
13. 22. R e p l a c e m e n t o f A d j e c t i v e b y G e n i t i v e — T he gen itiv e
o f an abstract noun can replace an adj.: a it . §dq h ( K r t : 12) || m t r h t . y S r h
(Krt :13) ‘ the wife o f his righteousness 11 th e bride o f his righ t ’ — ‘ his law ful
w ife || his rightful b rid e’. Cf. ‫ ‘ הר״קדשו‬the m ountain o f his h o lin e ss’ = ‘his
holy m ou n tain ’, etc. Som ew hat sim ilar is the addition o f U in the gen. to
express ‘ excellen t, superb’. T hus k h i il ‘a superb th r o n e ’ (< ‘ throne of a
g o d ’ = ‘ throne fit for a g o d ’), n*l il ‘ superb sh o e s’, ilh n il ‘ a superb ta b le ’,

(!) Note that the pi. ‫( בתיך‬Ex. 8 : 5, 6) = sg. 3‫יתף‬ (Ex. 7 : 28) ‘ thy house ’. Of. also pi.
for sg. ‘house’ (common in Homer). Such plurals may be due to the fact that the home consisted
of a number of buildings.

— 113 —
15
13. 23‫־‬25 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE A nOr . 38

etc. in 51 : 1 : 31-42. Cf. ‫( ארזי־אל‬Ps. 86 : 11) ‘lofty cedars’, ‫( הררי־אל‬Ps. 36 :


7) ‘lofty mountains’.
13.23. I n t e r c h a n g e of qtl & yqtl — There are examples of the qtl
and yqU aspects of the verb used interchangeably; cf. Ihm || yirm (127 : 20-21), etc.
13.24. S e q u e n c e of V e r b a l A s p e c t s — For sequence of aspects,
whereby qtl is followed by yqtl'8 and vice versa, see § 9. 4.
13.25. T r a n s i t i v e & I n t r a n s i t i v e F u n c t i o n s of qtl — With
transitive verbs, simple (see § 13. 29) qatala designates only past (*) action; the same
usually holds for intransitives: tb*(67:1:9, II: 13; 137:19) ‘they departed ’, (2 Aqht:
V : 31, 32) ‘he departed ’, yh d . bth. sgr (Krt: 96) ‘ the solitary man closed his house ’,
y$at.km . r# . np^h] (3 Aqht: 36) ‘ his soul went out like wind ’, bat{ 1 Aqht: 213, 214)
‘she has come’, a it. trh . wttft (Krt: 14) ‘a wife he wed and she departed’, m<jt
(49 : I I : 19) ‘I arrived’, mtfny (67 : V I : 5, 8) ‘ we twain arrived’, Sqlt (127 : 32)
‘thou didst cause to fall’, ap . an§ . zbl . bel (137 :38, 43) ‘thereupon Prince
Bacl got angry’, Stt (51 : I I : 8 = S&tat = ‫‘ )&זתוז‬she placed’, Stt (61:111:14
= ‫ ‘ ) עתיתי‬I drank ’, bnt (61: V I : 36) ‘ I have built ’, $h (51 : V I: 44) ‘he called/
invited’, Spq (51 : V I: 47-64) ‘he caused to drink’, ahd (76:11:6) ‘he held’ ,
pht (49 : V : 12-16) ‘I have seen’. Narration is sometimes expressed by a series
of qatal* forms: (Krt: 166) rkb (167) ikmm . hmt . nSa (168) [y]dh . Smmh . dbh
(169) lir . abh . il . Srd (170) [6*]/ . bdbhh ‘he rode the shoulders of the wall,
he lifted his hands heavenward, he sacrificed to the Bull, his father, Tl, he
presented Ba'l with his sacrifices ’, (cnt :1:2) ‘bd•. ali[yn] (3) b‫״‬l . sid . zb l.
b*l (4) ar$ ‘he served Aliyn Ba'l, honored the Prince Lord of Earth’, (61 :VI:
40) (bh . alpm [ap] (41) $in . Sql. irm ----- ‘he slaughtered great and small cattle,
he felled bulls----- ’, (51 : VI : 47) Spq Urn krm y[n] (48) §pq . ilht . hprt [yn]
----- ‘he caused the lamb gods to drink wine, he caused the ewe-lamb goddesses
to drink wine----- ’; similarly, 49 : V : 11-16; 51: V I : 44-46; 75 : I I : 51-52, 54-
65; 126 : III : 13-16; 2 Aqht: V : 31-32; cn t: IV : 84-86. Stative verbs appear
in the qatala more frequently than active verbs; e. g., anS (137 : 38, 43) ‘he got
angry’, anSt (3 Aqht: rev. 16 = *nt: V : 36) ‘thou art impetuous’, rhmt (126 : 33)
‘thou art merciful’, (61: V : 65 : 126 : I V : 3) ‘thou art wise’, rbt (51: V :
65) ‘thou art great’, mt (49 : I : 13; 67 : VI : 9) ‘he is dead’, mtt (67 :V : 17)
‘thou art dead’, hlq (49 : I : 14; 67 : VI : 10) ‘he has perished’, atm . bStm .

p) ‘P ast’ iiiclades all time down to the ‘instantaneous present’ bat excludes future time.
For qatala to express the instantaneous present, cf. (117:5) l .yn . umy (6) qlt ‘at the feet of my
mother I herewith bow down’, as also in other epistles (89 :11; 95 : 7). Similarly the preterite
is used after inanna ‘now’ in Acc. ( Orientalia 7 1938 219 § 5.8) and ‫ ל‬1?‫ לן‬after ‫ד׳‬3‫‘ ה‬behold (now)’
in Heb. See § 13. 26.

— 114 —
A n O r . 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13. 2 6 -3 0

wan . Snt (*nt: IV : 77) ‘ye are slow and I am fast’. As is discernible from
the meanings of the preceding stative forms, permanent qualities may be ex-
pressed by qatala forms of intransitive verbs. Several verbs (qm, ndd, ahd cf.
§ 13. 52) in the qatala can serve as auxiliaries meaning ‘to begin (to do
something)’, in which case they must be directly followed by the verb signify-
ing the action: (cnt : 1 : 4 ) qm, . y£r (6) wy!§lhmnh ‘ he began to serve and
feed him (cnt : 1 : 8 ) ndd (9) tfSr . wySqynh ‘he began to serve (drinks) and
quaff i t ’, qd§ . yuhdm . §b‘r (61 : IV : 16) ‘QdS began to shine/lead’.
13.26. Ins t a nt a ne o us Present — The instantaneous present is expres-
sed by qtl: (61: V : 88) tMr b'l (89) bSrtk . yblt ‘be informed, Ba'l, I bring thy
tidings’, hn . ibm . S$q ly (1012:27) ‘behold the enemy is exerting pressure
against me’ (cf. ‫‘ הנה נתתי‬behold I am giving’ as in Gen. 1:29; Jud. 1:2;
etc.); cf. § 13. 26 n. 1.
13. 27. Pre s ent of Verb of Percept ion — The qtl of |l~ydF with
present meaning is a different phenomenon. Thus ydct (125:33; 3 Aqht
rev.: 16) ‘I know’ is to be explained: ‘I have experienced’ > ‘I know’.
This semantic development is common in Semitic (e. g., twice in Gen. 29 : 6),
Egyptian (rh.n.k ‘thou knowest’) and Indo-European (Lat. novi, Gk. 018a
‘ I know ’).
13. 28. Optative — A wish may be expressed by qtl; as in Arabic
usage, optative qtl heads the sentence: hwt aht (76:11:20) ‘mayestthou live,
0 my sister! ’.
13.29. w C o n v e r s i v e — In prose, w . likt (1013 : 17) ‘and I
shall send’ (cf. § 9. 6) is a clear example of what is called in Heb. the
perfect with w conversive (e. g., ‫‘ וסלחתי‬and I shall send’). Even in Heb.
the w conversive typifies classical prose rather than the poetry. However, Ug.
poetry has one clear case of qtl with w conversive (continuing a command,
as often in Heb.): (67 : 1 : 24) wlhmm (x) . cm . ahy . Ihm (25) w$tt *m . a[r]y(y y)n
‘ and eat bread with my brothers and drink wine with my kin! ’.
13. 30. I n t e r c ha n g e a b l e Variants of y q tl — For preformative t-
beside y - in the 3 du. and 3 pi. of yqtl, see §§ 9. 14; 9. 16 sub 3 m. pi.
In these forms -n is frequently suffixed. (Cf. W. L. Moran, ‘ New Evidence on
Canaanite taqtvlfl{na)\ JCS 6 1961 33-35). So far no difference in meaning
has been established for these variants in Ug. (§ 9. 12).

(‫ )י‬To judge from Heb., the command may be inf. abs. or imperative, followed by
*oqtlt ( ‫ ;) וקטלת‬thus ‫ וקראת‬,‫( הלן‬Jer. 2 : 2) ‘ go and proclaim!‫( י‬with inf. abs.) o r-----‫וקראת‬------
‫( ואמרת‬Jer. 7 :2) ‘stand----- and proclaim------ and say!’ (with imperative).

— 115 —
1 3 .3 1 -3 2 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE A nOr. 38

IB. 31. Four Moods can be distinguished for yqtl: indicative yaqtulu, sub-
junctive yaqtula, jussive yaqtnl and energic yaqtulan(na), see §§ 9. 10, 11. It has
been shown in § 9. 12 that the modal forms are often interchanged without
affecting the meaning. The number of different ‫ ל״א‬verbs (on which we are
forced to depend for the vocalic suffixes) is disappointingly small. The com-
monest ‫ ל״א‬verb is n§’ but most of its forms occur in a few cliches that call
for narrative yaqtulu: y§u gh wy$h (passim) ‘he lifted his voice and shouted’,
t§u knp (76 : I I : 10, 11) ‘she lifted wing’, wy$u . enh (76 : I I : 13, 14) ‘and he
lifted his eyes’. The only forms of this verb that provide morphological and
semantic contrast are indicative ytSu (2 Aqht: V : 6) = yittafii’u ‘he lifted him-
self’ versus jussive yt§i (2:16, 17, 2B, 33, 34) = yitta&i’ ‘let it be carried’.
13. 32. Future and Past — Future time (with the exceptions of the
optative in § 13. 28 and w conversive in § 13. 29) is always expressed by yqtl:
(49 : I I I . 18) a£bn ank . wanhn (19) wtnh . birty . npS ‘I will sit and rest and my
soul will repose in my breast’ (= 2 Aqht: I I : 12-14 (1)), wabqt. align . bel (49 :
IV : 44) ‘and I shall search for Aliyn Bacl ’, §<jrthn . abkrn (128 : III :16) ‘I shall
elevate the youngest of them to first-born ’, (67 : V : 5) aU . n . bhrt (6) Urn . ar?
* ‘I’ll place him in the niche of the gods of the earth’ (cf. 1 Aqht: 112, 126-7,
140-1), ihtrS (126 : Y : 26) ‘ I shall work magic ’, hm it 8mt hm it e%m abky
waqbrnh (1 Aqht: 110-1, 139-40) ‘if there is fat, if there is bone, I shall weep
and bury him’, a£tk (3 Aqht: 17) ‘I shall place thee’, ap mtn rgmm argmk
(51 : 1 : 20-21 ; cf. 2 Aqht: V I : 39; cn t : IV : 75-76) ‘also another thing I shall tell
thee ’, tqh . mlk . *Imk (68 : 10) ‘ thou shalt take thine eternal dominion ’, a§hlk
§btk dram §bt dqnk mm'm (cnt: V : 32-33, cf.: 10-11) ‘I shall make thy hoar-
head run with blood, the grey of thy beard with gore’, tff> . bcl . l[hwty] (51:
V I : 2) ‘thou wilt come around, 0 Ba'l, to my words ’, etc.; also in subordinate
clauses: (Krt: 203) hm . hry . bty (204) iqh . ai’rb . gimt (205) h%ry . tnh . kfspm
(206) atn . w . tlith . hr$m ‘if I may take Hry to my house, yea cause the
girl to enter my court, I’ll pay twice her (price) in silver, even thrice her
(price) in gold’. By far the commonest way of expressing the past in poetry
is yqtl: tqh . ytpn (3 Aqht: 27) ‘she took Ytpn’, (127 :19) ttmc . m tt. hry (20)
tfbfy . imr ‘Lady Hry hearkened; she slaughtered a lamb’ (similarly 51 : IV : 8;
67 : V : 17-18; 128 : IV : 14-16; 1 Aqht: 54-55; 2 Aqht: V : 21-22), ylm kip zbl
ym (68: 16, cf. : 24-25) ‘it struck the shoulders of Prince Sea’, yrtq$ (68: 15)
‘it swooped’. There is no point in multiplying examples, precisely because
narrative yqtl is the most frequent type of verb in Ugaritic poetry and can
be found abundantly by random reading. In prose, however, past qtl contrasts
neatly with future yqtl (§ 9. 3).
(x) The fact that the identical wording (with two energies followed by a non-energic) occurs
in two different epics, shows how stereotyped such cliches can be.

— 116 —
A n Or . 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13. 33*3S

13.33. Mood — To determine the mood of narrative yqtl is usually


impossible. To be sure, the frequent (yft)Su gh wy?h ‘ (s)he lifted his/her voice
and shouted ’ is consistently yaqtnlu in the 8g.; but not always in the du. (§ 9.
12) nor presumably in the pi. (cf. 137 : 29 cited below). What little evidence
there is shows that in poetry the past is expressed by various moods of yqtl:
(62: 13) tSm*. nrt . ilm * SpS (14) tSu (*) aliyn . b'l ‘the luminary of the gods,
Sap§, hearkened, she lifted Aliyn Ba*l \ tSu (*) . ilm . raSthm (137 : 29) ‘ the gods
lifted their heads’, yd b$e tSlh (*) hrb bbSr tStn (4) (128 : IV : 24-26 = : V : 7-8)
‘she put a hand in the pot, she stuck a knife into the meat’, yaqtul (with
or without to-) can indicate past time (§ 9. 10); for ‫ ל״ה‬examples (without to-)
note: (1 Aqht: 176) ,d (177) S ift. Snt . ybk . laq(178)ht ‘until the 7th year he
wept for Aqht’, (49 : I : 28) apnk . cttr . *r? (29) tfl . b$rrt . $pn ‘thereupon
*Attar the terrible ascended into the heights of ?apan ’, (62 :8) trd . nrt (9)
ilm . SpS . ,d . tSbe . bk (10) tSt . kyn . udm*t ‘the luminary of the gods §ap§
descended; until she was sated with weeping, she drank tears like wine’.
13.34. A d v . P h r a s e + wyqtl — to + yqtl can be added to an initial
adverbial phrase: (Krt: 107) mk . SpSm (108) bSbc . wtmfiy . ludm (109) rbt!
‘behold at sunrise on the 7th, they reached Great Udm’, bnSi . enh . wtphn
(61 : II : 12) ‘on lifting her eyes, she saw’. In the light of § 13. 32, this
should not be described as w conversive since the examples are poetic (cf.
§§ 9• 2, 5).
13.36. N e g a t e d Verb — 14 negates the finite verb, be it qtl or indi-
cative yqtl. With qtl: bph rgm ly$a (68:6; 1 Aqht :76, 113, 141) ‘the word
had not gone out of his mouth’. With yqtl: (127 : 48) Ipnk (49) ItSlhm . ytm .
Ifd (50) k8lk . almnt ‘before thee, thou dost not feed the fatherless, nor the
widow behind thy back’, lamlk . b$rrt . §pn (49 : 1 : 34) ‘I cannot rule in the
heights of ?apin’, (Krt: 12) att . $dqh . lypq (13) mtrht . ySrh ‘his right wife
he did not get, nor his proper bride’. In many passages it is hard to decide
whether l stands for neg. 14 in a rhetorical question or for asseverative 14 (cf.
Heb., Acc.) or la (Arab.): Irgmt Ik (51 : VII : 23; 68 : 7-8) ‘have I not told
thee?’ or ‘I have indeed told thee!’, (1 Aqht: 194) Ifbrkn . alk . brkt (196)
tmrn . alkn mrrt ‘wilt thou not bless me so that I may go blest, yea strengthen
me so that I may go strengthened?’ or ‘surely thou wilt bless me so that------ !’;
similarly 128: I I : 14-16 : 2 Aqht: V I: 43; *nt: I I I : 35-37. The difficulty exists
precisely because no essential change in meaning is involved. Cf. § 9. 16.

C1) Corresponds to Arab, indicative.


(‫ )י‬Corresponds to Arab, subjunctive or jussive (for indie, in plur. ends in -na).
(*) Non-energic.
(4) Energic.

— 117 —
13. 3645 SYNTAX AND THB PORTTO STRUCTURE A nOr . 38

13.86. N e g a t e d J u s s i v e — Note the negative jussive ’al yaqtal tan-


tamount to a negative purpose clause in: (61 : VIII : 16) al (16) tqrb . Ibn .
ilm (17) mi . al . y‫״‬dbkm (18) kimr . bph ‘do not approach the god M6t, let
him not ( = lest he) make you like a lamb in his mouth! ’. The passage also
illustrates the negative imperative ’al taqtul (§§ 9. 10, 18).
13.37. A s s e v e r a t i o n — For bl and al (with yqtl) in the sense 01
‘surely’, see §§ 9. 18, 19. The force of idk al tin pnm (cf. variants in 61 : VIII :
1 IF., 10 ff.; 67 : V : 11 IF.; cn t : V I : 12 ff.) or idk Utn pnm (cf. variants in 49 :
I : 4 ff., IV : 31 ff.; 61 : IV : 20 ff., V : 84 ff., 67 : 1 : 9 ff., I I : 13 ff.; 76 : II : 8
ff.; 3 Aqht: rev. 20 ff.; Krt: 301 ff.; cn t : IV :81 ff.) is regularly asseverative:
‘then shalt thou surely set face----- ’. Yet it is hard to believe that al is not
neg. (like Heb. ‫ )אל‬here. Accordingly it seems that the var. I (in this formu-
la at least) is also neg. in a rhetorical question (cf. § 13. 36).
13.38. E n e r g i c — The energic yqtln is used widely and is not limited
to the cohortative or before suffixes. Note (2 Aqht: II : 24) dn . U . bth .
ymfiyn (26) yitql . dnil Ihklh ‘Dnil goes to his house, Dnil proceeds to his
palace’, (1 Aqht: 67) bkm . tmdln . *r (68) bkm . t$md . phi ‘ weeping she saddles
an ass, weeping she hitches a donkey’.
13.39. I n t e r c h a n g e of Moods — The illustrations in the preceding
paragraph show that the energic can be paralleled by non-energic synonyms
without change in meaning.So too are other moods interchanged; e. g., wyfn
— wtfny (§ 9. 12; see also § 9. 11). While the mood’s are not used with
rigidity, further study would doubtless reveal a number of subtleties.
13.40. P a s s i v e G. — For the internal passive G, see § 9. 31.
13.41. P a s s i v e & R e f l e x i v e N — With some verbs, N is the pas-
sive of G; with others, N is the reflexive of G (§ 9. 34).
13.42. Gt R e f l e x i v e — Gt provides the reflexive for G verbs and
therefore does not ordinarily take a direct object (§ 9. 33).
13.43. C a u s a t i v e — § is the regular conjugation for expressing the
causative (§ 9. 38).
13.44. Dat i ve Suf fi xes — Pronominal suffixes attached to finite verbs
may have dative force: (61 : I : 20) min . rgmm (21) argmk ‘something else
would I tell to thee’.
13.46. Acc usat i ve ( s) w i t h Verbs of Mo t i o n — Verbs implying
motion can take an accusative to indicate goal-of-motion: tIf . m$rm (1084 : 27)
‘departed for Egypt’; and, if transitive, can take two accusatives: the first,
direct object, and the second, goal-of-motion: aqrbk abh (77 : 27) ‘I shall cause
thee to approach her father ’; in conditional clause: (Krt: 203) hm . hry . bty
(204) iqh . a&rb . Qlmt (206) h%ry ‘if I may take Hx*y to my house, yea cause
the lassie to enter my court’. Cf. § 13. 10.

— 118 —
A nOr. 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13. 46*52

13.46. Prose Word Order — While there is considerable evidence for


the word-order in poetry (§§ 13. 106-118), there is much less for the word-
order in prose. There is a measure of freedom in the word-order of the prose
(as well as of the poetry). Subject-verb-object is attested in (1005:8) nqmd .
mlk . ugrt (9) ktb . spr hnd ‘Niqmad, King of. Ugarit, has written this do*
cument’. A prepositional phrase may precede the subject-verb-object: (1006 : 1)
l . ym hnd (2) iiv rkl. pdy (3) agdn ‘from this day, I. has redeemed A . ’. Note
subject-object-verb in c§r . ksdm . yd . Imdhm Iqh (170 :8) ‘ 10 k. took the hands
of their apprentices ( = guaranteed them)’ and similary (1012:33) mlk . Ifly . *
bn$ (34) bnny . emn (35) mlakty . hnd (36) ylak *my ‘let the king, my lord, send
to me a neutral man with this embassy of mine ’ (with one prepositional phrase
inserted after the object, and another after the verb). With no special word
for the subject, note object-verb-prepositional phrase in (1019 : 7) ir&t . arU (8)
lahy . lr*y ‘I ask a request of my brother, of my friend’.
13.47. A P r o s e N o m i n a l S e n t e n c e F or m u l a — The following
legal formula is a nominal sentence made of subject + local prepositional phrase
­‫ ­ו‬temporal prepositional phrase: (1005 : 13) spr . mlk . hnd (14) byd . $tq$lm
(15) *d elm ‘this document of the king is in the hand of S. for ever’.
13.48. P r o s e S e n t e n c e B e g i n n i n g wi t h Two P r e p o s i t i o n a l
P h r a s e s — The following opens with a pair of prepositional phrases of time,
after which come verb-subject[-object]: (1155 : 1) b . ym . hdt (2) b . yrh . pgrm .
(3) IgA . lflmedr — - - ‘on the day of the new moon, in the month of P., B.
took------- ’. Cf. 1156:1 ff.
13.49. P r o s e F o r m u l a F l a n k e d by T e m p o r a l P r e p o s i t i o n a l
P h r a s e s — In royal grants the king makes the gift ‘from this day’ and
‘forever’. Vividness is appropriately conveyed by placing ‘from this day’ at
the beginning, and ‘forever’ at the end. Thus (1008 : 1) lym . hnd (2) emttmr----
(4) — ytn (6) S d --------(11) [ ]yZn . nn (12) l . Ifln - -------(14) — *d clm ‘from
this day A. has given the field--------; he has given it to B . ------ forever’.
Cf. also 1009 : 1-12.
13. 50. Chiasm in Prose — Note the chiastic arrangement (verb-object)
-ap- (object-verb) in (1021 : 1) lyblt . hbim (2) ap ksphm (3) lyblt ‘I did not
bring the b•; also their silver I did not bring’.
13. 51. Final Posit ion of Verb with Emp ha t i c k ----- When em-
phatic k- is prefixed to a verb, the verb is always at the end of the clause
(§ 9. 17): il attm . kypt (52 : 39) (translated in § 9. 17), (62 : 1 : 14) Iktp (15) cn t .
ktSth ‘on the shoulders of cAnat she sets him’, (61 : V I I : 52) gm . Z^(53)[Zm]A .
b“l . ky§h ‘aloud Ba'l cries to his lads’; cf. 2 Aqht: V : 15 et passim.
13. 52. Verbs of In c e pt i o n — The verbs qwm, ndd and may
precede another verb to express inception (§ 13. 26). (In Heb. qwm, and in

— 119 —
13. 53-54 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STBUCTDBE A nOk. 38

Arab, qwm and ’hd are so used; in Eg., 'h'.n has this use, of which examples
abound in the Story of the Shipwrecked Sailor). Thus qrn . yfr (*nt: 1 : 4) ‘ he
began to serve’, qm . ybd (cnt:I:18) ‘he began to sing’; (*nt: 1 :8) ndd (9)
yfkr ‘he began to serve (drinks)’; yufjtdm . Stfr (61: I V : 16) ‘he began to lead/
shine’. The last example has yqtl followed by inf.; the others have qtl fol-
lowed by yqtl.
13. 63. Commands — The normal form for expressing commands is the
imperative (though quite often inf. abs. is also possible). Thus, (126 : IV : 4)
§h ngr U #§. il[£] (6) watlh . ngrt [1\lht ‘ call Tl’s carpenter IlS; IIS and his wife,
the carpentress of goddesses ’; et passim. The enclitic that is commonly added
to imperatives is m* (§ 9. 21). The reflex of the Heb. enclitic ‫ נא‬may possibly
be attested in q h n . wtSqyn. yn (1 Aqht :216) ‘take (f. sg.) and drink wine!’.
The ‫ ל״ה‬verbs usually show -y in forms expressing commands: wUy (62: 6)
‘and drink! ’, tny (67 : I I : 9; 137 : 16) ‘tell! ’, (1 Aqht: 191) qryru (*). ah. dbh .
lilm (192) P ly . d tft---- ‘offer, 0 my father, a sacrifice to the gods; offer up a
d . ---- !’. However, note ufl (Krt:74)‘and go up!’ without -y. If both
forms are imperative (without either being inf. abs.), the forms with -y may
reflect energic -a as in Heb. ‫ ‘ לכה‬g o ! ’ and Acc. pursa(m) (sg.!).
13. 64. Gt, § t & N 0 ommands — The Gt imperative does not often
occur alone; iStm* (127:42) ‘hearken!’ is rare. Somewhat more common is
its combination with the conjunctions w - andp-: wtqfi (127 : 42) ‘and be alert!’
and pStbm (49:1:2) ‘and muzzle!’. Normally the Gt and always the St im-
perative is replaced by the 2nd person of yqtl even in a series of imperatives:
Ijfn N hbr wql Uthwy wkbd hwt wrgm IN tny IN' (61: VIII: 26-32; *nt: V I :
18-23; cf. *nt: III :6-9; etc.) ‘at the feet of N bow and fall, prostrate your-
selves and honor him and say to N, yea declare to N'!’. Similarly in 68:13,
Gt trtqg ‘swoop!’ stands parallel to the imperatives gr§ ‘drive out!’ and him
‘strike!’. No N imperative has appeared so far; and in the only context
where it might have been expected, it is replaced by 2nd person yq tl: (Krt:
62) 1{r]t1),§. wtadm (63) rh$ [y]dk . amt (64) utftftk] *d ikva (65) erb [6?Z hmt] (66)
qh im[r bydk] ‘ wash and rouge (N) thyself, wash thj^ hands to the elbow, from
thy fingers to the shoulder; enter the shade of a tent, take a lamb in
thy hand!’.

(1I The fact that -m and m» (§ 9. 21) both follow commands (see also §13. 100) raises the
question whether there are not two such morphemes in Eg.; viz., a_a n»(y) and - n

(for references, see Oardiner, Eg. Oram. 185 § 250). Egyptologists take them to be the same,
and read m(y), bnt Ug. m* obliges as to consider the possibility of reading m» for - n

after imperatives. However, the tendency of - n to replace q n imposes caation upon as.

— 120 —
A n Or . 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13. 55-57

13. 65. I n f i n i t i v e s — Infinitives have both construct and absolute


uses (§ 9. 26).
13. 66. I n f i n i t i v e in A d v e r b i a l P h r a s e — Au inf. governed by a
preposition can yield an adverbial phrase: ( K r t : 60) bbk . krt (61) bdmc . n‘m n .
film (62) il ‘as K rt w ept; as Ncmn, lad of ’ll, shed te a rs ’. Only once does
the phrase w ith inf. follow the main v e rb : ( K r t : 37) wyqrb (38) bSaZ. krt ‘ and
he approached while asking K r t ’, and it is to be noted th a t ‘K r t ’ is in this
instance the object, not the subject. In the frequent cliche bnii enh wyph ‘on
lifting his eyes, he sa w ’, the order is never reversed. Cf. § 10. 4.
13. 67. U s e s o f I n f i n i t i v e A b s o l u t e — The inf. abs. ends in -u
(§ 9. 27); it may precede or follow the finite verb (§ 9. 27) of the same or
different root (§ 9. 30). I t can be used like an im perative (§ 9. 28) and as a
past tense (§ 9. 29). As frequently in A zitaw add’s Phoenician text, and spo-
radically in other Phoenician and 0. T. Hebrew documents, past tim e can be
expressed by the inf. abs. (ending in -u) followed by the nom. subject. The
complex is often, but not always, introduced by a conjunction: usually w-,
rarely p-. The subj. is frequently an independent personal pronoun, but it can
also be a noun. Usually the subject follows the inf. directly; however, an
accusative pro. suffix attached to the inf. may intervene(1). Exam ples: (52:
68) wng§ . hm . ntfr (69) m dr*. w§# hm . cm ntfr . mdr* . y . ntfr (70) n g r . pt[h]
wpth hw . pr§ bcdhm (71) vfrb . hm ‘ and they m et the guardian of the sown
and they called to the guardian of the sown: “ 0 guardian, guardian! Open!” .
And he opened an aperture for them and they en tered ’, p edb anfank (51 : I V :
59, 60) ‘and I m ade’, (49 : I I : 21) ngi . ank . align bel (22) edbnn (*) ank . (k)im r .
bpy (23) k l l i . btbrnqy . htu hw ‘ I m et Aliyn Bacl, I made him like a lamb in
my mouth, like a kid in my jaws he was crushed ’, (49 : V I : 30) yrxx . bn . il(m) .
m t . W . y (S l)d d . il .<}zr ‘the god Mdt was afraid; the hero, beloved of ’ll, was
scared ’, wen . r b t . atrt yin (49 : 1 : 25) ‘and Lady ’Atir(a)t of the sea answered ’,
ufn bn .U m .m t (4 9 :1 1 :1 3 ) ‘and the god Mdt answ ered’; sim ilarly 68 : 7 ;
(1021 :6) wtb* a n k . (7) em mlakth Smch ‘and I, obeying him, departed with his
embassy ’. See A. Herdner, GLECS V 1950 62 and C. H. Gordon, Orientalia
20 1951 499. Note also the examples in 1002 : 38, 41, 42, 50.

(!) The attachment of the suffix in Ug. and Phoen. is a fact, despite the long established
notion that nothing can be added to the inf. abs. In such cases it is better to bear with the
somewhat outmoded terminology than to compound confusion by new labels.
(*) For the acc. suff., see also Azitwadd (11:11): wbny ,nk ‘and I built i t ’. With nominal
subject: (67 :11:6) yraun . aliyn . b*l (7) tU . nn . rkb •rpt ‘ A. B. feared (§ 4. 5) him, the rider
of cloads was scared of him’, agreeing, as to word-order, with
A b -

/W W W
w Ir.n
uol <ry.l t my pen made me ‫( י‬Gardiner, Eg. Oram. § 84, cf. § 66).

— 121 —

16
13. 58 8XNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE A nOb . 38

13.58. S e q u e n c e o f V e r b s — The formulation of the sequence of


verbal forms is complicated by the fact th a t the mood of yqtl and the identity
of qtl (perf., partic., inf. abs., etc.) are generally not indicated orth©graphically.
Y et we may note a few types of verbal sequence with the understanding th a t
such sequences are often optional alternatives, not iron-clad necessities. In
narration, one or more qatala forms can be followed by 0 D e or more yqtl form s:
(51 : IV : 9) m d l. *r . $md . pfyl (10) S t. gpnm . d t . ksp (11) dt yrq . nqbnm (12) edb .
gpn . atnth (13) yhbq . qdS. wam rr (14) yStn . a tr t. Ib m t. cr (15) lysm sm t. b m t.
phi ‘he saddles an ass, hitches a donkey, places harness of silver, saddlery of
gold, he fixes the harness of her jennies; Qd§-w-Amrr embraces, sets ’A ti 1 ‫(׳‬a)t
on the back of the ass, on the beauty of the donkey’s b a c k ’, edb uhry m( .
ydh ymfi l -----(1 A q h t: 155-6, 162-3) ‘he prepared Destiny, the staff of his
hand; he proceeded t o ----- ’ (cf. K r t : 80-83); note also 51: I I : 8-11, I I I : 23-26,
V II: 21-22; 5 2 :3 7 ; 127:32-34; 1 A qht :75-76. The sequence yqtl-qtl also
occurs now and th e n : (2 A q h t: I I : 25) yStql d n il. Ihklh (26) erb . bbth .! ktrt ‘ Dnil
proceeds to his palace, the Kdfcar&t enter his house’ (cf. 1 A q h t. 170-2); and
with the same subject for all the verbs: ( K r t: 167) yrh§ . ydh . amth (158) u$bcth .
cd . tkm (169) erb . b%l . hmt . Iqh (160) i m r -----‘he washes his hands to the
elbow, (from) his fingers to the shoulder; he enters into the shade of a tent,
takes a lam b ---- ’, (67 : V : 17) ySmc . ally{!) . bel (18) yuhb . cglt . bdbr . p rt
(19) bSd . Shlm m t. Skb (20) em n h -----‘Aliy(!) Bacl hearkens, he loves a heifer
in Dbr, a cow in the fields of Shlmmt, be lies with h e r -----’, (1 2 1 :1 1 :6 )
tlkn . ym . wtn . ahr . S{pSm btl(\ (6) mfiy rpum . Igrnt ‘ they go a day and
a 2nd, after sunrise on the 3rd, the r. reach the threshing floors ’, (1 A qht :
114) knp . nSrm . b°l . y£br (115) bcl . tbr . dig hmt ‘ Bacl breaks the wings of
the eagles, Bacl breaks their pinions’. There is a tendency to use the same
verbal forms for parallel constructions: (128 : I I : 21) a(t (22) tqh btk . gimt t&rh
(23) ^?rk ‘ the woman thou takest to thy house, the girl thou causest to enter
th y c o u rt’ ; cf. 5 1 :1 1 :2 1 -2 3 , 111:28-29, 30-31; 126:81-82, 84-85; 1 A q h t:
194-6; 2 A qht : V I : 27-28. Y et there are exceptions: (51 :111:14) Stt (15)
[ )bllhny . qlt (16) bks . iStynh ‘ I have drunk [scorn] a t my table, shame
from a cup have I d ru n k ’; in subordinate clause: (127 : 20) t(bh . imr . wlhm
(21) m g t. wytrm ‘she slaughters a lamb th a t he may eat, a lambkin th a t he
may d in e ’. Sometimes there is a special reason for the change in form; thus
the general avoidance of qatala forms in Gt explains why yqtl is used for
Sbm, interrupting a long series of qatala forms: (cnt : III : 36) ImhSt . mdd (36)
il ym . Iklt nhr . il rbm (37) liStbm tnw . i£bm[n]^ (38) mM t . bin . cqltn ‘did
I not annihilate T l’s darling Yamm, destroy the great god N ahr; did I not
muzzle Tannin, I muzzled him, I annihilated the crooked serp en t’. A series
of verbs with imperative force will normally be im perative in form th ro u g h o u t:

— 122 —
A nOr. 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13. 59

(2 A q h t: Y : 16) Smc . mtt . duty . edb (17) im r . bphd . InpS . k[(\r (18)
. Ibrlt . hyn d(19)hr§ yd . Slhm . §8qy (20) ilm . sad . kbd . hmt ‘Hear, Lady
D nty! Prepare a lamb from the flock for the appetite of K tr-w -IJss for the
desire of H yn of the handicraft! Feed and give drink to the gods! Serve,
honor th e m !’; similarly 128 : IV : 4-6; 1 A qht :60-63; K rt: 76-77, 126-34 (1).
However, in such a series, the im perative is replaced by yqtl, usually for Gt
and always for N or passive G : (67 : Y : 13) Sa - - (14) - - w td (16) - - tfspr
‘ l i f t ----- and go down - - be counted ’ ( = 61 : V I I I : 5-8), ( K r t: 62) . wtadm
(63) rh $ ----- (65) cr b ------ (66) qh (*) - - (67) - - d[6A] ‘ wash and rouge thyself,
w a s h ----- enter - - take - - sacrifice!’, (51 : V I I I : 26) lpcn . mt (27) hbr . wql
(28) Uttywy . wk(29)bd hwt . m ‘gm (30) Ibn . ilm . m t (31) tny . lydd (32) il .
fizr ‘a t the feet of Mdt bend and fall, prostrate yourselves and honor him,
and say to T l’s beloved the h e ro ! ’ (cf. cn t : I I I : 6-9; * n t: V I : 18-22). However,
note the sequence of two genuine Gt imperatives in iitm [*] wtqfi (127 : 29-30, 42)
‘hearken and be a le rt!’. Rarely is an im perative continued by wtqtl: (1 A qht:
216) qfyn . wtSqyn . yn ‘take (f. sg.) and drink the w in e !’, (: 216) g(217)# .
p@t . wUqynh ‘take, 0 P g t, and drink i t ! ’.
13. 69. R e a l & A p p a r e n t S u b o r d i n a t i o n — In dealing with the
problems of subordinate clauses, it is necessary to bear in mind th a t even
though U garitic parataxis be rendered by English containing subordination, it
is still parataxis. Thus nothing is proved by translating (127 : 17) (bh . im r (18)
wilhm . m g t. w iirfm ‘ cook a lamb th a t I may eat, a lambkin th a t I may d in e ! ’.
W ithout the vowel endings (to differentiate the moods of m ain sentence from
subordinate clause), it is impossible to say w hether the construction is not
more faithfully rendered ‘cook a lamb and I shall e a t ; a lambkin, and I shall
d in e !’. The question of subordination is not a translational problem but an
internal problem of the original language. Thus in Acc., fiumma ‘i f ’ is not a
subordinating conjunc. because it introduces an indicative; but enfiina ‘ w h e n ’
is a subordinating conjunc. because it introduces a subjunctive; cf. Summa illik
‘if he w en t‘ vs. enftma illiku ‘when he w e n t’. B ut this could not be determin-
ed a priori from these two Acc. examples and their correct translations, it
Acc. were preserved only in consonantal skeleton. New texts (particularly
with instructive forms of ‫ ל״א‬verbs) may some day enable us to describe the
principles of Ug. subordination in more detail. Meanwhile we m ust be careful
not to assume th at the following passages have verbs of subordinate mood ju st
because of the goal clauses in the translation: (4 9 :1 1 1 :6 ) Smm . §mn . tmprn
(7) n h lm . tlk nbtm (8) wide . k h y . align bcl ‘let the heavens rain oil, the wadies

f1) Note that a neg. imperative inserted in such a series will be the normal al tqtl.
(*) With the root Iqfy, the imperative qk is orthographically distinct from the qatala and inf. abs.

— 123 —
13.60-67 8YNTAX a n d t h e p o e t ic structure A nOb . 38

run with honey so th a t I may know th a t A liyn Bacl is alive’, (52: 71) tn (72)
w n lh m -------- tn wntit(1) ‘ give th a t we may e a t ---------- give th a t we may
d rin k !’, y°l (‫ )י‬wySkb (2 A q h t r l : 15) ‘so th a t he could go up and lie dow n’.
13. 60. T e m p o r a l b 4‫ ־‬I n f i n i t i v e — The equivalent of a temporal
clause is often b + inf. (§ 9. 26).
13.61. S u b o r d i n a t e C l a u s e s — Subordinate clauses introduced by k -
can be temproal, conditional (*), causal, result, or object sentences (§ 12. 3).
For temporal clauses introduced by alyr ‘a fte r’ and film ‘as soon a s ’, see
§§ 11. 10; 12. 3. Such clauses always precede the main clause.
13.62. N e g a t i v e T e m p o r a l C l a u s e s — Two such clauses follow the
pattern of A:-subject + Z-verb in kf§m . Win . kabnm . Jthfggn (1001: rev. 13) ‘ when
the trees do not sp eak ; when the stones do not u tte r ’ (though the identity of
the verbs is clouded by an * th a t looks like a t , and an h with the extra ver-
tical wedge th a t makes it look like an i ; cf. § 4. 13).
13.63. C a u s a l C l a u s e — Causal k -: ( 4 9 : 1 : 1 1 ) tSmh ht (12) atrt wbnh
. i l t . «0$Z>(13)rZ . aryh . k m t . aliyn (14) &*Z. khlq . zbl . bcl (15) ar$ ‘let *Atir(a)t
rejoice now and her sons, the goddess and the band of her k i n ; because Aliyn
Bacl is dead, because the prince, lord of earth, has perished’.
13.64. R e s u l t C l a u s e — R esult clause with k-: (K rt:3 8 ) m n! (39)
krZ. kybky ‘ who is K rt th a t he should w eep?’.
13. 65. O b j e c t S e n t e n c e — k- may introduce an object sentence:
wide . khy . aliyn Ifl (49 : III :8) ‘so th a t I may know th a t Aliyn Ba'l is aliv e’,
(1015: 6) umy (7) tdf . ky . *rbt (8) Ipn . §p§ ‘may my m other know th a t I have
entered into the presence of the Sun ( = the K in g )’.
13. 66. P u r p o s i v e l + I n f i n i t i v e — Purpose can be expressed by
l + inf. (§ 9. 26).
13. 67. P u r p o s i v e yqtl — T h e p u r p o siv e form o f th e f in ite v e r b is
y q tl: h l k t . tdr& ( 8: 5) ‘ she went to seek ’. In the following it is specifically
yaqtul (yip) : ( K r t: 79) w yrd (80) k r t . 1g g t . edb (81) a k l . 1qryt (82) h ( t . 1b t . hbr
(83) yip . \h m ---- ‘ and K rt went down from the roof(s), he prepared food for
the town, wheat for the comm unity in order to bake b r e a d -----’. In
the following the first purposive yqtl is non-energic, whereas the second
is energic with climactic effect : (1 A qht : 194) Itbrkn . a/k bfkt (195)
tmrn■. alkn m rrt ‘ wilt thou not bless me so th a t I may go blest, yea strong-
then me so th a t I may go stren g th en ed ?’. Purposive yqtl may be preceded

(x) The absence of -y suggests the jussive.


(*) Again note lack of -y, suggesting jussive.
(*) In a hippie text (to be published by Virolleaud), w k . I . yhru . to . I . yttn . ssw (‘and
if the horse neither defecates nor urinates’) shows the indicative (in -u) in a !;-clause.

— 124 —
A n Or . 38 SYNTAX AND THB POETIC STRUCTURE 13. 68-69

by w -: (127 : 17) (bh . irnr (18) wilhm . m g t . witrlm ‘ slaughter a lamb th a t I


may eat, a lam bkin th a t 1 m ay d in e !’. I t is interesting to note th a t in the
execution of the preceding command, the first purposive verb is qtl and the
second is y q tl: (127 : 20) t(bh . im r . wlhm (21) m g t . w ytrm ‘she slaughtered a
lamb so th a t he m ight eat, a lambkin th a t he m ight d in e ’ unless we are
dealing with paratactic ‘she slaughtered a lamb and he ate, a lam bkin and
he d in ed ’. The graphic difficulty of distinguishing qtl and yqtl in ‫ ס״י‬verbs
makes it doubly hard to tell w hether the following is purposive or simply the
paratactic sequence of q t l -----y q tl: ( 5 1 : 1 : 24) hyn . ely . Imphm (2 6 ) ------ (26)
y$q . ksp . ySl(27)h . hr§ ‘ H yn went up to the b e llo w s-----(in order to pour out
silver and beat out gold)/(he poured out silver, he beat out gold) ’.
13.68. R e l a t i v e C l a u s e s — d - may introduce relative clauses; e. g.,
(61: V I I : 49) dym(50)lk . ° l . Urn . dlym ru (61) ilm . wn§m . dy§b{h2)[m] h m lt.
ar$ ‘(he) who will rule over gods, who will command gods and men, who
will dominate the m ultitudes of the earth ’. In the preceding, d - refers to the
su b ject; in the following, it refers to the o b ject: dl (*) . tde . §mm (cn t : I I I : 23)
‘which the heavens do not know ’, dybl (118:26) ‘which he b rin g s’, d . tSm‫״‬
(64:17) ‘which thou h e a re st’, d&ly (70: 1) ‘ which he erected ’, d&lyt (69 : 1)
‘which she erected ’. The relative may be omitted when a noun immediately
precedes the verb, regardless of whether the noun is logically subject or object(*):
(1 A q h t: 220) yd m h $ t. a[qh]t ^(221 )zr . tmh$ . alpm ‘ the hand th a t emote
A qht will smite thousands ’, (1 A q h t : 40) ‘rpt (42) tm(r . bq% . (1 . y(ll (42) IQribm *
‘clouds th a t rain in summer, dew th a t bedews the g rap es’, (128 : I I : 21) a[tt tq]h
. y k r t . ait (22) tqh btk . tflmt ti°rb (23) hzrk . tld . §be bnm Ik ‘ the wife (whom)
thou takest, 0 Ki t, the wife thou takest to thy house, the girl thou causest
to enter thy court, will bear thee 7 so n s’. As in Heb., such nouns may
stand in the construct before the verb(*); cf. Acc. awat iqbfi ‘ the word he spoke ’.
The relative can also be omitted before a sentence consisting of subject and
verb regardless of whether the subject precedes the v e rb : (cn t : I I : 40) fi . im m
. tskh (41) [r6&] tskh . kbkbm ‘dew th a t the heavens pour, rain th a t the stars p o u r’.
13. 69. R e l a t i v e d w i t h F e m i n i n e A n t e c e d e n t — Because the
antecedent is f. (Lady Hry), it used to be thought th a t d - is causal in d b h lm y.
i[Z] ytn ( K r t: 296) ‘ because ’ll gave in my dream ’. However, ‘ whom ’ll gave 1

(1) The reversed order of relative d and negative l appears in (1029:14) fam Sm. I. mit (15)
bni. I . d . (16) yikb . I . b . bt . mlk ‘ 150
men who do not lodge (i. e.,) not in the house of the
king* which seems to be synonymous with the shorter variant (1028:13) bni (14) l . b .bt . mlk
‘ men not in the house of the king’.
(*) Contrast English where the relative can be omitted only if it refers to the obj.; thus it
can be left out in ‘ the man (whom) I saw went away’ but not in ‘the man who saw went away’.
(*) Examples are in Gen. 1 :1 ; Is. 29:1; Hos. 1 : 2 ; P8. 90:15 (bis); etc.

— 125 —
13. 70-74 SYNTAX AND THE POBTIO STRUCTURE A nOr . 38

in my d ream ’ is smoother and derives some support from K r t : 291 in the light
of M. T sevat’s (JN ES 12 1953 62) observation th a t d- is f. in (77 :37) nkl
urib (38) da§r ‘(it is) N ikkal-w -Ib (of) whom I sin g ’. It is worth consider-
ing whether dbatk (7 6 :1 1 :2 1 , 22) means ‘thou (f.) to whom I have com e’
( = Heb. ‫ ) זו באתיןי‬though the interpretation is not clear, and A istleitner (Die
mythologischen und kultischen Texte aus Ras Schamra 63), whose translation
(‘dass ich dir beiw ohne’) proposes bat = ‫פאתי‬, takes d not as a relative but
as introducing a purpose clause.
13.70. R e l a t i v e C l a u s e o f C o m p a r i s o n & P o s s e s s i o n — d k -
introduces a comparative and possessive relative clause i n : ( K r t : 288) tn (289)
ly . mtf . hry (290) nemt . Sbfy . bkrk (291) d kn cm . ent (292) nemh ‘ give me Lady
H ry, the best of the harem of th y first-born, whose loveliness is as the loveli-
ness of cA n a t’. Observe th a t the possessive relative ‘w hose’ is produced by
d - a t the beginning, and the gen. pro. a t the end of the clause.
13.71. I n d e p e n d e n t d + N o u n — Like Arabic y>, d used with a
noun independently in delmk (6 7 :1 1 :1 2 ) ‘thine of-eternity = thine eternal
slav e’. Cf. ‘he of the two horns = Alexander the G re a t’.
13. 72. S u b s t a n t i v i z e d R e l a t i v e C l a u s e — The relative clause
(without antecedent) is substantivized i n : p d . in . bbty . ttn ( K r t : 142) ‘ but
w ho-is-not-in-m y-house shalt thou give’, (51 : V I I : 49) ahdy . dym(hO)lk . *I .
ilm ‘I alone am he-w ho-w ill-rule-over-gods’.
13. 73. C o m p o u n d A d j e c t i v e I n t r o d u c e d b y d — When a quali-
ticative consists of more than one word, it tends to be introduced by d ; thus
the negative of yn . (b (1084 : 1, etc.) ‘ good wine ’ is yn . d . 1 . 0 (1084 : 2, etc.)
‘ wine th a t is not good ’ (1).
13.74. A d j e c t i v a l i z e d R e l a t i v e C l a u s e o f P r i v a t i o n or Ne-
g a t i o n — d + bl + n o u n is the p a tte r n o f th e fo llo w in g a d je c tiv a liz e d r e la tiv e
clauses of privation : ( K r t : 90) dbl . spr || (91) dbl . hg ‘who are without num-
ber || who are w ithout reckoning’. A nother pattern is (d 4‫ ־‬in) + (x ) + (l + pro.):
* (2 A q h t: 1 : 19) [mt] hrnm y . din . bh . Ih (20) km . ahh ‘the man of H. who
has no son like his b ro th ers’ (in the prose adm inistrative texts, dinn may
replace din in this construction; e. g., 306:1-2). Cf. also the pattern (in) +
(d + el + pro.) for an adjectivalized relative clause of negation : (cn t : V : 40) tpfn
(41) in . deln ‘our peerless ru le r’ ( < ‘ our ruler, above whom there is n o n e’);
contrast the var. tp(n . win . d*lnh (51 : I V : 44) ‘our ruler, and there is none
above him ’ where the presence of w gives w hat follows, the appearance of an 1

(1) The distinction need not be between ‘ vin 8up6rieur’ and ‘vin ordinaire’. It is likely
that yn . tb was flavored with resin, while yn . A . I . tb was not. The Greeks are still fond
of resinated wine.

— 126 —
A nOr . 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13. 75«82

independent nominal sentence, though actually w is an existential adverb


(§ 12. 9) introducing a circum stantial clause.
13. 75. C i r c u m l o c u t i o n f o r C o n s t r u c t + G e n i t i v e — d- m ay be
used in a circumlocution for the construct and g e n .: l(pn . il . dpid (49 : I I I : 4)
‘ Lfpn god of mercy ’, drkt dt drdrk (68 : 10) *the dominion of thine eternity =
thine eternal dominion adrm . dbgrn (2 A q h t : V : 7) 4the a. th a t are in the
threshing floor’. However, it should be observed th a t these particular express-
ions in the literary tablets tend never to be used w ithout d(t). In the admi-
nistrative list 1079, d is used repeatedly in the circumlocution for the con*
struct and g e n .; e. g., t i t . M . d .bn . m lkyy (1079 : 3) 43 fields of B. M. see also
lines 2, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15. The scribe of 1111 uses the construct or the cir-
cumlocutiou interchangeably; [e£ ]r. pldm . d t . §ert (1111:8) = eSr . pld . S’rt
(1111 : 12) 410 p. garm ents of w ool’.
13. 76. I n t e r r o g a t i v e — h - may possibly introduce a direct question
(§ 12. 5); but, even if so, it is rare. Questions were usually indicated only by
intonation th a t could not be represented orthographically.
13. 77. D o u b l e q u e s t i o n - hm introduces the second p a rt of a double
question (§ 12. 5).
13. 78. C o n d i t i o n — hm can introduce a condition: hm . I'pn . el . qbr .
bny (1 A q h t : 150) ‘if they fly over the grave of my so n ’, (1 A q h t : 110) hm .
i t . S m t. hm *[<£] (111) *%m 4if there is fat, if there is bone’, hm . I . atn . bty .
Ih (1002 : 62) 4if I will not give my house to h im ’. See § 12. 3.
13.79. C o n d i t i o n w i t h o u t M o r p h o l o g i c I n d i c a t o r — In the
following, the protasis has no indicator while the apodosis is introduced by w :
(1019 : 12) ttn . win (13) wlttn (14) wal ttn (15) tn ks yn (16) wiMn ‘if thou
wouldst give, then give; and if thou wouldst not give, then don’t give; give
a cup of wine and I ’ll drink i t ’. The m eaning is 4I ’ll accept w hatever you
give, be it little or m u ch ’.
13. 80. T e m p o r a l C l a u s e — Temporal clauses are ordinarily introduced
by k (§ 12. 3). The following, however, is an indefinite tem poral clause w ith
the verb throw n to the end after em phatic k (§ 13. 51), followed by the main
sentence introduced by w : (1107 : 5) mlM . trmnm (6) k . yin . w . b . bt (7)
m lk . mlb§ (8) ytn . Ihm 4whenever the clothes of the courtiers grows old, (new)
clothes shall be given to them from the house of the k in g ’.
13.81. I n d e p e n d e n t P r o n o u n f o r E m p h a s i z i n g P o s s e s s i o n —
For emphasis the independent personal pronoun may be added after a posses*
sive suffix: Smk at (6 8 :1 1 , 19) 4th y name, even th in e ’ .
13.82. R h e t o r i c a l Q u e s t i o n w i t h Im — Im ank 4why I ? ’ express-
es the idea 4w hat have I to do w ith ?, w hat need have I of? ’ ; 1m . ank , ksp
( K r t : 282) ‘w hat need have I of silv er? ’.

— 127 —
13. 83-93 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE A nO r. 38

13.83. R h e t o r i c a l Q u e s t i o n w i t h m n — mn ‘who? ’ has the force


of ‘ why (dost thou) ? ’ and is followed by the verb in the 3rd person i n : ( K r t: 38)
m n ! (39) k r t . kybky ‘ who is K. th a t he weeps? = why dost thou weep, 0 K i t ? ’.
13. 84. G e n e r a l R e l a t i v e — The general relative pronoun mnm precedes
the noun (54 :16 ; 89 : 13 ; 95 : 16; § 6. 29)
13.85. P o l i t e P l u r a l — For the possible polite pi., see 1 A q h t: 86.
Y et see § 13. 102.
13.86. P o l i t e S u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r P r o n o u n s — See texts 89 and
95 for the polite use of ebd ‘ servant ’ with 2nd or 3rd pers. pro. suf. Note also
in tex t 138 th a t words designating close family relationships (e. g., father,
brother, s o n ; and presum ably also mother, sister, daughter) are used as polite
substitutes for the pronoun. This imposes the greatest caution in interpreting
such relationships literally in the epistles.
13.87. U n i t y w i t h o u t N u m e r a l — Unity may be expressed by a
sg. noun w ithout any num eral (texts 111 and 321, etc.). See § 7. 3.
13.88. D u a l i t y w i t h o u t N u m e r a l — Duality may be expressed by
a noun in the dual without any num eral (308: passim ; etc.). See § 7. 4.
13.89. N u m e r a l s w i t h o u t -tjh — The cardinals from ‘2 ’ to ‘ 10 ’
without - t may be used for either gender. Also cSr may appear for cSrh as the second
element in the num erals from ‘ 12’ to ‘ 19’. See § 7. 6. (For loss of -h, cf. § 5. 39).
13.90. T e n s + U n i t s w i t h o u t w — The conjunction is not used to
join tens with units (§ 7. 39).
13.91. U n i t s + l + T e n s — U nits may be added to tens w ith l ‘t o ’
according to the pattern tn . l‘$rm ‘ 2 2 ’ (GLECS II 20; 51 : V II : 9 ; 67 : V :
20-21; 76 : I I : 49-50; § 7. 69).
13.92. S g . w i t h N u m . o v e r ‘ 10’ — The noun of the thing counted
may be in the sg. w ith num erals above ‘ 10’ (93 : 6, 10, etc.; § 7. 19). However,
there are exceptions: e. g., mit ti§rm (120:7) vs. tltm . almg (120:8).
13.93. O r d e r o f C a r d i n a l w i t h N o u n — The cardinal can precede
or follow the thing counted. Thus §bc pam t (5 : 7, 26) = pam t §bc (3 : 52) ‘ 7
tim e s’. In adm inistrative texts the ideographic numerals always follow the
noun. A sim ilar set of facts in Eg. has evoked from Gardiner (Eg. Gram. 193
§ 261) the view th a t the idiom called for the number first, but th a t in imita-
tion of accounting ledgers with ideographic num etals, the usage with the
num ber following crept into the language. However, I have heard illiterate
speakers of Arabic, who are totally ignorant of any form of bookkeeping and
writing, use the idiom with num eral last, especially in listing items. Accord*
ingly, the influence of bookkeeping on w riting is highly questionable for
explaining pam t ibe beside 8bc pam t in Ug. (or the corresponding situation in
Eg.); cf. § 7. 15.

— 128 —
An Or. 38 8YNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13. 94-103

18.94. N u m e r a l w i t h N o u n o f P o s s e s s o r — The formula ‘ 1 for


N ’ may occur ju st th a t way (aht . / . 'ttr t; see 19: 16) or as ‘N, 1 ’ (pdr .
mlk . afyd; see 29: 8). Cf. § 7.7.
13. 95. O r d i n a l b e f o r e N o u n — The ordinal precedes the noun (K rt:
106-107; §§ 7. 44-45).
13.96. N o u n o f M a t e r i a l a f t e r M e a s u r e s — The noun of m aterial
follows the indication of m easure w ithout a preposition (12:2, 8; 120:15-16; etc.).
13.97. P r e p o s i t i o n s — The syntax of prepositions is covered in detail
in Chap. X. We need add only a few supplem entary observations here. Two
parts of the body, ri§ ‘h e a d ’ and %r ‘ b ack ’, may follow l to form compound
prepositions: lri§ (*) (52 : 31; 2 A q h t : V I : 37), Iqr (61 : I I : 9; 67 : V : 14; 2 A q h t:
V I : 37; K rt: 74, 166); also note 6?r (5 1 :1 :8 5 ). The preposition m ay be re-
peated before each noun, even when the nouns refer to the same thing or
person: (138: 18) laljk (19) ladnk ‘to th y brother, th y s ire ’.
13.98. O m i s s i o n o f 6 w i t h b t — On the question of bt = bbt, see
§§ 1 0 .4 ; 11.8.
13. 99. D i v e r s i t y o f -ro — W hat we call enclitic - to is the convergence
of several different morphemes (§ 11.4).
13. 100. Verbs w ith - to — Note - to with verbs: (77 : 18) ib t'rbm 66/1(19)
th ‘let Ib come into his house’, ( 6 1 : 1 : 2 8 ) hr§ . y$q(29)m . Irbbt ‘he pours
out gold by the m yriads’ ; with im perative: Ihm . hm Uym (61 :IV :36) ‘eat
or d rin k !’; w ith participle: nhtrn . h(k . m m nnm . to/ ydk (52:47) ‘th y staff
is falling, the rod of th y hand is dropping ’. See § 9. 27 for -w with inf. abs.
13. 101. C o n s t r u c t w i t h - t o ------ to can be interposed between a con-
stru ct and a genitive: (77 :26) lhtn(2Q)m . bel ‘0 son-in-law of Bacl ’, bnm . il
(126: 10) ‘son of ’l l ’, tkmrn . hmt ( K r t : 76, 167) ‘the shoulder(s) of the w all’;
and m ay be added to a preposition (§§ 10. 2, 4, 9, 10, 14).
13.102. A m b i g u i t i e s d u e t o - to — E nclitic - to occasions us ortho-
graphic difficulties, for it makes a f. sg./pl. look like a f. d u .; and it makes a
m. sg. look like m. du./pl.
13.103. P l e o n a s t i c w - vs. A s y n d e t o n — Pleonastic w - (as in other
Sem. languages) is explicable against the background of its origin as an E gypto-
Sem itic existential adverb (§ 12.9); e. g., (51 : V : 107) U . alp . qdmh . m ra
(108) wtk . pnh ‘he sets an ox before him, a fatling in front of him (lit., a
fatling, it is [in the] m idst of his face)’ . On the other hand, note the asyn-
deton in the title rb khnm rb nqdm ‘ chief of the priests (and) chief of the
h erdsm en’, reflecting the original Egypto-Sem itic (and, for th a t m atter, Nostratic)

0) Of. (if the reading and restoration are right) epistolary [Zr]Uf . r«y (100:1) ‘ to my
M end’, reflected in Accadian epistles from Ugarit as ana mufrbi N.

— 129 —

17
13.104-105 SYNTAX AND THB POETIO STRUCTURE A nOr . 38

lack of a conjunction (§ 12. 1). For asyndetic combinations of verbs, note


(1003 : 8) tnfn . libm (9) tit . irks ‘ she sets (and) binds unfettered Tannin ’ .
13.104. A d v e r b s & P a r t i c l e s — The use of adverbs is discussed in
Chap. X I and of miscellaneous particles in Chap. X II.
13. 106. E l l i p s i s — Ellipsis deserves a special study but only a few of
its m anifestations will be illustrated here. W ith numerals, the noun can be
om itted if it is self understood to the listener or reader: arb't (308:20) ‘4
(shekels)’, rbt hr§ (77:20-21) ‘ 10,000 (shekels) of g o ld ’, tmn (1 A q h t : 43) ‘ 8
(years) ’, idt (3 :4 6 ) ‘ 6th (day) ’. The first preposition in ‘ from X to Y ’ ex•
pressions may be om itted; thus u$bcth . ed . tkm (Krt : 158) ‘ (from) his fingers
to the shoulder’, en t ----- p'lm h (1 A q h t : 154) ‘(from) now and unto e te rn ity ’ (1).
B ut the most common type of ellipsis is the omission of a word in the second
member of a parallelistic combination, when the meaning is clear from the
fuller statem ent in the first m em ber; e. g., (127 : 11) npih . llhm . tpth (12)
brlth . Itrm ‘she opens his desire to eat, his appetite to d in e ’. Many further
examples will be cited later in this chapter. This phenomenon is attested in
other literatures of the ancient Near E ast; thus it is common in Egyptian
parallelistic utterances (Erman, Ag. Gram. 4 ed., § 498 a). The principle of
ellipsis in the poetry is the converse of (and goes hand in hand with) the
principle of ballast variants (§ 13. 116). The extent (or even existence) of the
ellipsis in the second member is limited by the difference in ballast value be*
tween the parallel synonyms. Thus the differential between the short ym and
the appreciably heavier ip( nhr leaves no room in the second member for a
synonym of th m :
thm ym b*lkm ‘The message of Yamm, your lord
adnkm tpt nhr (137 : 17, 33-34) Of your master, Judge River’
On the other hand, the sm aller proportional difference between bn ilm m t
and the synonymous ydd bn it @zr leaves room for hwt to parallel th m :
(67 : 1 : 12) thm bn ilm (13) m t ‘The message of the god Mdt
h w t . ydd . bn it (14) @zr The word of the hero, beloved of
the gods’

(*) This construction is common in Eg.; for example, the colophon of Sinuhe: — <=>
|
£ (j (J (J c=~=> fat.f r phwyjy ml gmyt m86 4(from) its begioning to
its end according to what is found in the te x t9. The absence of the first preposition is thus an
Egypto-Semitic feature, and 4ellipsis9 may be a misleading term, for the first preposition was
never there to drop out.

— 130 —
ANOR. 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIO STRUCTURE 13. 106108

13. 106. P r o s e C o r p u s — We have relatively little evidence for the


prose of U garit. Most of the texts are poetic, outside of the adm inistrative
and other lists which do not provide us with much connected prose. I t is true
th a t there is an interesting body of rath e r short epistles, and royal grants
generally in epistolary form: 13, 18, 20, 21, 32, 54, 89, 95, 100, 101, 117, 138,
and 1006-1023, but not all of these are well preserved or satisfactorily inter-
preted. Furtherm ore, even the modest residue m ust be used cautiously for the
letters and grants are formulaic (1). In no case is the epistolary or legal style
identical with the normal prose. The nature as well as the paucity of the
data make it precarious to attem pt a comprehensive description of U garitic prose.
13.107. P o e t i c F o r m & S e n t e n c e S t r u c t u r e — Since our m aterial
is nearly all poetic, we cannot easily separate sentence structure from poetic
form. A t the outset it should be stated th a t unit-lengths, types of parallelism,
strophic structures etc. can be duplicated in the literatures of Mesopotamia,
Asia Minor, Phoenicia, E gypt and especially in the poetic books of the Old
Testam ent. The poetic structure of U garitic corrects some of the current
misconceptions regarding Heb. poetry (*).
13. 108. P a r a l l e l i s m a n d U n i t - L e n g t h — The essential feature of
the poetry is the repetition of m eaning in parallel form. Accordingly, even a
simple utterance like tp r . [w\tdu (1 Aqht : 134) ‘m ayest thou flee and fly ’ is
to be classified as poetry. By the same token, poetic effect m ay be attained
by the mere listing of parallel item s: (67 : V : 7) *rptk . rhk . mdlk (8) m frtk ‘thy
clouds, th y wind, thy m., th y rains ’. However, the paralleled unit is generally
longer than a single word. Thus there m ay be two words to each u n it:
in . 8 m t. ‘there is no fat,
in . *?m (1 A q h t: 117) there is no bone ’
(77 : 20) alp ksp . ‘a thousand (shekels) of silver,
torbt A(21)r$ and a m yriad of g o ld ’

(1l E. g., (89:1) I . mlkt (2) adty (3) rgm (4) tfym. tlmyn ‘To the queen, my lady, speak: “ The
message of Tlmyn” ’ imitates Acc. ana Sarri b61i-ya qibi-ma ununa N-ma (80 too 95 and, with the
inverted order also attested in Acc., cf. 54).
(*) Structurally different verses and strophes occur constantly within the same poem in
Ugaritic. It is therefore unsound to attribute similar variety in the Bible to the blending of
different poems. Perhaps the most important fact to bear in mind is that the poets of the an-
cient Near East (e. g., Acc., Ug.,Heb., Eg.) did not know of exact meter. Therefore emendations
metri causa are pure whimsy. The evidence can be found in G. D. Young’s treatment of the
subject in JNES 9 1950 124-133. All that is asked of those who maintain metric hypotheses
is to state their metric formulae and to demonstrate that the formulae fit the texts. Instead
they emend the texts to fit their hypotheses. A sure sign of error is the constant need to prop
up a hypothesis with more hypotheses.

— 131 —
13. 109 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE A nOr . 38

kf$m . W inn ‘ when the trees do not speak, ’


kabnm . Ithfggn (1001 :rev. IB) ‘when the stones do not u tte r ’
The most frequent length of the paralleled unit is perhaps three accented
w ords:
( K r t: 131) umg . m lk (132) Ibty . ‘and depart, king, from my house;
rfiq . krt (133) lh%ry be distant, K rt, from my c o u rt!’
(67 : I I : 10) thm . align . bel . ‘the message of Aliyn Bacl,
h w t . aliy (11) qrdm the word of Aliy Q rdm ’
There may be more than three stressed words to the paralleled u nit and
examples may be found in the ensuing paragraphs. However, the above cita-
tions suffice to illustrate th a t parallelism is the main factor; approximate
m etric length is its corollary, so to speak.
13.109. D i s t i c h s & T r i s t i c h s — In § 13. 108 there are examples
of the common type of verse with two stichoi (1). Such distichs are legion
and we need cite only a couple of additional illustrations:
(52 : 8) bdh . hf . tkl . ‘ in his hand is the staff of bereavement,
bdh (9) h i . ulmn in his hand the staff of widowhood ’
(cn t : V I : 21) wrgrn . Iktr (22) whss . ‘and speak to K tr-w -H ss,
tn y . lh(22>)yn . dhr§ . ydm declare to Hyn of the h an d icraft!’
However, tristichs are common enough, too:
(49 : V I : 27) l . ys“ . alt (28) tbtk . ‘ will he not remove the supports of
th y seat,
lyhpk . ksa . m lkk will he not upset the throne of thy
kingdom,
(29) lytbr . ht . m£ptk (*) will he not break the staff of th y
sovereignty ? ’

(cn t : I H : 3) yd pdry . b t . a r •the love of Pdry, girl of light;


(4) ah b t. t ly . b t . rb . the affection of Tly» girl of rain;
dd . ar$y (5) b t . y*bdr the devotion of Ar?y, girl of y. ’

f1) A word on the terminology may be welcome: the paralleled units (or stichoi) make np
the verse; verses may be grouped into strophes.
(‫ ף‬Of. the well-known parallel in the Ahiram inscription:
‫ת ח ת ס ף חטר מ שפטה‬
‫ת ה ת פ ך כסא מלכה‬

— 132 —
A nOr . 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13.110*112

T he stichoi tend to be grouped in twos and threes, though there is no hard


and fast maximum.
18. 110. C l i m a c t i c S t i c h o s — The final stichos of a verse is some-
times different from (e. g., longer than) the other(s) so th a t it has a climactic
effect (*):
(49 : I I : 28) klb . arh . l*glh . ‘like the heart of the cow toward her calf,
Jdb (29) t a t . limrh . like the heart of the ewe tow ard her lamb,
km . lb (30) * n t. a%r . b‘l so is the heart of 'A n at after Bacl ’

18.111. R e l a t i o n of P a r a l l e l S t i c h o i — A stichos m ay parallel


p art of the preceding stichos, a t the same tim e adding a new elem ent; the
type a-b -c || a-b-d is common. A stichos may duplicate in expanded form the
m eaning of only p art of the preceding stichos. These principles are exempli*
fied in the following verse, which may be analyzed as a-b-c || a '-b -d || d‫ ׳‬with
the approxim ate m etric length 3 || 3 || 3

(49 : I I : 21) ngS . ank . aliyn b‫״‬l ‘I m et Aliyn Bacl,


(22) *dbnn ank . (k)im r . bpy I made him like a lamb in m y m outh,
(23) M li. btbrnqy like a lambkin in my ja w s'

13.112. A p p r o x i m a t e M e t rLi ce n g t h s — A variety of approxi-


mate m etric lengths m ay be observed, such as 2 11 2:

(75 : 1 : 36) ymfjy . aklm ‘he reaches the eaters,


(37) wymza . eqq!m he meets the devourers'

(51 : Y : 88) tbSr &‫״‬Z ‘be informed, Ba*l!


(89) bkrtk . yblt I bring thy tid in g s’

(2 || 2) || (2 || 2)
(68 : 25) yprsfy . ym . ‘ Yamm sprawls
yql (26) lar$ . falls to the earth;
tntf$n . pnth his joints quake
w ydlp . tmnh and his fram e collapses'

3 II 2 :
(*nt: I I I : 17) rgm (18) i t . ly . w . argmk ‘I have a word and I shall tell thee,
(19) hwt . w . atnyk an utterance and I shall declare to thee ’

(!) There is an interplay between prose and poetry. £ven in an administrative text a
scribe may be impelled to make his last entry climactic; note Im (1076:6) || l (:3, 4, 6).

— 133 —
13.113*114 SYNTAX AND THE POBTIO STRUCTURE A nOb . 38

(3 II 2) II (B II 2):
(77 :33) adnh (34) ySt m$b-mznm ‘her father sets the beam of the balances,
umh (35) Jcp-mznm . her m other the trays of the balances,
ihh y£r (36) mSrrm . her brothers lay oat the ingots,
afttth la(S7)bnr^mznm her sisters are for the weights of the
balances ’

(2 || 2) || (8 || 8) || 3:
( 5 1 : 1 : 26) ysq . ksp ‘ he pours out silver,
ySl(27)h . . he beats out gold;
y$q . ksp (28) lalpm . he pours out silver by thousands,
hr$ . y$q(29)m Irbbt . gold he pours out by m yriads;
(30) y$q . hym . wtbth he pours out and t . ’

13.113. C l i c h d — The very fam iliarity of certain utterances gives them


poetic status (1), For example, direct discourse is introduced by stock express*
ions like wy§u . gh . wy$h (1 A q h t : 148 e t passim) ‘and he lifted his voice
and sh o u ted’, gm . latth . ky$h (2 A q h t : V : 15) ‘aloud he shouts to his w ife’
(cf. var. in 4 9 :1 1 1 :2 2 ) or unfn hrhb m lk qz (77:23-24) ‘and Hrfib, king of
summer, replied’. Commands are often introduced by &mc ‘h e a r!’ followed by
the name of the person addressed (e. g., 2 A q h t : V : 16). The fulfilment of a
command is preceded by ‘ so-and-so heard ( = obeyed) ’ (e. g., 2 A q h t : V : 21-22).
I t is unnecessary to regard these formulae as prose intrusions. T heir frequency
lends them a poetic flavor akin to th a t of a refrain (*).
13.114. R e f r a i n — The use of the refrain is marked by the tendency
to vary the last repetition of the refrain for climactic effect. To cite one of
many exam ples:

(49 : V I : 16) y fn . kgmrm ‘they shake each other like gm r-anim als;
(17) m t *z tfl . *z . Mdt is strong, Bacl is strong;
ynghn (18) krum m . they gore like buffaloes;
m t . ez . &‫״‬Z (19) *2 . Mdt is strong, Bacl is strong;
ynikn . kbtnm they bite like serpents;
(20) m t . *z . 6*/ . *2 . Mdt is strong, Bacl is strong;

(() Or enhances the poetic flavor if the utterance is poetic per 8e; cf. numerical strophes
in 51: V I :24-2 ;33‫ י‬A qht:II :32-40; K r t: 194-209.
(*) Familiar expressions of similar structure are sometimes combined with the result that
there is a sort of structural parallelism without semantic parallelism; e. g., the quasi 3 1| 3 1|3 in:
(2 Aqht: I I : 10) yprq . Ifb . wytbq ‘ he parts “ teeth ” and laughs;
(11) p*n . Ikdtn . ytpd . (his) foot he puts on the footstool;
yiu (12) gh . tcyfb he lifts his voice and shouts’

— 134 —
A nOr . 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13. 115-116

ymshn (21) klsmm . they kick like lsm-animals;


mt . ql (22) bel . ql . M6t is down, Bacl is down’
13. 115. Strophe — Verses tend to be grouped into larger units called
strophes, Whenever verses are joined by a refrain (§ 13. 114), the combination
is strophic. Beyond this, we need add only a couple of the more obvious strophic
groupings:
(51 :I V : 52) mtb U mfll . bnh ‘the dwelling of ’ll, the shelter(s) of his
sons,
(53) m£6 rbt . atrt . yrn the dwelling of the lady, *Atir(a)t of
the sea,
(54) mtb . kit knyt the dwelling of the famous bride(s),
(55) mtb pdry . bt ar the dwelling of Pdry, girl of light,
(56) mzYl . fly • bt rb the shelter of Tly> girl of rain,
(57) mtb ar$(y) bt tfbdr the dwelling of Ar?y, girl of y. ’
(51 : V I : 47) ipq ilm . kmi y[n\ ‘he caused the lamb-gods to drink wine,
(48) ipq . ilht . hprt [yn] he caused the ewe-lamb-goddesses to
drink wine,
(49) ipq . ilm . alpm y[n\ he caused the bovine-gods to drink wine,
(50) ipq ilht . arht [yn] he caused the cow-goddesses to drink
wine,
(51) ipq . ilm . khim . yn he caused the throne-gods to drink wine,
(52) 8pq . ilht . ksat . [yn] he caused the seat-goddesses to drink
wine,
(53) Spq . ilm . rfybt yn he caused the jug-gods to drink wine,
(54) Hpq . ilht . dkrt [yn] he caused the jar-goddesses to drink
wine ’
13.116. B a lla s t V a ria n t — If a major word in the first sticlios is not
paralleled in the second, then one or more of the words in the second stichos
tend to be longer than their counterparts in the first stichos. In the following,
which may be schematized as a-b-c || B-C, B (id ddh) and C (hrnqm) are longer
than b (idh) and c (krmm) and we shall call B and C the ‘ ballast variants ’ of
b and c:
(77): 22) atn idh krmm ‘ I shall make her field into vineyards,
(23) id ddh frrnqm the field of her love into orchards'
Similarly, bqrb is the ballast variant of 6, as in:
(2 Aqht: 1 : 26) wykn . bnh bbt . ‘and may his son be in the house,
iri . bqrb (27) hklh a root in the midst of his palace’

— 135 —
13.116 SYNTAX AND THB POBTIO STRUCTURE A nOr. 38

l%r for l, as in:


(61: I I : 8) Stt . hptr . liM ‘she set a hptr ‫ מס‬the fire,
(9) hbri . l%r . phmm a hhrt on top of the coals’

utffth for ydh:


(*nt: I I : 32) trfy$ . ydh . W(33)ltf ,nt . ‘the virgin eAnat washed her hands,
utffth . ybmt . limm the y. of nations, her fingers’

fbrt aryh for bnh:


(*nt: V : 44) y$h . a£rt (46) wbnh . ‘there cry ’Atir(a)t and her children,
* Ut . w$brt . arylh the goddess and the band of her kin’

Spty for p y :
(77 : 46) hn bpy 8p(46)rhn . ‘10 in my mouth is their counting,
bSpty mn{Al)thn on my lips, their reckoning’

nblat for iit :


(61: V I: 22) tSt iit . bbhtm ‘fire is set on the houses,
(28) nblat . bhfclm flames on the palaces’

Sd Sfylmmt for ar$ dbr:


(49 : I I : 19) myt . ln*my . ar$ (20) dbr . ‘I came to the goodness of the land
of Dbr
y8ml . Sd . Shlmmt the beauty of the field of §bhnmt’

pat mdJbr for Sd :


(62 : 67) ed . Urn . n*mm . ttlkn (68) Sd . ‘until the good gods walk the field,
t^dn . pat . mdbr tread the corners of the desert’
rkb *rpt for btl:
(1 A qht: 42) Sb‘ . Snt (48) y$rk . tfl . ‘7 years may Bacl afflict thee,
tmn . rkb (44) *rpt 8, the rider of clouds’
bn dgn for Ifl,
(Krt: 77) Srd . Ifl (78) bdbhk . ‘make offerings to Bacl with thy sacrifice;
bn . dgn (79) bm$dk to Dagan’s son, with thy victuals!’

There is a host of common and occasional ballast variants in Ugaritic.


The phenomenon is also attested in Heb. (and other ancient Near East) poetry
A n Ob . 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13.117

(examples may be found in Gen. 49 :7, 11; P8. 47 : 4, 6; 76 : 8; 89 : 26 (1);


122:7; 182:2, 4, 6 etc. etc.).
13.117. C h iasm — The word order of the second stichos may parallel
that of the first stichos chiastically:
a-b-c || b'-c'-a':
(1003:5) Unm . tlhk (6) Smm . ‘the 2 tongues lick the heavens
ttrp (7) ym . dnbtm the 2 tails swish (in) the sea’
a-b-c || b'-a-c':
(2 Aqht: Y : 31) ttf ktr (32) lahlh . ‘Kfcr departed from his tents,
hyn . tbe lm8(3d)knth Hyn departed from his tabernacles’
(2 Aqht: V1:28) aSsprk . cm . &*Z(31)£nf ‘I shall make thee count years with Bacl,
‘m bn il . tspr . yrhrn with Tl’s son shalt thou count months’
a-b-c 11b-c-a':
(1 Aqht: 148) knp . nSrm (149) bel . ytbr ‘the eagles’ wings may Bacl break,
\fl . ytbi' . diy (160) hmt . may Bacl break their pinions’
a-b-c || a-c'- b':
(2 Aqht: 1 : 22) uzmi . ilm . ylhm ‘the gods eat the offerings,
(23) uzrrn . ySqy . bn . qdS the sons of holiness drink the offerings ’
a-b-c || a-c'-b':
(49 : I I I : 6) Smm . Smn . tmfrn ‘the heavens rain oil
(7) nhim . tlk . nbtm the wadies run with honey’
(61: V I: 36) (b)hty bnt (37) dt . ksp ‘my houses I have built of silver,
hkly dim (38) hr$ . *dbt my palaces of gold I have made’
(2 Aqht: V : 12) h/A: . qSt . ybln . ‘behold a bow he brings,
hi . y§(l3)rbe . qtft 10 he fetches an arc’
a-b-c || c'-a'-b':
(2 Aqht: V : 10) hlk ktr (11) ktfn ‘the walking of Ktr he spies,
wtfn tdrq . hss yea he spies the march of 988 ’
a-b-c || c‫׳‬-B :
(1 Aqht: 63) St . gpny . dt &sp ‘place my trappings of silver;
(64) dt . yrq . nqbny of gold, my saddlery!’

(l) Note that ymn is the ballast variant of yd as often in Ugar. (1 A q h t: 216,218 etc.). There
are fewer fixed ballastvariants in the O. T. than in Ugar.

— 137 —

18
13. 118-123 SYNTAX AND THB POETIC STRUCTURE AnOb . 38

13.118. W ord O rder — There is hardly a sentence-type in Ugaritic


that cannot be duplicated in the Old Testament. In general the word order
is flexible; thus verb, subject and object may occur in any order (although, as
our examples will show, the verb, more often than not, precedes the subject
and object; i. e., in the poetry; contrast § 13. 46). Nevertheless, there are
some rigid principles such as (a) a subordinating conjunction, an interrogative,
an interjection or a negative particle (*) stand first except for w (*), (b) the
construct must precede its genitive, (c) with emphatic k (§ 9.17) the verb is
placed at the end of the clause, etc. etc. as in Heb. The verb does not head
the sentence nearly so often as in Heb. prose, in which the exceedingly frequent
qtl and yqtl with waw conversive regularly head the clause. In Ugar., on the
other hand, the use of waw conversive is rare.
13. 119. A n a ly t ic T e r m in o lo g y — The sentence-types illustrated
below are not exhaustive. They are calculated to give only an idea of the
great variety of sentences with respect to the poetic structure. Note the
abbreviations: v = verb, s = subject, o = object (acc.), p = prepositional phrase,
x = adverb or any of the miscellaneous particles. Capitals stand for ballast
valiants (§ 13. 116).

13.120. v-s 11S ; 3 113:


(cn t : Y : 44) y§h . atrt (45) wbnh . ‘there shout ’Afcir(a)t and her sons,
ilt . tv$brt . ary!h the goddess and the band of her kin ’
13.121. v-8||p*v'; 3 || 8:
(127 :39) yttf . y?b (Jim . ‘Ysb the lad departs,
cl (40) abh . y*rb into his father’s presence he enters’
13.122. v-s-o 11s'-O; 3 113:
(128 : I I I : 25) wihss aivt (26) ndrh . ‘and ’A!ir(a)t remembers his vow(s),
wilt . p[ ] yea the goddess, [his promise(s)) ’
13. 123. v-s-0 || o'-adverb; 3 || II (*):
(125 : 26) al tkl . bn (27) qr . *nk . ‘do not exhaust, my son, the well of
thine eyes,
mh . riSk (28) udm‘t nor the brain of thy head with tears’

(J) The sequence that these words assume among themselves tends to be fixed; e. g., a nega*
tive will follow any of the other classes (cf. 49 :VI :26 etc•)•
(*) Unqualifiedly, to stands first as a sentence connective.
(s) Roman numerals designate 4ballasted length’ resulting from ballast variants.

— 138 —
A n Or . 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13.124-132

1 3 .1 2 4 . v-s-vocative || v-8-0 || SO; 3 || 3 || III:


(1 2 7 :5 4 ) yffyr (55) fyrn . y b n . ‘may IJrn break, 0 my son,
y tb r . #rn (56) r U k may Hrn break thy head!
*ttr t . &m . bel (57) q d q d k 'Attart-name-of-Bacl, thy pate!’
1 3 .1 2 6 . v-8-p || v-8'-p'; 3 || 3:
(126 : I I I : 13) kly (14) Ihm [b]dnhm ‘spent is bread from their jar(s),
Tdy (15) yn . bhmthm spent is wine from their bottle(s)’
1 3 .1 2 6 . v-s*p 11 v-P 11 p'‫־‬P 3 ;‫ ׳‬II 8 II 3:
(127 :2 2 ) ytf) . krt . I'dh *Krt returns to his throne-room
(23) ytb . Iksi mlk returns to the throne of kingship
(24) Inht . Ikht • drkt to the couch, to the seat of dominion ’

1 3 .1 2 7 . v-s-v2 11 v2-s‫־‬p 11 S -P ; 3 || 3 || II:


(1 2 8 : I I I : 17) tbrk . Um . tity ‘the gods bless (and) go,
(18) tity . Um . lahlhm the gods go to their tents,
(19) dr it . ImSknthm the generation of ’ll to their tabernacles ’

1 3 .1 2 8 . v-8-p || p2-P ; 3 || I I :
(6 8 : 23) ivyrtq 9 . $md bd b'l ‘and the stick swooped from BaTs hand,
(24) k[m] nSr . bv4b‫״‬th like an eagle from his fingers’

1 3 .1 2 9 . v-s-p || S-p'; 3 || I I :
(1 A q h t : 171) *rb . 6 ( 1 7 1 ) ^ . bhklh ‘the weeping women entered his palace,
m$8pdt . bhzrh the wailing women, his court’

1 3 .1 3 0 . v-0 || v‫׳‬o3 || 3 ;‫ ׳‬:


(2 A q h t: Y : 7) ydn (8) dn . almnt . ‘he judges the case of the widow,
ytp t • tpl ■ ytni adjudicates the cause of the fatherless ’

1 3 .1 3 1 . v-0 || v'-o'; 3 || 3:
(128 : IV : 15) t#)h. . £mn . [m]r[1]A ‘she slaughters a sleek one of her fatlings,
(16) tpth . rhbt . yn she opens a flagon of wine*
1 3 .1 3 2 . v-o || v3 ;‫׳‬-0‫ || ׳‬III:
(127 : 33) ltd n . d n . a lm n t ‘thou dost not judge the case of the
widow,
(34) Utpt . tpf . q$r np§ nor adjudicate the cause of the wretched ’

— 139 —
1 3 .1 3 3 -1 4 0 SYNTAX AND THB POBTIO STRUOTUBE AnOb . 38

13.138. v-0 || p-V-o' || PO'; 3 || IIII:


(127:47) M y (48) &m '1 . dl . ‘thou dost not drive out those who
prey upon the poor,
Ipnk (49) ItSlhm . ytm . thou dost not cause the fatherless to
eat before thee,
tfd (50) kslk . almnt nor the widow behind thy back’
13.184. (v-0 || v'-o0) || (‫ || ״‬O'); II 4) 11(8 II 8):
(124:12) tbh . alprn . ap $in . ‘ he slaughtered great and small cattle,
Sql . trm (13) wmri Urn . he killed bulls and fine fatlings,
*glm . dt . Snt year old bullocks,
(14) imr . qm$ . llim little lambs, kids’
* 13. 135. (v-0-8 || 0-S) || (v-o-p || 0-P); (4 || III):
(*nt: I I : 32) trh$ . ydh . W(33)l< *nt . ‘the virgin cAnat washes her hands,
u$b*th . ybmt . limm the y. of nations, her fingers;
(34) [Z]rA$ . ydh . bdm . dm r she washes her hands in the blood of
soldiery
(36) \u\$tfth . bmm* . mhrm her fingers in the gore of troops’
13.136. v-o-p || 0‫׳‬-P ; 3 || II (cf. 6J : I I : 8-9, Y : 107-108, V I : 5-6, 8-9; V II:
17-19; cnt: IV :85-86):
(51 : V II: 26) ypth . h(26)ln . bbhtm ‘he opens a window in the house(s),
(27) nrbt . bqrb . Ak[Zm] a casement in the midst of the palace(s) ’
* 13.137. v-o-p || o‫׳‬-V; 3 || II:
(128 : I I : 23) tld . W . bnm Ik ‘she shall bear thee 7 sons,
(24) wlmnt ttmnt! .! and an 8th (daughter), Octavia’
13.138. v-o-v2 || o'-V2; 3 || I I :
(127:20) ttbh . imr . wlhm ‘she slaughters a lamb and he eats,
(21) mgt . wytrm a lambkin and he dines’
13.139. v-p || v'-p3 || 3 ;‫( ׳‬cf. cn t : V I : 21):
(61 V III: 29) wrgm (30) Ibn Urn . mt ‘ and speak to the god Mdt,
(31) iny lydd (32) il . tfzr declare to 'Il’s beloved, the hero!’
13.140. v-p-s || v-p-v2 || v2‫׳‬-P ; 3 || 3 || 3:
(127 :27) Zk . labk . y$b ‘go to thy father, Y?b,
Ik (28) [Za]bA: . wrgm . go to thy father and speak,
tny (29) lk[r< f] declare to Krt of I 6!’

— 140 —
A n O r . 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13.141-149

13. 141. v-p-0 || v'-p'-o'; 3 || 3 (cf. 67 : 1 : 24-26):


(61 : IV : 36) /£[m] (36) bfthnt . Ihm ‘ e a t b re a d from th e ta b le s,
&[y] (37) bkrpnm . yn d rin k wiDe from th e j a r s ’

13.142. v-p-v2 || P-V2; 3 || I I :


(127:37) rd . Imlk . amlk ‘ descend from kingship that I may rule,
(38) Idrktk . atbnn from thy dominion that I may sit
thereon ’

13. 143. v-v2-0: || v'-v2'-0'; 3 || 3:


(2 Aqht: V : 19) Slhm . SSqy (20) Urn ‘give the gods to eat and drink,
sad . kbd . hint respect and honor them!’

13.144. v-v2-0-p 11v-v2-0-p; 3 || ] [:


(128: I I I : 20) wtqrb . wld . bn Ih ‘ and she comes to term to bear him 1 son,
(21) wtqrb . wld . /mm Ih and she comes to term to bear him 2 sons’

13.146. s‫־‬predicate || s'-predicate'; 3 || 3:


(°nt: V I : 14) kptr (16) ksu . fl>th . ‘Caphtor is the throne of his sitting
hkpt (16) ar$ . nhlth IjEkpt is the land of his inheritance’

13.146. s-v-0 || s'-v'-o'; 3 || 3:


(49 :1:31) jfnh . Itm&yn (32) hdm ‘his feet do not reach the footstool,
ri$h . lymfly (33) apsh his head does not reach its top’

13. 147. 8-v*p || s'-v'-p': 3 || 3:


(1 Aqht: 40) *rpt (41) tmpr . bqz . ‘the clouds (that) rain in summer,
ft . yfll . (42) Itfnbm the dew (that) falls on thefruits(/grapes)’

13.148. 8-0-v (var. s*p-v):


U a&m . kypt (62 : 39) *’ll would tup the two women ’ (cf. § 9.17)
(1 Aqht: 170) dnil . bth . ym\.$yn ‘Dnil reaches his house’
(1 Aqht: 169) SrSk . bars • cd (160) yp'' ‘let not thy root flourish in the land’

13. 149. s-o‫־‬v-p || O-P; 4 || III:


(128: I I : 16) il . ks . yibd (17) [%d . ‘,II takes a cup in the hand,
krpn . bm (18) \ymn] a goblet in the right hand’

141 —
13. ISO-158 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE A nOb . 38

IB. 150. s-p*v*o || V -0; 4 || I I :


m y bilm ydy mr§ ‘who among the gods can expel the
sickness,
grSrn zbln (126 : V : 10-12,14-16, 17-18,
20- 21) exorcizing the disease?’
13.151. o-v- 0 2 || o -V -0 2 ; 3 || I I I :
(128 : I I : 21) att (22) tqb bta . ‘the woman thou takest into thy house,
yim t Wrb (23) h%rk the maid thou causest to enter thy court’
13. 162. o-v-p || O -P ; 3 || I I :
(7 6 :1 1 :6 ) qSthn . ahd . bydh . ‘he takes his (!) bow in his hand,
wqtfth . bra . ym nh and his arc in his right hand’
13. 153. o-s-v || s-v‫־‬o'; 3 || 3:
(1 A q h t: 148) knp . nSrm (149) b‫״‬l . y tb r . ‘may Bacl break the eagles’ wings,
bel . ytbr . diy (150) hmt . may Ba'l break their pinions’
13. 164. o‫־‬p‫־‬v || o'-p'‫־‬v '; 3 || 3:
(128 : I V : 24) yd . b? tilfy ‘a hand she extends into the bowl,
(25) hrb . bbSr . ttln a knife she sets to the meat’
13.155. o-p-v 11 O-p'; 3 11II:
(127 : 11) np§h . llhm . tpth ‘she opens his desire to eat,
(12) brlth . Itarm his appetite to dine’
13.156. p-v-o || p'-v'-o'; 3 || 3:
(2 A q h t: V : 26) bd . dnil . ytnn (27) qU ‘in Dnil’s hand he puts a bow,
Ibrkh . xfdb (28) qtft on his knees he sets an arc’
13. 167. p-v- 0 || p'-O; 3 || I I :
( K r t : 103) kirby (104) tSkn . M ‘like locusts they shall inhabit the field,
(105) k/n . hsn . p a t . mdbr ‘like grasshoppers, the corners of the
desert’
13.158. (p-v-o) || (O [ = s- 0 ‫ || )]׳‬0 ‫ —[ ׳‬a'0 ‫"־‬l) II 0"; 8 II (8 II 8) IIII:
(128 : I I : 25) Ik . tld . y$b . film ‘she shall bear thee Y§b the lad,
(26) ynq . ^16 . a[f\rt who shall suck the milk of ’Atir(a)t
(27) . td btit [fnt] suckle the breasts of the virgin cAnat,
(28) m§nq[t ilm »*mm](P) the wet nurses [of the good gods] ’

142 —
A N O R . 38 SYNTAX AND THE POETIC STRUCTURE 13. 159-167

13.169. p-s-v||P-S; 3 || II:


(68:6) [b]pA . rgm . ly§a . ‘ from his mouth the word had not gone
forth,
bipth . hwth from his lips, his utterance*
13. 160. p-o-v || p-v-o'; 3 || 3:
(128 :IV: 17) ‫״‬Ih . trh . Wrb ‘she causes his bulls to enter into his
presence,
(18) clh . t&rb . zbyh. she causes his gazelles to enter into
his presence’
13. 161. p-vocative-v || P-V: 3 || II:
(126 : 14) bhyk . abn . n!$mh ‘ we rejoice, O our father, in thy life;
(16) blmtk . ngln thine immortality, we are glad therein’
13. 162. x-v-s || x-v'-s': 3 113 (?):
(61: I V : 31) ik . mfiyt . rbt . atr[t y]m ‘why has the lady, ’A£ir(a)t of the sea,
arrived ?
(32) ik . atwt . qnyt . i[Zm] why has the creatress of the gods come ?’
13. 163. x‫־‬v‫־‬o || x-v'*o3 || 3 ;‫׳‬:
(1 Aqht: 67) bkm . tmdln . *r ‘weeping she saddles an ass,
(68) bkm, . t$mh . phi weeping she hitches a donkey’ *
13.164. (X-v-predicate-s || PREDICATE) || (x-s‫׳‬-V‫ || ׳‬S‫׳‬-v3 || 4) :(‫( || )׳‬II || 3):
(1 2 6 : 20) ikm . yrgm . bn U (21) krt ‘how can it be said, Krt is Il’s son,
Spfy . Ippn (22) 1vqd$ . the scion of Ltpn-w-QdS?
uilm tmtn or do gods die?
(23) §ph . Hpn . lyh nor Ltpn’s scion live?’
13.166. x-v-v2 || v'-v2': 3 | | 2 :
(cn t : I I : 23) mid . tmth$n . wtcn ‘much she fights and beholds,
(24) tht$b . wthdy battles and looks’
13.166. x -s||x -s'; 3 || 3:
(67: V I : 23) my . Urn . bn (24) dgn . ‘woe, people of Dag&n’s son!
my . hmlt . afr (26) 6*/ woe, multitudes of *Atru‫־‬Bacla!
13. 167. X-0-02-V II V-04 ;‫־׳‬02‫ || ׳‬I I I :
(Krt: 203) hm . hry . bty (204) iqh . ‘if I may take IJry (to) my house’
atfrb . Qjlmt (206) hzry (yea) cause the girl to enter my court ’

— 143 —
13. 168 - 14. 1 LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES An Ob . 38

18.168. x-0-vocative || x-o-v || x-v'-o' ; 3 || 3 || B:


(68:8) hi . ibk (9) Vim . ‘now, thine enemies, (0) Ba*l,
ht . ibk . tmh$ . now, thine enemies thou shalt smite,
ht . t$mt qrtk now, thou shalt destroy thy foes’

13. 169. x‫־‬p‫־‬s || P*s3 :‫ || ׳‬II:


(77 : 45) hn bpy sp(46)rhn . ‘10, in my mouth is their number,
bSpty mn(4:7)thn on my lips, their reckoning’

13. 170. x-x2-s || x2-s': 3 || 2:


(1 Aqht: 139) hm . it . 8mi . ‘if there is fat,
it (140) ‫?״‬m (if) there is bone’

CHAPTER XIV

LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES

14. 1. C l a s s i fi c a t i on of L a n g u a g e s — The classification of any


linguistic family is subject to change when other cognate languages are dis-
covered, or when new approaches are developed. The addition of Hittite and
Tocharian to the old repertoire of Brugmann has altered the Indo-European
picture. The addition of Ugar. and to a lesser extent Yaudian, and the grow-
ing awareness of the kinship of Eg., Berber, Cushitic and other languages
with Semitic are changing our concept of the Semitic family. The classifica•
tion of related languages is largely a matter of temporary convenience rather
than enduring truth. If isoglosses could be counted on to point in the one
and only true direction, they would have settled the classification of Ugar.
long ago. Instead there are so many isoglosses linking Ugar. in different
directions (*), that by selecting the evidence, cases have been made for classi-
fying Ugar. with Heb., Canaanite, Amorite, Arab., S. Arab., and Acc. The
disagreement is gradually narrowing down to the question of whether Ugar.
is Canaanite or a separate NW Sem. language alongside Heb.-Phoen. and Aram.
Some scholars define Canaanite so that it covers Heb. and Phoen. but not
Ugar.; others subsume Ugar. under Canaanite bjr definition (*). Thus the class-
ification of Ugar. tends to become a matter of arbitrary definition.
(1I See H. Goeseke’s detailed study ‘Die Sprache der semitischen Texte Ugarits und ihre
Stellung iimerhalb des Semitischen’, Wiasensehaftliehe Zeitgchrift der Martin-I/uther-Universitdt
(Halle-Wittenberg), Ges. -Sprachw. 7/3 1958 623-652.
(*) Of. J. Friedrich, ‘ Eanaanaisch and Westsemitisch’, Scientia 84 1949 226-223.

— 144 —
A n O b . 38 LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES 1 4 .2 -4

14. 2. I s o g l o s s e s — Isoglosses must be counted and weighed; for


otherwise the most bizarre conclusions could be drawn from linguistic survi-
vals. For instance, Ugar. is the only Semitic language to preserve the 1 du.
pro. 8uff. -ny, otherwise known in Egypto-Semitic only from Eg. (*) (§ 6. 9) and
moreover Ugar. and Eg. share adverbial -ny (§ 11. 8). That such survivals
do not warrant grouping Ugar. and Eg. intimately within the Egypto-Semitic
family will become evident if we examine the evidence as a whole. Thus a
far weightier isogloss is the shift from initial w- to y-, which links Ugar.
with the NW Sem. languages (notably Heb., Phoen. and Aram.) vs. both SW
and E. Sem. as well as vs. Eg. Many resemblances to Heb.-Phoen. confront us
at every turn; e. g., Heb.-Phoen. and Ugar. are the only Sem. languages with
both an (‫ )אני‬and ank (‫ )אנכי‬for the pro. ‘I ’ (§ 6. 2)(*).
14. 3. Pairs of Sy no n y ms in U g a r . & Heb. — Nowhere does
the proximity of Heb. and Ugar. manifest itself more plainly than in the pairs
of synonyms used parallelistically in both languages; e. g.:
ahlm. 4tents ’ || mSknt 4tabernacles ’ ‫אהלים || משכנות‬
ib 4enemy ’ 11 ‘ foe ’ ‫איכון צר‬
alp ‘ 1,000’ || rbt ‘ 10,000’ ‫אלף ן! רבבה‬
ar§ 4earth ’ || ep r ‘dust’ ‫ עפר‬II‫ארץ‬
bt ‘ house ’ 11far ‘ court ’ ‫בית || חצר‬
fab ‘ milk ’ 11hmat ‘ butter, cream ’ ‫חלב || חמאה‬
fl 8mm ‘dew of heaven’ || 8mn ar$ ‘fat of earth ’ ‫מל השמים || שמני הארץ‬
yd? 4know ’ 11/ byn 4perceive ’ ‫ידעוובץ‬
ksp 4silver ’ || hr$ ‘ gold ’ ‫כסף || חרק‬
*lm 4eternity ’ || drdr 4everlastingness ’ ‫עולם||דר דר‬
*ny 4answer ’ 11f&vb ‘ reply ’ ‫ן‬/‫ שוב‬11‫ענה‬
Cf. S. Gewirtz, JNES 20 1961 43-45, for the Ugar. and 0. T. passages. *
14. 4. Re l a t i o n s with Heb. P o e t r y — We may note that Ugar. is
linguistically closer to the poetry than to the prose of the 0. T. In consider-
ing the tendency to omit the definite article in Heb. poetry (as against Heb.
prose), we should note a contact with Ugar., in which the article is entirely
absent. (It is interesting to observe that Phoenician, in which the article is
used sparingly, occupies in this regard a middle position linguistically as well
as geographically). Ugar. vocabulary sometimes goes with that of Heb. poetry
0 Quite probably this 1 du. is Nostratic; of. Homeric v&t <we twain’.
(‫ )י‬That the form without is found also in Aram., Arab, and Eth.; while that with -k
occurs also in Acc. and E g., shows that both forms are widespread and both just happen to
have survived in Heb.-Phoen. and Ugar.

— 145 —

19
14. 5-7 LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES An O r . 3 8

as distinct from Heb. prose; e. g., (yrq) hr$ (Krt: 126, 138) = ‫( )ירקרק( חרוץ‬Ps. 68 :
14) as against ‫זהב‬. One of the most noticeable differences between Heb. and
Ugar. is the frequency of waw conversive in Heb. and its infrequency in Ugar.
Yet in a long poem like Ps. 68 (which happens to be full of Ugar. parallels)
there is not a single waw conversive. In this Psalm, as often in the poetic
books, yqtl and qtl are used much as in Ugar.
14. B. Phonol ogi es of the Two A B C ’s — The consonantal reper-
toire of normal Ugar. goes with S. Sem. rather than NW Sem. (see chart on
p. 30). But the mirror-written texts have a shorter ABC, probably identical
with the 22-letter Heb.-Phoen. alphabet. In any case h has fallen together
with h, and 8 with t, in the ‘ mirror ABC ’ exactly as in Heb.-Phoen. (§ 5. 1).
The mirror texts (two of which have been found at widely separated sites in
Palestine) apparently record a dialect closely related to Heb.-Phoen., whereas
normal Ugar. seems localized on the northern coast of Syria (1).
14. 6. S u n d r y A f f i n i t i e s — The most impressive list of Ugar. affi-
nities is with Heb. for two reasons: (1) the languages are closely related as
members of NW Sem., and (2) the 0. T. gives us abundant evidence for com-
parison(•). It is therefore necessary to temper our estimate of the situation
with isoglosses pointing in other directions. This is of practical importance
for reminding the student that help in interpreting Ugar. can come from any
* Egypto-Semitic language. Ugar. mil), ‘good’ goes with Arab, ‘good’
(though the more common Ugar. ncm ‘good’ equals Phoen. = na*i1n ‘good’).
The existential particle it {= ,it‫ )־‬agrees with Aram. ‫( אית‬vs. Heb. 8‫) ל‬. Also
the normal Ugar. shift of d to d anticipates the normal Aram, shift
of d to d.
14. 7. C a u s a t i v e C o n j u g a t i o n s — The § causative of Ugar. is distin-
guished from the Y causative of Phoen., from the H causative of Heb. and
the ' causative of Aram, and Arab. The sibilant causative is old and wide-
spread in Egypto-Semitic; Acc. and Mehri have § causatives; Eg. has the S
causative. That too much weight should not be laid on such isoglosses is
brought out by the closely interrelated S. Arab, dialects, where Minaean has
the S causative vs. Sabaean which has H. The S t conjugation occurring in
Ugar. and Acc. appears as St in Arab, and Eth. But S and S t occur spora-
dically in other languages. Thus the S t of hwy ‘to prostrate oneself’ is com-
mon in both Ugar. and Heb. A few other roots occur in S forms in Heb.,

(x) Of. the v e il balanced conclusion of G. Garbini, 11 Semitico di Nord-ovest, Naples, 1960,
p. 178, who uses ‘ Oanaanite’ to mean Heb.-Phoen. as distinct from Ugar. to the north.
(*) Contrast Phoen., where the evidence is far more restricted, and Yaudian, where it is
minimal.

— 146 —
A nOb . 38 LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES 14. 8 12

and a num ber of § and S forms occur in Aram, including some which are not
borrowed from Acc.
14. 8. a* > e \ — The shift of a* > e* (§ 5. 16) is an isogloss spanning NW
and E. S em .; e. g., Ugar. ri8, Aram. ‫ רא^י‬, Acc. res-. This shift, however,
takes place to a lim ited extent also in Heb. Thus while it does not appear
in ‫* <( ראש‬r&S < •ra'S) it does take place in ‫)*(רא&ית‬. In Heb. it m ay be lim it-
ed to unaccented syllables, as also in ‫ז‬1‫ יאד‬, ‫ף‬6 ‫ יא‬and several other ‫ ס״א‬yaqtulu
forms.
14.9. C a r d i n a l N u m e r a l w i t h E t h . A n a l o g u e — There are
several patterns in Ugar. for the cardinal num erals 1119‫־‬. A rare pattern,
with the ten before the unit, and both w ith suffixed -t, has a close analogue
in standard Eth.; e§ r t . t t t (§ 7.27) ‘ 16’ || Ou»C‫״‬P ' v s . Heb., Aram.,
Arab., Acc., etc.
14. 10. O r d i n a l — W hatever the form ation of the U gar. ordinal, it can*
not go with Heb. Thus Ut ‘ 3rd ’ m ight be compared w ith Arab, q&tii
(e. g., cujii ‘ 3 rd ’) or alternatively w ith Acc. qatul (f. SalaStum ‘3 rd ’ is attested),
b ut not with Heb. ‫ שלישי‬which would require the gentilic suffix - y ( = -iy), nor
w ith which would require another suff. - y ( = -&y), in Ugar. This type
of evidence, which could be multiplied, does not indicate th a t Ugar. lies out-
side NW Sem.
14. 11. ft > 6 — If any isogloss has been understood as typical of Canaan-
ite, it is the shift of accented & to 6, attested in Heb., Phoen. and in the
Canaanite glosses in the A m arna tablets which are contemporary with the
U gar. texts. T h at it is not normal in Ugar. is shown by the f. pi. ksat ‘ chairs ’
and mrat ‘fat ones’ w ith -&t vs. Heb. frt-. (But see also p. 31, n. 2.)
14. 12. S u m m a t i o n — Pending a comprehensive reclassification of the
Sem. languages, we shall do well to adhere to the growing consensus of opin-
ion th a t Ugar. belongs to the NW branch. There are dialect differences
w ithin Ugar. (§ 6. 1), the most im portant of which is reflected in the m irror-
w ritten tablets used throughout Canaan a t least as far south as Beth-Shemesh
in Palestine. Phonetically the m irror ABC goes with Heb.-Phoen. vs. normal
Ugar. T he coexistence a t Ugar. of the regular ABC with the shorter m irror
ABC is significant because it is m ainly in the phonology th a t Ugar. goes with 1

(1) From •ra'St-. Note that ‫ ראשון‬is from *ri’S&n-. The first vowel is determined by the
following vowel in accordance w ith .th e vocalic sequence familiar from Barth’s law; i. e.,
yaStr- (> ‫ )לציר‬: •ra m - (> ‫ )ר א שי ת‬5 : (> ‫ ) יב^ש‬: •ri*s6n- (> ‫ •)רא שון‬Of. also * : ‫חוץ‬
‫ חיצון‬:: ‫ רצך‬: ‫( תיכון‬and ‫ קיצון‬analogically). Barth’s law thus involves a phonetic principle that
transcends the verb.

— 147 —
14.12 LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES A n Or. 38

S. Sem. and diverges from Heb.-Phoen. Accordingly the conservative phono-


logy of Ugar. vis-k-vis Heb.-Phoen. is not merely chronological but geogra-
phical. Through the m irror texts we detect a t U garit the penetration of
‘ Canaanite ’ {qua ‘ Heb.-Phoen. ’) as a lingua franca throughout the entire length
of w hat is now the Israeli-Lebanese-Syrian littoral. I t spread still farther
north as we know from Karatepe, in Cilicia, where the Danunites still used
Phoen. and Hieroglyphic H ittite bilingually for monumental inscriptions in the
latter part of the 8th century B. C. The Am arna Order was characterized by
intercom m unication through trade and diplomacj'. U garitic contact with Plioe-
nicia is indicated by texts which mention Tyre and Sidon. (In the K rt Epic,
udm m ay well refer to Edomite terrain.) Such contacts could only result in
the interpenetration of the northern language (Ugar.) with the southern one
(Heb.-Phoen.), the more so since they were so closely related as members of
the NW Sem. group. I t is to dialectal interpenetration th a t we are to attri-
bute anomalous forms such as mab (1015 :11) = Heb. ‫מאב‬, vs. normal Ugar.
lab ‘from fa th e r’(1).

(l) Two valuable surveys of the whole Semitic field appeared alter this Textbook had gone
to press: (1) 6 . Levi della Vida (ed.), Linguistica Semitiea: Presente e Futuro, Centro di Studi
Semitic!, Borne, 1961 (with chapters by Gazelles, Cerulli, Garbini, Yon Soden, Spitaler and
Ullendorff); and (2) G. E. Wright (ed.), The Bible and the Ancient Fear Fast: Essays in honor
of WiUiam Foxwell Albright, Doubleday, Garden City, N. Y., 1961 (N. B. Moran's chapter on
“ The Hebrew Language in its Northwest Semitic Background ", pp. 64-72).

— 148 —
A nO r. 38 PARADIGMS Per*. Pronouns

CHAPTER X V

PARADIGMS

The following paradigms are given as a convenience to the reader. How*


ever, they should be used in the light of the foregoing gram m atical paragraphs
to which the reader is referred in each paradigm. The transliterations are
fairly certain; the normalizations, less 80. Internal passives of the verb are
omitted because of the paucity of orthographic evidence.

Personal Pronouns (§§ 6. 2-21)

Independent Suffixed

Nom. Gen.-Acc. Gen. Acc.

sg. 1 c. an ='an(l/a) -y = ‫־‬y® —11 — -nl


0nAr=’»u&k(l/a) ‫־‬ = ‫ז־‬
2 m. at —,atta -k. — -ka -k = ka
2 f. at = *atti -k — -kl -k = -kl
B m. flW —huwa hwt —huwat- ~h = - h u -h = -hn (-nh, -tin, -n)
3, f. hy = liiya hyt — hiyat- —h = -ha -h = - h a (-nh,-^nn,-n)

du. 1 c. -n y -ny
2 c. *atm, -km
3 c. *hm hmt -hm -h m

p i. 1 c. -n
2 m. atm -km -km
2 f. *atn -kn -k n
3 in . hm hint = h(u/i)m(m)at- -hm -hm
3 f. hn -hn -h n 1|
1
— 149 —
Numerals PABADIGM8 An Ob . 38

1 Numerals (§§ 7. 6-68)


Cardinals (§§ 7.6-43)

i. ahd (1), f. afyt (•)


2. tn (•), f . U (‘)
1 3‫־‬ m (‫)״‬
1 4- artf(t) (•)
5. hm i{t)(‫)י‬
6. m o tltt w Utt
7. m )0
8. tmn(t) (‫)״‬
9. « 0 ) ‫(־‬u)
10. eir{t) (“)
11. • i t • Sr(h) (‫)״‬

12. tn e§r{h) (M) cir tn tt tt tttm (‫)״‬


13. m e$r(h) tu t *irt
14. arb* eir{h) ib* ibc
15. hm i cir{h) limit eirt
16. it eSr(h) *irt t&
17. ibc eir(h) ibH *irt
18. tmn cir(h)
19. t? eir(h)
20. eirm (“)
21. eirm ahd
24. ‫״‬Srm arb* arb* l *irm(11)
25. c§rm hm i hm il'irm (% 7 AO) |
28. tm nt l eirm I
1 29 l ‘irm I
30. Utrn (“)

0) = *a(b)bad- (*) ‫* ־־־‬a(b)batt- (‫ = )י‬tn&/6 (<) = ‫ ־‬ttft/6 (8) = tal&t(at)-


(•) = *arba«(at)- (‫ = )י‬bam(i)S(at)- (*) = titt(at)- (9) = Sabbat)- (1#) = tamftn£(t)‫־‬
‫ = )) ״‬tiSc(at)- (**) = caS(a)r(at)- ('*) = ®aSfcfi *aSar-^iSrih (M) = tn& 'aSar-^iSrih
(and similarly from tal&t- caSar-/ciSrih ‘ 13’ throngh tig6- ca8ar-/ciSrih ‘19’ (u ) = tittatftmi
( 18) «igr(ftma/ftmi) (IT) = ’arbac- la ciSr(ima/6mi) (ls) = talftt(bu1a/&mi) etc. with tens
through '90*

— 150 —
A nOr. 38 PARADIGMS Numerals

Numerals (§§ 7. 6-68)


Cardinals (§§ 7. 6 43) Ordinals (§§ 7. 44-61) ♦

81. £l£m ah,d


40. arbtm 2nd. tn (“) 5th.
48. imn l arbfm 3rd. Ut (6 (‫״‬th. £d£
50. hm&m
4th. rbe 7th. &tf(t)
58. hmSm £mn
60. t£m 8 th. tm1i(t)
66. t&m tt
70. 8b*m Fractions (§§ 7.55-62)
80. imnym (‫)י‬
90. Wm
96. Wm tt 7 n$p (M) f mrb‫״‬t
10 0 .mit (•), du. mitm (•),
pi. mat(*) j mtl# (“) y mhmit
110 . mit 8‫״‬r 7 Snpt (“) 7 mtdU
140. mit arJfm
142. arbem l mit in(•) 7 m$bct
160. hm&m l mit
162. t£m l mit £n Adverbs (j$ 7• 65-68) ♦
163. Urn l mit tl£
250. hmSm l mitm
300. tit mat 2 . tnm ‘tw ice’, tnnth ‘a
330. tit mat £ltm 2 nd tim e ’, klatnm ‘ with
400. artf mat b o th ’
600. ti mat
1 ,0 0 0 . alp (•), du. alpm (‫)י‬ 3. Utid ‘th ric e ’, £l£th ‘a
(w ithout num eral) or HrH tvinip ‫י‬
alp alp, pi. alpm (*)
(always with numeral)
7. §bed wib'id ‘7 times this
1,400. alp arlf mat
1 0 ,0 0 0 . rbt (•), du. rbtm (“), way and 7 tim es th a t way ’
pi. rbbt (u) Sbeny (§ 1 1 .3 )* sevenfold’
3,000,000. tit mat rbt

(1) = tam&niy( &ma/&mi) (‫ = )י‬mi't- (‫ = )ג‬mi’t&mi (*) = mi’&t- (B) == ’arbac-


(ftma/ftmi) la mi’ti fcnd («) = *alp- (7) = 'alp&ini (8) =‫* ־‬alapttma (*) = ribb(a/ft)t-
(I#) ribb(a/&)tftmi(cf. P s. 68:18) ( ‫ ־־= )״‬ribab&t- («) = t&ui (cf. 0 i i ) (»») = tftlit- or talut-
(etc. through , 10th' according to either q&til or qatul formation) (u) = nu?p-
(“ ) = matlit(a)t- (etc. from ^’through‘^ ’ according to maqtil(a)t formation) (1«) ‫ =־‬ginipat

— 151 —
N o ra s, AdJ., V erbs
Nouns and Adjectives (§§ 8 .1 1 4 ,7 2 ‫) ־‬

8g• da. pi.


triptotic diptotic abs. const. abs. const.

m. nom. 0 = t&bu baclu 0m, — t&b&mi 1 0 = t&ba 0 m = t&bfima 0 — t&bu

gen. 0 = t&bi
0 m —t&b&mi 0 = t&be 0 m — t&bima

£
*TJ1• = bacla

II
acc. 0 — t&ba

f. nom. 0 t = t&b(a)tu ‫״‬ugaritu 0 tm = t&b(a)t&mi 0 1— t&b(a)ta 0 t = t&b&tu 0 t — t&b&tu

gen. 10 t = t&b(a)ti
u - g a - r i - ta = 0 t — t&b&ti
0 tm = t&b(a)tfimi 0 t — t&b(a)te 0 t — t&b&ti

PARADIGMS
aoo. 0 1 — t&b(a)ta *ugarita

Classes of Verbs in the 6 Conjugation (§§ 9 .6 ,7 ,9 ,2 0 ,2 2 ,3 1 )

a‫ ־‬u i-a a- a

q tl m lk = malaka HI — Aa’ila m r$ — maru?a (f) (*)

y q tt y m lk = yamluk- yS al — yiS'al- y m r $ = yimrag-

im p er. m lk = m(u)luk Sal = S(i)’al m r$ = m(i)ra§

part. m lk = m&lik- Sil — 6&*il- or Sa'il- m r$ = marus- (f)

in f. abs. m lk = mal&ku Sal = Sa'&lu m rj = mar&su

A n O r. 38
(!) marisa also possible;; the orthography has 80 far concealed the vocalization of the qatula verbs.
A nOr. 38 p a r a d ig m s Verb (qtl & Imper. G
Verb (yqtl)
yqtl G (§§ 9. 9-15)

indicative subjunctive jussive energic

sg• B m. ym lk = yamluku ym lk = yamluka ym lk — yamluk ym lkn = yamlukan(na)

3 f. Imlk = tamluku tm lk — tam luka tm lk = tamluk tm lkn = tamlukan(na)

2 m. tm lk — tamluku tm lk = tam luka tm lk = tamluk tm lkn = tamlukan(na)

2 f. tm lkll — tam lukiua tm lk = tarolukl tm lk — tamlukl

1 c. am lk = ,amluku am lk = *amluka arnlk — *amluk am tkn — ’amlukan(na)

paradigms
du. 3. c. (yjt)m lkn = (y/t>mluk£lni (yft)m lk = (y/t)amluka (y jt)m lk = (y/t)amluka

2. c. tm lkn = tamluk&ni tm lk = tamluka tm lk — tamluka.

1 c. nm lk

p i. 3 m. (ylfym lkn = (y/t)amlukuna (y/t)m lk = (y/t)amluku (y!t)m lk = (y/t)amluku

3 f. tmlk(n) tm lk

2 m. tm lkn = tam lukuua tm lk — tam luku tm lk = tam luku

2 f. tmlkn = tamlukna tmlkn = tam lukna tm lkn = tam lukna

A nOb . 38
1 c. nm lk namluku nm lk = namluka nm lk = namluk nm lkn = namlukan(na)
A n Or . 38
Synopsis of the Verbal Conjugations (§§ 9. 33-43)

qtl yqtl imper. part. inf. abs.

m lk = malaka y m lk = yamiuk- m lk = m(u)luk m lk = m&lik- m lk — mal&ku


G
Sil ~ Sa'ila yS a l = yis’al- Sal = S(i/a)’al

Gt y m tlk = yimtalik- im tlk = imtalik

N y m lk = yimmalik-

PARADIGMS
D m lk = mall aka y m lk = yamallik- m lk = mallik m m lk = mumallik-

R k r k r = karkara y k r k r = yakarkir- k r k r = karkir m k r k r = mukarkir-

4-con. p r s h — par8a\1a y p r s h = yaparsih- p r s h = parsib m p r s h = muparsih-

L r m m —rftmaina y n n m — yaramim- r m m = r&mim m r m m = murainim-

tL j^dd(T)=yat(a)cadid-(f)

Verbal Conjugations
§ Sm lk = Samlaka y S m lk = yasamlik- Sm lk = Samlik m S m lk — umSamlik-

3t y S tlm k = yiStamlik-
Prlm ae n and h PARADIGMS A nOb . 38

Primae n (§ 9.44)

yaqtul-class yiqtal-class

G qtl npl = napala nSa

ySu = yiSSa’a
yqtl ypl — yapptil-
ySq = yiSSaq-

imper §a = fia'a

part. npl = n&pil-

inf. const. bnSi

Gt yqtl yt&i = yittaSi*

D yqtl ynSq = yanafiSiq-

Primae h (§ 9.49)

a-i, hlk a‫־־‬u, him

G qtl hlk = halaka him —halama

yq tl y lk —yalik- ylm = yalum-

imper. Ik = lik him = h(u)lum

Gt yqtl ytlk. = yifctalik-

§ y q tl y ih lk = yaSahlik-

— 156
A nOr. 38 PARADIGMS Primae, Mediae w/y

Primae w/y (§ 9.48) I *

*opt *wrd ynq

G qtl yrd = yarada

yqtl yrd = yarid-

imper. rd — rid

part. wpt = wapit- yrd = y&rid- ynq = yaniq-

inf. abs. wpt = wapfttu yrd = yar&du ynq = yan&qu


G t yqtl ytrd — yittarid-

§ qtl §rd = Sdrada f. 8nqt = Sdnaqat

yqtl y§rd = yaSdrid- tinq = taSdniq-

imper. 8rd — Sdrid = Sdniql

part. m§rd = mu Sdrid- m8nqt = muS6niq(a)t-

Mediae w/y (§ 9.50)

u-cla88 i-cla88 a-cla88

G gtf qm = q&ma 8r = Sara ar = ‫&״‬ra

yaqtula yqm = yaqfimu y8r = yaSiru yar = yi‫&״‬ru

yaqtul yqm = yaqum y8r = yaSir ^ a r = yi‫״‬ar

imper. qm = qum 8r = Sir a r = ‫״‬ar

part. qrn — q&m- 8r = S&r- ar =

in f. c o n st. qm = qdm- £7‫ = ־‬Sir- ar = ‫״‬ar-

Gt yqtl yitn — yatiin-

— 157 —
Tertlae w/y - Med. w St tert. y PARADIGMS A n Or . 38

Tertiae w/y (§§ 9. 51,52)

-W -y

G qatalat a tw t = *atawat mtfyt — mag(a/i)yat

qatalta m{jt = 1uag(6/i)ta

yaqtul (u/a) 1 sg . aMw = 'afiluwa ymtfy = yamgiy(u/a)

yaqtul 2 m . sg . tdu = tad'u ynx§ = yamgl

im p el‫־‬. m . pi. du = d(a)’u el = «(a)ll

part. bny = baniy-

iDf. c o n s t. bbk — ba-b(a)kl

D yaqtulu ykly = yakalliyu

yaqtul ykl = yakalli

§ qtl §cly = »a°laya

Med. w aud tert. y (§ 9. 64)

G qataltl hwt = bawGtl

yaqtul yh = yabu

part. hy = bayy-

D yaqtulu yhwy = yafcawwiyu

yaqtul yhw = yabawwi

S t yaqtulu yUhvyy = yistafcwiyu

158 —
ISBN 88-7653-238-2
ANALECTA ORIENTALIA 38

UGARITIC TEXTBOOK
T E X T S IN T R A N S L IT E R A T IO N

C U N E IF O R M S E LE C T IO N S

CYRU S H. G O RD O N

R e v ised R e p rin t

C .—

19 9 8
EDITRICE PONTIFICIO ISTITUTO BIBLICO
ROMA
CHAPTER XVI

THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION

(Text a) Jr$n rb khnm (12) ulp. ddmy. wip \fyryw]lp.fyty. wip [altyulp] ibr
(Text b) rb khnm (13) ulp . bbtkn. wip . md[ll1c]n . ulp . m[ ]
(Text c) $dqn (14) utfdin. bapkn. db[ ]rtnp[ ]
(15) tqttn uttyin . l(d)bk[m](t) .w . d[5Jn ndJJ]
* (Text 1) dqt. fr. ynt. f«m . dqt. f«m .
(16) hw.fr. nfry. 5w?. nArt. nkt . ytSi [ia6 &n if]
(2) mtn tm nkbd . alp .6 .lil
(17) yt$i . idr .bn il.l. mpfyrt. bn [ii]
(3) gdlt. ilhm. tkmn. w!in \m dqt
(4) r ip . dqt. $rp w!$\mm. dqtm (18) w. Sqrb. f r . mir mir bIn.ugrt.w?[npy ] tmhn#
(5) 15(f). alp w8 ilhm. gdltf[m1]. ilhm (19) w n p y . yw an. w n p y . t r m n w n p y . [ ]ug r
(6) [i]i i . atrt. i . tkmn. w?in[m]. i . (20) wnpy . nqmd. win . ypkm. wZp. q[ti ulp ddm]y
(7) [e]nt. i . r ip . i . dr il wp[#]r b°l. (21) ulp . Jry . wip . Jiy . wip . aity . ul(p tbr u]lp
(8) [g]dlt. iim . gdlt. wburm. [ ]5 (22) ftbtkm.ulp.mdl[l]lkm.ulp.— bl [win] ypkm(!)
(9) rm$t. ilhm. b°lm. dtt. wksm. &mi (23) ubapkm. w&gt!t . npSkm. w&gtt. igif
(10) °$rh. mlutln. Snpt. Jtft!h. bcl §!pn i (24) win ypfcm. Zd[5]bm wl.fr.db\m.ndbb hwfr nfry
(11) -t-t• 8Alt. mgdl S.ilt. asrm i (26) hie . nkt. nA*Z. [yi]ii . lab . Zm . il. ytii . idr
(12) rgll(f). ip i pgr. wtrmnm. btl mlk (26) bn il Itkmn [w?]inm .hn .* 6r
(13) (h/i)l-m gdlt. wiJr j. J |. gdlt. ym gdlt
(14) *mi(t) (g)dnt(f).yrb.gdlt.
(16) gdlt. trmn. gdlt .pdry . gdlt dqt (27) wtb . Imslpr m[i]r mir . &i. wyrt. wmpy gr
(16) |yd(it d)qt\ .*rt.dqt (28) h m y t . w yri . w[np]y . n i t . win y p k n . wip gti
(17) [ ] . «nt. 8bl[ ] . dbfym. i[p]i pgr (29) ulp . ddm y . wl[p J]ry/ .wip . Jty . ulp . alty
(18) ~lt.il[ ] . gnqtm(f) . d[q]tm (30) wip . ibr . ulp . [fybtkri] ulp m d! . llkn ulp qr
(19 ) - r- - gdlt. wlglmltfl) i (31) uliny . pkn . bap[kn ubq\\t. n p i).(5n . ubq$\t\
(rev.) [ ]mt tltm. wyrdt. [m]d6Ji (32) winy . [pkn Idbfym] wltl°(1) db^ln
(21) gdwu(f). i&cit bhtm. c$rm (33) ndblp .h w .fr n[fry hw nkt nkt] yltlii lab 511 il
(22) - - in i ilm (rev.) ytii id[r bn il i]m p jrf . bn il
(36) Itkmn [trSnm] h n . cr
(Text 2) [ ‫נ‬
(2) [ ]rbn (Text 3) byrb . [ ]
(3) [ ‫נ‬ (2) im tr . [ ]

W t ]wnpy (3) bW<{ ]


(5) [ ]y . ugrt (4) barb6t [ ]
(6) [ (6) w?t!n im . [ ]
(7) [ ‫נ‬ (6) ilm . wi[ ]
(8) [ m ‫נ‬ (7 ) [ ]. brr [ ]
(») [ ‫ נ‬- 1[ (8 ) [ ]im .ye[ ]
(9) [ ]8 . r[ ]
(10) t «m]py gr [ ]mhni (10) (k/w)y[ ] r t.n ]
(11) [ ]wn[py ]. utbt[in ]y (11) wa\[pf\ (h/i)Z.w?5d[ ]

— 159 —
Text 4 THE UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A n Or . 38

(12) y t k . Q7]dlt ilh m . [ ‫נ‬ (6) i d r . V dr . MW . i l . Icmrb


* (13) d q t. r§p § np . teg[ ‫נ‬ (7) ild . lcmrbnd . ilan . il kmrb
(14) il[ a]lp . teg[ ]hm[ ‫נ‬ (8) 8bl .pdy . tinm . kr\ i l . lcmrbnd
(15) 5[ ].afr[* ‫נ‬ (9) ardnnk
(16) ‘nt $ vip §[ ‫נ‬
(16) g&lm. £i111[?» 1 (10) id[r . W r ₪ d W . «[&]?
(18) r n ift. ilh[m ‫נ‬ (11) t[ ] . v g r t. anbz
(19) ksm . f/If/m . [ ‫נ‬ (12) ilhn[ ]n . a tn . -np .
(20) dyqfy . btf [ ‫נ‬ (13) tb#“[ t]t5f.itddn
(21) Smn rq(m/h!) [ 1 (14) in[ ]nnk
(22) ttin fycm . [ ‫נ‬
(23) k d m . y n . pr[ ‫נ‬ (15) i [dr bdr] bdld . iykdg • iym
(24) m dbht. b t . 1[ ‫נ‬ (16) bz[b(g/z) ]. fyrgd . £nm. ardnnk
(25) l . [ ]naf. $ . tel[ ‫נ‬
(26) gd[l ] . Inkl [ ‫נ‬ (17) idr . b[dr bdt]d . ddm§[ ]
(27) */*[ ] H»S[ ‫נ‬ (18) i(f-. [ ]rn .n [ ]
(28) il[ ]dgf. g[ ‫נ‬ (19) a(b/§)[ ]np&m[ ]&
(29) [ ] r [ ] wg [ ‫נ‬ (20) bz[&(0/2) ] • admnl
(3 0 ) [ ]Ih .g d lt[ ‫נ‬ (21) a[ ]ddmg . liddlnnk
(31) [ ] t . tkmn . te . [Unm ‫נ‬
(rev.) [ ]f . dqtm . [ ‫נ‬ (22)‫ ־‬t[<2r (idr bdld ‫ו‬
(33) [ ]mm . gdlt [ ‫נ‬ (23) tt[ Jr
(34) [ ] . i . 9pn . gd[lt ‫נ‬ (24) bzb(g!z). [ ]
(3 5 ) [ ] . ‫ ״‬. * . [ ]i[ ‫נ‬ (25) kud{a/n)[ ]nnk
(3 6 ) ] ]1.[ ]«[ ‫נ‬
(37) [ ] . bHt. bt [ ‫נ‬ (26) idr . b [dr bdld ]a d . ■r
(38) [md]bbt. b . bmS [ ‫נ‬ (27) c-b l.t\[ ]Id
(39) [ ] k b d .w . db[ 1 (28) tinm . k[ ] . ardnnk
(40) [ ] a tr t. e9r[ ‫נ‬ (rev.) idr bd*‫־‬.b[dW] a -lb .id r
(41) [ ]b mdbh . M . [ ‫נ‬ (30) idr . pbnd[ ]nm . awrgl
(42) d q t. 1. 9pn . w . dqt [ ‫נ‬ (31) ardfnm . ar[ ]1 . a i t b . tmrnnk
(43) tn . 1 . e8rm .p a m t. [ ‫נ‬
(44) 8 . dd . Smn . g d lt. w . [ ‫נ‬ (32) idr M M b[d]W . M* . bdlrl
(45) rgm . yttb .b .td t .tn . [ ‫נ‬ (33) *&Z[ ]b . t i n m kr bdn . b<*l(k/r!)
(46) cl-h . gdlt rgm . yt[tb ‫נ‬ (34) ardn[n]k
(47) b • [$5]c. 9bu . &p8. w . .[ ‫נ‬
(48) w [ ] mlk . [ ] b . ym . M f • in Km
(35) idr . JdM bdW • -grbn .pddpb
(49) 1[ ]t50*234
(36) Ibtg[ ]m . glHp . (\/h)gdpdlt
(50) i[ ]b . mlk . 1 .p r g l. 9qrn .b .gg (37) iyl c- . [ p]ddpb • Mdawfc
(61) ar[ ] arbe. mt b t . azmr . bh . 8§r
(52) a#[ ] . 8 . 8lmm . p a m t . 8be . klbh (38) idr . bdr . b[d]ld . -mg . fciu?. nqd
(53) yr[ ] mlk . 9 bu . SpS . w?. Jdtm(?). Zfe (39) ind . -mg[ ]tbd . mdM
(54) w . [ ] yj>m . wmq[ ]. [ ]ibn[ ] (40) nnw . a[ ]n
(55) b .[ ] . w . km . i t . y[ ]SZm . y d [ ]
(41) [W]r . M*‫ • ־‬MW • *r[ ]idrp
(Text 4) idr . bdr . bdld . in . atn (42) [ ](afn)dm . irSpn . 15[ ];n
(2) twrm . (-/t)lmin . klm . kldn (43) [ ] . admn . adnn . urn .pddm
(3) in . atynpc- . pgdm . ubl
(4) aw rnm . ardnm . in . (n/at)fcynp(f)
(44) i d r . bdr . MW • ent • amrn
(5) tmrnnk
(45) n l y . [c]ut amrn . n l y .

— 160 —
A n Or . 38 THE TTGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 5-6

(46) fnm . fyddnnk (24) atr . ilm. ylk .pcnm


(25) mlk. p*nm. yl[k]
(47) idr .Mr Jdi[d] ‫נ‬bnkl (26) 8bepamt. Iklhm
(48) pdgl. iinkl [p]dgl. fr
(49) (e-/t)gp*n [ ] . (t/a)[r]dnnk(f)
(Text 6) [ ] *
(50) Hr Jdr JdW .nb dg
(51) Jmn . bmikrn . aln . iu7rn(t) (2 )[ ].tld.
(62) ccgdm. fam
(63) *np.p8m. ngrn (3) [ ]rm. tn . ym
(64) idr . M r . M U • <*[ ]ad
(55) in trfrn. in . aftj[ ]nm (4) t§L ]y mm. Ik.
(56) ttbd . aitbnm. Jit[ ]n
(67) ityn . idr. trfyndr . idr . (5) hrg. ar[ ]mm. b$r .
(68) a*tb\.\ndr. (t/*)yp . nrgp . nrgn
(59) inm. b&dnnk (6) - f - . M . [

(edge) idr.Mr • MM•JJt .Jmr[]in .pbn.bbt. iy.ind (7) -ftk . rf[ ] lmirk
(61) pg . ind . tm . tr . *yn. [ ]6 . £gdlfy. pfjp . igd .
(62) pndnn . tnm. J i t . Jddnnk . atr . mtrt.pdrly (8) w«p . id!•[ ] . ntirk.
(Text 5) k tcrblf .ettrt. Jr . -? (9) wri$ . Igrk . i/n&& .
(2) bt mlk . e8r . e8r -! g f . bt ilm
(3) kb[ ]m.ttrmt (10) at grk . ank . yd°ff?
(4) lb&[ ] w[ ]tn . u8pgt
(6) Jr[ ]lfift. mzn .
(11) [ ]n . atn . at. mtfbk [ ]
(6) dr -1.8. alp . wttt
(7) fin . 8lm[m] 8bepamt
(12) [ ]mm . rm. Ik.pr(z/pe) . [ ]
(8) Him. 8b[c ] kir.

(9) elm. terbn. gtrm. (13) [ ]bm. gtm. tpl. klbnt


(10) bt. mlk tql. Jr$ .
(11) I8p8.wyrb.lgtr (14) [ ] gm. kyrk [ ] . (•/t)tqbm.
(12) tql. k8ptb . ap! wnp[£] (15) [ ]m . t?pn . Ipit
(13) Ifnth . tql. Jr^ .
(14) Wp§ [wy]vb . Igtr. tn (16) m[ ]m. irmdbbt.
(15) [tql k*p](t) tb .ap . wnp8
(16) [ ].bt. alp w8 (17) hr . [ ]H. kbkbt
(18) nem[ ]llm. trlhq
(17) [ ]m . Igtrm. (19) belt. cn. tkrc. t(bfd)[ ]
]lentm. (10. ed.) limm . wtel . m U[ ]
(18) [
(21) abh. J?r . ilk . y(b/t)[ ]
(19) ( ]rm . dkrm.
(rev.) 8mck . larJ . wbn. [ ]
(rev.) [ ] . lentm. (23) limm. acl budnk. ?/‫[י‬ ]

(21) [ ]\8lrn. (24) krtqt. mr -t-t


(22) [ ]ry . ylb8. (25) kdlbgt. bir . mlak

(23) mlk . ylk . lq-tilm (26) 8mm. tmr . zbl. mlk

— 161 —

21
Texts 7-11 THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr. 38

(27) *ram . tlak[ ]$ . amr . w [ y . w. ttpl. gdlt. §!pn!. dqt


(5) [ ]nmgdlt. bit[ ]mrm
(28) bnkm.tkbls[b ]b lam (6) [ i]l 8. bcl 8. afrt .8 .ym 8.bel knp .[£]
(7) [ 9]dlt. *pw . dqt. . w8lmm
(29) rkm. agzrt [ ] . arb . (8 ) [ a ]lp . IM . i r a f r t . . Iin8
(9) [ ] . M&‫־‬tm . gdlt. *rb 8p8 wty
(30) b'l. a(z/t'.)rt . ‫ « »־‬.[ ]Id (10) [ ]b*t .«[ff]rt(f) .yrtfc(l/9!) m lk .b r r
(11) [ ]at. y[ ]» . al[ ]m . yrb(../2) t8rt
(31) kbdh. lyd‫ ־‬hrh . [ ]tfdht (12) [ ]n . y[ ]m . »cy[ ]qrt [ ]
(13) [ ]m[ u]grt 8. kbd . w8
(32) tnq[ (14) [ ] . w8 [ ] bel . 9pn
‫[•נ‬ (15) [ ] . w&\mm. Icm m
(33) y-1-1[ ]?-!‫־י‬.‫ ע‬2 . [ 1 -!
(16) [ ]A:[ ]m. tnp8
(17) [ ] 8. *nt Itn
(34) a[ ]in . rb . bdt[ ]pt (Text 10) [ ]y .
(35) <‫ן‬1[ ] 1‫ ־‬hpk . m[ ].
(2) [ ] w. nl!Xh
(36) 8[ ]t (3) bn k8ln. ilth
(Text 7) agr ftId km
(2) Tb urgnkmn (4) bn y$mb. bn -frn wnfylh
(3) ipn tdn t(n /d)n
(4 ) i&nbbqlfrl (5) &n 8rd . bn nfwn
(5) lydttlbfltt
(6 ) labr8d*(t/g) (6) bn[ ]In. bn tbil
(7 ) m kmrb (t/g)np
(8) ty agr atg k (7) bn i8.bn tb . dn
(9 ) mrb n rir
(10) mzg8klbym k! (8) bn uryy
(11) Id pdrm (flt)n
(12) %m (9) bn abd°n
(Text 8) yn . i8[ryt] (h/i)Inr (rev.) bn prkl
(2) 8pr . [ ]k8b*t
(3) g h l . ph . tm nt
(11) bn 8tn
(4 ) nbluh . 8p8 . ym p
(5) hlkt. tdr$ [ " ]
(12) bn annyn
(6 ) 8 p 8 . b*dh . f![ ]
(7) afr . atrm
[ ]
(8) afr . afrm [ ] (13) b[n] Big
(9 ) itidym . t[ ]
(10) bk. mla 6[ ] (14) b!n!(f) l!bi'<(!)
(11) 11dm*t.d[ ] (15) bn [ ]
(1 2 ) [ ].bn. L ] (16) bn n*r!(t) il
(13) [ ]
(Text 11) The ends of all 35 lines read tlfynin
* (Text 9) [ ] f . sib . npg . p w [ ] bdm varying degrees of preservation. On the
(2) [ ]mm. f» gm. walp . 2[ ]m adjoining side is the following:
(3) [ ] 6 . il g . fcl g . d g n 6 [ ]aa-fy tlfyn. bn qrw ttyn
A nOr . 38 THE UGAR1TI0 TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 13-17

* (Text 12 + 97) [ ] . d d . gdl. tt . dd . /f‫״‬rm (6) M.bt.'lr


(2) [ #f]in . to. alp led . n b t . fcd. g tn n . m r (6) b*l .bt. aal
(3) [ ] a r b° m a t . bston. Itfy. a q h r (7) b*l.bt. tm
(4) [Uly 1>]abbyn. Itly SSmn. lily. (8) b*l .bt. ktmn
(6) [ ] %mqm . U . m a t . n# . f i l m . *ft■ (9) [b>]l. bt. ndbd
(0) [ ] b!m§[m ^m]r. Mem (10) [ >«r
(10 . ed.) [6*1]. bt. ban
(7) [ d d ] g d l . t t . d d . S°rm (rev.) (a few nondescript signs)
(8) [ 9in ( f ) w a l]p . k d . n b t . k d . Smm. mr
(»( t ] k m n . I tb . s b b y n (Text 15) btibn
(10) [ ]ct . 1th . SSm n (2) iy- d . m. wfclhl
(11) [ ] . bsirn . ft •m a t . n$ (3) dd.y
(12) [ ] . frmr &km (4) my
(6) iter. nr
(13) [ d d ] g d l . t t • d d . S°rm (6) alnr
(14) [ a]lp a r b * . m a t . t y t (7) lajydt
(15) [ ] n b t . k[ d S ]m n . m r [ ] (8) aly
(16) [ 1]tfy p0frbyn . I tb •£S[wn] (rev.) [ ]
(17) [ l]tfy d b l t . Itfy . $ m q m (10) [ ]t
(18) [ ] d d m f y m S m .f y m r .S k m
(11) ydn
(12) mnn. tobnhl
* (Text 13) [ ].k[ ‫נ‬ (13) gtkk
(2) w [].u r [ ‫נ‬
(3) w[ ] SAr [ ‫נ‬ (Text 16) [ ]
(4) b[ ]r< . [ ]A[ ‫נ‬ (2) yny[ ]
(6) toAtn. a t . Iryin [ ‫נ‬ (3( ydn[ ]
(6) mip . dhw[ ‫נ‬ (4) ytrgp
(5) yd[ ]
(7) wank. ugbt[ ] (6) yd[ ]
(8) ank. n[ ] (10 . ed.) ydlm
(9) leat.[ ] (8) yird
(10) to. Atr . «b[ ] (rev.) yrmt
(11) lytn.to[ ‫נ‬ (10) yyn
(12) tcyr[ ‫נ‬ (11) y«
(rev. 1) [ ] .[ 11[ 1 (12) ydin
(2) ly . ank . aS9[ ‫נ‬ (13) y mn
(3) whm. at. tr[gm 1 (14) yry[ ]
(4) wdrm. «$r[ 1 (16) [y ]km[ ]
(6) wap.ht.k/w[ ‫נ‬
(Texts 17) [ Jrpt ]
(2) [ u ] m 1
(3) [‫]״‬tin
(6) wmtnn[ ] (4) i[» ]»‫ ־‬M
(7) (i/h)*«.[ ] (6) rip
(8) [ ]d.r[ ] (6) ddmS
(7) plyr ilm
(Text 14) bt. il (8) ym
(2) b*l.bt. af&mny[ ] (9) utbt
(3) b*l. bt .pdy (10) wnr
(4) b*l.bt.nqly (11) mlkm
Texts 18-33 TH E UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOb . 38

(12) Sim (11) tn [ ]


(rev.) *1 9jpw (12) a&t [ ]
(14) il[i]ft(f) (13) bym.dbfy. [ ]
(16) il (14) dfyt. I.mzy. bn[ ]
(16) dgu (15) afyt. I. mk- - r
(17) [ ] (16) afyt. I. *ttrt [ ]
(18) [ ].» (17) arbc.e9rm
(19) [ M 1 (18) gt. trmn
(20) [ ]lm (19) afyt slfyu
(21) [ ]1m
(22) [ ]lm
(23) [ ]m (Text 19, lines 812 [!] ) [ ]. pi[t
(9 ) [ ]p i# * [ ]
(24) [ ]wig[ ]
(26) [ ] (1 0 ) [ ]r.biS[ ]
(11) [ ]Ik . *‫[־‬ ]
(Text 18) l .rb . khnm (12) L ] r[ ]
(2) rgm [ ]
(Text 20) Ulri\St ‫נ‬
(3) thm. [ ] (2) ypt. ‫[?־‬ [
(4) ySlm( 1 (3) hSlm. [ [
(5) tilm[ ]k (4) btk.b[ [
(6 ) t°z[zk ]lm (6) 9VK [
(7) ( ]mk (6) bt.[ [
( 8) [ ]
(9) [ ]&il (Text 21) tkm. hi{ ]
(10) [ ]Silt (2) Ipkr (9/2 ) . a[ ]
(rev.) [ ] (3) w ig . j>am?[ ‫נ‬
(12) [ S]\lt (4) y§l[m ‫נ‬
(13) [ ]m . lm (5) [ M ‫נ‬
(U) [ ] • g tr
(15) [ ]«‫ !׳‬. hict (Text 22) [ ] .[ 1
(16) [ ]*d , S . d . g t r (2)[ ]t.Sli[ 1
(3) [ ] ‫ * י‬.* ‫נ‬
(17) [10]ht y#me . ufyy (4) [ ]\pdrl ‫נ‬
(18) Igy toyhbt. baS[ ] (5) §tn a[ \d h [ ‫נ‬
(19) voytn. ilm. bdh [ ] (6) Htrt [ ‫נ‬
(20) bd ibqm. gtr (7) Hm . Jcmt[ ‫נ‬
(21) wbd. ytrhd (8) 1cbtlt-9[in 1
(22) M (9) (III/9) .j>r[ ‫נ‬ *
(10) mit i«[ ‫נ‬
(11) -*r. (fc/w)[ 1
(Text 19) [ ]rm (12) [ ly‫[״‬ 1
(2) [ ]p h -l
(3) [ ] . ‫ ־ ־‬rm (Text 23) [ H ]
(4) [ ]M -b-m (2) [ ]8M.il[ 1
(6) [ ]mn . 1 . dgn (3) [ ] t . Htrt [ 1
(6) [ ]m (4) [ ] lit t .i Htr[t 1
(7) [ ]pgl (5) [«]?»•. Ipdr tt. ?[ ‫נ‬
(8) [ 1 (6) [ ~\&npn . H m . fcm[ ‫נ‬
(9) 6[ ]rt (7) w. (Ul/9) . c$rm. to[ ‫ן‬ ♦
(10) b l y [ ]rb (8) Tcmm.w .in c$r [ ‫נ‬

164 —
AnOr. 38 THE UG4RITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 24-29

(9) w. mit. S‫״‬rty [ ] (8) ak[ ]


(10) w. kdr. to. nptt[ ]
(11) w.ksp.ydb.[ ] (9) [a]t[m ]
(rev.f 1) [ ]
(Text 24) [ ] (2) a[fm ]
(2) 6[ ]
(3) qri ] (3) a[tm ]
(4) gr[ ] (4) afim ]
(5) gr[ ]
(6) ?r[ ]
(5) at[m ]
(7) qr[ ] (6) at[m ]
(8) qr[ ]
* (9) ibSgr(!)[ ]
(10) b'db'licm (7) atm. am[ ]y[ ]
(11) m lfy. qrn. in[ ]
(rev.) mlk[ ]r[ ] (8) atm. nr . nm[ ]
(13) 991 ]
(14) b[ ] (9) atm. trtb[ ]d[ ]
(15) i[ ] (10) [af]m . [ ]
(16) y[ ]
(Text 28) [ ]
!le x e r s ; 1 jt tm\n j
(2) [ ]i AmS[ ] (2) [ ‫נ‬
(3) ---------------------------------- Ami[ ]
w t y n.*rb[ ] (3) [ ]p
(5) [ ] tmnym[ ]
(6) [ ] m mit [ ] W [ ]P
(Text 26) [ M ] (5) [ ]tp
(2) [ ]«,[ ]
(3) 5k[ ] . yq[ ] (6) [ ]ryn c-np
(4) tc[ ] rfcb [ ] (7) [ ] d d
(6) [ ].d[ ]
(6) 5ql[ ]k[ ] (8) [ ]§<. urpim
(rev.) wtitqdn[ ] (9) [ ].[ ]
(8) Am (rev. 1) [ ]
(2) t yd
(9) uryh. mlk[ ] (3) [ la
(10) wikm.kn .tc[ ]
(11) Uknnnn[ ] (1) [ ¥
(5) [ ]mn

(Text 27) aS[ ] (6) [ ](t/g)r


(2) m 1 (7) [ ]nm
(8 ) [ ].‘-i
(3) ar[ ] (9) [ ]n . item

(4) a([m ]
(5) M ] (Text 29) [ ] ann . d
(6) ap[ ]
(7) fed[ ] (2) [ ] . A»y». «Ad

— 165 —
Texts 30-42 THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr . 38

(3) p d r . mile. afyd (Text 35) [ J


(2) [ ] k id . pdvm [ ]
(Text 30) [ ]pr[ ]
(2) ar[ ] (3) [ ]» . dwytm . tiyt[ ]
(4( [ ] .pd!rm . tn [ ]
(3) ulm.im ]
(4) a r il [ ] (5) [ yb .fybt.[ ]
(6) ulm . k . [ ] (6) [ M ‫נ‬
(6) urmn [ ]
(Text 36) «g|>• ‫ו‬
(Text 31) [ ]klm (2) *S[r 1
(2) [ ] ttb (3) ar[J« ‫ו‬
(3) [ ] b . ugrt
14) [ ] nbdgn (4) bmS[ 1
(5) [ ] bmrbn (5) [ 1
(6) [ ]. in
(7) [ ] ttngV.a (Text 37) [ 1
(8) [ ]n (2) [ ~\tm. [ 1
(») [ ]n (3) [ r\t^9. nn [ ‫נ‬
(4) [ ](i/h)dmnn. [ 1
(Text 32) [ ] (6)[ ](d/b)f». at#[ 1
(2) [ ]$i. bb[ ].Jm .fr[ ] (6) [ ] h ilt. btlU 1
(3) [ ]&. «ry[ ] . kqlt [ (7) [ ]n n . br[ ‫נ‬
]
(4) [ ]a t. b r t . 1btenn . [ ] (8) [ 1 (h/i) (b/?) [ ‫נ‬
(6) [ ](gfe)dq . kttn . l y . Xn[ 1
(6) [ ] b n . rgm . wyde [ (Text 38) bn 81[ ]
] (2) bn id[ ]
(3) [ ‫נ‬
(Text 39) [ ‫נ‬
(Text 33) [ ]
(2) [ ]ant[ ‫נ‬
(2) t M ]
(3) [ ].m r[ ]
(3) l ]mam#[ ‫נ‬
(4) [ ]. mr[ ] ydm [ ]
(6) [ m]f&<. tlu i. w . b . [ ]
(6) [ ]ttbn . ilm . tc . [ ] (4) [ ‫נ‬
(7) [ ]\v . ksu . M t . H ]
(Text 40) [ ‫נ‬
(8 )[ ]il.b t.p d lt.[ ]
(9) [ ] . hfcl[ ] (2) h[ ]
(3) a b . r[ ‫נ‬
(4) abr[ ‫נ‬
(Text 34) agr . £1<I[ ] (5) w[ ‫נ‬
(2) ttctle. [ ]
(3) M ] (Text 41) [ ]$
(4) [ ‫נ‬ (2) [ a]r&«m
(5 ) [ 1 (3] btl$n bn# ♦
(rev.) [ ‫נ‬ (rev.) mlkt
(7) k[ [ (5) c#rm
(8) am ‫נ‬ (6) r ]t
(9) tfwtf[k(?) ] (Text 42) [ ‫נ‬
(10) <r[ Vt[ ] (2) [ >Pt [

— 166 —
A nO r. 38 THE U0ARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 43-49

(3) [ ]rpl. (a/n)[ ] (6) [ ]fctt[ ]


(4) [ ]Aar/[ ] (7) [ m ‫נ‬
(6) [ ](b/i)mr«[ ] (8) [ ]»»[ ]
(6) ( ] ugrt [ ] (9) [ ]mm[ ]
(7) [ y tn tk m [ ] (10) [ ]
(8) [ ] gd\[tf ]
(9) [ ] dq[t(t) ] (Text 47) [ ]
(2) [ m ) t • [ ‫נ‬
(Text 43) [ ] (3) [ d]d»»S [ ]
(2) ( ]•
(3) [ ]Mu ( 4 ) [ ](b/d) . A. (b/d)[ ]
(5)[ ]J .tf.l ]

]mnAr (6) [ ‫נ‬


W [
(5) [ ]1•gmy (Text 48) [ ]
(6) [ ] pgt (2) [ ]m t.[ ]
(7) [ ] . ydn (3) [ ] 9dl.[ ]
(8) [ ]»! (4) [ ]1mtym[ ]
(9) [ ] . kllh (5 ) [ ]A.wr&f.[ ]
(10) L ](?/1)y (6) [ ]S.prK ]
(11) [ ]r (7 )[ ]#.p*[ ]
(8) [ ]ytfrf ]
(Text 44) [ 1 (9 )[ ](d/ltf(l/d)[ ]
(2) wb[ ]
(3) Mb[ 1 (Text 49) [ ] . aliyn . b«l [ ]
(4) alp . ] ‫נ‬ (2 )[ M . pStbm. «[ ]
(6) *Kb[ ‫נ‬ (3) [ ]zrh . ybm. Him
(rev.) tyr[ ‫נ‬ (4) [td]k • Utn pnm . «m
(7) dq[ ‫נ‬ (5) [t]l . mbk rihrm. qrb
(8) ‫( ״‬b/d)[ ‫נ‬ (6) [a]pq . thmtm. tgly . id
(9) [ ‫נ‬ (7) il wtbu . qri .
(8) mlk . ah . Sum. lp°n
(Text 45) [ ](r/k)dn (9) il . thbr . wtql
(2) [ ]nw (10) tftkwy . wtkbdnh
(11) tin . gh . wtfb . Umb ht
(3) [ ]r (12) atrt • wbnh . ilt w$b
W t ]kd (13) ri . aryh . kmt, aliyn
(5) [ ]n tn (14) W . fcjlp . zbl. b*l
(rev.) [ l(r/k )id (15) ar* pm . ytb il
(7) [ ]1gd . atm (16) Irbt atrt ym. imp
(8) [ tw\tk . - n - -ty (17) Irbt. aftrt] ym . tn
(9) [ jr . a-f (18) a\d . 5 . bnk(1) wamlkn
(19) . rbt. atrt ym
(10) [ y>.8p. (20) bl. nmlk . yd® • yZJin
(21) 1ry®n . Ifpn . ♦I d(p)i
(Text 46) [ ‫נ‬ (22) d , dq . anm• iyr?
(2) [ ]arH ‫נ‬ (123) •m . M • ly*d6 . mrj
(3) [ lq di[ ‫נ‬ (24) «m . &n . dpn . ktmsm
w t i^upt ‫נ‬ (26) w«n . . afrt ym
(5) [ ]agn[ ] (26) 6ft . nmlfc . •\tr • •r?

167 —
Text 49 THE UGAR1TIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr . 38

(27) gmlk . 9ttr . 9rz (III) fcfclq . zb[{ tel art]


(28) apnk . 9ttr . °rz (2) whm. fry . a[liyn tel\
(29) yel . b tr r t. tpn (3) whm. it. zbl . &«[{ ar$]
(30) gib . IkU align (4) &Jbn . Upn . ii . dpid.
(31) tel . p*nh . Itmgyn (5) bdrt . fcny . bnwt
(32) hdm ri8h . Igmgg (6) 8mm. 8mn . tmtrn
(33) ap8h wy°n . 9ttr . 9rz (7) n£bn . tffc . n&tm
(34) lamlk . b tr r t. tpn (8) icid9. fojty . aZiyn bcl
(35) grd . 9ttr . 9rz . yrd (9) fcif . zbl. M . ar$
(36) Ikfyt. align . tel (10) bhlm. ftpn i{ dpi[({]
(37) wgmlk . bart . i l . klh (11) bdrt . ftny . bnwt
(38) [ ] Sabn . brfrbt (12) £mm . dfron . tmtrn
(39) [ ] abn . bkknt (13) nfrlm. tlk . n&fro
(II) 1[ ] (14) £tnj . Upn . i* . dpid
(2) wl[ ] (15) p*nh . Ihdm. yjpd
(3) hi . [ ] (16) iryprg. {*6 try*£q
(4) k d . t [ ] (17) yfo . gh . wytb
(5) yHqn . (fc/w)[ ] (18) a(bn ank . wanfrn
(6) tngth . klb . ar[&] (19) wtnfr . birty . np£
(7) leglh . klb . ta[t] (20) kfyy align bcl
(8) limrh km .U>. *n[t] (21) kit zbl tel art
(9) atr b*l. tifyd . m[<] (22) gm. y$h . i i . Ibtlt
(10) bsin . IpS . tf$q[ ] (23) *nt itn«. Ibtlt. c/t[$]
(11) bq9 . a l l . tiu . gh . ?«[(?] (24) rgm. inr{ . ii(w) . 8p[8] .
(12) b • .m t .tn . afry . (IV) pi .9nt. Mm . y£p$
(13) w9n bn . ilm .m t.m h (26) pi . 9nt. 8dm il. yMfr
(14) tar&n . Ib tlt. 9nt (27) tel . «n$ . *
(15) an . itlk . watd . kl (28) iy . aliyn . M
(16) gr . Ikbd . art • kl gte (29) iy . zbl. bcl . art
(17) Ikbd . 8dm np8 . frsrt (30) ttb9. . 9nt
(18) bn . n8m . np8 . hm lt. (31) idk . ittn . pnro
(19) art • mffl • in*my . art (32) 9m.nrt. ilm. 8p8
(20) dbr . y8mt . 8d . 8}!lmmt (33) Jit* . gh .
(21) ngS . ank . align tel (34) .tr.il. abk
(22) 9dbnn ank . (k)imr . bpy (35) hwt . Itpn . fytkk
(23) klli . btbrnqg . J tu hw (36) pi. ent. 8dm. y$p§
(24) n r t . ilm • 8p8 . t^rrt (37) pi . edt. 8dm. il. y [8tk]
(25) la . gmm . bgd . bn ilm . mt (38) tel . 9nt . m\rth
(26) ym . ymm . gHqn . lymm (39) iy . align tel
(27) lyrfym . r\m . 9n t . tngth (40) iy . zbl. tel. art
(28) klb . arb . l9glh . klb (41) wt9n . nrt. ilm. S[pi]
(29) t a t . limrh .km .U> (42) 8dgn .9n.b. qbt[ ]
(30) 9n t . afr . t e l . tifrd (43) bllgt. *I. umtk [ ]
(31) bn . ilm . m t . bfyrb (44) wdbqt . aliyn . tel
(32) tbq9nn . bfrtr . tdrg (45) wt°n . btlt. 9nt
(33) nn . biS t. t8rpnn (46) an . Ian. y8p8
(34) brfym . ttfynn . bSd (47) an . Ian. il. yqr[ ]
(35) tdr+nn 8irh . Itikl (48) tgrk . 8[ ]
(36) 9trm mnth . Itklg (49) y**d[ ]
(37) npr [8]ir . I8ir . yth (50) []r[ ]
(51) r[ ]

— 168 —
A nOr. 38 T H E U GA RITIC TEX TS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 50-51

(V) yiljd. b*l. bn. atrt (24) Ibn. ilm. mt. ik . tmfb
(2) rbm. ymh? bktp (25) 9 . em . aZiyu .
(3) dkym. ymj)9. bfmd (26) ik .al. yXmek. tr
(4) ?for m t. ym$i. larg (27) t7 . abk.l.yn*. alt
(5) [ ]?. Ikxi. mlkk (28) . lyhpk . ksa. mlkk
(6 )[ ] tAftf • drk[t]h (29) . lit. mtptk
(7) l![ymm]. lyr[1m. lyr^m (30) yru . bn. ti'm) mt. t#
(8) Hut.[‫*״‬Ar(/)] bib‘ (31) dd.il. g z r y«r mt
(9) Snt. w— . bn . ilm . mt (32) &qlfc.y(»1/n)[
(10) *m . aliyn b‘l. yiu (33) M . yttbn [
(11) gh. wytk • elk. b*lm(?) (34) mikA.tr[
(12) pht. qlt. elk. pht (35) c l r k th [
(13) dry . ftftrft . ‘Ik (36)
(14) pht .grp .bigt (37) ]n. hn [
(15) ‘Ik. [pht (](in. ftrft (38) L ] Snt [
(16) m.*Ik p[ht ]ft . [ ]ftrt (39) [
(17) *Ik pft[t ] (§/l)ft[ ] (40) [ ](‫״‬/*»)[
(18) Mdm.‘lk.pht (41) [
(19) dr*. bym. - n . - [ ]
(20) ftaftr. i *pa. wytb
(21) a k . d— [ jim Text 50 :1) in ftmnnd
(22) aftd .ba- - l ----- (2) entd
(23) hn[ ] . aft? [ ] (3) tmgnd
(24) [ ]m akl[ ] (4) nbd(l/g!)d
(2 5 ) [ ]kly.Ami[ ] (5) p&dpbnd
(26) w [ ] i . [ ] (6) hbtd
(27) S[ ] (7 ) ttlftrd
(28) ft/[ ] (8) n/nd
(VI) [ ]rdh (9) bdnit. bdlrt[t]
(2) [ ]vih (10) [ ]/[ ]
(3) [ ](k/r)« (rev.) (opening lines missing)
(4) [ ]p (20) [ M
(5) [ ]m t (21) [ ]d
(6) [ ]mr . limm (22) [ ]yd. attbd
(7) [ ]bn. ilm. mt (23) [ ].[ ]d
(8) [ ]«[ ] & bct . glmh
(9) [ ].bn . ilm. mt
(10) p(h/i)n. afyym. ytn . bel (Text 51 s I s 4) [ ]t1 .fr
(11) Zpt*y. bnm. umy. klyy (5) [ ] Imlk
(12) ytb . em. bcl. 9rrt (6) [ 1
(13) 9pn . ySal. gh. wy9h (7) [ ] • °t
(14) afrym. ytnt. bel (8) [ ]mlt
(15) Ipuy .bnm.umy .kl (9) [ ]*
(16) yy. yt*n. kgmrm (10) [ 1
(17) mt cz .b*l.*z . ynghn (11) [ 1
(18) krumm.mt .*z. M (12) [ ]a[ ]
(19) ez .yntkn .kbfnm (13) mtft . it. m?il
(20) m t .« z . b*l. *z . ym9bn (14) bnh. mtb . rbt
(21) klstmm.mt.ql (15) afrt. ym. mtb
(22) M .ql .9InApS (16) kit. knyt
(23) t9b . lint. 8m*. m* (17) mtb . pdry. b(t) ar

22
Text 51 THE UGABITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A n Or . 38

(18) mfll. tly. bt rb (23) ik. mgyt. 6[t)lt


(19) mtb. arty •bt. ybdr (24) •nt.mbty hm [tn]J#
(20) ap . mtn. rgmm (25) bny A[ $]brt
(21) argmk.gskn me (26) aryy[ ].ksp.[at]rt
(22) mgn. rbt. atrt ym (27) kt*n fl. ksp . ton[ ]
(23) mgt .qnyt .ilm (28) Jr# . Smb rbt. a[trt]
(24) hyn. cly. Impfrm (29) ym. gm. Iglmh. k[t#J]
(25) bd. J»« . mfbtm (30) •n. mkftr. apt[ ]
(26) ytq. ksp . ygl (31) dgy. rbt. afr[t ym ]
(27) J . Jr#. ytq . ksp (32) qb.rtt.bdk[ ]
(28) lalpm. Jr# . ytq (33) rbt. 'I. ydm[ 1
(29) m. Irbbt. (34) bmdd. il. [ 1
(30) ytq . Jym. wtbtb (35) bym.il.d[ 1
(31) kt .il .dt. rbtm (36) kr .il.y[ ]
(32) kt.il. nbt. bksp (37) aliyn [M 1
(33) gmr(b/z)t. bdm. Jr# (38) btlt. [«nt 1
(34) kbt.il. nbt (39) mh. A[ ‫נ‬
(35) . hdm. i{d/l!) (40) tout[ rbt]
(36) dprga.bbr (41) afr[t ym ]
(37) ncl .il.d.qblbl (42) bim[ 1
(38) ‫״‬In. yblhm. brt (43) bl.l[ ‫נ‬
(39) tlbn . H. dmla (44). mini[ 1
(40) mnm. dbbm. d (45) dt[ 1
(41) msdt. ar# (46) 5#[ ‫נ‬
(42) #« .il. dqt. kamr (47) gm[ 1
(43) sknt. kbwt. yman (48) y[ ‫נ‬
(44) dbh. rumm. Irbbt (HI) [ ‫נ‬
(2) [ ]dn
(3) [ ]dd
(II) [ w 1 (4) [ ]» . kb
( 2 ) [ ]abn[ ‫נ‬ ( 5) [ ].al.yns
(3) afydt.plkh[ [ (« ) [ ]ysdk.
(4) plk. . &$‫[ומ‬ ‫נ‬ (7) [ ] w .dr .dr
(5) npynh. mk8. bSrh (8) [ ]yk. w r^d
(6) tmte. mdh. bym. tn (9) [ ] yilm. dmlk
(7) npynh.bnhrm (10) y[ ] . aliyn b*l
(8) Stt. bptr. U8t (11) y(te/q)dd. rkb *rpt
(9) bbrt. tyr. pfymm (12) [ ] . ydd. wyqltn
(10) tepp . f r . il dpid (13) ygm . wywptn. btk
(11) tgty. bny. bnwt (14) p[J]r. bn. ilm. Stt
(12) bnSi. cnh. wtphn (15) [ ] btlfrny. qlt
(13) hlk.bcl .at\t\rt (16) bks. iitynh .
(14) kt*n. hlk. btlt (17) bin. tn . dbfym. gna. b‫״‬l. tit
(15) cnt tdrq.ybmt (18) rkb . •rpt. dbb
(16) [limm\.bh .p*nm (19) btt. icdbly. \wdbb\
(17) [ttt 6«]d». ksl (20) dnt. wdbly. tdmm
(18) [h t$r *Inp]nh. t[de] (21) amht. kbh. btt. Itbt
(19) tfo[pn]t [fer]lh (22) tebh. tdmm. amht
(20) an#. dt. ?r[h] (23) a j r . mgy. aliyn . b*l
(21) tSu. gh. wtfjjLik (24) mgyt. btlt. •nt
(22) mgy. aliyn [byi (25) tmgnn. rbt. atrt ym

170 —
A n Or. 38 THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Text 51

(26) tg^yn . qnyt ilm (30) utbHk . y8u . gh . wy[9b]


(27) wten. rbt. atrt ym (31) ik . mgyt. rbt. atr[t y]m
(28) ik . tmgnn . rbt (32) ik . atwt. qnyt. i[lm]
(29) a tr t. ym. tgzyn (33) rgb . rgbt. trtgt[ ]
(30) qnyt. ilm. mgntm (34) Am . !;mu . gmit. ]
(31) tr.il. dpid . Am . g$tm (35) tym. Am . Stym. Jb[m]
(32) bny . bnwt wten (36) &tl£nt. lh,m$t[y]
(33) b t lt . *nt. nmgn (37) bkrpnm. yn • AA<*). Ar$
(34) [ ]m . rbt. atrt . ym (38) (2m . *$m .hm.yd.il mlk
(35) [n]g? . qnyt. ilm (39) . aAAl. fr . t*rrk
(36) ] . nmgn . hwt (40) wt*n rbt. atrt ym
(37) [ ] aliyn . bcl (41) tbmk . il . fykm. bkmt
(38) [ ] rbt. atrt. ym (42) cmelm. byt. b$t
(39) [ ] btZt. cnt (43) think . mlkn . aliy[n] bcl
(40) [ tl]bm. tity (44) tptn . win . delnh
(41) [ilm wtp]q . mrgtm (45) klnyn . q[$]h nb[In]
(42) [td—bbrb m]lbt. q9 (46) klnyn nb l . ksh
(43) [mri tfty k]rpnm yn (47) any 1y9b •tr il. abh
(44) [bk8 br9 d]m. *9m (48) [i]l mlk dyknnh . y9b
(45) -(51) [ 1 (49) atrt. wbnh . ilt. w9brt
(52) [ ]'*[ ] (50) aryA . ten .in.bt. lb*l
(53) [ ‫[״« נ‬ ‫נ‬ (51) km ilm. wh#r . kbn . atrt
(IV) tr[H rbt] (52) mtb il m$ll . bnh
(2) afr[t ym ] (53) mtA rbt. atrt. ym
(3) tea[ rbt] (54) mtb . kit knyt
(4) atrt ym [ mdl «r] (55) mtb pdry . bt ar
(5) 9md . pfyl. 8[t gpnm dt] (56) m %Utly bt rb
(6) Jc*p dt. yrq [nqbnm] (57) mtb ar$(y) bt y*bdr
(7) *db. ffpn. atnt[k/y] (58) wy°n Upn il dpid
(8) ySm• . qd(S) wamr[r] (59) . an . «nn . atrt
(9) mdl . *r. tmd. j >fyl (60) . ank . afrd ult
(10) S t. gpnm. dt. ksp (61) Am . amt. atrt. tlbn
(11) dt. yrq . nqbnm (62) Ibnt ybn . bt. lbel
(12) •db . gpn . atnth (V:63) km ilm. wh$r . kbn. atrt
(13) yfybq . qdi . tcamrr (64) wt*n. rbt. atrt ym
(14) yStn . atrt. Umt. •r (65) rbt. ilm. llflcmt
(15) lysmsmt. bmt. pfyl (66) &bt. dqnk . It8rk
(16) qdS. yufrdm. Sb*r (67) rbntt. d[ ] . lirtk
(17) amrr . kkbkb . Ipnm (68) wnap . *dn. mfrh
(18) afr . btlt. •nt (69) bel . y*dn . edn . fkt . bglt
(19) 1cbd . tb•. mrym. $pn (70) wtn . qlh . b*rpt
(20) idk . Ittn . pnm (71) Srh. lar$ . brqm
(21) •m.*1. mbk . nhrm (72) b t . arzm. ykllnh
(22) qrb . apq . thmtm (73) Am .bt. Ibnt. ycmsnh
(23) tgly .dd.il. wtbu (74) lyrgm. laliyn b°l
(24) qrS. mlk . ab . Snm (75) 9b • • bbht!k
(25) Ip•n. il. tkbr . wtql (76) *dbt. bqrb . hklk
(26) titbwy. wtkbdk (77) tblk . grm. mid . k8p
(27) him. il. kyphnh (78) gb°m. mbmd . br9
(28) yprq . Ifb . wytbq (79) yblk . udr . ilq9m
(29) p‘nh. Ikdm. ytpd . wykrkr (80) wbn . bht. k8p . wbr9

171 —
Text 51 THE UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr . 38

(81) bht. tArm . iqnim (2) ttb . bel . V[hwty]


(82) imA . btlt . «nt. td*? (3) tn . rgm k[tr tc]lj88
(83) p*nm. trtr . ar? (4) 8me . m*. la[li]yn bcl
(84) idk . litn . pnm (5) bl . ait . ur[At] . bbhtm
(85) «m . A*l. mrym. ?pn (6) bln . bqrb [AA]lm
(86) Aalp • 8d . rbt. Amn (7) tr*/* . ali]yn] b*l
(87) ?A<Z • Atlt • ent t8!u (8) al . t8t . u[rA]t . bbhtm
(88) yA . trt?A . /Air M (9) . bq[rb h]klm
(89) bSrtk . yblt. ybn (10) al. t( 11/<l) [pdr]y . At ar
(90) bt .Ik .km . abk . wb$r (11) [ tl}y .bt .rb
(91) km. aryk . 9b •Jrn (12) [ ](1d . il ym
(92) bbhtk . •dbt. bqrb (13) [ ]qZfii . trptm
(93) A&/& . /A/A . grm (14) [ Itry*n . ktr
(94) mid . k8p . gb0m. mbmd . (15) [u>b88] ttb . bcl . Ihwty
(95) b*9 • wAa . bht . k8p (16) [ 1 bhth . tbnn
(96) wbrf . bht . thrm (17) [ ] trmm. hklh
(97) iqnim. 8mb aliyn (18) y[tJ] k(T) . llbnn . tr*?A
(98) del 9b . An* . bbhth (19) l[8]vyn . m\md . arzh
(99) •dbt. bqrb hklh (20) A[ l]bnn . tr*?A
(100) yblnn grm. mid . k8p (21) 8ryn . mfymd . arzh
(101) gb°m. Ibmd . Ar? (22) tit iit . bbhtm
(102) yblnn . udr ilqfm (23) nblat. AA&Zm
(103) yakl ktr . wb88 (24) hn ym . trtn . tiki
(25) iit bbhtm. nblat
(104) wtb Imspr ktlakn (26) AAAlm . tit • r!bc ym
(105) glmm1067892345 (27) tik\ [i]St. bbhtm
(28) r*AJa[/] bhklm
(106) abr . mgy . ktr . wb88 (29) Aw*i. /[‫׳‬/]{ . ym . t/Ai
(107) 8t. alp . qdmh . mra (30) i8b [b]bh1mnblat
(108) wtk . pnh . tedb . k8u (31) b[qrb{1) hk]lm. mk
(109) tcyttb . lymn . aliyn (32) bsl»[«] y[mm]. id,. 1 8t
(110) bH. *d. Ibm. il[y] (33) bbhtm. n[A]l<rt . bhklm
(111) wyen . nliy[a bel] (34) 8b . k8p . ln\m . br9
(112) [ M ] (35) n#A . llbnt. imA
(113) [A]3 . bhtm. [ ] (36) aliyn . A*t . <A)hfy A/*t
(114) b8 • rmm. AA[/m] (37) dt . k8p . AAiy <ltm
(115) A* • bhtm. tbn [ ] (38) ft/ ? . *dbt. bhi[h A*]t
(116) bS• trmmn . Ak[lm] (39) y*dA . hd . *db [*db(1)]t
(117) btk . frrt. 9pn (40) hklh . tbb • alpiu [ap]
(118) alp . 8d abd bt (41) fin . 8ql. trm [tr]m
(119) rbt. kmn . hkl (42) ria . il(m) . *ytm . d[t]
(120) wy*n . ktr wb88 (43) Snt. imr . qm$ . I[i]/m
(121) 8m« . laliyn b*l (44) fb . abh . AAAtA a[r]yA
(122) bn . Irkb . •rpt (45) bqrb hklh . 9b
(123) bl. a8t. urbt. bbh[tm] (46) iA*m . A/* . afrt
(124) bln . bqrb . hklm (47) 8pq ilm. krm. y[n]
(125) try*/*. aliyn A*1 (48) 8pq . *tAt. Ayrt [yn]
(126) al .t8t. urbt. b[bhtm] (49) 8pq . *7m . alpm. y[/*]
(127) lA/]» . bqrb . hk[7w1] (50) 8pq . ilht. arAt [y/1] ♦
(rest missing) (51) 8pq . itm . kbtm. yu
[VI) try*/*. kt[r wb8]8 (52) 8pq . t7At. teat [yn]

172 —
A N 0 r. 38 THE UOAEITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Text 51

(53) Spq. ilm. rfrbt yn (40) *n. bel. qdm. ydh


(54) Spq. ilht. dkrt |_y»] (41) ktgd •arz . bymnh
(55) •d. Ifym.Sty. ilm (42) bkm. yfb . b*l. Ibhth
(56) wpq. mrgtm. f<i [ ] (43) umlk. ublmlk
(57) bfyrb. mlbt. q$ [m]r (44) ar$. drkt yitkn
(58) t . tSty . krp[nm y]a (45) dll. al. ilak . Ibn
(59) [bk» Jr* dm e*m] (46) ilm. mt. *dd lydd
(60) [ > (47) il. gzr . yqra . mt
(61) [ ]t (48) bnpih. ystrn ydd
(62) [ ]i (49) bgngnh. afydy. dym
(63) [ 3 (50) Ik.*1. ilm. lymru
(6 4 ) ( ] (61) ilm. 1onSm. dy$b
(V II)] ]?«‫] [׳‬ (62) [m] hmlt. art .gm.lg
(2) [ ] tiliyn. M (63) [lm]h. b*l. kktb . *n *
(3) [ ]&. mdd il (64) [gpn]. wugr. bglmt
(4) y[ ] l?r. qdqdh (55) [*mm]ym. bn. $lmt. r
(5) H[ ]bq. bgr (66) [wt pr*t] \br-nt
(6) km.y[ ]ilm.bfpn (57) [tfcrrm frbl--]*rpt
(7) «(<l/u)r. 1[ J>rm (58) [tfat
(8) fd . I[>d[r(t)] pdrm (59) t ‫»״נ‬
(9) tt • Utm. afyd. •r (60) [ ]M
(10) 8b°m. <b!‫ ״‬.pdr (VIII) idk. al. ttn. pnm
(11) tmnym. b*l. ni[ ] (2) *rn.gr. trgzz
(12) t6*m. W . mr[ ] (3) *rn.gr. trmg
(13) 5[ ] . W .Jgrb (4) *m. tlm. for. art
(14) bt.wyn. align (5) Sa.gr .*1. ydm
(15) M aStm. ktr bn (6) frlb.ltr.rfytm
(16) ym . k tr . bum. •dt (7) tcrd. btfyptt
(17) y p lj . frln. bbhtm (8) art .Upr .by
(18) «r[5]t. bqrb 11 kl (9) rdm. art
(19) in . wy[/>]//>. bdqt. •rpt (10) idk .al .ttn
(20) •Ip[ ].ktr.tcbss (11) pnm. tk . qrth
(21) fbq.ktr.1cb»s (12) hinry. mk. ksu
(22) ySu gh tcytb (13) tbth . . art
(23) Irgmt. Ik. Mi (14) nfylth. wngr
(24) yn. b*l f[(]6» . b»l (18) *nn. ilm. al
(25) Ihwty ypib. b (16) tqrb . Ibn. ilm
(26) In. bbhtm urbt (17) mt .al. y*dbkm
(27) bqrb. Ak[bn p]tb (18) kimr. bph
(28) Irl. bdqt lerp]/(/) (19) klli. bt!brn
(29) qlh. qdS 5[ ]In (201 qnh. tytan
(30) ytny. b*l #[ ]/A (21) nrt. ilm. SpS
(31) qlh. q[dg(t) ] r . 11r* (22) tfcrrt. la
(32) [ ]grm.abSn (23) Smm. byd. md
(33) rtq[ ] (24) d. ilm. mt. ba
(34) qdmym. bmt. [ ] (25) Ip. id . rbt. k
(35) tftn. ib . b*l tlibd (26) mn. lp*n. mt
(36) yrm . gnu. hd. gpt (27) hbr. tcql
(37) gr. wyn. align (28) Mtkwy• wk
(38) 1rl.ib.hd~.lm.tb* (29) bd hwt.wrgm
(39) Im. tb*. ntq. dmm (30) Ibnilm. mt

173 —
Text 52 T H E UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION An Or . 38

(31) tny. lydd (12) ibcd . yr\m . el . ed . w°rbm . t*nyn


(32) i l . gzr. tbm
(33) aliyn. b*l (13) wid . id ilm . id a tr t. wr^m
(34) [hw]t. aliy. q (14) el.iit.ib ed.gzrm .$[&(?)g]d(t).btyb. annb bbmat
(35) [rdm] bhty bnt (15) u rl. agn . ibedm . dg[ ]t
(36) [dt k8p hkly]
(37) [dtm b*'9 ]y (16) tlkm . rfrmy . wt9 d [ 1
(38) [ ]a&y (17) t\grn . gzr n«m[ 1
(39) [ My (18) w(t/n)im(f). crbm . yv[ ‫נ‬
(40) [ ]y
(41) [ ](*/!‫&)־‬ (19) m tb t. ilm . imn . t[ ‫נ‬
(42) [ ]«»( (20) p a m t. ibe
(43) [ }t
(44) [ ]. ilm (21) iqnu. imt
(45) [ ]«yd (22) [1b] n . irm .
(46) [ ]k
(47) [ gpn] wugr (23) iqran . i\m . n«min [agzrym bn y]m
(24) yngm . bap zd . a t r t . [ ]
(48) [ ]t (25) ip i m y p rt. dlthm [ ]
(edge) [xpr ilmlk f]«y. nqmd. mlk ugrt (26) wgnbm. ilm . °rbm . tn[nm]
(frag, to restore VII :63-58) ifc mgn. rbt. atrt (27) Alfcm . bdbfr n*mt
(2) [ym]. mg?. qnyt. ilm
(3) wftn bt. UPl. km (28) id ilm . id . a tr t. wrfymy
(4) [i]Im . wb?r. kbn (29) [ ].y []6
(5) [a]trt. gm. Iglmh
(6) bH. y$h. en. gpn.
(7) vtugr .bn. glmt (30) [ ] &[ 1 • 0P • w y H d . 0P . Mm
(8) •mmym. bn. (31) [ ] miMtm. miteltm. lri!i . a</n
(32) 11111 ldfpl AM . trm . hlh. . a<f‫ ״‬ad
(9) rmt. pr*t. tftr[-nt]
(10) 9hrrm. hbl [ ] (33) 10AM . t$b • un*• ww . tirfcm. yd . i l . kym
(11) erpt .tbt.[ ] (34) n>yd i l . kmdb . ark .yd.il. kym
(1 2 ) mcQrm . ]
(35) w. yd il. kmdb . yqb . il. miHtm
(36) miteltm. Irii. agn. yqh. y§(tI ) . bbth
(13) git. »*r[ ]
(14) m. br(tfq)[ ] (37) i l . bfh. nht il. ymnn. mt. ydh. yiu
(16) ymt[ ] (38) yr. immh. yr. bimm. €9r. y\H yit
(16) Hi[ ] (39) Ipfrm . il attrn. kypt. hm. attm. t$hn
(17) m[ ] (40) ymt. mt. n\tm. fytk. mmnnm. mt ydk
(41) h[t] e$r. tfyrr. liit. 9brrt. Ipfymm
(42) a[t]tm.att.il. 1c*lmh. whm *
(Text 52) igra. ilm. w\mm\ (43) a[t]tm. t$hn.y .ad ad. nhtm. fytk
(2) urysmm. bn. £r[m ] (44) mmnnm. mt ydk. hi. e$r . tfyrr. liit
(3) ytnm. qrt. lel(b/y)[ ] (45) w9hrrt. Ipfrmm. btm. bt. il .bt.il
(4) bmdbr .Spm.yA[ ]r (46) w*lmh. whn. attm. t9frn.y .mt mt
(5) IrUhm. wyS[ ]m (47) nfytm. tyk. mmnnm. mt ydk. hi. e9r
(6) Ifym. bibm ay wbty . bfymr yn ay (48) tfyrr . liit. w9hr(<r)t. Ipfymm.attm. a[tt U]
(7) dim . mlk . Hm. mlkt. erbm. wtnnm*
1 (49) a\t\t. il. wlmh. yhbr. ipthm. yi[q]
(50) hn. ipthm. mtqtm. mtqtm. klrmn[m/t]
(8) mt. wSr. ytb . bdh.frt.tkl. bdh
(51) bm niq. whr. bljbq. \mbmt. tqt[n9n]
(9) bt. ulmn. yzbmn . zbrm gpn
(52) tldn ifyr. wilm rgm. lil. ybl. a[tt]
(10) yqmdnn. fmdm. gpn. ySql. gdmth
(63) i l . y[l]t mh. ylt. yldy. ifrr. wil[m]
(11) km gpn
(54) &u.edb. Upi. rbt. wlkbkbm. kn[ ]

— 174 —
AnOr. 38 THE UGAR1TIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 53-56

(55) yhbr ipthm. yi(a/q!) [ ] An SptAm . mtqt[m] (4) [fc J r A]S»c mgm§ tcb[#yl •rgz]
(56) bm. niq . whr [b]lybq w\y\m]fymt. ytbn[ ] (5) [ydk aly]dh wytq baph
(67) yspr . Ifrmi . i?b[ ]Sr . pjyr klat
(58) tqtngn . wtldn . tld [»Jm] n•mm. agzrym (6) [w k Jr] 881c hndrt tct[qd »]r
(59) bn .ym . ynqm. bap [z]d [it] rgm. lil. ybl (7) [ydk a]b<2A wytq baplh
(60) atty . il .ylt.mh. ylt ilmJ nmm [ ]A (8) [wklyjyruw]\yttn(iiw>m88it qlql
(61) agzrym.bn ym . ynqm . bap .id .it . ipt (9) [wit •rgz y]dA alydh wytq baph
(62) larq . ipt limm. wWb . bphm. fr . imm (10) [wkyijid akl «]8!r it mkir grn
(63) wdg bym. wndd [ M ]lz[ ](fc/r) . y •db. uymn (11) [wit alkrr w p]r J[^]r<
(64) uimal. bphm told ib*ny . att. itrh (12) [ydk wytq baph]
(65) ybn . aild in . cdb(A . mdbr qdi (13) [ ]
(66) tm. tgrgr . labnm. wl*tm. fb• . int (14) [ bln q][ ydk
(67) tmt. tmn . nqpt. •d . ilm. n*mm. ttlkn (15*21) (broken away)
(68) id . tfdn . pat. mdbr . tcngi . hm. ngr (22) [ ]rb
(69) mdre. w§JAm . «m . ngr . mdr•. y . ngr (23-26) (broken away)
(70) ngr . pt[J] . wpt\y bw> . pr$ . b*dhm (rev.) kyrai wykthp mid [tttr]
(71) w»rb . Ain . Am [if ]Jbm . wtn (28) dblt ytnt tr#mqm ytn[m]
(72) wnijm . hm.it [yn w]tn . wnit (29) wqmJ bql ytq alydh
(73) w*nhm. ngr mdr*[if llym ]t, (30) baph
(74) it .yn . d&rb(1). JtA[ ]
(75) mg bw . IAn . Ig ynh [ ]
(76) wJbrA . mla yn[ ] (Text 56) [8pr . ncm . bhwm]
(several lines missing)
(Text 53 repablisbed as 107, q. v. below)
(2) k[ 1
(Text 54) thm. iwrir (3) w[ 1
(2) l . pl8y W a[ ‫נ‬
(3) rgm
(4) yilm. Ik (5) k .[ ‫נ‬
(6) «>.*[ ‫נ‬
(5) l . trgd8 (7) t‫ ״‬.y[ ‫נ‬
(6) w .1. klby
(7) im?t. fyti (8) k . 1 . y[Jrti .w .1 . y ttn . iiw]
(8) njtw . ht (9) m88. [St . qlql .w .St]
(9) Am . inmm (10) *rgz [tdkn • ah,dh]
(10) njtn . w . lak (11) w • y$q [ . b . aph]
(11) •my .w .yd
(12) ilm. p . kmtm (12) k. yijd [. akl. ssir]
(13) •z . mid (13) it. mki[r. grn]
(14) in . ntkp (14) w.it. aik[rr]
(rev.) m*nk (15) w . p r . hdr[t. tdkn]
(16) w . mnm (16) ahdh.w ytq [JayA]
(17) rgm. d . tim•
(18) tmt. w .it (17) k. yifrd. ak!l. 8[iw]
(19) b .8pr . •my (18) it . n n i. it . mk\ir grn]
(19) it . irgn. Jmr [tdkn]
(Text 55) [8pr . n m . iiwm] (20) alydh. w . y tq . J[apA]
(several lines missing)
(2) [k ]AS[t‫״‬ ] (21) k . y r a i. i i w . [£t]
(3) [aJdA] wytq ba[pA] (22) b ln .q t y tq .b .a{ph]

— 175 —
Texts 57-62 THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr . 38

(rev.) k. pgr [. #iw] (5) amdn.amn[ ]


(24) dp i n [ ] (6) aw n . vlg [ ]
(26) di* .[ ] (7) mzgn ulg [ ]
(26) i»»(l [ ] (8) kid. id[ ]
(27) mgm[g ] (9) a t . i . p d v l ]
(28) u>.i[t ] (10) am. ulg[ ]
(29) w.pr [. bdrt. 1c\ (11) a n . alg. 11[/p ]
(30) irg11 [bmr. tdkn] (12) pi. agar [pi bdd ]
(31) abd[h wyaq baph] (13) pi . I1 uctv [pi afint]
(14) pi . hn‘(!,l -)1WWJ
(32) k. yrnS . *«‫ [ ״‬. to . ykkp] (15) pr . pi ft*)
(33) mid. dbit. yl[nt. tc]
‫נ‬
(16) lit. Mr[ ‫נ‬
(34) $mqm. ytnm. u[. qmb. bql]
(35) trfku . afydh. v [ . y$q]
(17) ‫נ‬
(18) ulpn [ 1
(36) b.aph (19) nip . p[t agar ]
(rev.) [/1]I fydd• l'[i Jt0 etr]
(Texts 57) (•) *bdrS. &«[ (21) [pi a]fctnt [pi bnc(g!.))
(22) (pr‫״])*(״‬n . p r [pr‫))*( ׳‬
(2) bSS *Sr Smn . r[ ] (23) [ ]Sp|
(2 4 ) [ ] .< [
(3) pbn. bib[ (25) [ ] 7 >‫[״‬
(2 6 ) [ ] p . ‫[״‬Jp
(4) bgmS •Sr [
(27) p[l ag]sr \pl bdd]
(6) bffmS *Sr [ (28) pi w ftr [pi]
(29) actnt .pi [&»‘ (g/.)]
(6) [ (30)
(7) [ (31) it. kin . It ]
(32) agr.igtn[ ]
(8) -!bn«ii.[ (33) an. alg. ulp. p[i]
(34) agar.pi. bdd• p[i]
(9) ypg kn*m[
(35) fr1ce -tr. pi. attn[‘]
(rev.) affmnbt(bfd)[ (36) pi Mn]%/.).pr*(*)«H
(11) bffmS *Sr Smn [ (37) pr pr•(*)

(Text 61) [
(Text 58) *ir
(2) k*t
(3) [hm]l *Sr (2) turtle ]
(4) ym (t) (3) (9/s)ps[ ‫נ‬
(4) a*[ ‫נ‬
(Text 59) kd y n (rev.) P i [ ‫נ‬
(2) iprt (6) fu(k [ ‫נ‬
(7) »(y/b)[ ‫נ‬
(Text 60) 'r t ' b .b [ ]»» (8) [ 1
(2) udaarp . [ ]In
(3) ttbm. algp. [ ] (Text 62) 15*1
(4) ct . tnp. agr [ ]‫־‬
(2) gr. bab[n). td [p.«]lim [&y*r]
(*) In the mirror-written texts, Ugar. $ and t fall (3) thdy. llym. wdqn[tilt]
together as in Hob. V, anil Ugar. ^ and h as in Hob. ‫ח‬
($ 3. tf). We transliterate these convergences 118 S and
ff respectively. (*) This cayiu is oucirclod ; 86• $ 4. 21.

— 176 —
A nOr . 38 THE UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 63-65

(4) qn. dr*h. tfyrt. km. gn (3) qdSm. ti•


(5) aplb . kfimq. ttit. bmt (4) bnSm. u>. fymr
(6 ) b°l .mt .my. lim. bn dgn
(7) my. hmlt. air. M . nrd (Text 64) tpr. mdr[glm\
(8 ) barf . *nih. trd . nrt (2 ) dlt. hlk. (b/d) [ ]
(9) ilm. ip!. ed . tibe. bk
(10) tSt .kyn .udmH. gm (3) bn. b»yn £1! [y ]
(11) tyb. Inrt. ilm. SpS
(1 2 ) em8 m*.ly . aliyn . bcl (4) agltn.mid[ ]
(13) tim*. nrt. ilm. ipi (5) bn.Ifn . «rm[ ]
(14) tiu aliyn . b*l. Iktp (6 ) ariw. bfry
(15) ent. ktith . tielynh (7) arpir. y*rty
(16) bfrrt. 9p\e\n tbkynh (8 ) bn. fydyn. vgrty
(17) wtqbrnh. titnn . bfyrt (9 ) bn. tgdn . ugrty
(18) ilm. art • *fib •gbm (1 0 ) tgyn.arty
(19) rumm. kgmn. aliyn (1 1 ) bn. nryn . arty
(20 ) bel. ttbb . ib*m. alpm (1 2 ) bn. rip. ary
(2 1 ) [^]mn . aliyn . M (13) bn.glmn ary
(22) [<f]bj . Sb‘m. fin (14) bn. bfbn ary
(23) [fr0] 1nn . aliyn . b*l (15) bn.hdy ary
(24) [#]bj ib°m. aylm (16) bn. ktkt. mcqby
(25) [fcjrmn] aliyn . b*l (10 . ed ) bn.[ ]in Hbny
(26) [<?&& gyo'm.y'lm (18) b[n ]r*y
(27) [kgmn al]iyn.b*l (rev.) [bn r]ey
(28) [ttbb Sbm ]b«1rm (20 ) b[n ]t
(29) [kgmn aliyn 5*1] (2 1 ) bn[ 1df]kny
(38, rev.) [ ]pit (2 2 ) bn. kdrn . uikny
(39 ) [ ]qbat (23) bn. Ign. uikny
(40) [ ]r inSt (24) 671 • abn. uikny
(41) l ]« . ItStql (25) bn. arz. ierty
(42) ( ] . try. ap . Ulljm (26) bn. ibrd. mcrby
(43) [i]b»». trmmt. Itit (27) t<1qn• gWy
(44) yn.1fjfyt.SpS (28) bn.ypy.gb'ly
(45) rpim. tlytk (29) bn. grg8. ilitm'y
(46) SpS. tlytk. ilnym (30) bn. bran. ilitmcy
(47) cdk. ilm. hn. mtm (31) bn. abden. ilitm*y
(48) cdk. ktrm. hbrk (32) bn.en.rqdy
(49) w(1s8 . detk (33) 671 • geyn
(50) bym. arS. wtnn (34) bn.grn
(51) ktr. wf!88. yd (35) bn. agynt
(52) ytr. ktr. wf188 (36) 671. abdbr. 8nry
(37) dqn. ilmn
(53) 8pr ilmlk ibny (38) prdn. ndb\y](1)
(54) Imd. atn. prln. rb (39) (y/\i)rn.bbty
(55) khnm rb. uqdm (side) abmn.bn.qdmn
(56) py.nqmd mlk ugr[t] (41) n*mn. bn. ebdilm
(57) adn yrgb. b*l. trmn (Text 65) tfmmrkm
(Text 63) khnm. tie
(2 ) bnim.w.bmr (2) bir. fi,mS

— 177 —

23
Texts 67-68 THE UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION AnOr. 38

(3) u&kn.arb* (4) tfklj, . ttrp . 8mm. kr8


(5) ipdk.ank ispi.utm
(4) u b ry.flt (6) drqm. arntm. lyrt
(7) bnp8. bn ilm. mt. bmh
(5) ar.tm n *8rh (8) mrt. ydd. il. gzr
(9) tb*.wl.ytb ilm. idk
(6) mlk.arb* (10) lgtn.pnm.*m.b*l
(11) mrgm. 9pn. tog*n
(12) gpn. wugr • tfym. bn ilm
(7) dbl.bmS
(13) mt. hwt. ydd. bn il
(14) gzr.pnh . 8. np8. Ibit
(8) aUg.^mX.f(r)h
(15) ZAw . km. brlt. anjr
(16) bym. Aw. ArAy. ZAM
(9) ulm . t[fj (17) ntmm . en. kdd. aylt
(18) hm imt imt. np8. AZt
(10) mTby.bmi (19) frmr[ ]A-Z. AAZaZ
(20) ydy ilhm. Aw. §b®(t)
(11) m*bq. arbe (21) ydty b$c. Aw . ks . ym8k
(22) nArf k(1/d). *&(a/q!) M •w ♦
(rev. ?:1) -km{ ] (23) a\y [ ] wan. A(b/d). *w . aryy
(2) ujnp[ ] (24) wZAwm «w . ajy . Z£w
(25) wtfZfc «w. a[r]y(y y>n.
(3) ugk[n ] (26) putt. A*Z. [Zi«n iZwA
(27) [ *]k. AZwfo
(4) vbr[*y J (28) [ZZn bin br]b. ZAZy
(29) ]bin *qltn] §ZyZ
(5) ar T ‫נ‬ (30) [d 8b*t raSm] ZfAfc
(31) ttrp f a kr8 ipd]k
(6) mlk [ (about 30 lines missing)
‫נ‬
III) [ ]
(7) m [ (2) [8pt la]r9 .8pt. Umm
‫נ‬ (3) [ l\8n. Ikbkbm. y*rb
(4) [b*]l. bkbdh. bph yrd
(8) at\[g ‫נ‬ (5) kfyrr. zt. ybl. ar$ . wjir
(6) *9m.graun .align .b*l
(9) 11 [Zw ‫נ‬ (7) ft®. nn. rkb *rpt
(8) tb*. rgm. Ibn. ♦Zw. wZ
(10) m[»rby ‫נ‬ (9) tny.lydd il gzr
(10) t\m. align. b*l. hwt. alig
(11) ‫נ‬ (11) qrdm. bht. Ibn. ilm mt
(12) *bdk. an. wd*lmk
(Text 66) [ ]r (13) tb*.wl. gib. ilm idk
(2) [ ](h/i)In (14) Igtn.pn(m) .*m.bn. ilm. mt
(3) yrtym (15) tk qrth. Awry. mk. k8u
(16) tbtg. ar9 . n/tZZA tta
(4) bn.gtrn (17) ghm. wt9b•Zfrw. align
(6) h\Hy (18) bn.b*l. hwt. alig. qrdm
(19) bht •bn. ilm. mt. *bdk. an
(Text 6 7 :1) ktmb9 . Itn . bin . brh (20) wd*lmk. . bn ilm. mt
(2) tk lg . bin. *qltn (21) [giu g]h.w(a/y!)9b.ik .ylfyn *
(3) 8lgt. d . Sb*t. ra8m (22) [ ]r.un hd
— 178 —
A n Ob . 38 THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Text 67

(23) [ ]p.mlbmy (17) ks .ksp [ ]


(24) ] it. qzb (18) krpn . [ ]
(26) [ ]Smby (19) wtttn(y/b)[ ]
(26) [ ]6‫״‬ (20) t'l. &‫[־‬ ]
(27) [ ] nn (21) bt. il iff ]
(about 20 lines missing) (22) <‫־‬i . hbi . p[ ]
(HI) ( ] (23) mn . lik . [ ]
(2) [ r]bt . t b t . f ] (24) lik «[ ]
(3) r b t. t b t. b[ ‫נ‬ (25) t'ddn [ ]
(4) y .a r f .b f a [ ‫נ‬ (26) n(\/h)9 . ]
(5) t‫״‬td . tkl[ j (about 10 lines missing)
(6) tkn. Ibn[ 1 (V) [ ja liyn
(7) dt. link[ ‫נ‬ (2) [6«l ] p dprk
(8) dk.k . fr&fcb[ ‫נ‬ (3) [ ) mnk . SSr[t]
(9) dm. mt. a#b [ 1 (4) [ ]t . npS. egl
(10) ydd. bqr[b ‫נ‬ (5) [ ]k . ait. n . bfyrt
(11) al.aSt. 6[ ‫נ‬ (6) ilm. art. tcat. qh
(12) ahpkk. 1[ ‫נ‬ (7) •rptk . rljlc. mdlk
(13) tmm. wlk [ 1 (8) mtrtk . emk . Sbct
(14) wlk . ilm[ 1 (9) glmk . tmn . frnzrk
(15) n°m. ilm[ 1 (10) •mk . pdry .bt.ar
(16) Sgr . mu[d ] (11) cmk . ttly .bt . rb . idk
(17) Sgr. mu[d j (12) pnk . al ttn . tk gr
(18) dm. mt. at\b 1 (13) knkny .Sa.gr Hydm
(19) yW) . bqrb | ] (14) }}lb . lifr . rhtm wvd
(20) wlk . ilm . [ ] (15) bt bptt. art tspr by
(21) wrgm. 1[ ‫ו‬ (16) rdm. art •wtdc ill
(22) bmud . {1t[n ‫נ‬ (17) kmtt. ySm*. aliy(!). b‘l *
(23) mud . tin p[ ‫נ‬ (18) yuhb . eglt. bdbr . prt
(24) itm. mui[ ‫נ‬ (19) bSd . Shlmmt. Skb
(25) dm. mt a$[£ ‫נ‬ (20) •mnh. Sb*. lSb‫״‬m
(26) ydd . bqr[b ‫נ‬ (21) [ jly . tmn . Itmnym
(27) tmm. wlk . [ ‫נ‬ (22) tr[fA]rn . wtldn mt
(28) [ ]1 .Ik[ ‫נ‬ (23) a![ ]SlbSn
(29) [ ]t • *[ ‫נ‬ (24) 1 [ ]lh . mgt
(IV) pS(d/n)r ‫נ‬ (25) y[ ] . lirth
(2) iclllb [ j (26) ( ]
(3) mit. rb[ j (about 30 lines missing)
(4) -ttlb . a[ ‫נ‬ (V I) [ ]
(5) ySu. gh [wytb 1 (2) [ ] Snm
(6) i . ap . b^l ‫נ‬ (3) [ Jt • sbn
(7) i.hd.d[ ‫נ‬ (4) [ ]‘dk
(8) ynp•. b<{l ‫נ‬ .(6) k8m . mhyt. [m]gny
(9) btmnt. [ 1 (6) ln*my . art . dbr
(10) yqrb . [ ‫נ‬ (7) lysmt. Sd . &blmmt
(11) 1bm. m[ ‫נ‬ (8) mgny . lbel . npl. la
(12) [<>jd Ibm [Sty ilm ] (9) rf . mt. aliyn b*l
(13) wpq m r [ g tm t d ‫\־‬ (10) big •zbl • b°l . art
(14) bfyrb [mlbt qt mri] (11) apnk . Upn . il
(15) Sty kr[pnm yn] (12) dpid . yrd . iksi. ytb
(16) b kt ftr[# dm (13) Ihdm w\. hdm. ytb

179 —
Texts 68-74 t h e u g a r i t io t e x t s in t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n A nOr. 38

(14) lar$ . yfq . *mr (33) ^m . U rr. )


(15) 1in . \r\8h . *pr . plft (34) y*n . ym . (mt. [ ‫נ‬
(16) l . qdqdh . Ip8. yk8 (35) lir r . wt*{ ]
(17) mlzrtm. gr . babn (36) b'lm. hmt. [ ]
(18) ydy . psltm . by*r (37) lir r . *[ ‫נ‬
(19) yhdy . Ihm. wdqn (38) briik • [ 1
(20; ytlt. qn. dr*h yftr* (39) [ ]6A . t»8[ ‫נ‬
(21) kya . aplb . k01ng . ytft (40) [ ]n. *»11[ ‫נ‬
(22) &mf . ySu. gh wyfb
(Text 69) »kn. di'lyt
(23) b*l. mt .my . lim. 5* (2) tr y l. Idgn . pgr
(24) dgn . my . kmtt • atr (3) [$] walp lakl
(25) b*l. ard . barf . ap
(26) •a t. tttk. .kl.gr (Text 70) p g r . dfrly
(27) tkbd . ar$ . hi. y&0
(2) °zn . Idgn. &cik
(28) l[k]bd . Mm. fmy . to0m
(3) wa]\p. bmbrt
(29) [y art]. dbr . y*mt. M [$]
(30) \bl\mmt. t[mg] lb*l. ny[i] (Text 71) [ ] arb• [ ‫ז‬ ]
(31) [7a]r§ [IpS] . tk8 . m/[*rtm] (2) [ a]rbcm [ ! ‫ו‬
(3) [ ?'» [ ‫ז‬ 1
(Text 68) [ ] yd [ ] (bly)tt . mtt [ (4) [ t\8cm [ ‫ז‬ ‫נ‬
(2) [ ] by [ ] . hm. ap . amr [ (5) [ ]y arb*m [ ‫ז‬ ‫נ‬
(3) [ ] wbym. mn^labd . bym. irtm . ‫[תו‬ (6) [ ]1SpS tmny[m ‫ז‬ ‫נ‬
(4) [tpt(f) | . nhr . tl*m. fm 5r5m . it8 an8q (7) [ ]d&rk 1§!>§[ ‫ן‬ ]
(5) l ]litm . far* ypl. nlny . wl. 0j>r . 0?mny (8) [ ]dbrh Up[8 ‫ז‬ ‫נ‬
♦ (6) [6]pk . rgm. lyfa . bSpth . wttn gh . kyr (9) [ ]dptry[ ‫ז‬ ‫נ‬
(7) ttyt k8i. zbl ym % c*n. tar . tcfr88. Irgmt (10) [ ]tttrm[ 1 ‫נ‬
(8) Ik . brM. M . pit. Irkb . . ht. ibk
(9) b*lm. ht. ibk . tmfrf . k t . t$mt frtk (Text 72) ili&. i l .
(10) tqb . mlk . *hnk. drkt dt drdrk
(11) ktrfindm. ynbt. xcyper . 8mthm. 8mk at (2) [ ‫נ‬
(12) yyr* . yyrtf . yrdf ym yrdf ym ttoik (Text 73) [ )(r/k)ydm ym
(13) [a]kr tA‫־‬M drkth . trfg* M M km n$
(14) r bofteth . ktm • ktp zbl. ym. bn ydm (2) [ ]ydm nhr
(15) [tp]f nhr . yrfq$ . find . bd b°l . km. n8r (3) [ ]t'rtgt
(16) bfu]fb*th. ylm. ktp zbl ym. bn ydm. tpt (4) [ ]habd [ ]
(17) nhr *z. ym lymrt . Itngfn pnth . lydlp (5) [ M )
(18) tmnh. Wr *mdm y/1 //t • tcyp*r . Smthm
(19) 8mk • at . aymr . aymr . mr . ym mr ym (several lines missing)
(20) lk8ih . nhr • Ikfyt. drkth . (rev. 1) [ m m )
(21) bd b*l • km . nSr b11fb*th. k/m . qdq (2) [ ]t* m )
(22) d zbl ym. 6n . 0am . tpt. nkr. ypvsb ym (3) [ ]innty[ ]
(23) wyql. larf . wyrtqf . ^mi 5/1 &0l
(24) k[m) nir . bufbUh. ytm . qdqd . ^61 (4) [ ] rb «pr bbb
(25) Ty^) bu . *nm. ip t . nhr . ypr«5 ‫ י‬ym. yyt (5) [ ]n.dbfym
(26) tar^ • tngfn . yntk. wyeZfp . tmak (0) [ ]<7• cbd88m
(27) ygf b*l. toyit. ym. ykly tpt. nkr [ ]
(28) Mm . fy«rm . 0ftrt tatiya b[*l] (Text 74)(•) t ](a/«)‫»״‬ry<*(b/d)[ ]
(29) . Irkb . 0rpt. tafkya . zb[l ym let]
(2 )[ ](y/#M >•*‫ ״‬b['l]
(30) tFfryn • tpt. nkr . wyfa 1[ ]
(31) ybt. nn • at/ya. b*l • trf J
(32) ym . Zmt. Mm ym\[kt ] (*) For f f and $, see footnote to text 57.

— 180 —
AnOr. 38 THE UGABITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Text 75

(3) | ] ybrk M p[ ‫נ‬ (5) W .« [ ]


(4) [ ] bmS kfftm. {[ ] (6) il.hd[ 1
(5) [ ‫( ן‬b/d)ymktmff(klw)[ 1 (7) (to be omitted)
(8) at. bl[ ‫נ‬
(Text 75 : 1) [ ]m (9) bmdm. [ ‫נ‬
(2 )[ ] (10) il. fcr[ j
(3) [ ] dar! (11) kb[ ‫נ‬
(4) [ )In (12) ym. ( 1
(5) [ \nbhm (13) yih[ 1
(«) [ ]k« (14) yikl [ 1
(7) [ ]prn. km. 8fyr (15) 1
(8) [ ]Itn. km. qdm (1 6 ) 1 r ‫נ‬
(9) [ ]bdn.il. abn (17) f [ ]
(10) kbd kit. tikln. (18) 1 [ ]
(11) tdn. km (mftl)rm. (19) f [ ]
(12) il.ytbq.bm (20) 5[ ‫נ‬
(13) Z&. vcygmd. 5m fc&cZ (21) w(b/d) [ ‫נ‬
(14) ft .at. ItlS (22) M .[ ‫נ‬
(15) amt.yrb (23) il hd. (b/d) [ ‫נ‬
(16) Idmgy.amt (24) at .bl .at.[ ‫נ‬
(17) atrt. qb (25) yisp. hm. (b/d) [ ‫נ‬
(18) ksank. \dgk (26) bn.dgn [ ‫נ‬
(19) fytlk. w%i (27) edbm. [ ‫נ‬
(20) baln.tkm (28) ufrry.l [ ‫נ‬
(21) btk.mlbr (29) m$t. ksh. *[ ‫נ‬
(22) my (30) iiim . adr[ ‫נ‬
(23) kry amt (31) idm . cr(. tc[ ‫נ‬
(24) epr. c?myd (32) cn. bcl . a[ ‫נ‬
(25) ugrm. frl. Id (33) (?Ip') rh. aM[ M [ ]
(26) aklm. tbrkk (34) pen. b*l. ajd[ ‫נ‬
(27) wld *qqm (35) tc($ll)mt.gllm[ ‫נ‬
(28) 17m yp*r (36) abd • aklm. (kjw)[ ]
(29) Smthm (37) npl. bm Sm&[ ]
(30) bhmqrnm (38) anpnm.ybr[ ‫נ‬
(31) km. frm . wgbtt (39) bmtnm. ySJ}n[ j
(32) km. »5rm (40) qrnh. km. g(b/d)[ ‫נ‬
(33) 1055m .pn.fcl (41) hw km. br!\ ‫נ‬
(34) bel ytlk wy$d (42) Snmtm. dbt[ ‫נ‬
(35) yb pat. mlbr (43) ‫נ‬
(36) wn(t). ymgy. aklm (44) bnt.Sdm.9b1[ ‫נ‬
(37) wym?a.*qqtm (45) §be. Snt. il. mla [ ‫נ‬
(38) M •brndm.yfrmdm (46) ictmn nqpt.ed [ ‫נ‬
(39) 5n dgn.yhrrm (47) klbi. km IpS. dm a[$&]
(40) b*l.ngthm.bp*nh (48) km. all. dm. aryh
(41) wiZ hd . bbr? h (49) kSbH. lib°m. abh. ym[ f ]
(50) tctmnt. Itmnym
(51) Sr . abyh. m%ah
(H) t ‫נ‬ (52) tcntfah. ir. ylyh
(2 ) [ ]‫״‬.[ ) (53) bskn. sknm. b'-dn
(3) [ ]«»[ ‫נ‬ (54) ednm. kn. npl. bel [ ‫נ‬
(4) p»m [ ‫נ‬ (55) km tr.wtkms.hd.p[ ‫נ‬
— 181 —
Text 76 THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A n Or. 38

(56) km ibr b tk . mSmS ds[ (19) w y S u . gh . wy$h


(57) ittp q . lawl (20 ) fywt afj,t. w n a r -
(58) i&ttk. Im . ttkn[ ] (2 1 ) q r n . d b a t k . b t l t °nt
(59) $tk . m lk . dn (2 2 ) q r n d b a tk bel . ymSh
(60) *ifr. t tb t . «n (23) bel y m $ h . h m . b ° p
(61) 8tk .q r .b t il (24) nt«n. b a r f . ib y
(62) wm$it. b t . Jr§[ ] (25) t05epr. gm. ajfc
(26) wtSu . cnh b t l t . *nt
(27) w t i u . cnh . w t en
(28) 1ct*n . arj . w t r . Mkt
(Text 76 : 1) [ ] b tit *nt (29) tr . b l k t . tctr. b^!U
(2) [ ]pp.hklm (30) [b]11c//m. b y s m m fo[ ]t[ Jr[ ]
(3) [ ] . dl yde bn il (31) [. ]. lbel . <mt. ttn n [ ]
(4) [ ]Jr kk b m (32) [ ] 1 1 . be\m . d i p i . [ ]
(5) [ ]rdt£mi (33) r ‫ נ‬h d d en n n[ ]
(6) [ al]\yn b*1 (34) [ ] a l i y n . b[el]
(7 ) [ ].rk b . er p t (35) [ b t l ] t . * n [ t ]p h
(8 ) [ .
]gS U im m (36) [ ]n
(9) [ ] ytb lar$ (37) [ ]
(10) [ ]rntrn 38‫)׳‬ f ‫נ‬
(1 1 ) [ ](^ ly )d m h r. ur (39) [ M 1‫*־״‬
(12) [ ] yjnnn (III) ( ‫נ‬
(13) [ ]t . y t n (2) [ Jm a r ty . tl[ ]
(14) [ b tlt] ent (3) a ]p . Ibtlt. ent[ ]
(15) [ ]
y b m t lim m (4) wypt lybm t. li[mm]
(16) [ ]
ll i m m (5) wyeny aliyn [bcl]
(17) [ ]
la r ! (6) Im . kqnyn. cl[
(18) [ ]
\H r (7) kdrd dyknn [
(19) [ ]tm (8) bel . yfgd . mli[
(20 ) [ ]ydy (9) il h!d . mla u(9/\)\
(21) [ ]y (10) b it . pb tlt . en[t]
(22) [ ]Im (11) wp . n°mt afyt [bcl]
(23) [ rt]\\mm (12) y*l. bH. bg[
(II) t (13) - bn . dgn . W[
(2) [il hd bqr]b kWh (14) . ytb . ifc*[i
(3) wtcnyn. glm . bel (15) 5/1 dgn . JArJft
(4) k fn . bel . bbhth\t\t (16) lalp gl.?[
(5) il hd bqrb . hklh (17) in[ ]grind. [
(6) q&thn. afyd.bydh (18) t\k . wtr . [
(7) wqfHh . bm . ymnh (19) bnemm. by8[mtn
(8) idk . lytn pnm (20) a r j . arfr. [ ]
(9) tk .a h . 8mk . m\[at r]uum (21) ibr . tlil [i5«i]
(10) Uu knp b tlt. en[t] (22) tcrnm. i[rft& *rpr]
(11) t§u .knp .w tr .b ep [ ] (23) ttyq . [ ]
(12) tk . aft, im k . mlat [ ] (24) tbbq [ ]
(13) wySu. *nh . aliyn . bcl (25) tctk8ynn(1). b . - -
(14) toySu. enh . uoy^ (26) y[ ] 8 r h . wtifaph
(15) wy*n .btlt . ent (27) [ V b p f g r t h
(16) n*mt. b n . . bn (28) y r k . tel . 5lhl . g r
(17) Ipnnh . ydd . wyqm (29) m8lmt. bgr tliyt
(18) lp*nh . ykrc . wyql (30) wtel . . barr

182 —
A n Or . 38 THE UGARIT1C TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 77-81

(31) bm. arr. wbtpn (42) ll M gml.yrdt


(32) bn*m. bgr. t[l]iyt (43) b*rgzm. bgbztdm«
(33) ql . lb*l. ttnn (44) llay. *ml$pn i
(34) bSrt.il. bS[r b]*l (45) l dpid.hn bpy 8p
(35) wbSr. fytk. dgn (46) rhn.bSpty mn
(36) w.ibr. lbel \yl]d (47) thn ttyh wmlgh y
(37) wrum. Irkb. *rp< (48) tfqt *m hbqH
(38) ySmb. aliyn b*J (49) tqH«m prbbt
(60) dmqt 9grt ktrt
(Text 77) aftr n&l u?ibf ]
(2) Jrfcb . mlfc. q$ Jrbb m
(3) . b*g8g Sp8 (Text 78 and 79) (republished in cnt, q. v.)
(4) y t t y . y&[ ]d
(Text 80 s I) [ ]n [ ]
(5) tld 6tl[< Ik]
(6) trt. Ibnt hll [8nnt]
(2 ) [ ]tb.bn[ ‫נ‬
(7) hi glrnt tfal b[n ]
(3) cb d ii . bn. *»[ ‫נ‬
(8) *n h(a/ni). lydh tzd[ ]
(4) *pffn.bn.&g[ ] (11) wram [ ]
(9) pt IbSrh.dmy[ ]b
(10) wyn . (kjw)mtrb[ ]b (5) mnn. bn . brnm (2) mdm(f)
(11) Sme ilht ktr[t ]mm
(12) nh lydh tzdn[ ] (6) bn. nmb (3) [bn].mfrn
(13) ladn[ ] (7) yky.bn.8lyn (4) [ ]rtfnn
(14) dgn tt\ ] (8) ypln . b n . ylhn (5) cb[d ]
(15) ‫״‬. Iktrt (bnt) hZ[J 8n]nt (9) czn.bn .m[ ] (6) toafah
(16) ylak yrb nyr §mm. «m
(17) br[ft]6 mlk qz. tn nkl y (10) Srm (7) ttn.bn .ap[8]n
(18) rb ytrb'ib trrbm bbh
(19) th.watn mhrh la (11) [b]n.Sp&[ J (8) n8k.Ht
(20) b b . alp k8p. wrbt b (12) [b]n.bmZD (9) b n .[ M ]r
(21) r$. iSlb ?hrm iq (13) b n . tnn (10) bn.tfmrm
(22) ntm .atn Sdh krmm (14) bn.pndr
(23) Sd ddh hrnqm. vc (rev.) bn.nqq (11)tnnm
(24) yn br& b nilk q? 1
(25) nmn.ilm Ibtn (16) br$ bhtm (12) [ ]nn. b n . qqln
(26) m . W trb pdry b[t ar]
(27) nqrbk abh bel (13) ni[ ].bn. qqln
(17) bn.izl (14) *b[d]ilTnf bn. qqln
(28) ygpr . *ttr t (18) bn. ibln
(rev.) rb Ik ybrdmy. bt [a] (15) liy. b[n] qqln
(19) bn. ilt (16) mnn b n .fn r
(30) bk Ibu yrr. wyn (20) SpSyn.nfah
(31) yrb nyr Smm. wn*n (17) iby b[n] *ir
(21) n°mn. bn. iryn
(32) *mn nkl btny. abr (18) «bdyml bn [ ]tn
(22) nrn. nfah (19) yrm[ ] bn ®n
(33) nkl yrb ytrb •adnh (23) bn. fan
(34) ySt mjb . mznm. limb (20) krnln.nblh
(24) bn. *bd (21) ttn [n]blh
(35) bp mznm. t&b ypr (25) [ ]
(36) mSrrm.abtth la (22) [ ]zn
(37) bn mznm.nkl wib (23) [ ]*n
(38) daSr. ar yrb . wy
(39) r& yarb (Taxt 81) kknm 3 GUH Zl-KAL-KAL 6 GfN
KU[BABBAR 6 ]
(40) a4r ilht ktrt bn (2) qdSm 3 6 6
(41) t hll. 8nnt. bnt h (3) mkrm 3 6 6
183 —
Texts 82-91 THR DOARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION AnOr . 38

(4) mdfm 1 2 2 (6) i d . bn ppn [ ]


(6) inH 2 PA 5 5 (7) i d . bn. ttzTn. [ ]
(6) Jr# .bhtm 3 6 6

(Text 86) bn •ntn. [ ]


(Text 82) fchnm 2 (2) bn agyn [ ]
(2) q1\tm 2 (3) bn Hit [ ]
(3) m[ru] skn 2 (4) bn qt y[ ]
(4) inb m 2 (6) [b]n ypo [ ]
(6) [in ]b*m[ ]
(Text 83) $b[u anytt ]
(2) *dn[ ‫נ‬ (Text 87) On each of lines 1 to 6 ‘ fymr. lymr' is
(3) tbiftym ‫נ‬ written.
(4) meq[bym ‫נ‬ (7) $mr • wizml afrt
(5) m[ ‫נ‬
(6) 9 r .t[ ‫נ‬ (Text 88) (republished in «nt, q. v., below)

(7) fbu.any\tl ] (Text 89) {. mlkt


(8) bn ktan [■ ] (2) adty
(9) g r . m ‫נ‬ (3) rgm
(4) tfym. tlmyn
(10) fbu. any[tf ] (5) ‘bdk
(11) bn flidbfr ]
(12) pdym (6) l.p»n
(rev.) frmi.bnim [ ] (7) adty
(14) 8nrym [ ] (8) ib*d
(15) tie bn& [m ] (9 ) t o . ib*id
(16) gb°lym [ ] (rev.) mrbqtm
(17) arb* 6[«£m] (11) qlt
(18) tbqy[m ] (12) •m. adty
(13) mnm. Sim
(Text 84) Sllmym. Iqb■akl (14) rgm. tttb
(2) ytynn.tit .imn (15) l . ,bdh
(3) at[ ] kdm
(4) [ ]•». led
(5) n[ ]kr.tlt (Text 90) U t. dyfa
(6) y[ ]kran Jm4. (2) bd.Smmn
(7) [ ] kd (3) largmn
(8) amry. kdm (4) InsJcm
(9) mnn. bm. gtvln. kdm
(10) ynfym. bn [ }.Ut (5) tmn.kkrm
(11) pZwn. kdm (6) alp. kbd
(rev.) tlmyn.bn .nbri kd (7) [m\\tm.kbd

(Text 85) i d . nbdy [ ] (Text 91) i[Z]$bn‫״‬ytn


(2) bn tie
(2) S d.bn .bb[ ‫נ‬ (3) bn arwdn
(3) id . 8m [ ‫נ‬ (4) tmrtn
(5) idH.bn afyyn
(4) i d . y d r[ ‫נ‬
(5) i d . 8w r. p[ ‫נ‬ (6) wrbym
(7) rpan

— 184 —
A nOr . 38 THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 92-99

(8) dbrSn (11) k ll. mid


(12) Sim.
(rev.) w .a p . ank
(9) atlgy
(14) nfyt. tmny
(10) - rSn
(16) °m adtny
(Text 92) tmn eSr Surt [ ‫נ‬ (16) mnm . Sim
(2) tmn Surt lar[ ‫נ‬ (17) rgm .ttb
(3) in Surtm IbnS[ ‫נ‬ (18) l.'bdk
(4) arbc Surt lbn[S ‫נ‬
(5) arbe Surt lq[ ‫נ‬
(6) tit Surt IbnS[ ‫נ‬
(7) it Surt IbnS[ ‫נ‬ (Text 96) alp[ ]
(8) in Surtm lbn[S ‫נ‬ (2) mat [ ‫נ‬
(9) iltm Surt 1[ ‫נ‬ (3) hr9 [ 1
(10) arbe Surt [1 ‫נ‬
(11) tt Surt IbnS[ ‫נ‬
(12) fym S kbd arb• [ ‫נ‬ (4) m . *r ]
(13) tt Surt It[ ‫נ‬ (5) t i t . a[ ‫נ‬
(14) arbc Surt [ ‫נ‬ (6) &»»#[ ]
(16) Sur[t ‫נ‬ (7) fc#p [ ]
(16) tit Surt 1[ ‫נ‬ (8) *[ ]
(17) fn Surtm 1[ ‫נ‬ (rev.) ar[&« ]
(10) tmn[ ]
(Text 93) [ ]as[ ] (11) •r[ ]
(2 ) [ ]In
(3) [ ]9kqm\n
(4) [ fclnmw (12) w tf.[ ]
(5) f ]yk y (13) iltm [ ]
(6) iltm 8p IbnS tpnr (14) mil[ ]
(7) arb* 8pm. \l\lbnS prwsdj
(8) ff 9pm. IblnS klnmw
(9) UavS—ten
(10) bmS *Sr 8p (Text 97 + 12) (8ee text 12)
(11) IbnS tpnr dyafed l\1 fynm
(12) ft 8pm Itgyn (Text 98) fn pin . dr
(13) arbe 8pm . 1-1[ ] (2) m . fn kndicm adrm
(14) in 8pm 18[ ];y (3) wknd p n i . dq
(15) Hi 8pm idl [8]pS amry (4) fn k(w/r)m . fn p 1dm utymm
(5) kpl[ ]6 [ ]Zrtf-
(6) wdlfydrgmp[ ]
(Text 94) (small, unintelligible text in mirror*
writing) (7) [ ]1[ ]mat y
(8) bmS[ ]a 1 [ ]
(Text 95) l . umy . adtny
(9) Him b 8wn
(2) rgm
(10) tit t[ ]t f^kf
(3) t\m. tlmyn
(4) w! . afytmlk. cbdk
(Text 99) [ ]m [ ‫נ‬
(6) l.p*n. adtny
(6) mr\qtm
(7) qlny.ilm (2) [ «]Sm [ ]
(8) tgrk (3) [ ]ngr .*g[rm ‫נ‬
(9) tSlmk (4) [ ]ayi. *g[rm ‫נ‬
(10) hnny. *mny

— 185 —
24
Texts 100-103 THE UGARIT10 TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr . 38

(5) [ ] nbtm [ (1 4 ) [ ]pr. •(,/*•)[ ]


(6) [ t]Um [ (15) [ ]wprS[ ]
(7) [ ]‫ • מי‬bnl(yj[i)[ (16) [ m i ‫נ‬
(17) [ ]m«[ ]
(18) [ ](*/i)[ ]
(8) [ ] . bn 9d[
(9) [ t]mn. m\[t (Text 103) [ ]dymrrs[ ]
(10) [ tm]nym [ (2) (§/!)[ ](mytlym[ ](k/r)[ ]
(11) [ ]d n . tit[ (3) menh. a&mr . bt . bbd[ ]
(4) aimr8n . atb[ ]wy . afb[ ]
a ‫־‬ (5) y . kaddm. km add. i[ ]
(12) [ ]h . mittm [ ] (6) [ ]k n . 8 n tr[ ]m . 18k[ ]
(13) [ ]‫ מי‬. m£rr[ ] (7) [ ]rtami[ ]teA•[ ]
(8) [ ]bltbad[ ]pn[ j
(Text 100) [lr] U . r cy . y[ ] (9) [ ]l.k. rb[ ]
(2) [8]lm . bnm . yS[lm ] (10) [ ] . ills[ ]
(3) [ ]r . U lm t . 51[m ]
(4) kA .pSlm t . pfilm[ ] (11) [ ](‘lt) r . ntf[ ‫נ‬
(5) b t . Ibn8. tvg[m 1 (12) [ ]m rty. [ ]
(6) U lm t. Him . 5[ J (13) r ]kb[ ]
(7) by . tint . m lit . [ ] (14) (1m . p [ ]
(8) y mgyk . bnm . ta[ ] (15) rk . atbt[ ]
(9) \b\nm . icbnt. ytnkl [ ] (16) t8 sr. utt[ ]
(10) [ ]/. bny . §bt • w[ ‫נ‬ (17) mtmkadd[ ]
(11) [ Jtt.m 8gr.bnk[ ] (18) k p t. im[ ]
(12) [ ]n . tbm . M [ ] (19) b. n m r. [ ]
(20) bkbtm[ ]
(Text 101) [ y£]lm [Urn] (21) pbtinmt[ ]
(2) tgrk [tSlmk] (22) pbtinmt[ ‫נ‬
(rev,.) nm rk. In[ ‫נ‬
(3) h ln y.[ ] (24) tn . nmrk1[ ‫נ‬
(4) wpdr[ ]
(25) umm dll[ ‫נ‬
(5) tmgyn[ ]
(26) umm. dll[ ‫נ‬
(6) wmli[ ] (27) rb . bltn . S/d[ ‫נ‬
(7) - k l . if[ ] (28) in . umm. d[ll ‫נ‬
(8) ‘d . mgn[y(t) ] (29) icrb. blt\n ‫נ‬
(30) k . m ‫נ‬
(Text 102) ib/nr[ ] (31) [ ]mr!A‫־‬y[ ‫נ‬
(2) Umt. (‘/t)[ ] (32) [ ‫נ‬
(3) tm t. uqtip[ ] (33) [ ]1. n-t[ ‫נ‬
(4) IpWt ■p[ ] (34) [ ] 6 y - i - [ ‫נ‬
(5) mrlbt. *[ ] (35) [ ]p t. m[ ‫נ‬
(6) t(*lt)mqby. at[ ] (36) [ ]m . a[ ]#[ ]‫[‘*מי‬ ‫נ‬
(7) tptlttmr[ ] (37) [ ]h . »»*[ ]plhl[ ‫נ‬
(8) p(g/b)ryb[ ](1[ ] (38) [ ] p . nk[ ]pibtt •pl[ ‫נ‬
(39) [p]ljtay(b/d)[ ]?f. ‫[!•ימי‬ ‫נ‬
(9) tskn ydm J[ ] (40) [ ]nk(‘lt)if[ ] r . m . (‫־‬/t)(S/d)[ ‫נ‬
(10) ib• 1cmcnt. 8[ ] (41) [ ]nnt. tltmtk[ ‫נ‬
(11) an(?Ip‘) wgzrt[ ] (42) [ w m ■r[ ‫נ‬w t ‫נ‬
(12) [ ]wArMt. ([ ] (43) [ ]rta[ ‫נ‬
(13) [ ]ta . n*t[ ] (44) [ ]5[ ] t . *a[ ‫נ‬

— 186 —
An Or . 38 THE UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION T e x t s 104-107

{Text 104) dmrkbltni[ ‫נ‬ (6) [ ] t t t . hd>' . trptn . « k 11n[ ‫נ‬


(2) mtmttykltmk[ j (7) ig d k td . ig ty . tlhty . tim[ ‫נ‬
(3) nllirbtryb . [ ‫נ‬ (8) *6[ j
(4) tadm r . mcnh . 10[ 1
(5) kmttmr . mttklt[ 1
(6) mttykltmkktm[ ‫נ‬ (9) p[ ]d n .[ ]
(7) btrybldmrky[ ‫נ‬ (10) !muff ]in[ ‫נ‬
(8) uSskntllt. (u/d)[ ‫נ‬ (11) ng[ ‫נ‬
(9) [ ]duwmaml[ ‫נ‬ (12) pyy'[ ‫נ‬
(10) [ ]]imlmt[ ‫נ‬ (13) w - m ) [ ‫נ‬
(11) [ ]nably[ ‫נ‬ (14) qtlj . n[ ‫נ‬
(12) [n»nyp[ ‫נ‬ (15) qtb • (‫״‬/«)»[ ‫נ‬
(several linen missing) (16) k . l td . [ ‫נ‬
(rev. 1) [ ]»?[ ‫נ‬ (17) U n . i[ ‫נ‬
(2) [ ] wan[ ‫נ‬ (18) [ ]aIpgn . n[ ‫נ‬
(3) [ Jsh.illa^l[ 1. (1») [ ‫נ‬
(several lines missing)
(Text 105) **[ ]tbltin[ (rev.!) [ ‫נ‬
‫נ‬
(2) bit[ ]trfrutp[ ‫נ‬ (2) [ b .- W ‫נ‬
(3) h . — d . !6[ ‫נ‬ (3) [ ] . [ ] g l . (•/*)«*[ ‫נ‬
(4) bit[ ] ( a lt)klm[ ‫נ‬ (4) mr . fidm . p[ ‫נ‬
(5) a . [ jtn . at[ ]1 . [ j
(5) Ulknlwt[ ] (6) in n . tmn . imnm . pp<(?). [ ‫נ‬
(6) w m . m^nh. a^[mr ] (7) b?dn ardln[ ‫נ‬
(7) quSskil[ ] (8) tutk . tmn[ ‫נ‬
(8) unitbft[ ] (9) ftrmfn[ ‫נ‬
(9) [ ]da[ ] (10) alfrp ttfii . in ]tin inp
(several lines missing) (11) ttbt • tdln t t b t . lidn ardln
(rev. 1) It[ ‫נ‬
(12) b(e/t)[ ] • 1[ ]ild in bm . in
(2) tlmm[ ‫נ‬
‫ר‬ (13) brn ililibtbiW . bn(c/t)yn
\ 0 ) WKV8y J (14) [ JrAnm[ ]{c/t)ttbnm[ ]frbtd[ ]
(4) an mnmnmn[ (15) [bd]n ard[l]n
]
(5) tcln l . m^nh[ ‫נ‬
(6) ilibltblttp[ (Text 107) 11 bn il
‫נ‬
(7) aanwamcywl[ ‫נ‬ (2) dr bn il
(8) ytiptin*n/c/y[ ‫נ‬ (3) mpfyrt bn il
(9) rtyymu)[ ]![ (4) tkmn winm
‫נ‬
(10) ytlsb[ ‫נ‬ (5) il watrt
(11) € ] (6) \nn il
(12) a[ ‫נ‬ (7) nfbt il
(13) [ ‫נ‬ (8) Sim il
(14) d[ ]in[ ‫נ‬ (9) il bS il add
(10) b«(d/l!) 9pn [6/]°(d/lf)
(Text 106) [ ‫נ‬ (11) ugrt
(2 )[ ] .a [ ]mt[ (rev.) bmrfr il
va ‫נ‬
(3) [ ] t . M r d n . luld)8gr[ (13) bnit il
‫נ‬
(4) [ ]pddn [ ‫נ‬ (14) b8md il
(15) bdtn il
(5) [ ].dm (16) bSrp il
(17) bknt il

— 187 —
Texts 108-113 THR UGARIT1C TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr . 38

(18) bgdyn il (Text 112) [ ] . *Sr .


(19) [ ‫נ‬ (2) [ ‫ נ‬. tit
(3) [ ] . tmn
(4) [ ] . tit
(Text 108) ubr*y. h (6) [ ] . afod
(2) arny 1 (6 ) «[ ] . tn
(3) m*r 1 (7) Az[p] . fn
(4) iert . 2 (8) forth* . afod
(5) folb rpS . 1 (9) ypr . arh{*)
(6) bq*t. 1 (10) m[t]qb . *Sr
(7) Sfoq 1 (11) tn*y . tit
(8) y*by 1 (rev.) ]}lb *prm. tn
(9) m for 8 (13) amdy . tit
(14) [ .]rt arbc
(rev.) NAPtfAR !6 (15) [ . *Sr
(Text 109). grht. d . tSSlmn
(2) tlrbh (Text 113) SrS [ ]
(2) Ibnm [ 1
(3) art .tn ,yrbm (3) folb. krd [ ‫נ‬
(4) tlrb y . y r b . w . ftm[$ ym]m (4) t• [ ‫נ‬
(5) flbny • yrfc . w . &m[£ ymm] (5) mlk 1
(6) ?rn. yrb. to. Jm§. y [m]m (6) gb*ly 1
(7) mrat. fymi. eSr ymm (7) ypr 1
(8) qhnnz. yrb w . &m£. ymm (8) ary 1
(9) * n m k .y r b . (9) #!rn 1
(10) ypr . yrb . w. hm§. ymm (10) art 1
(11) tlfony 1
(12) fir&y 1
(Text 1 1 0 ) <yrm. tt (13) dmt
(2) fcrd . tn e8r (14) agt \ 1
(3) gmy. arbe. cir (15) w. qmnz /
(4) ^ . arbe e8r (16) slg — ‫ ־‬1 *
(6) ^ ,tm n (17) ykn*m \
(6) e8rm . arb•. kbd (18) Slmy \ 1
(7) Mb rpg arbc . e§r (19) w. all /
(8) bq*t tt
(20) tmry 1
( 9 ) irab tn eir
(21) qrt 2
(10) W tmn (22) *rm
(11) amdy arb*. e§r (23) nnu > 1
(12) [ ]n*y tt e8r •
(24) [ ]
(rev.) 1 MB-AT 48 DUG GE&TIN N A P ^A R > 2
(26) [ ]
(26) m*r
(27) arny > 1
(Text 1 1 1 ) qrt tqlm. wntp
(2) Slmy tql (28) ubr*y 2
(3) ary tql (29) iWtm« t ‫נ‬
(4) tmry tql . w • ntp (30) Mr t ‫נ‬
(5) agt ntp (31) jaogft [ ‫נ‬
(6) dmt tql (32) uSkn t [
(7) ykn*m tql (33) s»r[ ] t ‫נ‬
(34) rq[<* 1 [ ‫נ‬

— 188 —
A n Or . 38 THB UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION T e x t s 114-117

(35) [ ] [ ] ( 8 ). hr$ m rkbt 1


(36) [ ‫נ‬ t ‫נ‬ (9) J r # qtn 1
(rev.) mid[ ] [ ] (10) J r # bhtm 2
(38) ‫ ״‬68[ ] [ ]
(39) m b[t ) [ ] (T e x t 115) [ ‫נ‬
(40) J I . y[ ] [ ] ( 2 ) e# r m [ ‫נ‬
(41) * 4 * ] [ ] (3) in it [ j
(42) y*r[t ] [ ] (4 ) mdm 5 [+ It]
(43) am&[p ] [ ] (5) g t . i n Ikym 3
(44) atl[g ] 1 (6) yq$m 2
(46) bfr[y ] 1 (7) kbim. 4
(46) [ ] 1 (8 ) trrm 24
m [ 11 ‫ע‬ (9) khnm 16
(48) ar 2 (10) kzym 3
(49) agm . vc. fypty 1 (11) y trm 3
(50) bib. tpn ( r e v . ) m r u . ibrn [ ‫נ‬
(51) mril y 1 (13) m ru .8 k n 9
(52) *nmky ' (14) n 8 k . ksp 10
(53) *nqpat (15) mfom 2
(54) ibq > 1 (16) k8dm 5
(55) h zp ----------- 1 (17) mdrglm 6lU
(66) gn‘y 1 (18) p8lm 6
(67) m•rby 1 (19) yffym 6
(68) i m
(59) [#](1q > (T e x t 116) npfm
(2 )b d . m ri
(60) nerm (3) 8kn
(61) mdrglm y 1 ( r e v .) •# rm
(62) kzym ' (5) J m i
(63) m ru . 8kn "s / (6) kbd
(64) m ru .ibm
(65) p8lm ( T e x t 117) 1. mlkt
(66) Srm y J (2 ) u m y . rgm
(67) y9bm ' (3) t J m . mlk
(68) ‘Srm ________ 1 (4 ) b n k .
(69) m ru m --------- 1
(70) tnnm •(5) l . p°n. umy
(71) nqdm ^ (6) qlt .1. umy
(72) khnm (7) ySlm.ilm
(73) qdSm > 1 (8) tgrk.tSlmk
(74) n8k.k8p (9) h ln y.emn\y\
(75) mfcrm > 1
( 10) kll.Slm
(edge) TU[P]‫־‬PU 9 A B £ me5 S a g1[Sq a SA]T!mbS
(11) tmny. . u[my]
(12) mnm. Sim
(T e x t 114) gd[#m] [ ]
(13) w . rgm . if 5 . l\y]
(2) mru 8[fcn] f ]
(3) mrt».*J[r»] [ ] (rev.) bm . t y . ndr
(4) mdm _______ 1 __ (15) if f . *mn. mlkt
(5) init [ ] (16) w.rgmy.lty
(6) nsk ksp 2 (17) \qt • to. pn
(7) ytkm 1 (18) m lk.nr bn

189 —
Texts 118-119 THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr . 38

(Text 1 1 8 ) [ ] (Text 119) [ ].bnh.b.bt.krz[ ]


(2) m [ ]
(3) mg[ ] (2) [ ] ir.pgt.b.bt.gg
(4) Sp[ ]
(5) q l . [ j (3) [ ] . al,1d .b . b t . ntcrd

(6) tcmlk [ ] (4) [ai]t. adrt . b . b t . arttb


(7) •m n.[ ]
(8 ) ikzi[ ] (5) ai t . /r . in . bnh .b . b t . itrrlpzn
(9) wl[ ]
(6) a l t . /r . pgt . b . b t . ydrm
(10) [ ]nqmd . [ ]
(11) [ ]c>nn . *p[$ mlk rb] (7) i t . attm . adrtrn . tc . p g t . aht .b [bt ]
(12) b•Ih.Slm.[ j
(13) ml k. rb . b'lh . [ ]
(8) a i t . tc . fn . n®m .b . b t . ilafc(/)
(14) nqmd . ml k. ugr[t ]
(15) phy
(9) a[f\ t ad[r]t . b . b t . armwl

(16) wipllm . mlk . [ ] (10) a i t . afyt . b . b t . iwrpzn


(17) m -m t. Inqmd . [ ]§£
(18) hbiy. argmn . d[ybl n]qmd (11) 11. attm . w . pgt afyt. b . b t . [ ]r[ ]
(19) l#p§ . am . tn [ ] mn
(20) e$rm . i q l . kbd [ ] mn . fprs (12) [ ] t . b . b t . a\1p&
(21) tc [ ] . k tn t. w[ Jb
(22) [Jjm]§ . [m\at pfym
(13) [ ] . b . b t . tptM
(23) [lpm$ mja^. iqnu
(rev.) a,rgmn . nqmd . mlk
(25) u g rt. dybl. I8p§ (14) [ Jn[ mdjrglm
(26) mlk . rb . belh
(15) [ ]b.bt [ ]bt
(27) k8 . brg . ktn . mit .ptym
(28) m it. iqni . 1. mlkt (rev. [f]IJ. a i t . a d r t . 1c . H i . g zr[m ]
(17) w . b m § . n°rt . b . b t . 8!k[ ]
(29) k8 . • ktn . m i t . plpm
(30) m it. iqni \utryn (18) i t . attm . adrtrn . w . p g t . w . gzr [ ]

(31) k8 . k8p . ktn . mit .plim (19) att . w . t t . pgtm . w . gzr . a \d .b .[bt ]
(32) inifc . iqni . Itpnr
(20) i t . a ttm . w p g t . w . gzr . ahd .b [bt ]
(33) [ ]nf . mtf pfy[m]
(34) [mit iqni] 1frbrtn[r] (21) a t t . tc . bnh . w . p g t . afyt .b .bt .m [ ]

(35) [ ] (22) att . w .i t .bth .b . b t . fydmrd


(36) [ ](»
(37) [ ] (23) att .w . t n . gzrm .b . b t . $dq$[lm]
(38) [ ]. U>k[ ]. [ ]
(24) [a ]tt . abt .b . b t . rpi[ ]
(39) [mit i q] ni . pkm. l [ ]
(25) [att] \v . bth .b . b t . alfyn
(40) [ ] Ad[ ]

— 190 —
A nOr . 38 THE UGAR1TIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION T e x ts 1 2 0 1 2 4 ‫־‬

(26) [att. 1r] pgt. aht .b .bt.tt[ ] (10) dtit. yspi. 8pn. q[ ]
----------------------------------------------------------------- (11) tpb •Ur . *Ar[ ]
(27) [att w] b th .b . b i . trgds[ ] (12) -r[ ]

(28) [ ] at t . a d r t . w . p g t . a[bt ] (Text 122) [ ]m1r&>y. 11' bty


(2 ) [rpim ]y . a$hkm iqra
(3) [ ]kly atrh . rpum
(29) [ 6]Srw . npS . b . b t . m[ ]
(4) [ atrh] . ltdd . ilnym
(6) [ ]rz«y. apnnk. yrp[ ]
(30) [ ] . 1r . a j t . b . b t. [ ] ( 6) [ ]km . t*y . h t . alk
(left edge) [ ] Al a - l a -S i - i a (7) [ ]tltm amgy. Ibt
(8) [ ] . hkly. icytn . t7
(Text 120) mn^. bd. ybnn (9) [ ]y .Ik . b ty . rpim
(2) arbe.mat (10) [ atffokm . iqrakrn
(3) l . alp . $mn (11) [ ] y . atrh . rpum
(4) [m]nfy. . mat (12) [ ]h . ltdd . i[2nym]
(5) b n n . rqb (13) [ ]r[ ]
(rev.) [ ]b . lar$ [ ]
(6) k krm.brdl
( 7) m it. tiirm (Text 123) »r . [ 1
(8) tltm . almg (2) 6 . fcWy . [ ‫נ‬
(9) bmtm.kkr (3) Ik b ty . v[pim afty]
(10) qnm (4) km . iqr[akm ‫נ‬
( 11) [*]&rm. kk[r] (5) afrA . r [pum ‫נ‬
(rev.) [b]rr (6) ltd d . il[nym ‫נ‬
(13) [c]§rm. np8 (7) mhr . M [wmhr]
(14) cSrm . z t . mm?*(I) (8) *nt. JA* b[ty ‫נ‬
(9) a$k . A*m. [iqrakrn ‫נ‬
(15) arb°m . (10) hkly . atr[h rpum]
(16) Smn. mr (11) atrh . lt[dd ilnym]
(12) yfypn. by[ly ‫נ‬
(Text 121 : 1) [ rp]nm . tdbfyn (13) $me. (nja!)tm . [ ‫נ‬
(2) [ ]*d.iinym (14) ym . Im . ydq[d ‫נ‬
(3) [ ]km amtm (15) im n.pr#[ ‫נ‬
(4) f ]b tct*rb . (16) ydr . hm . ym[ ‫נ‬
(5) [ ]bym . q? (17) ci amr . yu[ ‫נ‬
(6) [ ]m . t\hmn (18) n b t. kfyt. d\ ‫נ‬
(7) [ ]m . tStyn (19) . rpim[ ‫נ‬
(8) [ ]11. d*rgzm (20) bqrb . h[kl ‫נ‬
(9) [ ] d t . cl . it?y (21) td d . atrh[ ‫נ‬
(10) [ ]d&fr.amr (22) a&r. mr[ ‫נ‬
(ID [ 1 (23) tel n . Jm[rA‫־‬MAm ‫נ‬
(II) Imn . Agrft . hkly . [. ] (24) * . t\[ ‫נ‬
(2) td d . a!rA . tdd . il[nym ] (25) btlmm[ ]
(3) a8r . »8wm . U m d . d[ ] (26) [ ‫נ‬
(4) M n. Imrkbthm . fifty ]
(5) M&n . ym . ♦rfn. a ftr. *[pirn ] (Text 124) 1am[
(6 ) mgy rpum . I g r n t . [ ] (2) h . An bnk . An [ ]
(7) mtet . try«n . d n il . [mt rpi] (3) bn bn . a trk . An «[ ‫נ‬
(8) y!6 . gzrm.mt hrnmy[ ] (4) ydk . $y'r . <n$y . Sptk. (!»
(9) bgrnt . ilm . bqrb . m[ ] (5) tkm. bm tkm. afrm. qym.it

191 —
Text 125 THE ,UGARIT1C TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr . 38

(6) blsmt. t!m yfbS . S m . i l . mtm (28) udmH. fh. afytk


(7) y(‫״‬lt!)bS. brkn . S m . i l . germ (29) ttmnt. bt. bmfyh
(8) tm . tmq . rpu . bcl . mhr b*l (30) dnn. tbkn. wltdm. ly[ ‫נ‬
(9) wmhr .*nt .tm . yhpn. hyl (31) [g] z r . al. <r<7m. lafytk
(10) y . z b l . m lk. elimy km . tdd (32) [ M ]1[ ]dm.a^A;
(11) ‘n t . fd . tStr . cp t . Smm (33) ydc£. krfymt
(12) tbh. alpm . ap f i n . Sql. trm (34) al .tSt. bSdm.
(13) icmri i l m. egt. . d t . Snt (35) b8mkt. $at np8h
(14) i m r . qmf . l lim. kksp (36) [ ]‫] [*מ‬$&«. rbt
(15) lebrm . z t . hrf . lcbrm . kS (37) SpS. . wyr
(16) d p r . ilhn . bqel . bqel (38) r & t .
(17) mlkm. hn. ym. y$q. yn . tmk (39) # mnt. krtn .
(18) m rt. yn . 8rnm . yn . bid (40) . mlk . «$r
(19) g l l . y n . iS ryt.»nq . 8md (41) c3r£. qh . ap fc&yd
( 20) Ibnn . tlm rt. yhrt il (42) [ ]r b ttk . ftw . ymn
( 21 ) h n . y m . w i n . tlhrn . rpum (43) Ik . . *I irrt
(22) tStyn . t i t . rbc. ym . frmS (44) adnk Sqrb [ J
(23) t d t . y m . tllymn . rpum (45) bmgnk . wyv9 . lArl
(24) tStyn . b t. i k l . bprc (46) apnfc gzr ilfyu
(25) —q. birt. Ibnn. mk. bSb* (47) [m]rbh . yifyd . byd
(26) [ ]r/fc . aliyn b*l (48) [ ]rgrh . bm . ywn
(2 7 ) [ ] . r ‫־‬M ] (49) [ ]ygrfe. tr$?h
(28) [ ] (50) [ ]k . mgyh . wglm
(51) afyth . Sib . . mr\k
(Text 125) [ ]krt (52) - t- .y*b .pnh .tgr
(2) k[fc]l& . bbtk. nHq . kinr (53) y9u . Mm. afih . tpfc
(3) ap . Mtk . a p . a b . ik mtm (54) lar9 . tf & r
(4) tmtn . uMtk . Intn (55) [
(5) *tq.bd . a t t . ab frry (56) [ m ] r 9 m lk
(6) tbkyk. ab . g r . bcl (57) [ ] k r t . adnk
(7) f p n . hi m. qdS (58) [ ]gzr.
(8) any. him. adr. hi (59) [ ]wr^ m lk
(9) rhb . mknpt. ap (60) [ k ] r t. adnkm
(10) [k]rt. bnm. i l . Sph (61) t d]bh dbb
(11) Upn. wqdS. *I (62) [ c] S r . c£rt
(12) abh . y*rb! . ybky (63) *[ ]
(13) taySnn. y tn . gh (64) &[ ]
(14) bky bhyk. abn . ntSmh (65) <[ ]
(15) blmtk. ngln. kklb (66) «‫[ל‬ ‫נ‬
(16) bbtk. nHq. kinr (67) p9[t ‫נ‬
(17) ap h&tk . a p . a b . kmtm (68) Ik [ ‫נ‬
(18) tm tn . uhStk. Intn (69) Jfcif ‫נ‬
(19) Hq . b d . a t t ab . frry (70) ‫־״‬W y)[ ‫נ‬
(20) i km. yrgm . bn il (71) my [ ‫נ‬
(21) krt Sph. Upn (72) at[ ‫נ‬
(22) tcqdS.uilm tmtn (73) afrk [ ‫נ‬
(23) Sph. Upn. lyh (74) tr />[ ‫נ‬
(24) tey°ny .k rt .t? (76) [ ‫נ‬
(25) bn . a l . tbkn. al (76) tsqy [
(26) tdm .ly .a l t kl . bn
‫נ‬
(77) t r . Jt[ ‫נ‬
(27) q r . «n k . m k . riSk (78) vmsk. tr[ ‫נ‬
19 2 —
A nOr . 38 THE UGAR1TIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Text 126

(79) tqrb . oj[ ] (9) n*m Hit( b*n


(80) lm. tb'rn[ ] ( 10) bm nr- . ksmm
(81) mn.yrh .km[rt ] (11) H tlf ](r/tyHrtrm
(82) mn. kdwl. kr[t ] (12) nSu ri£
(83) wy*ny. gzr [itytt] (13) 1fr [ ]<15 dgn kly
(84) tit. yrfim. Jc1n[r#] (14) Ihm . [6]dnAm kly
(85) arb®. kdw. l[rt] (15) yn . b!hmthm . k[l}y
(86) mnd*. krt. mg[ ] (16) Sum bq[ ]
(87) wqbr ttr.q[ ] (17) bt k r t . 1[ ]
(88) tfr. trm. tnmf[ ] (18) [ ]
(89) km.nkyt tyr[ ] (about 30 lines missing)
(90) km.Skllt [ ] (IV) [ ]
(91) *rym. Ibl[ ] (2) i l . amrk ph[ ]
(92) b[ ]‫»־‬y[ ] (3) k il . ik m t . ktr . Upn
(93) lbl.sk. w[ ]h (4) $h ngr il il&. i\[f\
(94) ybmh.8b* [ ] (5) watth.ngrt [t]lW
(95) gzr. ilfyu. <[ ]1 (6) k i t . km*r[ ]
(96) trm tfr. trm[ ]qt (7) y 9i . n g r . i l i U .
(97) tbky wtS[ ] (8) iU ngr bt bel
(98) gh. bky. bfyyk [a]b» (9) watth . ngr t . ilht
(99) nSmJ}. blmtk. ngln (10) w!yen . Upn il dpi[d]
(100) kklb bbtk.nHq (11) &m*. Ingr il il[S]
(101) kinr ap b$tk (12) iIS. ngr bt bel
(102) ap rib kmtm. tmtn (13) wattk . ngrt ilht
(103) ufritk Ibky *tq (14) el . Ukm bnwn
(104) bd. att ab . frry (15) Infrnpt m#pb(f)
(105) nilm. tmtn. £pb (16) tltkm mltrry
(106) ltpn. lyh tbkyk (17) [ ] . Igr -mel*[ ]
(107) ab.gr. bel . #[p]» him (18) [ ]ram[ ]
(108) qdi. any. [£2]u1 . adr (about 25 lines missing)
(109) hi. rhb . mk[npt] (V) •r[ ]
(110) ap. krt bn[m il] (2) *r[ ]
(111) Sph. Upn [tcqdg] (3) ‫״‬r[ ]
(112) bkm t«rb[ [ (4) wy[ ]
(113) t'rb. h[ ‫נ‬ (5) b>d [ ]
(104) bttm. t[ ‫נ‬ (6) yatr[ ]
(116) Sknt. [ ‫נ‬ (7) bdk. [ ]
(116) bkym [ ‫נ‬ (8) tnnth [ ]
(117) 9r.y[ ‫נ‬ (9) tltth [ ]
(118) ydm. [ ‫נ‬ (10) Upn . [il dpid my]
(119) apn. [ ‫נ‬ (11) bilm .{ydy mr9]
(120) [ ]6[ ‫נ‬ ( 12) gr&m . z[bln in bilm]
(13) enyh . y[rb* (I) ]
(Text 126 ; III) y$q. #mn[ (14) rgm . my b[ilm ydy]
(2) *»[ ]r .! art «7imm (15) mr9 . gr&[m zbln]
(3) sblt •fm. art (16) in .bilm .•[nyh]
(4) lk»m. m iyt. *n (17) y b m i . rgm [my bilm]
(5) lar$ m\t]r . b*l (18) ydy . mr9 . g\rSm zbln]
(6) wUd. m tr. ely (19) i n . bilm . *nlyh] ytdt
(7) »«»». lar? m\r b*{l\ (20) ySbe . rgm . [my] bilm
(8) vdUA . m tr. •ly (21) y d y . mr9 . gr&m zbln

— 193 —

25
Texts 127-128 T H E UGARITIC TEX TS IN TRANSLITERATION AnOr. 38

(22) in . bilm. *nyh (23) ytb . Ik8i mlk


(23) wy°n. ttpn i l dpid (24) Infrt. Ikbt •drlct
(24) tb. buy . lm£b[t]fcm (25) ap .ytb .ytb .bhkl
(25) Ikhi ■zblk\m a]»& (26) wyw8rnn . ggnh
(26) ifytrS. w/r[ ]4fc» (27) I k . labk . ytb Ik
(27) afkn.yd mr; grim (28) [la]bk icrgm . Iny
(28) zbln. r[ ] . ymln (29) \k[rt t°] \8tm[*\
(29) n°m.rt [ ] yqrf (30) wtqg [udn kgz gzm]
(30) dt. bp&[ ] (31) t dbr . w [$rtn [ttwy]
(31) [ ] . tnn (32) 8qlt.bglt.ydk
(32) [ ] . tnn (33) Udn . dn . almnt
(5 lines missing) (34) Ittpt. t p t . qtr np8
(38) bi[ ‫נ‬ (35) km . afyt. *r8 . mdw
(39) «[ ‫נ‬ (36) an8t. *rS. zbln
(40) fof[ ‫נ‬ (37) rd . Imlk. amlk
(41) fcr[ ‫נ‬ (38) Idrktk. atbnn
(42) at. [ ‫נ‬ (39) ytb*. ytb gl m. el
(43) M[ ‫נ‬ (40) abh . yerb . ySu gh
(44) rt.[ ‫נ‬ (41) urytb• Smc me . Ikrt
(45) Hr[ptm 1 (42) t* •i8tmc . wtqg udn
(46) bp. $[ ‫נ‬ (43) kgz . gzm . tdbr
(47) il.pd[ ‫נ‬ (44) wgrm . tticy . 8qlt
(48) crm. [bi m{k/i) pdrm] (45) bglt. ydk . ltdn
(49) di. §[rr ‫נ‬ (46) dn . alm nt . Ittpt
(50) mr[9 ‫נ‬ (47) tpt qt r . np8. l t dy
(51) zb[In ‫נ‬ (48) t8m el . d l . Ipnk
(52) t[ ‫נ‬ (49) ItSlfym. ytm . bed
(53) [ ‫נ‬ (50) k8lk . alm nt . km
(51) a jit . °r8 . m dw . anSt
(Text 127) [1» ]t. dm. bt. Mqt dm! (52) cr8 . zbln . r d . Imlk
(2) l i . wttb•. Hqt (53) amlk . Idrktk . atb
(3) bt. krt. bu. tbu (54) nn . wy*ny. krt te.ytbr
(4) bkt. tgly. wtbu (55) \ r n . ybn . y tb r . fyrn
(5) n $rt. tbu .pnm (66) ri8k *ttrt .8m .b°l
(6) *rm. tbu. m(h/i) ( 57) qdqdk tqln . bgbl
(7) pdrm. tbu. Srr (58) 8ntk . bbvdnk . wt*n
(8) btm. tcmt. •ttrptm (left edge) 8pr ilmlk t*y
(9) zbln. cl. rilh
(10) tcttb. tr!y9 . nn. bdet (Text 128 : 1) [ ]yd [ ]
(11) npih. lUym. tptfy ( 2 ) m%ma . y d . mtkt
(12) brlth. Itrm (3) tttkrn[ ]bdn
(13) mt. dm bt frtqt (4) .k r t . m!8wnh
(14) dm. Ian. wypqd (5) ark tzg l*g\h
(15) krt.p.yiu.gh (6) bn . hpi . lumhthm
(16) toytb •4m*. Imtt (7) ktnbn.udmm
(17) bry .tbfr .imr (8) wxpny . krt te
(18) wiUym. mgt. tciirlm
(19) tim‘. mtt. lyry
(20) ttbb. imr. wlfym (11) t ‫נ‬
(21) mgt. wytrm. An ym (2 )[ l.tr
(22) win. ytb. krt. l°dh (3) [ ali\yn. b‫״‬l
194 —
A n Or. 38 THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Text 128

(4) [ ]mn. yrb. zbl (25) kmhm. wtfas . atrt


(5) [ kt]r v>b»» (26) ndrh. wilt. p[ ]
(6) [ ] . rbmy. rfp zbl (27) wt&u. gh. w[tffy]
(7) [«]dt ilm. tlth (28) ph mc.ap . fcr[t ]
♦ (8) [<*p]nk. krt. t* «[ ]r (29) utn . ndr[ ]
(9) b bth. ySt. *rb (30) apt. h[ ]
(10) [ ]A. ytn. w—u . lytn (31) t ‫נ‬
(11) - r . mgy. «dt. ilm (IV) p*[nh Ihdmytpd](1)
(12) [«7]y*n. ali[yn] b*l (2) gm. l[aith kyqh]
(13) [ ]<&*.«tpn (3) §»»* [Imtt bry]
(14) [«'l] dpid. Itbrk (4) Zb[&] Sm[n]. mrik
(15) [Art] tc. Itmr. n‫״‬mn (6) pth. r[£]bt. yn
(16) [pirn] i l.ks . y*bd (6) tb• St^m] try
(17) [5]y<Z. krpn. bm (7) im n y m . ?byy
(18) [ymn] brkm. ybrk (8) tr . . [rft]<
(19) [tZ. ] ybrk it. krt (9) ftftr [f]r[rt]
(20) [ ]ot . n*mn glm il (10) -‫־‬#-.$[ ]ot
(21) a[Zt tq]b . ykrt. ait (11) [ ]rt[ ]tdttgm(T)
(22) tqb btk.glmt tfrrb (12) tbd[ ]*
(23) A?rk. tld. gb* bnm Ik (13) l\xn$q[ ]md[ ]
(24) wtmnt ttmntl .! (14) tfm'.mtt [A]ry
(25) Ik. tld. y?b . glm (15) ttbfy. Sma. [m]r[i]A
(26) ynq. hlb. a[t]rt (16) tptb. rfybt. yn
(27) mtt. td b tit [*»<] (17) •lh. trh tg'rb
(28) mgnq[t ilm nmm] (18) clh. ti*rb •gbyb
(19) tr .}jibt rbt
(20) JjbT.trrt
(in) [ ‫נ‬ (21) bt. krt. tbun
(2) [ mid rm] krt (22) Im. OTfb------------
(3) [btk rpi] art (23) wlfjm m r. tqdm
(4) [&p>r]. qbf . dtn (24) y d . b§* Ulb
(5) [wt]qrb. wld (25) brb . bbir. Utn
(6) [ ]n.tlk (26) [«?f]*». mtt. bry
(7) tld.pgt.t[ ]< (27) [«J]m . ISty tbtkm
(8) tld.pg[t ] (28) [dbb Z]krt.b'lkm
(9) tld .p£[t ] (V) [ > .t [ ]
(10) tld.p[gt ] (2 )[ ]&<.[ ]
(11) tld.p[gt ] (3) [ ]rpi(t)[ ]
(12) tld . p[gt ] (4) [ M ]
(13) mid. rin [krt] (5) bbr[ ]p[ J
(14) btk. rpi. ar[t] (6) [ }mtb[ ]
(15) bpbr. qbt. dtn (7) [tqdm] yd. by. [tgl]h
(16) tgrtbn.abkrn (8) [brb] bbSr.tStn
(17) tbrk. ilm. tity (9) [tr(«n]. mtt. bry
(18) tity. ilm. lahlhm (10) [llb]m Uty. 9btk»1(f)
(19) dr il. Imgknthm (11) [ ]brA.t[ ]
(20) wtqrb. wld bn lh (12) [*I] k rt. tbkn
(21) wtqrb. wld . b m lh ( 1 3 ) [ f c » ] r gm . trm
(22) mk.bgb'.gnt (14) [ ] mtm. tbkn
(23) bn.krt. kmhm. tdr (15) [ ]«. wtblb . <gb[ ]
(24) ap. bnt. bry (16) [ ]hnti. mtm. «$&«[ ]

— 195 —
T e x t s 129-132 THE UOARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A n Or . 38

(1 7 ) [ ] t t . i v k . i l (Text 130) [ ‫נ‬


(18) *rA . i p i . ly m g (2 ) km.[ ]
(19) k r t . f b i a . i p i (3) [ ‫נ‬.[ ‫נ‬
(20) b*{ny. tc y m l k (4) wftgr[ ]
(21) [ ]A*{n.wy[ jy (5) «d tf[A* ]
(22) [Ar]< «l». AJr (6) [ ]lyn[ [
(23) [ ] . a ftk . ‫״‬l (7) [ ] p k .ll ]
(24) [ ]—y$#» (8) trfo yd [A ]
(25) [ ]bAr. r b t (9) [ ]ft dm[r ]
(26) [&Ar t r r ] t i l d (10) [ M ]imtUf ]
(27) [ p i d ] a . bang[ ] (11) [ ]pdr[y bt ar tly bt rA]
(28) [ ]mb* (12) ar#y bt y[«Adr]
(29) [ ]tTO (13) rgm IA(][{ •nt]
(VI) Am*. [ ] m t - m . 1[ ] tn m (10 . ed.) A[ ]n/a [ ‫נ‬
(2) • d m . tf[{£]m(f). t g t y (15) [ ‫נ‬
(3) w tf in . m t t br y (16) Ikbd S[dm ‫נ‬
(4) {l[A]m • i§[<y] ffr tk m (17) [ ]»[ ]my[ ‫נ‬
(5) d b [ b I k r t] a d n k m (rev.) [ ]kt.da[ ‫נ‬
(6) *{. k r t tfbun . Am (19) w V g i t . abn[ ‫נ‬
(7) r g m . frm r g m . Am (20) «m kbkbm[ ‫נ‬
(8) b d r t[ ]1 k r t (21) yranlk. ib[gyh ‫נ‬
(9) [ m ‫נ‬ (22) [ ]ly *to dng[ ‫נ‬
(23) Apr. ib• bn[t ‫נ‬
(24) W-.[ ‫נ‬
(Text 129) [ ]aft[ ] (25) a(p/h) (•/t)n[ M ‫נ‬
(2) [ ‫ נ‬. 11 ‫נ‬ (26) lim[ ]i[ ‫נ‬
(3) [ ‫ נ‬. tP[ ‫נ‬ (27) ilTO [ ‫נ‬
(4 ) 1y tn . pnm. «mil. mbk [nhrm qrb apq thmtm ygly] (28) to[ ]to[ ‫נ‬
(6) dd ! . i[l] wybw [q]ri . mlk [aft 8nm lpcn il yhbr]
(6) wyql [y]8tbwy wykbd[ ]r . y [ ] (Text 131) [ ]
(7) ktr . wb[88] 8[ ]b[ ]bh t . ym[ ]m . Mcl. [t] (2) [ ]Z h.'tkt[ ]
p t . nhr (3) [ ]Ay bth t«rb
(8) irfft[ ]tbr[ ]rr[ ]bn. bht zbl ym (4) [ tm]tbf A*m<|[ ]
(9) [ ]m . hk[l tpt] nhr . btk . [ ] (5) [ ]1#6»to r[ ]
(10) [ ]ft . tbn[ ]8. <rm[ ]bt (6) [ wt]‘n . tfytfb[ ]
(11) [ ]ft.mt(h/i) wbu8b&[ ]btb.glm \8dm rgmm (7) [ A?A]q . y m lu . {All
( 1 2 ) [ ]bym.ym.ym«y(f) «m[ ]tpk.'ttr.dtm [ ] (8) [ ]kkdrt rig
(13) [ ]brftrtm . wu[ ] n . [ ]i8[ ]8th[ ] i8t (9) [ ] k .tg ll.b d m
(14) [ ]y.yblm m .u [ ]f[ ]ley[ ]d[ ]i[ ]n .bn (10) [ ]td [ ]gA
(15) [ ]nn nvt ilm 8p8 .t8u .gh . w[tfk 8m]e. mc (11) [ ‫«נ‬
(16) [yt]ir .t r i l . aftk l .pn .z b l . ym $u[ tpt nh]r
(17) [a]l. y8mek . tr [i]l. abk. Iy8e[alt tbtk lyh]pk [k8a] (Text 132) [ ] . yikh . wyijid. Agrb[A](f)
(18) inIkk. lytb r. ftfc mtptk . wy*n[ ] . d[ ]ft[ ] (2) [ t]fA&. \rtij}d. A«4k[AJ(f)
(19) [ ]b •by .t r . i l . aby . ank . in bt [ly k]ilm [w] (3) [ aliyn] b*l. ynbd. lalp
[ftftn] (4) [ b]tlt. «»t
(20) [gd]§. Ibumard bnp&ny.trl^n ktrm.[ ]ftft[ ] (5) [ ] q .h ry .w y ld
(21) y m .b h k l.tp t.n h v .y tir .tr .il aftft tpt[ ]J.ft/y (6) [ ]to . m . Afrt(l)
(22) [tp]\ nhr mIkt.[ ]m .Imlkt.vrtn in .att[ ] (7) [ b t]\t.'n t
ft. ft[ ] (8) [ a lijyn , A*1
(23) [ ]tp[ ]zb l. y m . y(e/t)[ ]tp \\.n h r (9) [ ]to*w
(24) [ ]yHhn.imfn *ttr[ ] (10) [ ]

— 196 -
A n O r . 38 THE UGAR1TI0 TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 133-137

(11) [ ‫נ‬ (6) \1n\\akm(f) Ih


(12) [ ]r (7) [ ]!.& » . il
(13) [ ]gfc (8) [ ]a . *dh
(14) [ ) ik (9) [ ]rh
(15) [ ‫נ‬ (10) [ ]y . SpS
(16) ( ]a lp
(17) [ ]*/y (Text 136) [ ]
(18) [ M ] (2) [ ]ilm. wilht <1[ ]
(3) [ ]*&•. Mm . a/n[ ]
(Text 133) fc[ ‫נ‬ (4) [ ]tlldly . 6[ ‫\־‬ymtm
(2) yy[ ‫נ‬ (5) [ ]r . lplp m
(3) rb[ ‫נ‬ (6) [ ]pn . y m . y[ ]
(4) S r [ ‫נ‬ (7) [ ]to Ml . tfbd
(5) [ ]<[ ‫נ‬ (8) [ ]hkl.
(6) r m [ ‫נ‬ (rev. 1) [ ‫נ‬
(7) TO»[ ‫נ‬ (2) [ ‫־‬jydh
(rev., 1) h[ ]rro . A[ ‫נ‬ (3) [ ]tmt
(2) yrm m h [ ‫נ‬
(3) m t t c . g b eh [ ‫נ‬ (Text 137) [
(4) i b r k l h m . d lh [ ‫נ‬ (2) [ ‫נ‬
(5) l y t n Ih m . tfyt b el (3) at . ypH. bt[ wy*n]
(6) k . u q S t p n h d d . b y [ ] (4) aliyn . W [ ‫נ‬
(7) •» . b y m b»l y s y y[ 1 (5) [ ]rktk mi[ ‫נ‬
(8) rmm . b n p m m frl[ ‫נ‬ (6) brigk . aymr[ bqdqdk ygrS
(9) m lk . n h r - I b r [ ‫נ‬ (7) tpt . nhr . yib[r fyrn ytbr Jrn]
(10) z b l M . g lm . [ ‫נ‬ (8) riSk *ttrt. [Smb°l qdqdk]
(11) t g r h d to r [ ‫נ‬ (9) [ ]t . mt tpln . bg[bl ]
(12) w l n h r nd[ ‫נ‬ (10) [ ]§?nm. attm . t[ ]
(10 . ed.) [ ]« (11) [m]lakm ylak .ym . [ ]
(12) bcl$ . cl$m. npr . i[ ]
(Text 134) ug[r ‫נ‬ (13) ut . tbr . aphm. tb*. <jlm[mal ttb idk pnm]
(2) •n t [ ] (14) al .ttn .m . pfyr . m*d . t[k gr ll lp*n il]
(3) tmm lbt [ ‫נ‬ (15) al . tpl . al tSt^wy . pjr . [m*d ]
(4) b . [ ] l u g r [ ‫נ‬ (16) wtny . dHkm. wrgm. Itr . ab[hil tny Ipfrr]
(5) w°#rro[ ‫נ‬ (17) med t\m . ym. belkm• adnkm. t[pt nhr]
(10 . ed.) ylyh . *r[ ‫נ‬ (18) tn . ilm. dtqh . dtqyn . hmlt .tn . M [tc^rnnh]
(7) [flltTO . tcb[ ‫ו‬ (19) bn. dgn . artm.pdh . tbe.glmm.lytb [idkpnm]
(rev.) HI limm [ ‫נ‬ (20) lytn .tk .gr .tt .*m.pfrtr. mcd . ap . ilm. laX
(9) wtt. npS[ ‫נ‬ (21) ytb .bn . qdS. Itrm. bcl .qm.cl .il. him
(10) k b d . r[ ‫נ‬ (22) ilm. tphhm. tphn . mlak . ym. ted‫׳‬t . tpt. nhr .
(11) l#j»[«(t) ‫נ‬ (23) tgly . ilm. riSthm. l?r . brkthm. wlkbt
(12) S. t d[ ‫נ‬ (24) zblhm. bhm. yg°r. bcl . Imglim. ilm. riS[t]
(13) w[ ‫נ‬ (25) km. l?r . brktkm. win . kbt • zblhm. a\d
(14) *t ‫נ‬ (26) ilm . teny . tyt. mlak . ym. tcdt . tpt • nh[r]
(15) «‫(<[״‬f) ‫נ‬ (27) Su. ilm. raStkm. l?r . brktkm. In . kfyt
(28) zblkm. wank . ® ny. mlak. ym. t°dt. tpt. nhr
(Text 135) [ ]h • y&[ ‫נ‬ (29) tSu. ilm. raSthm. l$r . brkthm.In.kbt •zb[lhm]
(2) [ ]n . i r i [ ‫נ‬ (3 0 ) abr . tmgyn . m lak . ym . ted t . t p t . nhr . lp*n. il
(3 )[ }mr.phgl (31) [Z]tpZ. lUtlywy .pbr. mcd . qmm. atm[ ]
(4) [ ]toto . h lk u (32) [ tn]y . dHhm. iSt. iStm. yitmr . frrb. USt
(5) [ ]b q rb . •r (33) [ ]nhm. rgm. Itr. abh. il. tfym. ym. b*lkm.
T e x ts 138-145 THE UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A n O r. 38

* (34) adnkm. fp t. nftr. tn . 17m . dtgyn • ft (Text 142) r . n . I. a


(35) [mtt] tn . bel . tr«nnft . ftn . dgn. arf m . pdh (2) m°n
(36) [try^n] f r . abh. 17.*ftdft .b°l.y ymm. cftdft. bel
(37) [ ]m ftn . dgn. asrkm. ftn?. yftt. argmnk. ftt7m (3) alnr
(38) [ ]yftt. k!bn. . mnftyft. ap . an$. zbl. ftc[T| (10 . ed.) faq&lm
(39) [ yuft]d. ftyd. mSfa. ftm . ymn. mfa. glmm. (rev.) dlt
y*[ 1
(40) [ymnft cn]t(f) . tufa . Imatft . tufa . °ftrt . ♦ft
[tmfa(l) mlak] (Text 143) btt • ym fat
(41) [ym tc]d t. fp t. nftr. mlak . mtftr. yftbt[ ] (2) byr.*rbt
(42) [ ]mlak. bm. fttpm . rym . bclh. try[ ] (3) SpS tgrh
(43) [ ]ap . an*. zbl. W *dmt. by[dt ] (4 ) Hp
(44) [ ]dm. mlaft. ym [t°]dt tpt. nft[r ] (rev.) to! °V)dmtbqrn
(46) [ ]tIznt rgmt. lym. 6°Iftm a[dnftm fpt nftr] (6) 8kn
(46) [ ]trt. ymr. ftd. IwTay[ ]
(47) [ ]rh mbr[ ] (Text 144) [ ]gtn tt
(2) [ ]thr lytn ftsn[ ]
(3) ebd ulm [ ] fn un fan
(Text 138) tftm . iwrdr (4) gdy Iqb ftqn gft bn ndr
(2) tiwfryftn (5) umr [ ]gtn tt fan lytn
(3) bnly.aby.rgm (6) Zrb[ ]tt \qh ftqn
(4) ilm.tgrk
(7) bt qb$ nr[ ]t ilitm*dbb $t!qn l
(5) Ulmk
(8) rtp

(6) iky.lfa
(7) 8pr . dlikt (Text 145) [ ]ft [ ]tmnym [k]8p. 1 \}?m$t
(8) 0m.tryl (2) [10 a]rft« kkr [ ]bt
(9) mhy.rlgmt (3) [w]tlt Smn
(4) w[ ]r[ ] ksp °1 bn ymn
(10) wht. aby (5) Sft[<1 *T]§r Smn[ ]tryn
(11) bny.ySal (6) 1 k8p °i bill llit
(12) tryl.prgm (7) ksp(/) *1[ §f]ft«m arny
(13) Imlk. Smy (8 ) w cl [ ]8 y rb*m tq lm . tr[ ]a rt® y n

(14) wlh[ ]y«tm (») tr °1. . arbc j[mn]


(10) w «l bn [ ] yn tqlm
(11) [ ] ksp [ ] kdr
(rev.) M7l1[t](f) ajy (12) [ ] frn [ k]sp ( . a/w)l -f r[ ]
(16) bny.y&al (lo. ed.) [ ]t A§ g[ ] fcr«nm[ ]
(17) fr y l. 1rrym[T] (14) \xmim-It tit[ ] t [ ]
(18) ffb.Iaftft (rev.) bn.grgi
(19) ladnk

(16) to. np9 bt tn . tit mat


(Text 139) (= text 401, q.v.) (17) it . 8pl tit. mat
(18) w. mmskn
(19) it . f t . mqrtm
(Text 140) (= text 320, q.v.)
(20) to. t n . trpm . w. fn . tr#m
(21) tr. qj>t. to. mgftm
(Text 141) (end-fragment of “ ABO ‫ מ‬with (22) to. f tfm . yn £5°. kbd d ffct
only the last letter, £, preserved) (23) to. ftmlm .yn ,d *ftft

— 198 —
A n Or . 38 THE UGAR1T1C TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION T e x t s 1 4 6 -1 5 0

(Text 146) Sd. ubdy . ilStm* (Text 148) 8pr . gt . r[ ]


(2) d!t bd . 8kn

(2) tfrm . I m[ft(t) ]


(3) Sd .bn . ubr*n bgt prn (3) Sd . dr[ ]d
(4) Sd . bngby . gt. prn
(5) Sd .bn . kryn . gt. prn
(6) Sd . bn . ky . gt . prn
(7) Sd . fcwil. gt. prn
(8) Sd . br • 0 • prn (Text 149) [ ]rn
(9) Sd.bn. tbgl. gt .prn (2) [ ] (!/,)& 2
(10) Sd.bn . inSr . gt.prn 18 ) [ ]P* 2
(11) Sd . [&n ]gt .prn (4) [ ]0 2
(10. ed.) [Sd ]gt pm (5) [ ]in 1
(13) [Sd ]gt pm (6) I V 1
(rev.) [$]d b n . S[p]Sn l gt prn (7) [ ]y 1
(8) bn . addt 1
(15) Sd bn . ilSbr (9) bn . atnb 2
(16) 1.0. mzln (10) bn . ybd 1
(11) bn. brsm 1
(17) Sd . gldy (12) bn.gtprg 1
(18) l . gt. mzln (13) 0pbn----- [ ‫נ‬
(19) Sd . glln . 1 . gt . mz[l]n (14) bn. 6[ ‫נ‬
(20) Sd . hyabn 1 gt. mzln (10 . ed.) [6]n . [ ‫נ‬
(21) Sd . *bdb'l (16) bn . a[
(22) 1.0. mzln (rev.) bn ml[
(Text 147) spr . mfom
(18) bn . glyn 1
(19) bn . edr [ ‫נ‬
(20) bn . tmq 1
(2) bn . bp8ry . b . Sbn (21) bn. ntp 1
(22) bn . egrt 1
(3) ilStm*ym
(4) y[ ]bn . *Sq
(5) [ ]bn . tqy (23) [2]6
(6) [ ]bn . Slmy
(Text 150) (begin
(2) [ ]!»» t 1
(7) [ ] . « bn, (3) b'ls 1 ‫נ‬
(4) rpan t ‫נ‬
(8) t ] . gwi
(5) “ ptrm c 1
(6) bn . ‘bd t ‫נ‬
(9) [ ]ady (7) imfcl t 1
(8) ykr [ ‫נ‬
(rest of obv. & beginning of rev. broken) (9) bly 1
(rev.) [ ]?ry(f) (10) tb*m 1
(20) w»»b[ ]m (10 . ed.) \dtn 1
(21) tdqm (rev.) rpty 2 + 1
(22) dnn (13) ilym
(23) •dy (14) bn . ‘br 2 + 1

— 199 —
T e x ts 151-154 THE UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A n Or . 38

(15) »»ni(?/p*)i 2 + 1 (4) [bn] sbl bn aldn


(16) amrb*l 2+1 (5) [bn] Wmn prtn
(17) dqry 2 (6) [bn] nklb bn. btr(y)
(18) tdy [ ] (7) [ ] dn
(19) [ ] (8) [ ]y
(20) bdlm[ ]
(21) bn . pd[ ] (1 or 2 lines broken)
(22) bn . [ ]

(rest of rev. broken) (Text 153) (beginning of obv. broken)


(!) ‫ ״‬. t ‫נ‬
(side) [ ]22
(2) ity[ ‫נ‬
(Text 151) agltn
(3) tlbyl [
(2) itrtn (4) ir[
(3) &nntb (lo. ed.) pndynf[
(4) nbn (6) w . id![
(5) SpSyn (rev.) b . gt. ftn[
(6) abmn
(7) [ ]dn
(8) [f\b*m (9) 7U [
(9) [ ]tnlk (9) b . gt. [
(10) [ ]ty
(11) mtwirl (10)( ]*<(!)[
(rev.) bn. ndbn
(13) bn irgn (rest broken)

(Text 154) (beginning of obv. broken)


(Text 152)
(1) ft[ ‫נ‬
(up. ed.) [a£(!)]ltn (2) 'bd . [
(obv.) [ ]tm.b .gt. irbt ‫נ‬
(3) mtn [ ‫נ‬
(3) [ Vmyn (4) tdptn [ ‫נ‬
(4) [w]nblh
(5) tny [ ‫נ‬
(5) bn qgn (6) all [
(6) bn. lain
‫נ‬
(7) mid [
(7) bn. frym
(8) bn.tmq
(9) bn. ntp (lo. ed.) yqS [ 1
(10) bn. mlk [ ] (9) [ ‫נ‬
(11) 5». 1*. [ ] (rev.) itnlf[ ‫נ‬
(12) 5n.km[ ] (11) Tip[ ‫נ‬
(13) bn. r[ ] (12) % [ ‫נ‬
(13) ♦tort[ ‫נ‬
(rest of obv. & beginning of rev. broken) (14) «d[ ‫נ‬
(15) M ‫נ‬
(rev. 1) [&»] ‫[ ״‬ ] (16) 9*1 ‫נ‬
(2) [bn] r[ ]
(3) [bn] M ] (rest broken)

— 200 —
AnOb . 38 THE UGABITIC TEXTS IN TBANSL1TEBATION Texts 155*168

(Text 155) b n . n$ b n . k b ln (7) [ )k t * ir t


(2) [6]w. • f r bn .p d y (8) q!r» SbH
(3) [ ]m b n . tp d n
(4) f ] u ln h r
(8) [ ]m (Text 160) il[#(mc ]
(6) [ ]n n y (2) ®n [ ]
(7) t ]11! (3) tbq [ ]
(8) [ ]‫״‬ (4) rqd [ ]
(5) uSkn [ ]
(6) [ ]
(rest broken) (7) im • kr[d ]
(rest broken)
(Text 156) (several broken lines, the last 3 end.
ing with the numeral ‘ 2 ’ (Text 161) (beginning broken)
(10) [ ]1 2 (1) hV
> k[rd ]
(11) [ M 2 (2) 9'q [ ]
(12) [ ]d 2 (rest broken)
(13) [ ] 2
(14) ( ja tf 2
(18) [ ]6 0 . p [ ] (Text 162) bib . rpi
(16) [ ]n. 2 ( 2 ) &n
(17) [ ]g m rm [ ] (3) b n . kmny
(18) [ ‫ • נ‬t ] (4) dqry
(19) [ ]gt .<[ ]

(rest broken) (Text 163) (beginning broken)


(!) [ ]mru ib[rn]
(fragment) [ (2) [ 1• yekm [ ‫נ‬
]°‫*״‬ ] °b d [
(21) [ ]«)>•[ ] (3) [ ‫נ‬
(4) [ l&y t
(5) [ ] ‫[ ן»י‬ ‫נ‬
(Text 157) tit •m a t [ ] (6) [ w ‫נ‬
(2) tmnt. k[
(Text 164) Lines 1 to 7 all end alike:
(Text 158) f».M ] .p g a m (1 7 ‫[ )־‬ ]yd.npfh
(2) tn[ ]bn. m lk (8) [ )nm
(3) [ ]g p n
(9) [ If
(4) [ ]
(5) [ ] (Text 165) belmedr
(6) 5[ ]•*my (2) bn. mdn
(3) mkrm
(rest broken)
(Text 166) l. rb
(Text 159) dm( tit (2) ktkym
(2) q m n z tq l
(3) z l y y tq l
(Text 167) [ ]bt*. &«dy(»)
(4) ary fr m it
(10 . ed.) y k n ° m fym ft
(rev) 0n m k y fqJm (Text 168) madmn ytn
— 201 —

26
T e x t s 169-173 THE UGAR1T1C TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr . 38

(Text 169) mrynm (14) t ]


(2) mrum (10 . ed.) [6n4 £]t. *r[ ]
(3) •grm (16) [ft»]S .gt.rb[ ]
(4) tnnm (rev.) gpny [ ]
(6) nqdm (18) bng . mgrt [ ]
(6) khnm (19) kb8m 1/t
(7) qdgm (20) armsg 1 GUB
(8) p8lm
(Text 171) *grm ddm Jcbd[m ] 1alpm mrim
(9) mkrm
(10) y9brn
(2) it ddm \fin mrat
(11) Srm
(3) ‫״‬Sr ddm Urn* rgm
(4) *#r ddm. Ibt
(12) »*m
(5) *grm. dd. Imfom
(13) •bdm
(14) Jczym (6) ddm. Ikb8
(15) ksAm (7) dd Iprgt
(rev. 1) [»*]k . tit (8) dd . Imri
(2) gt. mlhym
(9) dd . Itngly
(10) dd. Ikrwn[ ]
(3) tmryrn
(4) tnqym
(10 . ed.) dd . Itgr
(5) tgrm
(1 2 ) d d . Irmtv{ ]
(6) m ru. slot (Text 172) [ (\lt. mat
(7) m ru . ibrn (2) [ m]itm. mqp . m[ ]
(8) yqgm (3) [ .
] y m mgnm ar[6«(T)]
(9) trrm (4) [ ]ab . mqb mqfym
(10) kkrdnm (5 ) [ ]t.tfr[ ]rm[]t.g[ ]
(11) y$rm (6) [ ].alp.[ ].alp
(12) ktrm (7) [ ]rbd . [ ]. t n m [ ]
(13) mflm (8 ) [ ]nnm tr m
(14) tkn (9) [ ] tit kbd. fin
(15) [ ]Pt ] (1 0 ) [ ]a.tM.d.a[ ]
(16) ff[ 1
(end of obv. & beginning of rev. broken)
(17) ffl ]
(rev. 1) [ ] . mrn
(2) [ ]b» pi ]n tbl
(Text 170) lj,r& . anyt 6
(3) [ ]py w . bnh
(2) bng. g t . gl‘d 4
(4) b n g .g t.n g r 4 (Text 173) (‫[ )י‬byr]b [r]\#yn . bym. bdt
(4) 1+ym 2 (2) [#mt]v . utkl. lil. SImm
(5) bn bri[ ] (3) b [tltt] *grt. yrtfo . mlk
(6) bng. gt t t r t 1 (4) 6r[r .] ba[r]b‫״‬£ . egrt. rig
(7) -Id 1[ 3 «‫ינ‬ (5) arg[ wtn] . gm. IMt
(8) [«]4r. ksdm . y d . Imdhm Iqb (6) bhtm. °9[rm(f) lin]g(1) ilm. wg
(9) [c]£r. mbfvn yd . Imdhm (7) dd ilg . S[ ]mlk .ytb.br
(10) npym 2 (8) r . wmb[ ]q[ ]
(11) bng g t . iptl [ ]
(9) ym. elm. y[« ]
(12) [ }ym [] (*) Published by A. Herdner, * Un nouvel exemplaire
(13) [ }m [] du rituel RS 1929, N® 3 S y r ia S3 1956 104-112.

202 —
A n Or . 38 THE UGAR1T1C TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION T e x t 300

( 10) t . fc[ ]ml. [ (58) bn aup[j ]t. bsbn hzpfy tltt ‫נ‬#£
(11) 1[ ‫•נ‬ (59) ktr[ ]trt fym&t. bn gdn![ ]m<J°(l)
(12 ) [ ]‫[״‬ (60) kl[ ]< tmnt. [ ]w[ ]
(13) [ (61) [ ]m[ ]#p*Vy[. f]lf<[ ]
(14) fkm n. w[Snm
(15) wSlmm. [ (Text 300) ubdy. mdm
(16) ilhm. gd[lt (2) Sd.bd. •bdmlk
(17) tkmn . wSn[m (3) Sd.bd .ySn.brS
(18) il. wpfyr[ (4) Sd.bd. aupS
(19) tcburm. 1[ ] (5) Sd.bd . rSpab . ah . ubn
(20) b'lm. torn( 11[ ksm] (6) Sd.bd .bn. utryn . 5
(21) tUm. wmerb1 [SpS(t) ] (7) [«&]dy. mrynm
(22) dbfr'Smn mi[ ] (8) [<]d . bn. $nrn . bd. nrn
(23) m tnt . tcynt. [ ] (9) [£]d . bn. rtoy . bd. ydln
(24) icbglr . arb*. [ ] (10) [i]d . bn. trn . bd. ibrmH
(25) prs . qmly . 1»<[ ] (11) [£]d. bn. ilttmr. bd. tbbr
(26) mdbbt. bt . [il l] (12) [tcl]$d . nfylh. bd. ttmd
(27) gpn S. lghn[t S ] (13) [$]d. bd. iwrfy
(28) lyrh. gdlt. l[nW gdlt lbc](t) (14) [ ] . 8dm. bd . gmrd
(29) P<](7) bhtm . c$rm l[in# ilm](1) (15) [ ] Ibny. bd. tbttb
(lo. ed.) [ ]ilh[m (16) [£]d . bn. t-rn . bd.«bdmlk
(31) [ ]t.r[ ] (17) [id] bn. brzn . bd . nwr<±
(32) [ ]dq[t ] (18) [#d b]n. nljbl. bd . ‘bdym
(rev.) ilhm g[d]l<. i[l tkm] (19) [Sd ftn]. qty .bd.tt 13
(34) n. wSnm. dqt[ ]
(35) dqtm. bnbk. [ [ (20) [«&d]y . mrim
(86) kmm.gdlt.l[ ‫נ‬ (21) [/d 5]n. tpdn .bd .bn .yr
(37) l$pn. gdlt. [ ‫נ‬ (22) [Sd 5]t1. Iqrn. bd . }!by
(38) ugrt. 8 lil[ ‫נ‬ (23) [ ] • bn. ngzfyn. bd . gmrd
(39) rt. 1cc$rm. [ ‫נ‬
(40) pamt. wbt. [
(24) [Sd bn ]pK. bd. gmrd
‫נ‬ (25) [Id bn ]11. bd. iutrfyt
(41) rmm. u^i[
(42) bt.il. tq[l
‫נ‬ (26) [Sd bn ]»n .bd.bn. Smrm
1 (27) [Sd bn ]ttatyy bd . ttmd
(43) wdbb. [ 1 (28) [Sd bn ]rn . bd. fdqSlm
(44) •grm. li[nS(1) ilm(1) md] (29) [Sd ]bn. p's 103012
(45) bb.b*l.[ dqt]
(46) I9pn. u>[dqt fn W]
(47) rm. pam[t ] (30) [ubdy ']Srm
(48) S dd Smn[gdU w ] (31) [Sd ]n.bd. brdd
(49) brr.r[ ] (32) [ ]
(50) ISmn. <‫[־‬ ] (rev.f, 1) [ ]m
(51) brr. 5Sb« [9bu SpS w l!X] (2) [ ]tpm
(52) yt. •rb Sp&[w mlk by] (3) [ ].bd.ymz
(53) m. lydt. tn Im[ ] (4) [ ]klby.psl________ 6

(5) [u6]djf mri. ibrn


(54) byrfr . $[ . •S (6) [£]d .bn .bri .bd .bn. ydln. 1
(55) rt. yr[t)y9 mX]k. brr
(56) •Im.S.S[ ]J[ ].'rb.Sp (7) [«]bdy. ttfrm
(57) S. trfr(l/d[ ]k (8) [i]d!. 0r. mtpit .bd.bn. iryn . 1

— 203 —
Texts 301-303 THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr. 38

(9) [u]bdy.irm (6) bn . pity . 4


(10) [S]d. 5ft . frrmJn .bd.bn. tnn (7) bn . slyyn . 1
(11) [f]d. 6ft. Jnftift. fft. 6d. 6ft . 6dmn. 2 (8) *zn.bn . mlk . 4
(9) bn . altn . 4
(12) [u]bdy. nqdm (10) bn . tmyr 2
(13) [tU]. Sdm. d . ncr6 . gt. npfc (11) % br . 2
(14) [£]d . rpaw . bd. frl# 6 (12) bn. tdtb . 4
(15) [£]d . il?y. 6d . cbdym. 5 (13) bn. *rmn . 2
(14) 6ft . alz . 2
(16) [ub]dy. trrm (15) . m$rn. 2
(17) [£d] 6ft . fgdy . 6d . gmrd. (16) 6ft . cdy . 1
(18) [id] 6ft. *yftft. bd. gmrd (17) 6 ft . rfpy . ]
(19) [£d] k6yy. bd . ibrmd (18) [6ft ]mft . ‫נ‬
(20 ) [Id] bn . girn. bd. 6ft$ . . (19) [6ft ]yft ‫נ‬
(2 1 ) [£]d. bn . tkwn. 5 (rev.: IV) [6ft] ibln t
(2) ysd ‫נ‬
(22) [ubdy md]rglm (3) bn.tmq ‫נ‬
(23) [Id ]ft. 5d . afrny (4) 6ft. agmn ‫נ‬
(24) [$d 6ft ]r t. bd. 2 (5) 5ft. u$b 1
(6) bn.yzg ‫נ‬
(25) [ubdy] mb[9]m (7) bn. aftntft ‫נ‬
(26) [*d 6 ft. ft[ ]p y . bd. y8n. brS. [It] (8 ) 6ft.fetrnf ‫נ‬
(9) gmSd ‫נ‬
(r. ed., 1) [Sd ]ft (10) bn.'bdby 2
(2) [Id ]ft (11) 6ft. ubyn 2
(3) [Id ].gl. (1 2 ) 8lpd n+n
(4) [Id ]pSm. Sr. 5 (13) 6 ft. atnb 2[+‫מ‬
(14) 5ft. ktmn
(Text 301 : 1 ) 8pr . ytnm (15) bn.pity 4 +‫ני‬
(16) bn.iryn 2
(2) 5ft . 6^6ym . 2 (17) bn.*bl
(3) 6ft . ady. 2
1
(18) bn.grbn ‫נ‬
(4) 6ft . ettry . 2 (19) 6ft. irSyn
(5) 6ft . \r%n.
‫נ‬
2 (20) bn.nklb ‫נ‬
(6 ) ady . 2 (21) 6ft. mryn
(7) 6ft . birtn. 2
‫נ‬
(8 ) bn.br$n. 2
(22) [6ft ] ‫נ‬
(side) 4 ME-AT 48 DUG-G[E&TIN NAP^AR]
(9) 5ft . bddn . 2
(1 0 ) 5ft . anny . 2
(11) ytrSp. 2 (Text 302) 8pr . [ ]
(1 2 ) 6ft . 8zn. 4 (2) tptb[H ]
(13) 6ft . kdgdl. 2 (3) mb[ ]
(14) 6ft . gled . 3 (4) gmr[ ]
(15) 6ft . kiln . 2 (5) [ ]
(16) [6ft]. grgn . 2
(17) [6ft 2 (Text 303) tnnm [ ]
(II) 6 11 . mlkyy . 2 (2) 5ft . qqln 4[ ]
(2 ) 5ft . atn . 4 (3) w. nhlh 4[
(3) 6ft . bly 2 (4) w.nhlh 4[ ]
(4) 6ft . tbrn . 1 (5) 6ft. 8ml[ ] 4[ ]
(5) 5ft . bgby . 4 (6) bn.brzn [ ]

204 —
A n O b . 38 THE UGAR1TIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION T e x t s 3 0 4 -3 0 9

(7) ftn.fc( ] [ ] (10) ary


(8) bn.yd[ ] [ ] (11) brqn
(9) bn.•[ ] [ ] (12) bn. b[ ]In
(10) w.nftlh] [ ] (13) bn. m$ry
(11) ft‫ ״‬.[ ] [ ] (edge) tmn. q& t
(12) ftn.fr[ ] [ ] (15) weSr. utpt
(13) ftn.y[ ] [ ] (16) --*[ ]pr[ ‫נ‬
(14) bn .<[ ] [ ]
(Text 307) bn. Jran . 3
(Text 304) forfm [ ] (2) bn. 8rt. .9
(3) bn. adn 3
(2) bn.tmq [ ‫נ‬ (4) bn. egw 3
(3) b n . ntp. [ ] (5) bn. drt 3
(4) bn.(d/b)ftnn.[ ‫נ‬ (6) afydbu 3
(6) - d y . b[ ‫נ‬ (7) p ( t m } 3
(6) -ftsn.[ ‫נ‬ (8) bn . edl. 3
(7) bn. atnb . mr[ ‫נ‬ (9) ftn.itdpf[ ‫נ‬ [3]
(8) bn. *Jr . mr[ ‫נ‬ (10) ftn y$r 3
(9) bn. idrn . *§[ ‫נ‬
(10) bn.bly. mr[ 1
(11) w. nfylh. mr[ ‫נ‬ (rev.) 30 S1[Q]IL K[A]SP)&m*§ N A [P^]A R
(12) ‫נ‬UpS. m[r(t) ‫נ‬
(13) iJny . [ ‫נ‬ (Text 308) [ ]‫״‬.[
(14) bn.[ ‫נ‬ (2) b n .t[ ]
(3) agmy[ ]
(Text 305) mdrglm. d . ft. i-eltmlk (4) ftn. dZq[ 3
(5) tgyn.bn.ubal tqZ[m]
(2) ar8w (6) yin. . mrkbt. tq[/m]
(3) dqn (ftn .p (7 ‫״‬9 . tqlm
(4) tit klbm (8) m*m.frrfr. mrkbt. tqlm
(5) b»»n (9) *ptn. br8. qtn. tqlm
(6) [ ]r«d (10) ftn. pgdn . tqlm
(7) b n !.[ ]pt (11) ftn. b‫״‬ln .tqlm
(8) ftn. kdm (12) ebdyrfr . nqd . tqlm
(9) awldn (13) bt. sgld . tqlm
(14) bn. *my . tqlm
(rev.) artum.ycr[ ] (15) bn.brq . tqlm
(11) bn.ugr (16) bn. Jn2 r .tqlm
(12) gny (17) dqn.nsk . arbet
(18) bn. frdyn . tqlm
(13) tn. mdm
(19) bn.'bd.Sbr .tqlm
(Text 306) mdlrglm. dinn (20) b n . fynqn . arfct
(2) m8gm. Vim (21) [b]n.trk . thlm
(22) [fc]n pdrn . fql[»0
(3) p>!9 . (jitty (23) pdy . t [qhn]
(4) artyn. ary (24) [i]lmlk. bn •[ ‫נ‬
(5) brqn.ilb(bly!) (26) [ ]‫[־‬ ‫נ‬
(6) bn.&ryn
(rev.) ftn. dgn (Text 309) [ ]dd
(8) ftn.ftfyn (2) [ ]dd
(9) Sdyn

— 205 —
Texts 310-314 THE UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION AnOr . 38

(3) [ ] dd (Text 311) bdl.gt.bn. tbSn


(4) bn . a!r«7dn. dd (2) bn. mnyy. !forty
(5) mnfym. w[ ]fcbln (3) aryn. adddy
(6) bn. glm dd (4) agptr
(7) bn. tbSn. dd (5) Sb'l.mVcy
(8) bn. bran. w[ ] (6) n'mn. mgry
(9) yn y‫״‬rtym (7) y'l.kn'ny
(10) gmm.w. b n .[ ] (8) gdn. bn. umy
(11) trn(f) .w .bn p-y
(12) bn. foyn. w. agytn! (9) kn'm. S'rty
(13) [y]n/(t) gnym (10) dbrpu. ubr*y
(14) ( ]ry. wary (11) b . g t .bn . t U
(15) [ ]grbltym
(16) [ ]wibd (rev.) Hi .b gt. -8tyn
(17) [ ]ym
(18) [ ]&« (Text 312) qrtym. mddb'l
(rev.) [ ]Jm (2) kdn.zlyy
(20) [ ]nb wykn (3) kricn. arty
(21) [ ]ndbym (4) tlmu. zlyy
(22) [ ]rtny . w. anry (5) pdu. qmnzy.*1
(23) [6]n. sdy .bn .tty
(24) b n . byn. bn. glm (6) bdl.qrty
(25) bn. yyn. w . bn . aa[pl](f) . (7) trgn. b n . tgh
(26) bn. kdrn (8) anpS. qmnzy
(27) 'rgzy .w .bn.'dy (9) trry.mgbty
(28) bn. gmfrn. w. bgbt (rev.) p m .n gty
(29) bn.tgdln. (11) trin zlyy
(30) yny
(Text 313) [ ]ym . mddb'l
(2) [ ]n.bn.agyn
(31) [6]n. yyn dd (3) [ ]in
(32) [ ]n ------------- (4) [ ]tn.bn.admtn
(33) [ ]an ___ dd (6) [ ]tn .bn . agyn
(34) [ ] dd
(36) [ ]. (6) ullym. abynm
(7) antn . bn. iwr. [ ]
(Text 310) ( ] . mr[y (8) p«m. tmry
]
(2) [ ]9p.mr[y ] (9) k«yn . bn. Ifrsn
( 3 ) [ ]l.ttmap[ ] (rev.) -kynimry
(4) kdrn. bm[Sm(f) 1 (ID [ 1
(5) Ibn Mnr[ 1
(6) ttm gp. fctn[ 1 (Text 314) [
(7) 'Srm.gp[ ] (2) u>.[ ]
(8) 'Sr gp.m[ry ‫נ‬ (3) w . ab!yl(f). nb[l* 1
(9) 'Sr gp.m[ry ‫ו‬ (4) w . unf . afyd. 1A[ 1
(10) tt gp. »nry[ ‫נ‬ (5) dnn .bn.ygr[ ‫נ‬
(11) 'Sr gp. m\ry ‫נ‬ (6) sin . bn. *lt[ry(?) ‫נ‬
(12) tS'ms[p ‫נ‬ (7) •dy . bn. nr[ ‫נ‬
(13) tSi ‫ן‬ (8) abmlk . bn. un\fm ‫נ‬
V14) [ ‫נ‬ (9) nrn . bn. mi{ ‫נ‬

206 —
AnOr. 38 THE UGARITIC TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 315-321

(10) abyn . bn . nb[ ‫נ‬ (8) b n . nfdn


(11) -&-n . bn . &«ly[ ‫נ‬ (9) Mby
(12) dn . i l . bn . y$r[ ‫נ‬
(13) edyn . bn . udr[ ‫נ‬ (Text 317) {It. fmdm[ ]
(14) w . ade. nfylh [ ‫ו‬ (2) b . nftry[ ]
(15) w . yk n il. n#lh [ ‫נ‬
(16) w . iltm . nblh [ ‫נ‬ (3) $mdm .b .t[ ]
(17) w . untm .'riltflh ‫נ‬
(18) [ ]r[ ‫נ‬ (4) a \d m . b . gm[ 1
(rev.l, 1) str[ ‫נ‬

(2) bdlm .d[ (Text 318) fmdm • a[ ]


‫נ‬
(3) ed n . [ (2) bd.prfr[ ‫נ‬
‫נ‬
(4) aJtqm &ir[ ‫נ‬
(5) ktrmlk . n8[ 1 (3) apnm . 1.«[ ‫נ‬
(6) bn tbd .%Ut[m*y ‫נ‬ (4) annm . 1. [
(7) mty Al$t[m*y ‫נ‬ (5) apnm .1 .d [ ‫נ‬
(8) bn . ynq . °nqp[a\t[y ‫נ‬ (6) apnm 1[ ‫נ‬
(9) [ ‫־‬iyib ilit[m^y ‫נ‬ (7) apnm . 1[ ‫נ‬
(8) apnm [ ‫נ‬
(10) [b]dlm. d t . ytb[ ‫נ‬
(11) [ \ya . *nqp[aty ‫נ‬ (9) tit fmdm [ 1
(12) ‫] [־‬ . nbh[ ‫נ‬ (10) [ ]mrf ]n [ ‫נ‬
(13) [ > .i[ ‫נ‬
(14) [ ]a .[ ‫נ‬ (Text 319) an y t.
(15) [ ]n [ ‫נ‬
(2) br. tp1be[l
(Text 315) [ ]an . §[ ] (3) br . dmty[
(2) n n i. i?cl [ ]ltnt (4) tkt. ydln[
(3) idyn . iilm t (5) tkt.trya[
(6) br. •bdm\[k
(4) p r t. wn . £«}.|rt (7) wry
(5) t i n . 8crt (8) tki{
(6) •dn . S°rt (9) lk[t
(7) mn).[n &ert (rev.) (9 lines all beginning br[ ])
(8) bdn . i*rt
(9) *pin • i*rt (Text 320) [a]bghdhw
(10) ebd . 8).\ert (2) |>]btyw
(11) bbd . tr y$r 8*r (3) [l]mdnf
(12) pdy . y$r 8crm (4) [ayp.fqr
(rev.) atn b. (5) [f]#iu
(14) f r r t . M (edge) a

(Text 321 : 1) [«]lm


(Text 316) «zn . bn . irbn (2) mtpt. tt. qitm.w.tn. q[i]*»n
(2) b n . mglb (3) kmrfrt. it. qitm. tn.
(3) bn . ntt (4) gdyn .qit.w. ql•
(4) cmyn bn gbpn (5) bn. gzl .qit.w. ql•
(5) bn . kbln (6) [ ]n.qSt
(6) bn. bly (7) (h/i)lhd
(7) bn. t‫״‬y (8) cdn.qit.w. ql•

207 —
T e x t 321 THE UGAB1TIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A n Or. 38

(9) iImkr .qSt.w. ql* (2 ) a b m . qSt


(10) bn •gmrt. qSt (3) !),din. q lc
(4) y t p t . q S t
(11) gmrm (5) iltfym . q S t . w . ql •
(12) bn. qtn.qSt .w . ql* (6 ) f d q m . q S t . w . ql'
(13) mrtd.qSt (7) u ln . q S t . w . qle
(14) 88w. qSt (8 ) u l n . qSt
(9) bn . bl?n . q S t . w . qlc
(15) knn. qSt (10) gbe . q S t . w . q le
(16) bn. tllu . qSt (1 1 ) n w n . q S t
(17) bn. Syn. qSt
(18) *bd. qSt
(19) bn. ulmy . qSt (12 ) NAP9AR S(8ic!) kuSqa -BA-BU ?(sic!)
(20) tqbn. qSt giSq a SAtumbs
(21) bn. qnmlk. qSt
(22) ytfym.qSt (13) m ' r .
(23) grp.qSt (14) [h1]dyn . i t . qStm .w .q le
(15) [i]lrS. qSt. w . qle
(16) tin .q S t.w . ql*
(24) 0(8ic!) ku§gA-BA-BU 27(sic!) (17) u[T]n .q S t.w . qlc
giSq a &Atumbs (18) y*m .q S t.w . qle
(19) klby .q S t.w . qle
(25) m*rby
(26) n*mn. tt. qStm.w .ql* (20) NAP0Ali 6 ku§ga-BA-BU 7
(27) gin. tt. qStm.w .ql* gisqa&Atijmbs
(28) gtn.qSt
(29) pmn. tt. qSt(m). w .ql* (21) bq*t
(30) bn. zry q[S]t .w .ql* (22) ily .qSt.w. ql*
(31) bn . t l m y n . tt . qStm. w . ql* (23) bn. br%n .qSt.w. ql*
(32) bn. y8d . qSt (24) tgrS. q&t.w .ql*
(25) SpSyn.q&t.w. ql*
(33) [g]mrm (26) &n . i*ln. qS[t w q]\*
(34) ilgn. qSt (27) *tqbt. qSt
(35) ab r S p . q S t (28) [ ] .qSt . w .ql*
(36) 88g. qSt
(37) ynfym. qSt (29) NA[Pg]AR 6 [k]tj§g A-BA-BU 7
(38) ppm. qSt qa SAtumeS]
(39) vln.q&t
(40) bn.nkl qSt (30) bib rpS
(41) ady.qSt (31) abmn. qSt
(42) bn.8rn.qSt (32) ??n. qSt
(43) bn.gdrln.qSt (33) dqry.q&[t]
(44) prpr. gSt
(45) wgry.qSt (34) NAP5AR 3 <gi&>QA§ATUMB$83765
(46) bn.$rptn.qSt
(47) bn . mfry . qSt* (I)
(35) rkby
(36) bn. knn. qSt
(48) NAP^AR 5 ku§G[A]-BA-BU 20(8ic!) (37) pdyn. qSt
GiSQA&ATU^eS (38) yddn .qSt.w. ql*
(II) arny

— 208 —
A nOr 38 THE UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION T e x t 322

(39) NAP^AR 1 kuSGA-BA-BU 3 (34) ilSn. ft. qi(t)m.w .ql*


gi5QA§ATUMB§ (35) b» . ml*n.q8t.10.q1r
(36) bn. tmy .qgt.w. ql*
(37) *ky• q't
scn . (38) •bdXbit.qgt
(41) bn.il .qSt .w .ql* (39) My .qgt.w. ql*
(42) ark .qSt.w. ql* (40) bn. firgn.qSt . 10 . ql*
(43) bn.*bdnkl .qSt .w .qlfi (41) ilrb .qgt.w. ql*
(44) bn. znan. qSt (42) psfyn. qgt
(45) bn. arz. a[r]b° .qit.w. arb[c] ql*m (43) bn. kmy. qgt
(46) b[n]. acW. q[S\t .w .ql* (44) bn. ilfybn.qgt.w. g[Ze]
(47) &[»].ilyn .qSt .w • ql* (45) rgpab .qgt.w. ql*
(48) Smrm.ql* 1 0 ku§ga -BA-[B]U (46) pdm .qgt.w . ql*
10 gi§[QASATUm]®§ (IV) bn.pgm[ qgt] . w . ql°
(2) n*mn. q[gt 1c]ql»
(3) [t]tn. qg[t]
(rev., I ll) ubr*y (4) b» . tgdly [gft] w . ql‘
(2) abmn.qSt.w.tn. ql*m (5) tty. gSt [tc]ql«
(3) qdmn!. tt . qStm.w .tit• ql*m (6) bn. gp[g\ qgt
(4) bn. fdqil. tt . qStm.w .tn. ql*m (7) bn. cg\w] qgt .w. ql*
(5) bn. tit. t[l\t qSt .w .tn. ql*m (8) M[£|n . qgt. w. ql*
(6) q$n. tt. qStm.w .ql* (9) bn.bb . qgt. w
(7) bn! . gtm. q& t (10) bn. aktiny. qgt
(8) bn. J d i. tt . qStm.w .tn. ql*m (11) g(\yn. qgt.
(9) ildgn.qSt (12) bdn.qgt .w . ql*
(10) bn. ycrn . tt. qStm w. ql* (13) bn. gmlbi .qgt.w. ql*
(11) bn. h$n.qSt.w. ql* (14) bn.yy. qgt
(12) bn. gdn. tt qStm.w .ql* (15) ilrb. qgt
(13) bn. [ ]q.qSt.w. ql* (16) bn. nmg. ft. qgt(m) .w .ql*
(14) gb\n(1) .qSt.w. ql* (17) b*l. qgt. w . ql*
(15) bn . - b l . tt. q§tm.w .tn . ql*m
(16) b[n] . [a]r\v$ . tt. qStm.w .ql* (18) N A P0A R 56 KU§GA-BA-BU
(17) bn.tel*qSt (19) 79 giSQASATUMES
(18) bn [b1]dptr. tt. qStm.w .ql*
(19) bn. aglyn. tt. qStm [wfflt. q\*m (Text 322 : 1) -rm *. ng[ ]»
(20) bn. *gw.qSt.w. ql*
(2) atyn.S[ ]§y
(21) bn. tbSn. tit .qSt.w. $ lt. q\*m (3) *bdfymn[ 1(7lb)bdn
(22) bn. army . tt. qStm. wg[Zc] (4) btfmn . [
(23) bn. rpS.qSt.w. ql*
]‫״‬
(5) [ ]»
(24) bn.gb.qSt (6) b'iy [
(25) bn. ytrm.qSt.w. ql* 1
(7) krr[ ‫נ‬
(26) bn. *bdyrfy.qSt.w . q[Z«] (8) gpg[
(27) bn. Iky. qSt
‫נ‬
(28) bn.dU.qSt.w.q][*]
(») [ M ‫נ‬
(II) *bd*[ ‫נ‬
(29) bn.pgyn.qSt .w. [q]l* (2) bdii[
(30) bn.bdn.qgt
‫נ‬
(3) abgl. [ ‫נ‬
(31) bn.pl8. qgt (4) ‫י‬ttrn[ ‫נ‬

(32) gmrm (5) dmrb*1[ ]


(33) i Hid. tt. qgtm.w .tn. ql*m (6) ibyn. [ ]

— 209 —

27
T e x t s 323-324 THE UGARIT1C TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION A nOr . 38

(7) *bdb*[l [ (8) cbdmlk. bn.«myn


(8) uurt![ ‫נ‬ (9) agyn.fy
(9) u&ry[n ‫נ‬ (10) abmlk . bn. ilrS
(10) ytfrn[ ‫נ‬
(11) [°}bdyr[b ‫נ‬
(12) [ ]rolfc[ (1 1 ) tfiyn. bn. byrn
‫נ‬
(rev.: V) [ ‫נ‬ (1 2 ) [ ]gl. bn. gdn
(2 ) *16‫־‬1[ ‫נ‬ (13) [ ]St. bn. bqS
(14) [ ] .bn .pdn
(3) &Juy bn [ ‫נ‬
(4) ym il. bn . [ ‫נ‬ (15) [ bn ]%
(5) d ly. bn [ (16) [ bn ]r
‫נ‬ (V) [
(6) ynfym. bn [ ]y»
‫נ‬ (2 ) [ ] aim
(7) gn.bn [ ‫נ‬ (3) [ ](«/»)&<
(4) [ ] b<%
(8 ) k l b y . b[» ] (5) [ Ymy
(9) i m m l k b[n ] (6 ) [ ]ml
(1 0 ) *myn . b n . [ ] (7) [ ]mn
(1 1 ) mtb<>l. bn [ ] (8 ) [ ]rn
(1 2 ) y m y . b n [ ] (9) [ ]n
(13) • b d ' n . p [ ]
(VI) [ ]<1[ ]1. b» . (Text 324: If) [ ]57
(2 ) afcty. b t . a b m (2 ) f ] 8
(3) - r b n . edd . n r y n (3) [ ]3
(4) [ ]1 [ Ju . b n . k b d (4) [ ] 3
(5 ) [ ]in . b n . f m r t (5) [ ] 2
(6 ) [ ]ty. bn . y $ i (6 ) [ ] 3
(7) d n ir h d . bn . 8 r t (7) [ ]b y 3
(8 ) [ ]< 3
(9) [NAPHAR KASPfJ] 31
(Text 323 s III) [ }m
(2) ‫״‬btlroJk. b » . 8rn
(3) cbdbcl. bn. Mn (1 0 ) ( ]

(11) t ‫נ‬
(4) g z l. bn . qldn
(IIf:l) r 1
(2) t ]/[ ‫נ‬
(5) g ld .b t.k lb (3) [ }bn [ 1
(6) l— . b t . frzli (4) N[A]P£AR K[A]SPEMES 4 \
(7) b!n ib y n
(8) td q n . b n . 088
(9) b*ly8kn .bn .88 (5) kbsrn
(10) fdqn . bn . imrt (6) bn . ab&r 4
(11) mnhrn . bn . fyyrn (7) bn.kpltnl 4
(12) [ ]yw • bn . arkbt (8) bn. prn 3
(13) [ }zb l . b t . mrnn (9) NAPHAR KASPfiMBS 1[1]1*
(rev.: IV) a[ ]«n
(2) m[ ] (10) 'bdm
(3) or[ ]« (11) bn . kdgbr ( ]
(4) aty[nf bn ]m*nt (12) bn . m$rn [ ]
(5) *«n[ ]p[ ] (13) bn.[ ]dr[ ]
(6) abrS[p ]frrpn (1m :1) [ ]3
(7) gmri[ bn] . mrnn

210 —
A n Or . 38 THE UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION Texts 325-328

(2 ) [ ]m 6 (Text 327) 5m. g\mn. ary


(2) [5n]. 8dy.
(3) [ ]‫»י״י‬ (3) [5n ]mj
(4) b[n ]ty
(4) [ ]gid 3
(5) [ ]01 [ ]
w t ‫נ‬ (5) b[»] . ypy. gb*ly
(6) b[m]. \yn
(Text 325) [ ]m
(7) dmn 8*rty

(2) 5m. 5»[ ] t ‫נ‬ (8 ) bn. arwdn .


(3) w . mb[iA] [ ‫נ‬ (9) bn.grgs
(4) 6‫־‬d(J/y)[ ] t ‫נ‬ (10) 6 11 . bran
(5) 5m.8[ ] c ‫נ‬
(6 ) b n . at[ ] t ‫נ‬ (rev.: 1) bn. ars[u>] b^ry
(7) 5m.9[ ] [ ‫נ‬ (2) bn. yhn
(8 ) tmy[ ] [ ‫נ‬
(9) b n . a n n y ( f ) [ ] (3) 6n . l$n. *nny
(10) 5m. *ratal [ ‫נ‬
(11) 5m. *myn [ ‫נ‬ (4) bn. 6*yn . Sly
(1 2 ) b n . a h [ ‫נ‬
(13) 5n. b i r t n [ ‫נ‬
(14) b[n] y t l k n (5) bn. ynbn.
[ ‫נ‬
(15) [5»] k r w n [ ‫נ‬
(16) [5» Jf]5ty 1 ‫נ‬
(6) bn. cbdilm. hzpy
(17) [5m ] ir g n [ ‫נ‬
(rev.: 1 ) 5m.[ ] t ‫נ‬ (Text 328) bn [
(2) 5». 5[ ] ]
[ ‫נ‬
(3) bm.4 ] t ‫נ‬
(4) bn.a[ ] [ ‫נ‬ (2) itbrf'ym(!) ‫נ‬
(5) bm. k r z [ ] [ ‫נ‬ (3) ydm[m(f) ‫נ‬
(6 ) bn.1m[r]ym[ ] [ ‫נ‬ (4) bH [ ‫נ‬
(7) bn. ytikn (5) im<{ ‫נ‬
[ ‫נ‬ (6) yir[
(8 ) bn. Jy5uf[ ] [ ‫נ‬ ‫נ‬
(9) 5m. s z n [ ‫נ‬
(1 0 ) b n . m g lb 11[+ ‫נ‬ (7) bn. gnb[ ‫נ‬
(8 ) hzpym[ 1
(9) riin. [ ‫נ‬
(10) bn. My . [ ‫נ‬
(Text 326: It) [ ]ybnn 6 (11) 5m. dmtn . [ 1
(2) [ ]mlkn'm 5 (rev.) [&]‫< ״‬pyn . Jr[ ‫נ‬
(3) [ ]gptn 3
(4) [ ]abln 2 (13) ?dnymt(!)[ ‫נ‬
( llt:l) [ M ] (14) grgg. [ ‫נ‬
(2) [ ]5n 1 (15) bn. tfrn[ ‫נ‬
(3) [ ]ny« 2
(4) [ ] atgfyn 2 (16) bn.agy[ ‫נ‬
(5) [ ]tym 1
(6) [ w]nhlh 1 (17) iyt[r ‫נ‬
211 —
T exts 329-335 THE UGARIT10 TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION AnOr. 38

(Text 329) [ ] (6) tg d[ ]


(7) Wdyn.d[ ‫נ‬
(1) -dd. ar[ 1 (8) - din. d[ ‫נ‬
(9 ) qtn. d[ ‫נ‬
(2) b'lsip. [ ‫נ‬ (10) Ifcn.d[ ‫נ‬
(3) kith. [ ‫נ‬ (11) I8n. [ ‫נ‬
(12) and[ ‫נ‬
(4) tty. ary. m[ ‫נ‬
(Text 332) [ ‫נ‬
(5) nrn arny [ (10 . ed.) udyn[ ‫נ‬
]
(6) w•tn . bnh. w. [ (rev.) annt[n 1
‫נ‬
(7) b tn [ (4) ipt[ ‫נ‬
‫נ‬
(5) y bni[l ‫נ‬
(8) «w».grty[ (6) ikrn[ ‫נ‬
‫נ‬ (7) tlmyn[
(9) ujjh. vo. «£r[ ‫נ‬ ‫נ‬
(10) klyn . ap8n[ (8) tldn[ ‫נ‬
‫נ‬ (9) anndr[ ‫נ‬
(10) [ ]ml[ ‫נ‬
(11) plzn. qrty[ ‫נ‬
(12) w. Mth.b .t[ ‫נ‬
(rev.) bely. mfk[ ‫נ‬
(Text 333) %Up[S ‫נ‬
(14) yd. bth. yd [ ‫נ‬
(2) ydd [ ‫נ‬
(15) ary. yd. t[ ‫נ‬ (3) HSn. [ ‫נ‬
(16) y tnh. §b«l[ ‫נ‬ (4) tdqn. [ ‫נ‬
(5) pnddn. b[n ‫נ‬
(17) tlfyny. yd [ ‫נ‬ (6) ayah, . b[n ‫נ‬
(18) yd. tit. kl[bm(f) ‫נ‬
(19) w. ttm. 9*[nt ‫נ‬ (Text 334) [ ‫נ‬
(20) t n[ ‫נ‬ (2) krum. b[n ‫נ‬

(21) »‫נעע‬1 . [ ‫נ‬ (3) tgyn.m•[ ‫נ‬


(22) [ ] . t n . [ ‫נ‬ (4) w. agptn[ ‫נ‬
(Text 330) [ ]bi. mtn. b. ar<6>^
(2) [ ]M . bn. ykw[m\. b. ar<6>«t (5) tyndr[ ‫נ‬
(6) 0 tg[ ‫נ‬
(3) [ ]S .bn. grbn. b. tqlm
(4) [ ]5 • ( n . «9vyn .b [i)qlm (7) -w- [ ‫נ‬
(5) [ ]bn,ullyn1 b. t [qlm]
(6) [ ]bn.anndy. b [ ] (Text 335) .
(7) [ ]bn .p[ ‫נ‬
(8) [ ‫נ‬ (2) qf — ‫[ »י‬ ]
(3) kd[ ]b&p.
(Text 331) adml[ (4) <Wt[ ]tr
‫נ‬
(2) tlbr[ ‫נ‬
(3) isg. [ ‫נ‬ (5) bt. m[ ]pnt[ ]»
(6) dfh[ ]
(4) Hum . [ ]
(6) trn .d [ ] (7) [ 1

— 212 —
A n O r . 38 THE UGARITIO TEXTS IN TRANSLITERATION T e x t 400

(Text 400 : 1) mryn[f1t] (23) w . [n]blhm 2


(2) bn . bly 10 (24) b[n ] [ ]
(3) nrn 7 (III) bn . gzry 4
(4) w . nblh 5 (2) bn . a[ ]yn 3
(5) bn • rmyy 3 (3) bn . ttn t ]
(6) bn . tlmyn *u (4) bn . rwy t ‫נ‬
(7) w . nblh * It (5) bn . •myn 6
(8) it . nblhm 3
(9) bn . $,rm 1 (6) b d l. mrynm
(10) bn . bran 5 (7) bn . 9qn 5
(11) to . nhlh 3
(8) bn . iyn 5
(12) bn . adldn 5 (9) bn . prtn 2
(13) bn.ibl 5 (10) bn . ypr 21
(14) bn. fynzr i 1/*
(15) bn . arwt 5
(16) bn . tbtnq 5 (11) mrum
(17) bn . ptdn 5 (12) bn.*[ ] 3
(18) bn . nbdg 3 (13) bn. adty 3
(19) bn . bgbn 6 (14) bn . k r u m 4
(20) bn . tmr 2 (15) bn. ngsk 3
(21) bn . prsn 10 (16) b n . qnd 4
(22) bn . rfpy 4