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Political Science 2H03

Winter 2018
Final Exam Guidelines and Pool of Questions

The following provides a pool of questions from which the final exam questions will
be drawn. In the exam, as well as using your initiative to develop your answers, try
to demonstrate as extensive and specific familiarity with the course material,
relevant readings and lectures as possible.

There will be two types of questions on the final exam, which is worth 30% of your
total grade.

1. Long Essay Format Questions:

A list of five questions will appear for the long essay format section of the exam. You
will be required to answer two of these 5 questions. The objective for this portion of the
exam is to demonstrate familiarity with the course material, but also the ability to
creatively apply course ideas and themes yourself in a test situation. Each question is
worth 26% of your total exam mark. You are required to use full sentences and respond
in essay format (introduction, body paragraphs, conclusion).

2. Short Answer Identification Questions:

20 terms or concepts will appear and you will be required to explain the context and
significance of 12 of these terms as they relate to the course themes of globalization and
the state. Each term or concept is worth 4% for a total of 48% of your exam mark. You
are required to use full sentences in your responses and expected to draw from all course
materials including lectures, tutorials and readings.

Pool of Long Answer Essay Format Questions of which you will be given the option of
five, and required to answer two:

1. The process of globalization has been depicted as eroding the power of the state,
perhaps even leading to its eventual demise as a political actor. What is your opinion?
Draw on course materials in order to formulate your answer.

2. As transnational relationships have spread around the world, the use of law has grown
increasingly important as a tool of global governance. Explain in what ways the use of
law has changed especially the relationship between public and private as well as formal
and soft law approaches alongside globalization as well as why, and with what
implications for governance.

3. Some people describe globalization as an explicitly political process. What evidence

can you provide to either affirm or refute this idea?
4. In this course we have covered various types of shifts from bounded hierarchies to
networks. Discuss why these shifts have occurred and apply them to examples of
governance that we have discussed (for instance the state, business, law, global
institutions, climate change, global finance).

5. Why have informal rules and institutions become more common in transnational
governance as compared to formal law and organization, and what does this mean for
democracy and transnational governance?

6.Why has there been increasing use of the term “governance” rather than “government”
when studying things related to globalization?

7. What general insights into globalization and the state do contemporary global finance
governance issues reveal?

8. Representative democracy is the form of democracy many are most familiar with.
Discuss how representative democracy functions, how globalization challenges this type
of democracy, and how democratic values can be translated to the transnational level. Be
sure to discuss concepts such as legitimacy, accountability, transparency and participation
in your answer.

9. Globalization is often conceptualized as a relatively new process that has emerged

recently in history, despite other historical periods of globalization. Discuss these
historical periods of globalization and explain why and how history matters in informing
an understanding of this current period of globalization.

10. Sometimes globalization is portrayed as a contest between two diametrically opposed

forces: markets and the state. How adequate is this portrayal?

11. What role does knowledge play in globalization, the state, and transnational
governance, and how has this changed over time?

Pool of short answer questions of which you will be given the option of 20, and
required to answer 12:

Short Answer:

1. Sovereignty: 2. Government vs. Governance (MB Ch 1)

3. State vs. Nation 4. IR Realism

5. Hyperglobalists 6. Globalization Skeptics

7. Globalization Transformationalists 8. Modernity / Reflexive Modernity

9. Gutenberg’s Printing Press 1430 10. Historic periods of globalization

11. Functional differentiation 12. Social acceleration (TP chapter 10)

13. Hierarchical Consolidation of the State 14. Neoliberalism:

15. New Constitutionalism (Week 12) 16. Civil Society norm cycles (Porter

17. The “golden era” of capitalism 18. New Public Management

19. Hierarchies and Networks (Bevir) 20. Investor-State Dispute System

21. The Anthropocene 22. The Environmental North-South Divide

23. State problem in climate governance 24. 1972 UN Stockholm Conference on the Environment

25. Paris Agreement 26. Legal Positivism

27. Customary Law 28. Treaty Law

29. Jus Cogens 30. Soft law

31. Credit Rating Agencies 32. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision

33. Austerity 34. Bank Leverage

35. Legitimacy 36. Authority

37. Accountability 38. Participation

39. Transparency 40. Public interest

41. Conflict minerals 42. Due Diligence

43. Globalization of Finance 44. Knowledge and globalization

45. Third-Party Certification 46. Social Constructivism

47. Globalization as Liberalization (Scholte) 48. Globalization as Westernization(Scholte)

48. Globalization as Internationalism 49. World Systems Theory

50. Varieties of Capitalism / globalization 51. Sustainable Development

52. Input vs. output legitimacy 53. Regulatory capitalism

54. Materiality and Governance 55. Treaty of Westphalia.

56. Sovereignty bargaining 57. Paradox of the state

58. Societal sovereignty – Rudolph article week 4

Short Answer Examples:

Gutenberg’s Printing Press 1430:

Context: The Gutenberg Printing Press was an invention of the early 15th century that
vastly reduced the cost and increased the speed of printing.

Significance: The Gutenberg Printing Press is an invention that illustrates the centrality
of knowledge / objects and their important to an understanding of politics and
governance. With respect to the centrality of knowledge, the Gutenberg printing press has
been closely associated with the decline of the power of the Catholic church due to its
ability to disseminate religious scripture affordably and in the vernacular. This
development significantly weakened the Catholic church’s monopoly on an individual’s
relationship with god and its monopolistic control over religious knowledge.

As was also discussed in class, the printing press facilitated the dissemination of maps
and helped popularize a novel reconceptualization of borders and geography which
contributed significantly to a reconfiguration of our popular understanding of space and
place, and the ideological construction of the sovereign state. In summary the printing
press both demonstrates the power of knowledge and ideas in governance, but also the
unpredictably and importance of a consideration of objects in governance outcomes.

International Relations Realism:

Context: Since the 1920s, Political Realism has been a dominant conventional theory
through which international relations and world politics have been interpreted.

Significance: States are by far and away the most important political actors
especially in the international sphere— a space that is defined by anarchy without a
global sovereign. Consequently, states must act as rational self-interested actors in
constant competition for survival vs. other state rivals. The subsequent imagery of
the international sphere is one that is empty outside of state interactions which are
themselves greatly restricted by the interests of state actors and their ability to
cooperate with one another within an anarchical space. Such a political theory also
holds an absolute and fixed conception of state sovereignty wherein the sovereignty
of the state is theorized to be absolute. In turn, International Relations are poorly
situated in theorizing about the increasingly dense and complex transnational
political space, the political agency of actors other than states, as well as how state
sovereignty is being transformed alongside globalization.
Questions for the essay designed to be open-ended.

Distribution of time for 2.5 hour exam:

Despite both being worth approximately the same amount, my experience is that
essays take longer to answer than short answer questions. I would probably divide
my time 60/40

1h30 min on essays

45 minutes per essay.

1h on short answer.
5 minutes per short answer response

In terms of what I am drawing upon for both essay and short answer… Lectures >
Porter book chapters > other sources.

Get into groups for 5 minutes and think of any questions you would like to know the
answer to and then we’ll go over them together.

Currently you only have 40% of your mark accounted for, with the remaining 60%
to be determined through your final paper and the exam.

April 23, KTH 505: I will be in my office between 10:00am-4:00pm to give you
your updated mark heading into the final exam.

Course themes:

1. Political construction of globalization and the centrality of materiality and

institutions within this process. – WB, IMF and WTO in dissemination of neoliberal

Materials- currencies, astrolabe, computers, algorithms, maps, diseases, books,

drones, Gutenberg

Materiality- materials sustain power through currencies, military equipment,

2. Social Acceleration, functional differentiation, path dependence suggest changes

are more rather than less locked in despite the highly political nature of many
processes of globalization.
3. Growing importance and performativity of knowledge in governance and the
threat of depoliticization presented by this trend.

4. Growing decentralization, complexity and informal nature of governance –

climate change and finance both illustrative of this.

5. Breakdown of hierarchical social organizations and shift towards networks in

several sectors (state, markets, law, international organizations, etc).

6. State-altering dynamics of globalization vs. state-destroying dynamics of

globalization. (powerful states have been the primary authors of globalization still
matter significantly).

7. Ability of democratic participation and representation of the “public” in

transnational relations.

8. Fluid dimension of ideas and concepts, their social construction, and the way in
which globalization is altering relatively concrete boundaries between the local /
global; national/ international; public / private; state / law.

9. The multiplicity of actors playing a role in global / transnational governance and

the multitude of different networks and modes through which transnational
governance occurs.

10. The diversity and context specificity of the effects of globalization.