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Tenses

a. Present Simple

 Yes/No Questions

Ver explicación de gramática

PRESENT SIMPLE: YES/NO QUESTIONS


QUESTIONS
USE:
To ask questions about actions in general time that need an answer of "yes" or "no".
FORM:
Put DO or DOES in front of the subject.
[DO/DOES + SUBJECT + VERB + REST]
Does he/she/it like milk?
Do I know him?
AFFIRMATIVE: She likes milk.
YES/NO Does she
QUESTION: like milk?
ANSWERS
USE:
To answer a yes/no question.
FORM:

[YES, SUBJECT + DO/DOES]


Yes, I/you/we/they do.
Yes, he/she/it does.
[NO, SUBJECT + DON'T/DOESN'T]
No, I/you/we/they don't.
No, he/she/it doesn't.
EXAMPLES:
"Do you work on Saturdays?"
"Yes, I do."
"Does he work on Saturdays?"
"No, he doesn't."

 Wh Questions

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE SIMPLE: Preguntas Wh
USO:
Realizar preguntas acerca de acciones en tiempo general que comienzan con los siguientes
interrogativos: WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHO, WHY, HOW.
FORMA:
Preguntas acerca del SUJETO:
[WHO-WHAT + VERBO + RESTO]

Who lives here?


Preguntas acerca del RESTO DE LA ORACION:
[WH-WORD + DO/DOES... VERBO...]

When do you go home?


Where does he live?
EJEMPLOS:
"Who lives in that house?"
"The Porters."
"What does Jack want to do?"
"Go to the movies.
"Where do they work?"
"At the bank."

 Tag Questions

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE SIMPLE: PREGUNTAS CON COLETILLA

USO:
Realizar una pregunta sí/no cuando ya answer is already expected.
FORMA:
Añadir una pregunta corta de dos palabras al final de la frase. Si se espera un "sí":

[ORACIÓN AFIRMATIVA + DON'T/DOESN'T + SUJETO]


You drive, don't you?
Carl paints, doesn't he?
Si se espera un "no":

[ORACIÓN NEGATIVA + DO/DOES + SUJETO]


You don't smoke, do you?
Mary doesn't drive, does she?
EJEMPLOS:
"You like coffee, don't you?"
"Yes, I do." (La respuesta esperada es un "si")
"She doesn't work here, does she?"
"No, she doesn't."(La respuesta esperada es un "no".)

 Vs. Present Progressive

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENT SIMPLE vs. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

USE:
The Present Simple is used to talk about general time, states, and repeated actions.

The Present Progressive is used to talk about more temporary situations and actions which are going
on at the present moment.

EXAMPLES:
Present Simple: "She plays tennis every Friday."
Present Progressive: "Pat is playing tennis now."

Present Simple: "Hans speaks very good English."


Present Progressive: "Now he's speaking English to that customer."

NOTE: Some verbs are used only in simple tenses: Want, Like, Love, Hate, Need, Think, Know,
Understand, Believe, Mean.

 Statements

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE SIMPLE: ENUNCIADOS

USO:
Hablar de acciones, estados o hechos que suceden en cualquier momento, de forma repetida o
continuamente.
AFIRMATIVA
FORMA:
La tercera persona del singular añade una -s final.
[SUJETO + VERBO(s) + RESTO DE LA ORACIÓN
I/You/We/They work in a bank.
He/She/It has brown eyes.
ORTOGRAFIA

Los verbos que acaban en ss, sh, ch, x, o añaden la terminación es a la tercera persona del singular.
kisses,matches, goes, watches
Para verbos que terminan en la consonante + y,cambian la y por la terminación
ies: carry/carries,try/tries, copy/copies
NOTA: el presente simple se utiliza también con adverbios y frases adverbiales: Always,
Never,Often,Sometimes, Usually, Every day/week, On Sundays, Twice a month, year, etc.
EJEMPLOS:
"I often go to basketball games."
"He never watches TV."
"My brother goes to the health club twice a week."
"I always have coffee for breakfast."
NEGATIVA

FORMA:
[SUJETO+ DO NOT/DON'T+ VERBO+ RESTO DE LA ORACIÓN] DOES NOT/DOESN'T)

I/You/We/They don't drive in the city.


He/She/It doesn't have brown eyes..
EJEMPLO:
"Bill calls Mary, but he doesn't call me."

 Review

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENT SIMPLE
USE:
To talk about actions, states or events which happen at any time, repeatedly, or all the time.

STATEMENTS
AFFIRMATIVE

FORM:
Verbs take an -s ending in third person singular.
[SUBJECT + VERB(s) + REST OF SENTENCE]

I/You/We/They work in a bank.


He/She/It has brown eyes.

SPELLING

Verbs ending in ss, sh, ch, x, o take -es in third person


singular: kisses, matches, goes, watches

For verbs ending in consonant + y, drop the y and add -ies:


carry/carries, try/tries, copy/copies

NOTE: The Present Simple is often used with adverbs and adverb phrases that indicate
frequency: Always, Never, Often, Sometimes, Usually, Every day/week, On Sundays, Twice a month,
year, etc.
NEGATIVE

FORM:
[SUBJECT + DO
NOT/DON'T + VERB don't drive in the city.
+ REST]
I/You/We/They
He/She/It doesn't have brown eyes.

YES/NO QUESTIONS

FORM:
[DO + SUBJECT + VERB + REST OF SENTENCE]

Do I/you/we/they know them?

[DOES + SUBJECT + VERB + REST OF SENTENCE]

Does he/she/it like milk?


WH-QUESTIONS

FORM:
Questions about the SUBJECT:

[WH-WORD + VERB + REST OF SENTENCE]


Who lives here?

Questions about the REST OF THE SENTENCE:

[WH-WORD + DO/DOES... VERB...]


Where does he live?
When do you go home?
ANSWERS

FORM:
[YES, SUBJECT + DO/DOES]
Yes, I do.
Yes, he does.
[NO, SUBJECT + DON'T/DOESN'T]
No, we don't
No, she doesn't.

TAG QUESTIONS

If "yes" is expected:

[AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE + DON'T/DOESN'T + SUBJECT]


You drive, don't you?
Carl paints, doesn't he?

If "no" is expected:

[NEGATIVE SENTENCE + DO/DOES + SUBJECT]


You don't smoke, do you?
Mary doesn't drive, does she?

vs. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE


USE:
The Present Simple is used to talk about general time, states, and repeated actions. The Present
Progressive is used to talk about more temporary situations and actions which are going on around
the present moment.
EXAMPLES:
Present Simple: "Pat plays tennis every Friday."
Present Progressive: "She is playing tennis now."
Present Simple: "Hans speaks very good English."
Present Progressive: "Now he is speaking English to that tourist."

b. Be

 Affirmative

Ver explicación de gramática


"BE" PRESENTE: AFIRMATIVO
USO:
Para conectar el sujeto con el resto de la sentencia.
FORMA:
am, is, are (en el the Present Tense)
[SUBJECT + BE + REST OF SENTENCE]

I am
You are
He is
She is
It is

We are
You are
They are
EJEMPLOS:
"My name is Maurice."
"I am your waiter."

 Negative

Ver explicación de gramática


"BE" PRESENTE: NEGATIVO

USO:
Hacer una sentencia negativa
FORMA:
Agregar "not" despues del verbo "BE".
[SUJETO + BE + NOT + RESTO DE LA SENTENCIA]

I am not
You are not
She is not
He is not
It is not

We are not
You are not
They are not
EJEMPLOS:
"This dress is not my size."
"They are not happy."

 Wh Questions

Ver explicación de gramática


"BE" PRESENT: WH-QUESTIONS
USE:
Realizar preguntas que comiencen con estas palabras de interrogación:
WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHO, WHY, HOW.
FORM:
[INTERROGATIVO + BE + SUJETO + RESTO]
NOTA: el sujeto y el verbo cambian de lugar.
They are at work.
Are they at work?
Where are they? (Wh-Question)
EXAMPLES:
"Who is she?"
"Where are they?"
"When are they leaving?"
"What is your cat's name?"
"Why is Carol smiling?"

 Yes/No Questions

Ver explicación de gramática


"BE" PRESENTE: PREGUNTAS SI/NO
USO:
Realizar preguntas cuya respuesta sea "yes" o "not".
FORMA:
El sujeto y el verbo cambian de lugar.

Afirmativa: They are at work.


Pregunta Si/No: Are they at work?
Afirmativa: That store is expensive.
Pregunta Si/No: Is that store expensive?
EJEMPLOS:
"Are you angry?"
"Is Bob in France?"

 Contractions

Ver explicación de gramática


"BE" PRESENTE: PREGUNTAS SI/NO
USO:
Realizar preguntas cuya respuesta sea "yes" o "not".
FORMA:
El sujeto y el verbo cambian de lugar.

Afirmativa: They are at work.


Pregunta Si/No: Are they at work?
Afirmativa: That store is expensive.
Pregunta Si/No: Is that store expensive?
EJEMPLOS:
"Are you angry?"
"Is Bob in France?"

 Short Answers

Ver explicación de gramática


"BE" PRESENTE: RESPUESTAS CORTAS
USO:
Para responder a una pregunta si/no. n.
FORM:
[SI + SUJETO + BE]
(nunca con contracciones)
[NO + SUJETO + BE + NOT]
(con frecuencia con contracciones)
AFIRMATIVO
Yes, I am.
Yes, you are.
Yes, he is.
Yes, she is.
Yes, it is.

Yes, we are.
Yes, you are.
Yes, they are.
NEGATIVO
No, I'm not.
No, you're not. No, you aren't.
No, he's not. No, he isn't.
No, it's not. No, it isn't.

No, we're not. No, we aren't.


No, you're not. No, you aren't.
No, they're not. No, they aren't.
EJEMPLOS:
"Is this your dog?"
"Yes, it is."
"Is this your dog?"
"No, it isn't."

 Tag Questions

Ver explicación de gramática


"BE" PRESENT: TAG QUESTIONS
USE:
Se utiliza para realizar una pregunta sí/no cuando ya se espera una determinada respuesta.
FORM:
Añadir una pregunta corta de dos palabras al final de la frase.
Si se espera un "sí":
[ORACIÓN AFIRMATIVA + BE + N'T + SUJETO]
Si se espera un "no":
[ORACIÓN NEGATIVA + BE + SUJETO]
EXAMPLES:
"Today is your birthday, isn't it?"
"Yes, it is."(Se espera que la respuesta sea "sí".)
"Today isn't your birthday, is it?"
"No, it isn't."(Se espera que la respuesta sea "no".)

 Review

Ver explicación de gramática


"BE" PRESENT

USE:
To connect the subject with the rest of the sentence.
EXAMPLES:
"Are you the manager?"
"No, I'm not. She's the manager."

AFFIRMATIVE
FORM:
[SUBJECT + BE + REST OF SENTENCE]

I am at home.
You are pretty.
He/She/It is here.

We/You/They are at school.


EXAMPLE:
"I am tired."

NEGATIVE
FORM:
[SUBJECT + BE + NOT+ REST OF SENTENCE]

I am not tired.
You are not nice.
She/He/It is not here.

We/You/They are not at work.


EXAMPLE:
"We are not hungry."
POSITIVE CONTRACTIONS

I'm here.
You're here.
He's/She's/It's here.
We're/You're/They're here.

NEGATIVE CONTRACTIONS

I'm not here.


You're not here. You arn't here.
He's not here. He isn't here.
She's not here. She isn't here.
It's not here. It isn't here.

We're not here. We aren't here.


You're not here. You aren't here.
They're not here. They aren't here.
EXAMPLE:
Frank isn't at home today.
Frank's not at work today.

YES/NO QUESTIONS
USE:
To ask questions that need an answer of "yes" or "no". The subject and the verb "BE" change places.

Statement: He is at home.
Yes/No Question: Is heat home?

Statement: They are at work now.


Yes/No Question: Are they at work now?

EXAMPLE:
"Are you in the living room?"

POSITIVE SHORT ANSWERS


USE:
To give a positive answer to a yes/no question (never used with contractions).
FORM:
[YES + SUBJECT + BE]
Yes, I am.
Yes, you are.
Yes, he/she/it is.
Yes, we/you/they are.
NEGATIVE SHORT ANSWERS

USE:
To give a negative answer to a yes/no question (often used with contractions).
FORM:
[NO + SUBJECT + BE + N'T]

No, I'm not


No, you're not. No, you aren't.
No, he's not. No, he isn't.
No, it's not. No, it isn't.

No, we're not. No, we aren't.


No, you're not. No, you aren't.
No, they're not. No, they aren't.

EXAMPLE:
"Are you tired today?"
"No, I'm not."
WH-QUESTIONS

USE:
To ask questions that begin with these question words:
WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHO, WHY, HOW.
FORM: [QUESTION WORD + BE + SUBJECT + REST]
NOTE: The subject and verb change places.
They are at work now.
Are they at work now?
Where are they now? (WH-Question)
EXAMPLE: "What is his name?"

TAG QUESTIONS

USE:
To ask a yes/no question when a certain answer is already expected. Add a short, two-word question-
tag to the end of the statement.
FORM:
If "yes" is expected:
[AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE + BE + N'T + SUBJECT]
If "no" is expected:
[NEGATIVE SENTENCE + BE + SUBJECT]
EXAMPLES:
"You are tired, aren't you?"
"Yes, I am."
"He isn't at work, is he?"
"No, he isn't."

c. Present Progressive

 Affirmative

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: AFIRMATIVO
USO:
Describir acciones que están ocurriendo ahora o en el futuro.
FORMA:
[SUJETO + BE + VERBOing + RESTO DE LA ORACIÓN]

I am waiting for you.


You are eating my cake.
He/She/It is sleeping now.

We are going tomorrow.


You are walking too fast.
They are studying English this year.
EJEMPLOS:
"I am trying to study."
"He is eating an apple."
"Our secretary is eating lunch."
"We are meeting them tonight."

 Negative

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: NEGATIVO

USO:
Describir una acción que no está ocurriendo ahora o en el futuro.
FORMA:
[SUJET + BE + NOT + VERBO+ing (+ REST)]

I am not driving.
You are not listening.
She is not working.
He is not working.
It is not working.

We are not studying.


You are not waiting.
They are not talking.
EJEMPLOS:
"It is not raining anymore."
"I am not going to the party tonight."

 Wh Questions

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: PREGUNTAS -WH

USO:
Realizar preguntas que comienzan con las siguientes palabras de interrogación: WHAT, WHEN,
WHERE, WHO, WHY, HOW
FORMA:
[PALABRA DE INTERROGACIÓN + BE + SUJETO + VERBOing + RESTO]
NOTA: el sujeto y la forma de "BE" cambian de lugar.
They are working at home now.
Are they working at home now?
Where are they working now? (Wh-Question)
EJEMPLO:
"What are you doing now?"
"I'm watching a movie on TV."

 Yes/No Questions

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: PREGUNTAS SI/NO

USO:
Realizar preguntas que requieren "sí" o "no" como respuesta
FORMA
El sujeto y la forma de "BE" cambian de lugar.

Enunciado: He is sleeping.
Pregunta SI/NO: Is he sleeping?

Enunciado: They are working now.


Pregunta SI/NO: Are they working now?
EJEMPLOS:
"Are you listening to me?"
"Is your sister moving to New York?"

 Short Answers

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: RESPUESTAS CORTAS

USO:
Responder a una pregunta sí/no.
FORMA:
[YES + SUJETO + BE] (nunca se utiliza con contracciones)
[NO + SUJETO + BE + NOT] (a menudo se utiliza con contracciones)
AFIRMATIVA
Yes, I am.
Yes, you are.
Yes, he is.
Yes, she is.
Yes, it is.

Yes, we are.
Yes, you are.
Yes, they are.
NEGATIVA

No, I'm not.


No, you're not. No, you aren't.
No, he's not. No, he isn't.
No, it's not. No, it isn't.

No, we're not. No, we aren't.


No, you're not. No, you aren't.
No, they're not. No, they aren't.
EJEMPLOS:
"Marie, are you enjoying the party?"
"Yes, I am."
"Are we leaving now?"
"No, we aren't."
 Contractions

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: CONTRACCIONES

USO:
Unir el sujeto y la forma de "BE" y convertirlos en una palabra. Se emplea en conversación.
FORMA:
FORMAS AFIRMATIVAS
Forma Regular Forma Contraída
I am going. I'm going.
You are going. You're going.
He is going. He's going.
She is going. She's going.
It is going. It's going.
We are going. We're going.
You are going. You're going.
They are going. They're going.
EJEMPLOS:
He is taking the bus.
He's taking the bus.
FORMAS NEGATIVAS
I'm not working.
You're not working. You aren't working.
He's not working. He isn't working.
She's not working. She isn't working.
It's not working It isn't working.

We're not working. We aren't working.


You're not working. You aren't working.
They're not working. They aren't working.
EJEMPLOS:
"Frank is not driving to work today."
"Frank isn't driving to work today."
"Frank's not driving to work today."

 Spelling Changes

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: CAMBIOS DE ORTOGRAFIA
USO:
La ortografía de algunos verbos cambia cuando se añade "ing".
FORMA:
En la mayoría de los verbos que terminan en consonante- vocal-consonante, se duplica la última letra:
stop - stopping
En los verbos que acaban en "e", eliminar la"e" antes de añadir "ing":
have - having
give - giving
EJEMPLOS:
"I'm having a great time in Paris."
"The bus driver is stopping the bus."

 Tag Questions

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: TAG QUESTIONS
USE:
Se utiliza para hacer preguntas sí/no cuando ya se espera una determinada respuesta.
FORM:
Añadir una pregunta corta de dos palabras al final de la frase.
If "yes" is expected:
[AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE + BE + N'T + SUBJECT]
If "no" is expected:
[NEGATIVE SENTENCE + BE + SUBJECT]
EXAMPLES:
"That man is following us, isn't he?"
"Yes, he is."(Se espera un sí)
"You aren't leaving, are you?"
"No, I'm not."(Se espera un no)

 Review

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
USE:
To describe actions that are happening now or in the future.
EXAMPLES:
"That man is following us, isn't he?"
"Yes, he is."
"You aren't leaving, are you?"
"No, I'm not."
AFFIRMATIVE
FORM:
[SUBJECT + BE + VERB+ing + REST]

I am waiting for Sam.


You are eating my cake.
He/She/It is sleeping now.

We/You/They are going tomorrow.

EXAMPLE:
"I am trying to study."
SPELLING CHANGES
USE:
The spelling of some verbs changes when "ing" is added. For most verbs that end in consonant-
vowel-consonant, double the last letter:
stop, stopping
For verbs that end in "e", drop the "e" before adding "ing":
have, having give, giving live, living
EXAMPLE:
"I'm having fun in Paris."

NEGATIVE
FORM:
[SUBJECT + BE + NOT+ VERB+ing(+ REST)]

I am not driving.
You are not listening.
He/She/It is not working.

We/You/They are not studying.


EXAMPLE:
"It is not raining anymore."
POSITIVE CONTRACTIONS
I'm going.
You're going.
He's/She's/It's going.
We're/You're/They're going.

NEGATIVE CONTRACTIONS

I'm not working.


You're not working. You aren't working.
He's not working. He isn't working.
She's not working. She isn't working.
It's not working. It isn't working.
We're not working. You aren't working.
You're not working. You aren't working.
They're not working. They aren't working.
EXAMPLES:
"Frank isn't driving to work today."
"Frank's not driving to work today."
YES/NO QUESTIONS
USE:
To ask questions that need an answer of "yes" or "no". The subject and the form of the verb "BE"
change places."
Statement: He is sleeping.
Yes/No Question: Is he sleeping?
Statement: They are working now.
Yes/No Question: Are they working now?
EXAMPLE:
"Are you listening to me?"
POSITIVE SHORT ANSWERS
USE:
To respond to a question that requires a "yes" answer (never used with contractions).
FORM:
[YES + SUBJECT + BE]

Yes, I am.
Yes, you are.
Yes, he/she/it is.
Yes, we/you/they are.
EXAMPLE:
"Are you listening to me?"
"Yes I am."
NEGATIVE SHORT ANSWERS
USE:
To respond to a question that requires a "no" answer (often used with contractions).

FORM:

[NO+ SUBJECT + BE+ NOT


No, I'm not.
No, you're not. No, you aren't.
No, he's not. No, he isn't.
No, it's not. No, it isn't.

No, we're not. No, we aren't.


No, you're not. No, you aren't.
No, they're not. No, they aren't.
EXAMPLE:
"Marie, are you enjoying the party?"
"No, I'm not."

WH-QUESTIONS
USE:
To ask questions that begin with the following question words:
WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHO, WHY, HOW.
FORM:
[QUESTION WORD + BE + SUBJECT + VERBing + REST]
NOTE: The subject and the form of the verb "BE" change places.
They are working at home now.
Are they working at home now?
Where are they working now?(Wh-Question)
EXAMPLE:
"What are you doing now?"
TAG QUESTIONS
USE:
To ask a yes/no question when a certain answer is already expected. Add a short, two-word question-
tag to the end of the statement.
FORM: If "yes" is expected:
[AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE + BE + N'T + SUBJECT]
If "no" is expected:
[NEGATIVE SENTENCE + BE + SUBJECT]
EXAMPLES:
"He's leaving, isn't he?" "Yes, he is."
"You aren't going, are you?" "No, I'm not."

d. Past Simple

 Regular Verbs

Ver explicación de gramática


PASADO SIMPLE: ENUNCIADOS
USO:
Hablar acerca de acciones y hechos del pasado.
AFIRMATIVO
FORMA:
El pretérito simple de los verbos regulares acaba en -ed.
[SUJETO + VERBO+ed + REST]
EJEMPLOS:
"Joe walked home alone last night."
"We played football last week."
SPELLING
Los verbos que acaban en -e solo añaden -d: live/lived.
Los verbos que acaban en consonante + y cambian la y por i:

carry / carried try/ tried


NOTA: el pretérito simple se utiliza a menudo con adverbios: Yesterday, Last week/month/year, A...
ago.
NEGATIVO
FORMA:
Poner did not (didn't) antes del verbo.
[SUJETO + DID NOT + VERBO + RESTO DE LA ORACIÓN]
/DIDN'T
They did not call me last week.
Ruth didn't study last night.
EJEMPLOS:
"He didn't work at all last week."
"I didn't like the movie last night."

 Irregular Verbs

Ver explicación de gramática


PASADO SIMPLE: VERBOS IRREGULARES
FORMA:
Algunos verbos tienen formas irregulares en el pretérito simple. Tiene que aprendérselos de memoria.
Estos son algunos de los verbos
verbos frequentes :
come - came put - put
do - did read - read
drink - drank say - said
eat - ate sell - sold
find - found sit - sat
get - got sleep - slept
drive - drove speak - spoke
go - went take - took
have - had tell - told
hear - heard think - thought
know - knew understand - understood
leave - left wear - wore
make - made write - wrote
meet - met

 Questions

Ver explicación de gramática


PASADO SIMPLE: PREGUNTAS
PREGUNTAS SI/NO
USO:
Realizar preguntas acerca de acciones/hechos del pasado cuya respuesta es "sí" o "no".
FORMA:
Put DID / DIDN'T delante del sujeto.
[DID / DIDN'T + SUJETO + VERBO + RESTO]

Did you walk yesterday?


Didn't they buy the book last week?
PREGUNTAS - WH

USO:
Realizar preguntas acerca del pasado que comienzancon estos interrogativos: WHAT, WHEN, WHERE,
WHO, WHY, HOW.
FORMA:
Questions about the SUBJECT:
[WHO/WHAT + PAST VERBO + RESTO]

Who told him?


What made that noise?
Preguntas acerca del RESTO DE LA SENTENCIA:
[PALABRA-WH + DID + VERBO...]
When did you leave school?
Where did they buy that?
EJEMPLOS:
John: "Did you ask the boss about money?"
Rose: "Yes, I did."
John: "Well, what did she say?"
Rose: "She said no."

 Review

Ver explicación de gramática


PAST SIMPLE: STATEMENTS
AFFIRMATIVE
FORM:
Regular verbs in the Past Simple end in -ed.
[SUBJECT + VERB+ed + REST OF SENTENCE]

Joe walked home last night.


We played tennis yesterday
SPELLING
Verbs ending in -e, take only -d: live / lived.
With verbs ending in consonant+y, change the y to i:
carry / carriedtry / tried
NOTE: Past Simple is often used with adverbs: Yesterday, Last week/month/year, A... ago
NEGATIVE
FORM:
[SUBJECT + DID NOT / DIDN'T + VERB + REST]
They did not call me yesterday.
Ruth didn't study before the test.

IRREGULAR FORMS
Here is a list of some of the most frequent irregular verbs:

come -came put - put


do - did read - read
drink - drank say - said
eat - ate sell - sold
find - found sit - sat
get - got sleep - slept
drive - drove speak - spoke
go - went take - took
have - had tell - told
hear - heard think - thought
know - knew understand -understood
leave - left wear - wore
make -made write - wrote
meet - met

QUESTIONS
YES/NO QUESTIONS
FORM:
[DID/DIDN'T + SUBJECT + VERB + REST]
Did you walk yesterday?
Didn't theybuy the book last week?
SHORT ANSWERS
FORM:
[YES, SUBJECT + DID]

Yes, they did.

[NO, SUBJECT + DID + NOT / DIDN'T]

No, they didn't..

WH-QUESTIONS
FORM: Questions about the SUBJECT:
[WHO/WHAT + PAST VERB+REST]

Who told him?


What made that noise?

Questions about the REST OF THE SENTENCE:


[WH-WORD + DID + SUBJECT + VERB + REST]

When did you leave school?


Where did they buy that?

e. Be-Past

 Statements
Ver explicación de gramática
BE PASADO: FRASES

USO:
Conectar el sujeto con el resto de la oración y hablar acerca del pasado
AFIRMATIVO
FORMA:
[SUJETO + WAS/WERE + RESTO]

I/She/He/It was in the kitchen.


You/We/They were late.
NEGATIVO
FORMA:
[SUJETO + WAS/WERE + NOT + RESTO]

WASN'T/WEREN'T
I/She/He/It was not angry.
I/She/He/It wasn't here.

You/We/They were not early.


You/We/They weren't on time.

EJEMPLOS:
"Diana was at home yesterday."
"She wasn't at school."
"They were late to work."
"They weren't early."

 Questions

Ver explicación de gramática


BE PAST: PREGUNTAS

PREGUNTAS SI/NO
USO:
Realizar preguntas cuya respuesta es "sí" o "no".
FORMA:
El sujeto y el verbo cambian de lugar.

Afirmativa: They were at home.


Pregunta Si/No: Were they at home?
Negativa: He wasn't at school.
Pregunta Si/No: Wasn't he at school?(Se utilizan siempre con contracciones.)

Respuestas: Yes, I was.


No, I wasn't.

PREGUNTAS-WH
USO:
Realizar preguntas que comienzan con estas expresiones interrogativas: WHAT, WHEN, WHERE,
WHO, WHY, HOW.
FORMA:
Preguntas acerca del SUJETO:
[PALABRA-WH + BE PAST + RESTO DE LA SENTENCIA]
Afirmativa: Juan was at home.
pREGUNTA -Wh: Who was at home?
Preguntas acerca del RESTO DE LA ORACIÓN:
[WH-WORD + BE PAST + SUBJECT + REST OF SENTENCE]
Afirmativa: He was in Philadelphia.
Pregunta - Wh Where was he?
Afirmativa: He was there in 1990.
Pregunta - Wh: When was he there?
EJEMPLOS:
Police: "Where were you last nightat 9:30?"
Man: "I was at home all night."
Police: "Was Big Bob with you?"
Man: "No, he wasn't. I was alone."

 Review

Ver explicación de gramática


BE - PAST
STATEMENTS
AFFIRMATIVE
FORM:
[SUBJECT + WAS/WERE + REST]

I/She/He/It was in the kitchen.


You/We/They were late.

NEGATIVE
FORM:
[SUBJECT + WAS/WERE + NOT + REST]
WASN'T/WEREN'T

I/She/He/It was not angry.


I/She/He/It wasn't here.

You/We/They were not early.


You/We/They weren't on time.

QUESTIONS
YES/NO QUESTIONS
FORM:
[WAS/WERE + SUBJECT + REST OF SENTENCE]
WASN'T/WEREN'T

Were they at home?


Wasn't he your neighbor?

NOTE: Use only contractions with negative questions.


SHORT ANSWERS

[YES, SUBJECT + WAS/WERE]

Yes, I was

[NO, SUBJECT + WAS/WERE + NOT]

No, they were not/weren't

WH-QUESTIONS
FORM:
Questions about the SUBJECT:
[WHO/WHAT + BE PAST + REST]

Who was at home?


Questions about the REST OF THE SENTENCE:
[WH-WORD + BE PAST + SUBJECT + REST]

Where were you?


When was he there ?

f. Past Progressive

 Statements

Ver explicación de gramática


PASADO PROGRESIVO: ENUCIADOS
AFIRMATIVO

FORMA:
[SUJETO + WAS/WERE + VERBO + ing...]
He was waiting for the bus when it started to rain.
They were waiting for the bus when it started to rain.
EJEMPLOS:
"She was eating when I arrived."
"We were sleeping at 3:OO a.m."
NEGATIVO

[SUJETO + WAS/WERE + NOT + VERBO + ing...]


I was not (wasn't) waiting for the bus.
They were not (weren't) waiting for the bus.
EJEMPLOS:
"He wasn't sleeping when the phone rang."
"They weren't watching TV when the news was on."

 Questions and Answers

Ver explicación de gramática


PASADO PROGRESIVO: PREGUNTAS y RESPUESTS
PREGUNTAS y RESPUESTAS YES/NO
FORMA:
[P: WAS/WERE+ SUBJECT+ VERBO + ing...]
Was she waiting for the train?
Were you waiting for the train?
[A: YES/NO+ SUBJECT+ BE(NOT)]
Yes, it was.
No, she wasn't.

Yes, we were.
No, you weren't.
EJEMPLOS:
"Were the children playing in the garden when you came in?"
"Yes, they were."
"Were you working in Tokyo in1991?"
"No, I wasn't."
PREGUNTAS – WH
Preguntas aerca del SUJETO de la oración:
FORMA:
[WHO/WHAT + WAS/WERE + VERBO + ing...]
EJEMPLOS:
"Who was watching the baby last night?"
"What was playing at the Cineplex last night?"
Preguntas acerca del RESTO DE LA SENTENCIA:
[PALABRA-WH + WAS/WERE + SUJETO + VERBO + ing...]
EJEMPLOS:
"What were you doing at 10 o'clock?"
"I was walking the dog."
"Who was Pat looking at?"
"She was looking at Kim."

 Progressive vs. Simple

Ver explicación de gramática


PASADO PROGRESIVO - vs. PASADO SIMPLE

USO:
Utilizamos el pretérito simple para hablar de unaacción que se ha completado en el pasado. Utilizamos
el pretérito progresivopara hablar de una acción continuada a lo largo deun tiempo en el pasado.
También se puede utilizar el pretérito simple y el pretéritoprogresivo juntos en la misma oración,
paramostrar que una acción o hecho corto ocurridodurante una acción o hecho más largo. Si
mencionamosla acción más corta primero, por lo general unimos las dos partes de la frase con
'WHILE'.
EJEMPLOS:
"Tom arrived while we were talking about him."
"She came in while I was doing my homework."
Si mencionamos la acción más larga primero, normalmenteunimos las dos partes de la oración con
WHEN.
EJEMPLOS:
"We were talking about Tom when he arrived."
"I was doing my homework when she came in."

 Review

Ver explicación de gramática


PAST PROGRESSIVE

USE:
Utilizamos el pretérito progresivo para hablarde una acción o hecho continuos queestaba sucediendo
en un momento en particularen el pasado
EXAMPLES:
"Weren't you studying with Linda last night?"
"No, I wasn't. I was shopping for Joe's birthday present."
"What were you doing when he phoned?"
"I was sleeping."

STATEMENTS
FORM:

AFFIRMATIVE:
[SUBJECT + WAS/WERE + VERB + ing...]
I was waiting for the bus when it started to rain.
We were waiting for the bus when it started to rain.

NEGATIVE:
[SUBJECT + WAS/WERE + NOT + VERB + ing...]
She was not (wasn't) waiting for the bus.
They were not (weren't) waiting for the bus.

YES/NO QUESTIONS and ANSWERS


FORM:
[WAS/WERE + SUBJECT + VERB+ing...?]
Was she waiting for the train?
Were you waiting for the train?

[YES/NO + SUBJECT + BE (NOT)]


Yes, I was.
No, it wasn't.
Yes, they were.
No, you weren't.

PAST PROGRESSIVE vs. PAST SIMPLE

USE:
Utilizamos el pretérito simple para hablar sobre una acción que se completó en el pasado. Utilizamos
el pretérito progresivo para hablar de una acción que continuó durante un tiempo en el pasado.

También podemos utilizar el pretérito simple y el pretérito progresivo juntos en la misma


oración, mostrar que una acción o hecho corto ocurrido durante una acción o hecho más largo. Si
mencionamos la acción más corta primero, por lo general unimos las dos partes de la oración con
WHILE.
EXAMPLES:
"The phone rang while she was taking a shower."
"The car broke down while Bill was driving home."Si mencionamos la acción más larga
primero,unimos las dos partes de la oración con "WHEN".
EXAMPLES:
"She was taking a shower when the phone rang."
"Bill was driving home when the car broke down."

g. The Future

 Will vs. Going To

Ver explicación de gramática


FUTURO: WILL y GOING TOWILL

USE: WILL se utiliza para expresar una opinión subjetiva, o para expresar una decisión,promesa,
creencia o amenaza, etc. acerca del futuro. Por esta razón 'WILL' con frecuencia sigue a expresiones
tales como 'I hope...', 'Do you think...', etc.
EJEMPLO:
"Do you think she will like these flowers?"
FORMA:
Afirmativa: [SUJETO + WILL + VERBO...]
NOTA: con frecuencia se abrevia WILL como "'-ll" y se pronuncia junto con el sujeto.
EJEMPLO:
"I think he will (he'll) fix the car tomorrow."
Negativa: [SUJETO + WILL + NOT + VERBO...]
NOTA: con frecuencia se abrevia WIL NOT como "WON'T".
EJEMPLO:
"I'm afraid we won't finish the job today."
PREGUNTAS Y RESPUESTAS

PREGUNTAS SI/NO
USO:
En la forma interrogativa, WILL suele introducir una petición.
FORMA:
[Q: WILL + SUJETO + VERBO...?]
[A: Yes, + SUJETO + WILL
No, + SUJETO + WILL NOT(WON'T).]
EJEMPLOS:
"Will you open the window, please?"
"Yes, of course I will."
"Will you buy me an ice cream, please?"
"No, I won't!"
PREGUNTAS -WH
FORMA:
Preguntas acerca del sujeto de la oración:
[Q: WHO/WHAT + WILL + VERBO...?]
EJEMPLO:
"Who'll be there tonight?"
"Liz will go for sure. And maybe Tom will be there too."
Preguntas acerca del resto de la oración:
[P: Palabra-Wh + WILL + SUJETO + VERBO...?]
EJEMPLO:
"When will we get home tonight?"
"I think we'll get home at around 10."
GOING TO
USO:
GOING TO se utiliza para hablar de hechos objetivos y claros o planes en el futuro.
EJEMPLO:
"Look at those clouds! It's going to rain!"
FORMA:

AFIRMATIVA
[SUJETO + BE + GOING TO + VERBO...]
EJEMPLOS:
"I'm going to study Chinese History next semester."
"Look out! That car's going to hit us!"
NEGATIVA

[SUJETO + BE + NOT + GOING TO + VERBO...]


EJEMPLOS:
"We aren't going to make a profit this year."
"I know I'm not going to pass this exam!"
PREGUNTAS Y RESPUESTAS

YES/NO PREGUNTAS

[Q: BE + SUJETO + GOING TO + VERBO...?]


[A: Yes, + SUJETO (pronombre) + BE.]
or:
[No, + SUBJECT (pronombre) + BE + NOT.]
EJEMPLO:
"Is this train going to arrive on time?"
"No, it isn't. It's going to be late."
PREGUNTAS - WH
Preguntas acerca del sujeto de la oración:
[Q: WHO/WHAT + Be+ GOING TO + VERBO]

Preguntas acerca del resto de la oración:


[P: PALABRA-WH+ BE + SUJETO + GOING TO + VERBO...?]
[R: Oración afirmativa con GOING TO.]
EJEMPLO:
"Who are you going to vote for?"
"I'm going to vote for Tom Baxter."
NOTA: Con frecuencia encontramos 'WILL' y 'GOING TO' en la misma conversación. En el siguiente
diálogo, el paciente quiere una respuesta definitiva, pero la enfermera contesta sólo con una
promesa:
"Is this injection going to hurt?"
"Don't worry, it will only hurt a little and it won't take long!"
 Present Progressive

Ver explicación de gramática


FUTURO: PRESENTE PROGRESIVO

USO:
Con frecuencia utilizamos el presente progresivo (consultar Índice Lingüístico 1) para hablar de planes
y decisiones para el futuro cercano.
Se utiliza de forma más habitual con verbos que expresan movimiento (p. ej. arrive, come, go, leave,
sail, visit, etc.)
EJEMPLOS:
"I'm leaving early today; I have a headache."
"Are you visiting your mother tonight?"
"I'm not waiting any longer; he's half an hour late already!"

 Simple Present

Ver explicación de gramática


FUTURO: PRESENTE SIMPLE

USO:
Algunas veces utilizamos el presente simple (consultar Índice Lingüístico 2) para hablar de acciones y
hechos futuros 'definitivos' que ya han sido
arreglados o fijados en un calendario oficial.
EJEMPLOS:
"The President leaves for Japan on Monday."
"When does the next bus arrive?"

 Review

Ver explicación de gramática


THE FUTURE

USE:
Utilizamos el futuro para hablar de accionesy estados futuros. Podemos utilizar diversas formas
verbales para hablar del futuro.
EXAMPLES:
"What time are you leaving for the station?"
"Well, my train leaves at ten, so I'll leave here at about nine. That will give me time.
But you're going to give me a ride, aren't you?"
Cuatro de las formas verbales de futuro más importantesson:
WILL
EXAMPLE:
"I will go home at six o'clock."
GOING TO
EXAMPLE:
"It's going to rain soon."
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
EXAMPLE:
"We're spending Christmas with my parents."

SIMPLE PRESENT
EXAMPLE:
The next train for Oxford leaves at 2:45.
Cada forma tiene un significado ligeramente diferente, pero las diferencias son a menudo muy
pequeñas.
h. More Future

 Future Perfect

Ver explicación de gramática


MÁS TIEMPOS FUTUROS: FUTURO PERFECTO
USO:
Se utiliza para hablar sobre acciones o hechos que concluirán en un cierto momento del futuro.
FORMA:
AFIRMATIVO y NEGATIVO

[SUJETO + WILL (+ NOT) + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE...]


Observa que a menudo WILL NOT se abrevia como WON'T.
I/You/We will (not) have gone...
He/She/It won't have gone...
Normalmente el verbo va seguido por una oración circunstancial de tiempo que comienza
por WHEN, BEFORE o BY.
BY significa NOT LATER THAN ... y va seguido de una expresión de tiempo tal como TEN O'CLOCK,
NEXT MONDAY, THE END OF THE YEAR, etc.
BEFORE puede ir seguido de una expresión temporal o una oración (sujeto + verbo) tal como WE
ARRIVE, THE JOB IS FINISHED, etc. No olvides que el verbo en estas oraciones normalmente está en
tiempo Presente, nunca en tiempo Futuro.
WHEN va seguido de una oración, de igual forma que BEFORE.
El verbo también puede ir seguido por la expresión BY THE TIME, que va seguida por una frase
(sujeto + verbo) en la cual el verbo está en presente simple.
EJEMPLOS:
"Have you finished typing that letter yet?
"Don't worry, I'm typing it now; I'll have finished it by 3 o'clock."
"I'll have corrected all the homework by tomorrow morning."
"They won't have built the new road before next summer."
"She'll have made dinner before we arrive."
"The film will have started when we get to the theater."
"I will have finished cleaning my room by the time you return."
PREGUNTAS

[(Palabra -Wh) + WILL + SUJETO + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE...]


(What) will he/you/we have done...
(Where) will he/she/it have gone...
(When) will they have been...

RESPUESTAS A PREGUNTAS Si/NO

[YES, + SUJETO-PRONOMBRE+ WILL.]


[NO, + SUJETO-PRONOMBRE + WON'T]
EJEMPLOS:
"How many letters will you have written by this evening?"
"Will the rain have stopped before we get to the beach? What do you think?"
"Yes, I think it will."
"Will Dad have repaired my bike by tomorrow?"
"Yes, I'm sure he will."
"Will Paul and Mary have finished their exams before the summer?"
"No, they won't."
"When will you have finished the work?"
"By two o'clock."
"How many students will they have tested before lunch?"
"About five."

 Future Progressive

Ver explicación de gramática


MAS TIEMPOS FUTUROS: FUTURO PROGRESIVO
USO:
Se utiliza para referirse a acciones o estados continuos que ocurrirán en un momento específico futuro
o durante un período específico futuro.
Normalmente no se utiliza el FUTURO PROGRESIVO para hablar sobre características personales (TO
HAVE RED HAIR, etc) o estados físicos o mentales transitorios (TO BE HAPPY/ILL/TIRED, TO HAVE A
HEADACHE, etc).
FORMA:
AFIRMATIVA y NEGATIVA

[SUJETO + WILL ( + NOT) + BE + VERBO + ing...]


Observa que WILL NOT suele abreviarse como WON'T I/You/We will (not) be doing... He/She/It will
(not) be going...
EJEMPLOS:
"She'll be lying in the sun this time next week!"
"I'll be working in London all next month."
"We'll be staying at the Star Hotel from May 1st to May 10th."
"Patrick won't be watching television this evening; he'll be doing his homework."
PREGUNTAS Y RESPUESTAS

[(Palabra-Wh) + WILL + SUJETO + BE + VERBO + ing...]

(What) will I/you/we be doing...


(Where) will he/she/it be going...
(When) will they be eating...

RESPUESTAS A PREGUNTAS Si/NO

[YES, + SUJETO-PRONOMBRE + WILL]


[NO, + SUJETO-PRONOMBRE + WON'T.]

Las preguntas "Wh" pueden responderse con una oración completa utilizando el FUTURO
PROGRESIVO, pero a menudo basta con una expresión corta que corresponda a la palabra "Wh".
EJEMPLOS:
"What will you be doing tomorrow afternoon?"
"I'll be driving to Boston."

"Where will you be studying next semester?"


"In New York."

"Will you be living with us next year?"


"No, I won't."
"Where will you be living then?"
"I'll be staying with my family in Bogota."

 Review

Ver explicación de gramática


MAS TIEMPOS FUTUROS
USO:
Estos tiempos verbales se utilizan para referirse a acciones que ocurrirán en un momento específico o
durante un período específico en el futuro (FUTURO PROGRESIVO) y a acciones y hechos que
concluirán en un cierto momento del futuro (FUTURO PERFECTO).
EJEMPLOS:
"Could I borrow the car tomorrow, Dad?"
"Well, I'll be using it all day tomorrow;when do you want to borrow it?"
"In the evening, after dinner."
"That's okay; I'll have finished with it by then."
i. Present Perfect
 Statements Q and A

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE PERFECTO SIMPLE:
ENUNCIADOS, P y R
USO:
Se utiliza para hablar sobre acciones o estados que comenzaron en el pasado y de alguna forma se
conectan al presente. El presente perfecto a menudo se utiliza con expresiones que comienzan con
FOR y SINCE para hablar de acciones o estados que comenzaron en el pasado y siguen vigentes en el
presente. También se utiliza con los adverbios JUST, ALREADY y YET. El presente perfecto también se
utiliza para hablar sobre acciones o hechos recientes ("noticias").
FORMA:
El presente perfecto está compuesto por HAVE/HAS y el participio pasado (la tercera forma del verbo
[V3]).
AFIRMATIVO
[SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS + (just/already) + PAST PARTICIPLE [V3]... (for/since...)]
EJEMPLOS:
"I've lived here for two years."
"You've already lost one key. I can't believe you can't find the second."
"Whose package is this? It's been here since 4 p.m."
"We've already met them."
"They're not hungry. They've just eaten their dinner."
NOTA: En oraciones afirmativas, JUST y ALREADY por lo general van inmediatamente antes del
participio pasado. Las frases con FOR y SINCE van al final de cada oración.
NEGATIVO
[SUJETO + HAVE NOT/HAVEN'T + PAST PARTICIPLE [V3]..] HAS NOT/HASN'T
EJEMPLOS:
"I haven't met her yet."
"It hasn't begun to rain yet."
"We haven't had lunch yet."
"You haven't said a word for 2 hours."
"They haven't finished their breakfast."
NOTA: En oraciones negativas, ALREADY y YET
y frases con FOR y SINCE por lo general
van al final de la oración.
PREGUNTAS SI/NO
[HAVE/HAS + SUJETO +...PAST PARTICIPLE [V3]]
EJEMPLOS:
"Have you already finished your work?"
"Has she finished painting the room?"
PREGUNTAS – WH
PREGUNTAS -WH ACERCA DEL SUJETO
[PALABRA-WH+ HAVE/HAS +...PAST PARTICIPLE [V3]]
EJEMPLO:
"Who's just eaten the candy?"
PREGUNTAS - WH ACERCA DEL RESTO DE LA ORACION
[PALABRA-WH + HAVE/HAS + SUJETO +...PAST PARTICIPLE (V3)]|
EJEMPLOS:
"Where has he put my coat?"
"What have you done with the money?"
NOTA: En preguntas, JUST y ALREADY por lo general van antes del participio pasado [V3]; YET
y las frases con FOR y SINCE por lo general van al final de la oración.
CONTRASTE CON OTROS TIEMPOS:
USO:
Utilizamos el presente perfecto para hablar sobre acciones o hechos que ocurrieron durante un
período que de alguna forma incluye el presente o va conectado a este, cuando no se sabe el
momento exacto.
EJEMPLO:
"Peter Parker has written five books."
El "período" de esta oración es la vida de Parker. Al utilizar el presente perfecto se señala que aún
está vivo y sigue escribiendo libros.
PERO -
"John Craig wrote five books."
El "período" ha finalizado, probablemente porque Craig murió.
También utilizamos el pretérito perfecto para hablar sobre acciones o hechos recientes que son
"nuevos" para el oyente, a menudo con los adverbios JUST y ALREADY y YET en oraciones negativas
y preguntas.
EJEMPLOS:
"The results have just come in; and here they are..."
"I don't want to go to that movie: I've already seen it."
"Have you typed that letter yet?"
NOTA: en inglés americano se utiliza con frecuencia el pretérito simple:
"The election results just came in: here they are..."
"I don't want to go to that movie; I already saw it."
"Did you type that letter yet?"
Utilizamos el presente perfecto con ciertas expresiones:
FOR o SINCE
Podemos utilizar FOR o SINCE al comienzo de la expresión de tiempo. Si decimos cuánto
dura la acción o el estado utilizamos FOR:
"...for ten minutes.", "...for twenty years."
"...for two centuries.", "...for a very long time." etc.
Si decimos cuándo comenzó la acción o estado, utilizamos SINCE, seguido del tiempo o
alguna otra expresión que indique el tiempo:
"...since 2 o'clock.", "...since last Monday."
"...since 1975.", "...since the end of the War."
"since I was a baby." etc.

HOW LONG
Para saber la duración de una actividad o estado comenzamos una pregunta con HOW LONG:
EJEMPLOS:
"How long have you had that sweater?"
"About six months."
"How long have you been an actor?"
"Since I left school."
EVER
Si queremos saber si algo ha ocurrido, pero no cuándo, a menudo colocamos el adverbio EVER antes
del verbo en la pregunta.
EXAMPLES:
"Have you ever eaten octopus?"
"Yes, I have."
"Have you ever been in an accident?"
"No, I haven't."
JUST, ALREADY o YET
JUST (=hace poco tiempo), ALREADY (=antes de ahora)
y YET (antes/ hasta ahora) se utilizan con oraciones en presente perfecto que hablan sobre acciones o
hechos recientes ("noticias"). JUST y ALREADY por lo general van inmediatamente antes de la tercera
forma del verbo y YET a menudo se utiliza al final de una oración negativa o una pregunta.
EJEMPLOS:
"I have already seen that movie. Let's stay home!"
"But I haven't seen it yet!"
"Here we are at the Indy 500 with Mike Rhodes. Mike, have you ever driven in an Indy race?"
"No, I haven't. But I've been a race driver in Europe for ten years."
"Well, Good Luck to you!"

 Progressive

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE PERFECTO PROGRESIVO
USO:
Se utiliza para hablar sobre una acción continua o repetida que comenzó en el pasado y continúa
hasta el presente, o que concluyó hace muy poco tiempo y aún tiene un efecto. Normalmente no
utilizamos el presente perfecto progresivo con verbos de estado (TO HAVE RED HAIR TO BE
APPY/ILL/TIRED, TO KNOW THE ANSWER, etc.).
EJEMPLOS:
"Betty and Joe have been working all night: they're exhausted!"
"Ted, I've been telling you to make your bed for two hours!"

FORMA:

AFIRMATIVO
[SUJETO + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + VERBO+ing ]
EJEMPLOS:
"I've been sitting here for an hour."
"She's been hiding in the garage."
NEGATIVO
[SUJETO + HAS/HAVE + NOT + BEEN + VERBO+ing...]
HASN'T/HAVEN'T
EXAMPLES:
"You have not (haven't) been working all week."
"He has not (hasn't) been living here very long."
NOTA: las expresiones FOR y SINCE se utilizan con el presente perfecto progresivo igual que con el
presente perfecto simple.
EJEMPLOS:
"They have been studying French for three years."
"She has been living here since 1987."

 Contrast With Other Tenses

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENTE PERFECTO:
CONTRASTE CON OTROS TIEMPOS

USO:
A diferencia del presente perfecto, el pretérito simple o el pretérito progresivo se utilizan para hablar
sobre una acción o hecho que ocurrió durante un período que no incluye el presente.
EJEMPLOS:
"Have you seen Pat this week?"
"No, but I saw her last week."
"Have you talked to Sharon?"
"No. I haven't talked to her since she came back from France."
A veces, una conversación comienza en presente perfecto y sigue en pretérito simple: cuando la
primera pregunta ["Have you ever...?" o "How long have you...?"] cubre un largo período (incluyendo
el presente) mientras que el resto de la conversación trata de una acción o hecho en particular
pasados.
EJEMPLOS:
"Have you ever been to New York?"
"Yes, I have. I went in 1989. I loved it."
"How long have you had that car?"
"We've had it for five years."
"How much did you pay for it?"
"Not much, but we had to do a lot of work on it..."

 Review

Ver explicación de gramática


PRESENT PERFECT
USE:
Hablar sobre acciones o estados que comenzaron en el pasado y de alguna forma se conectan con el
presente. El presente perfecto a
menudo se utiliza con expresiones que comienzan con FOR o SINCE para hablar de acciones o
estados que comenzaron en el pasado y siguen vigentes en el momento actual. También se utiliza con
los adverbios JUST, ALREADY y YET para hablar de acciones o hechos que sucedieron en un momento
indefinido del pasado. El presente perfecto se utiliza además para hablar sobre acciones o hechos
recientes ("noticias").
EXAMPLES:
"Hi, Karla! I haven't seen you lately. Where have you been?"
"I've been really busy. I've been playing with a band called "Wild Thing." Have you heard of us?"
"No, I haven't."
"Well, come and see us on Saturday night!"
FORM:

AFFIRMATIVE

Simple:
[SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS + (JUST/ALREADY) + PAST PARTICIPLE [V3] + (FOR/SINCE...)]
Progressive:
[SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS + (JUST/ALREADY) + BEEN + VERB + ing + (FOR/SINCE...)]
EXAMPLES:
"They've lived here for two years."
"She's been here since 4 p.m."
"I've already swept the floor."
"They've been working all night."

NEGATIVE
Simple:
[SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS NOT / HAVEN'T/HASN'T + PAST PARTICIPLE [V3]...]
Progressive:
[SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS NOT / HAVEN'T/HASN'T + BEEN + VERB + ing...]
EXAMPLES:
"We haven't met her yet."
"He hasn't made a sound."
"You haven't been doing your homework."

YES/NO QUESTIONS
Simple:
[HAVE/HAS + SUBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE [V3]...?]
Progressive:
[HAVE/HAS + SUBJECT + BEEN + VERB + ing...?]
EXAMPLES:
"Have you finished your work yet?"
"Has Peter come home yet?"
"Have they been living here long?"

WH-QUESTIONS
WH-QUESTIONS ABOUT THE SUBJECT
Simple:
[WH-WORD + HAVE/HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE[V3]...]
Progressive:
[WH-WORD + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + VERB + ing]
EXAMPLES:
"Who's eaten all the candy?"
"Who's been sleeping in my bed?"

WH-QUESTIONS ABOUT THE REST OF THE SENTENCE


Simple:
[WH-WORD + HAVE/HAS + SUBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE[V3]...]
Progressive:
[WH-WORD + HAVE/HAS + SUBJECT + BEEN + VERB + ing]
EXAMPLES:
"Where has he put my coat?"
"Why have you done that?"
"What have you been doing?"

TIME EXPRESSIONS
FOR o SINCE se utilizan al inicio de una expresión de tiempo. Para decir cuánto duró la acción o el
estado, utilizamos FOR:"...for ten minutes." "...for twenty years." "...for two centuries." "...for a very
long time." etc.
Para decir cuándo comenzó la acción o el estado, utilizamos SINCE,:
"...since 2 o'clock." "...since last Monday." "...since 1975." "...since the end of the War."
HOW LONG se utiliza para comenzar una pregunta sobre duración.
EXAMPLES:
" How long have you had that sweater?"
"About six months."
"How long have you been living here?"
"For two years."EVER
se utiliza antes del verbo para preguntar si algo
aconteció, pero no cuándo.
EXAMPLE:
" Have you ever eaten octopus?"
"Yes, I have."
JUST, ALREADY y YET se utilizan para hablar sobre acciones o hechos sucedidos en un momento
indefinido del pasado, o acciones o hechos recientes ("noticias"). JUST (=hace poco tiempo) y
ALREADY (=antes de ahora) por lo general van inmediatamente antes del participio pasado [V3] y
YET (antes/hasta ahora) a menudo se utiliza al final de una oración o pregunta negativa.
EXAMPLES:
"I have already seen that movie. Let's stay home!"
"But I haven't seen it yet!"

j. Past Perfect

 Simple

Ver explicación de gramática


PASADO PERFECTO: SIMPLE
USO:
Se utiliza para enfatizar que un hecho aconteció antes que otro (conectado mediante conjunciones
como WHEN y BEFORE) o en el modo indirecto, cuando el "verbo informante" está en pretérito y la
afirmación o idea "original" estaba en pretérito o presente perfecto.
También utilizamos el pretérito perfecto para interrumpir un relato (en pasado) con una referencia a
algún momento anterior (antes de que empezara el relato):
EJEMPLO:
"I went home. I was very tired and I wanted my supper. But when I arrived I couldn't get into my
house because I had left the key in my office!"
FORMA:
AFIRMATIVO
[SUJETO + HAD... + Past Participle.[V3]..]
HAD NOT/HADN'T
EJEMPLOS:
"She had just arrived when he came in."
"We had already eaten by the time she arrived."
"The opera had just begun when we arrived."
"I had never been in love until I met you!"
VOZ REPORTADA
[TIEMPO PASADO + (THAT) + PASADO PERFECTO]
EJEMPLOS:
"I thought (that) you had already seen this."
"She said (that) she had never met me before."

 Progressive

Ver explicación de gramática


PERFECTO PASADO: PROGRESIVO
USO:
Se utiliza para hablar de acciones o estados continuos que continuaron hasta un determinado
momento del pasado.
FORMA:
[SUJETO + HAD/HAD NOT + BEEN + VERBO+ING...]
(HADN'T)
EJEMPLOS:
"I'd been waiting for an hour when the train pulled in."
"He hadn't been studying much until he failed his first exam."
Describiendo dos eventos:
"They'd been waiting for two hours when the bus finally arrived."
USO de FOR y SINCE
Si queremos decir cuánto tiempo duró la acción o el estado, generalmente utilizamos FOR
al principio de la "expresión de tiempo":
"...for ten minutes."
"...for twenty years."
"...for two centuries."
"...for a very long time." etc.
Si queremos decir cuándo comenzó la acción o el estado, utilizamos SINCE, seguido del
tiempo o de otra expresión que indique el tiempo:
"...since two o'clock."
"...since last Monday."
"...since 1975."
"...since the end of the War."
"...since I was a baby." etc.
EJEMPLO:
The two scientists had been working for fifty years (since 1945) when they finally discovered the
Youth Drug.

 Review

Ver explicación de gramática


PASADO PERFECTO
USO:
Se utiliza para enfatizar la diferencia temporal entre dos estados, acciones o hechos en el pasado que
se mencionan en la misma oración. Por lo general empleamos el pretérito perfecto si queremos
enfatizar
que un hecho o estado aconteció antes que otro.
EJEMPLO:
"I was really surprised when I met Fred at Jill's party last week. I hadn't seen him for five years, and
he looked really different. I asked him what he'd been doing since we left school, but he didn't tell
me. Then somebody told me he'd been in prison..."
PASADO PERFECTO SIMPLE
USO:
Se utiliza para enfatizar que un hecho aconteció antes que otro (conectado mediante conjunciones
como WHEN y BEFORE) o en el modo indirecto, cuando el "verbo informante" está en pasado y la
afirmación o idea "original" estaba en pretérito, presente perfecto o pretérito perfecto.
FORMA:
AFIRMATIVO
[SUJETO + HAD (+Adverbio) + Past Participle[V3]...]
HAD NOT/HADN'T
EJEMPLOS:
"She had just arrived when he came in."
"We had already eaten by the time they arrived."
"The opera had just begun when we arrived."
"I had never been in love until I met you!"
VOZ REPORTADA
[TIEMPO PASADO + (THAT) + PASADO PERFECTO]
EJEMPLOS:
"I thought (that) you'd already seen this."
"She said (that) she'd never met me before."
PASADO PERFECTO PROGRESIVO
USO:
Se utiliza para hablar de acciones o estados continuos que continuan hasta un momento dado del
pasado.
FORMA:
[SUJETO + HAD/HAD NOT + BEEN + VERB + ING...](HADN'T)
EJEMPLOS:
"I'd been waiting for an hour when the train pulled in."
"He hadn't been studying much until he failed his first exam."
"They'd been waiting for two hours when the bus finally arrived."

THIS/THAT THESE/THOSE

USO:
Indicar objetos específicos.
FORMA:
"This"/"That"
se utilizan con sustantivos en singular
"These"/"Those"
se utilizan con sustantivos en plural
"This"/"These"
se emplean con sustantivos cercanos al hablante
"That"/"Those"
se emplean con sustantivos que no están cerca del hablante
EJEMPLOS:
"Is this your hat?"
(Un sombrero específico cercano a la persona que habla.)
"No, that is my hat."
(Un sombrero específico que está un poco más lejos.)
"Are these your gloves?"
(Guantes específicos que están cerca.)
"No, those are my gloves."
(Guantes específicos que están más lejos.)
"I'm going to visit friends this Friday."
(El viernes específico, más cercano en el tiempo.)