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Production Technology

Chapter 5

Dr. M. Atta

Joining Processes

All of the other processes have focused on processes that primarily change the shape of individual components. Joining processes differ in that at least two components are joined together, thereby allowing more complicated or larger structures to be fabricated.

A wide range of joining techniques are used in various manufacturing operations, including different mechanical fasteners, adhesives, welding, brazing and soldering. Figure classifies some of the major processes associated with each type of joining operation.

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Classification of joining processes.

Production Technology Chapter 5 Dr. M. Atta Classification of joining processes. Feb. 2011 DPE001 2

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Nonpermanent Mechanical fasteners

1- Screws

a) Machine screws; These are used for assembly into previously tapped holes and are manufactured in brass, steel, stainless steel and plastics (usually nylon). Various head shapes are available, as shown in Fig.

nylon). Various head shapes are available, as shown in Fig. b) Socket screws ; Manufactured in

b) Socket screws; Manufactured in high-grade alloy steel with rolled threads, this type of screw is used for higher strength applications than machine screws. Three head shapes are available, all of which contain a hexagon socket for tightening and loosening using a hexagon key, Fig.

all of which c ontain a hexagon socket for tightening and loosening using a hexagon key,

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3- Bolts and nuts; A fastening method using a thread rod with a head at one end (bolt), designed to be inserted through holes and secured by a mated nut, that is tightened by applying torque. Bolts are used for heavier applications than screws.

that is tightened by applying torque. Bolts are used for heavier applications than screws. Dr. M.

Dr. M. Atta

that is tightened by applying torque. Bolts are used for heavier applications than screws. Dr. M.
that is tightened by applying torque. Bolts are used for heavier applications than screws. Dr. M.

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Chapter 5

Permanent Mechanical fasteners

Riveting; is a highly effective joining process for the fastening of two segments with a permanent joint. Permanency implies that the only way of removing the joint for disassembly is by destroying the joint. Riveting is very commonly used in the joining of thin- walled structures, such as the fuselages and wings of aircraft. Riveting materials include; Low- and medium-carbon steels, Copper alloys, Aluminium.

. Riveting materials include; Low- and medium-carbon steels, Copper alloys, Aluminium. Feb. 2011 DPE001 Dr. M.

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. Riveting materials include; Low- and medium-carbon steels, Copper alloys, Aluminium. Feb. 2011 DPE001 Dr. M.

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Production Technology

Chapter 5

Welding

Dr. M. Atta

1- Fusion welding; it classified in terms of the source of heat used to cause

localized melting: electric arc welding, thermal welding and resistance

welding. In terms of the absolute number of welds made, fusion welding is the most common welding technique.

A. Electric arc welding

1. Shielded (manual) metal arc welding;

the most common weldin g techni que. A. Electric arc welding 1. Shielded (manual) metal arc

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• It is widely used for the fabrication of pressure vessels, pipe work and pipeline joints, as well as for the repair and maintenance of industrial machinery.

• An arc is established between the electrode and the base metal at the joint line. The arc melts a portion of the base metal and the electrode to form a weld pool. The molten metal is protected from the surrounding atmosphere by decomposition of the electrode coating which forms a gaseous CO2 cloud.

The electrode coating also contains fluxes that remove impurities from the molten metal. The flux aids the formation of a slag layer that serves to further protect contamination. The slag layer is usually removed once the joint area has cooled.

• The operator moves the electrode along the joint length at a steady rate and, to maintain a constant arc length, moves the electrode holder closer to the weld pool as the electrode is consumed.

Electrodes are typically 460 mm in length and are consumed to a final length of about 50mm. At this point the process is interrupted and the electrode replaced.

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Functions of electrode coating

• Protection molten metal from air.

• Deoxidation of molten metal and form slag

• Arc stabilization by increasing electrical conductivity.

• Metal addition by providing alloying elements to the weld pool

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Advantage and Disadvantages of SMAW

Advantages

• Simple welding equipment

• Used for repair and field construction

• Portable and low cost.

Disadvantages

• Not suitable for reactive Al and Ti.

electrode covering • The electrode length is ~ 35 mm and requires frequent changing.

of

Low

deposition

rate

due

to

overheating

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2.Submerged arc welding

It utilizes an electrode of consumable wire to produce an arc that is submerged below a flux layer,

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electrode of consuma bl e w i re t o pro d uce an arc th

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Advantages of SAW

1. Slag protecting and refining yield clean weld and smooth weld surface.

2. Spatter, smoke and heat loss are eliminated; arc is submerged.

3. The deposition rate can be increased by using two or more electrodes in tandem.

4. Can weld thick section

Disadvantages of SAW

1. Cannot weld in a vertical-position.

2. High heat input can reduce the weld quality and increase distortions

3. It needs removal of solidified slag .

4. The unused flux is removed and placed back into original hopper.

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B.Thermal welding

Dr. M. Atta

1. Gas welding; involves mixing a combustible gas (most often acetylene, C2H2) and oxygen in a nozzle which is ignited to generate heat. The flame produced is directed onto the joint area to provide rapid melting of the base metal. Acetylene and oxygen are stored in high pressure cylinders and, therefore, the major advantage of the whole process is portability, without the requirement for an electrical supply. Most ferrous and nonferrous metals can be gas welded, usually with the addition of an appropriate filler metal during welding.

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Chemical reactions and temperature distribution

Production Technology Chapter 5 Dr. M. Atta Chemical reactions and temperature di str ib ut i

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Flame types

1- Neutral flame

Acetylene (C2H2) and O2 are mixed in equal amounts. The hottest

melting

flame It does not corrode metal. Good for welding high metal

It does not corrode metal. Good for welding high me tal 2- Reducing flame A n

2- Reducing flame An excess amount of acetylene is used, giving a reducing flame. The combustion of is incomplete . It does not corrode metal. Good for welding low melting metal.

Th e combustion of is incomplete . It does not corrode metal. Good for welding low

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3- Oxidizing flame An excess amount of O2 is used, giving an oxidizing flame. Good for Cutting purpose. It oxidizes and corrode metal

for Cutting p urpose. It ox idi zes an d corro de metal Oxyacetylene welding techniques

Oxyacetylene welding techniques

Rightward welding

Flame is directed towards the completed part of the joint and weld proceeds from left to right. It suits thin material <5 mm and nonferrous.

LeftwardLeftward weldingwelding FlameFlame isis directeddirected towardstowards thethe incompleteincomplete partpart ofof thethe jointjoint andand weldweld proceedsproceeds fromfrom rightright toto leftleft ItIt ssuuitsits thickthick materialmaterial >>55 mmmm andand ferroferrouuss

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Advantages and disadvantages of Oxyacetylene welding

Advantages

1. Simple equipment 2. Portable

3. Inexpensive

4. Easy maintenance and repair

Disadvantages

1. Limited power density

2. Very low welding speed

3. High heat loss

4. Large heat affected zone

5. Not recommended for reactive metal as Ti and Zr

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2. Thermit Welding

1. Molten steel is produced by the reaction of aluminum and iron oxide into a lined crucible.

2. A wax pattern is made around the joint in size and shape of the intended weld and sand mold is built around the wax.

3. The sand mold is then heated to melt out the wax and dry the mold then molten steel is poured into the mold.

4. Process is used in rail and shipping industry

5. It can be used for nonferrous by selecting proper mixture.

8Al+3 Fe3O4 —— 9 Fe + 4 Al2O3 + Heat

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Resistance welding

• It makes use of a material's resistance to an electrical current to provide heat for fusion. The parts to be joined are held together under force and electrodes apply a short electrical pulse (60 ms to 2 s) at low voltage (< 10 V), but high current (several thousand amps).

The electrical pulse causes melting at the contact between the two parts. When the electrical pulse ceases, the parts remain clamped while the metal parts solidify together and cool.

The two major types of resistance welding are spot welding and seam welding . For both these processes the electrodes also provide the clamping force to maintain contact between the surfaces to be joined.

During spot welding the electrode and workpieces are stationary relative to one another, whereas for seam welding circular electrodes produce a continuous weld along the workpieces

• Resistance welding is ideally suited to the repetitive joining of sheet metal parts up to about 3 mm thickness.

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Projection welding

•

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Chapter 5

Solid State Welding Friction welding

Dr. M. Atta

Production Technology Chapter 5 Solid State Welding Friction welding Dr. M. Atta Feb. 2011 DPE001 24

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Soldering Practice

Production Technology Chapter 5 Dr. M. Atta Soldering Practice Feb. 2011 DPE001 27

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Production Technology

Chapter 5

Brazing

Dr. M. Atta

Brazing is similar to soldering but uses fillers of higher Tm (450-800oC).

• Give better strength than soldering but might get oxidation problems or discoloration.

Heating methods such as gas torch, furnace, molten flux bath, induction heating resistance

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ASSIGNMENT (5)

1. Describe principle of an oxy-fuel gas welding process.

2. Describe the type of flames obtained in an oxy- fuel gas welding process giving the applications.

3. Why is the neutral flame extensively used in welding?

4. Describe the oxy acetylene welding techniques.

5. Show cross section of gas cutting torch compared to welding torch.

6. Distinguish between arc and gas welding from point heat source, heat concentration, temperature and running

7. State the functions of flux coating of the electrode in SMAW.

8. Describe the submerged arc welding and how is it different from SMAW?

9. Show by sketch SMAW and spot welding.

10. State the advantages of SAW.

11. Compare between soldering and brazing.

12. State the advantages and disadvantages of oxy acetylene welding

13. Describe thermit welding indicating source of heat.

Choose the correct answer; 1) In gas welding the highest temperature is obtained with

a) Neutral flame

b) oxidizing flame

c) reducing flame

2) solder is any alloy consisting of

(a)

tin and lead

(b)

copper and tin

(c)

copper and lead

3) Preheating is necessary in welding (a)Cast iron (b) HSS. (c) Non-Ferrous

4) T joint weld is used

(a)

When longitudinal shear is present

(b)

To join two pieces in the same manner as rivets

(c)

To join two pieces perpendicularly.

5) Filler metal is used with

(a)

Spot welding

(b)

Seam welding

(c)

SMAW

6) Which one is not rivet type?

(a) Pan head

(b) Hex screw

(c) Flat head

7) Soldering may be carried out with filler melts at temperature of

(a) 200 o C (b) 460 o C

8) In rightward welding

(c) 960 o C

(a)

Flame is directed towards the complete part of the joint

(b)

Flame is directed towards the incomplete part of the joint

(c)

Carried out for thick material >5 mm and ferrous

10) Pressure is needed in following welding process

(a) SMAW

(b) SAW

(c) Seam welding