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8 visualizzazioni36 pagineHeat and mass transfer II

May 05, 2018

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Heat and mass transfer II

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Heat and mass transfer II

© All Rights Reserved

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Introduction

• Pipe ─ circular cross section.

• Duct ─ noncircular cross section.

• Tubes ─ small-diameter pipes.

• The fluid velocity changes from zero at the surface

(no-slip) to a maximum at the pipe center.

• It is convenient to work with an

average velocity, which remains

constant in incompressible flow

when the cross-sectional area

is constant.

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Average Velocity

the conservation of mass principle

m& = ρVavg AC = ∫ ρ u ( r ) dA

Ac

C (1)

∫ ρ u ( r ) dA C

∫

R

ρ u ( r ) 2π rdr 2

R

= 2 ∫ u ( r ) rdr

Ac 0

Vavg = =

ρ AC ρπ R 2 R 0

(2)

Average Temperature

temperature Tm from the conservation of

energy principle.

• The energy transported by the fluid through a

cross section in actual flow must be equal to

the energy that would be transported through

the same cross section if the fluid were at a

constant temperature Tm

& pTm = ∫ c pT ( r ) δ m& =

E& fluid = mc ∫ ρ c T ( r ) u ( r )VdA

p c

(3)

m& Ac

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∫ c T ( r ) δ m& ∫ c T ( r ) ρu ( r ) 2π rdr

m&

p

Ac

p

Tm = =

& p

mc ρVavg (π R 2 ) c p (4)

R

2

Vavg R 2 ∫0

= T ( r ) u ( r ) rdr

heating or cooling.

Idealized Actual

heating or cooling.

Also, the fluid properties in internal flow are usually evaluated

at the bulk mean fluid temperature, which is the arithmetic

average of the mean temperatures at the inlet and the exit.

That is, Tb = (Tm, i + Tm, e)/2.

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Tubes

• For flow in a circular tube, the Reynolds number is

defined as

ρVavg D Vavg D (5)

Re = =

µ ν

• For flow through noncircular tubes D is replaced by

the hydraulic diameter Dh.

4A

Dh = c (6)

P

• laminar flow: Re<2300

• fully turbulent: Re>10,000.

• Consider a fluid entering a circular pipe at a uniform

velocity.

• Because of the no-slip condition a velocity gradient

develops along the pipe.

• The flow in a pipe is divided into two regions:

– the boundary layer region, and

– the and the irrotational (core) flow region.

• The thickness of this

boundary layer Irrotational Boundary

layer

flow

increases in the flow

direction until it

reaches the pipe

center.

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the pipe inlet to the point at which the boundary layer

merges at the centerline.

• Hydrodynamically fully developed region ─ the

region beyond the entrance region in which the

velocity profile is fully developed and remains

unchanged.

• The velocity profile in the fully developed region is

– parabolic in laminar flow, and

– somewhat flatter or fuller in turbulent flow.

• Consider a fluid at a uniform temperature entering a circular

tube whose surface is maintained at a different temperature.

• Thermal boundary layer along the tube is developing.

• The thickness of this boundary layer increases in the flow

direction until the boundary layer reaches the tube center.

• Thermal entrance region.

• Thermally fully developed region ─ the region beyond the

thermal entrance region in which the dimensionless

temperature profile

expressed as

(Ts-T)/(

)/(T

Ts-Tm)

remains unchanged.

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∂u ( r , x )

= 0 → u = u (r ) (7)

∂x

– Thermally fully developed:

∂ Ts ( x ) − T ( r , x )

=0 (8)

∂x Ts ( x ) − Tm ( x )

∂ Ts − T − ( ∂T ∂r ) r = R

= ≠ f ( x ) (9)

∂r Ts − Tm r = R Ts − Tm

∂T k ( ∂T ∂r ) r = R

q& s = hx (Ts − Tm ) = k → hx = (10)

∂r r=R Ts − Tm

• For thermally fully developed region From (Eq. (9))

( ∂T ∂r ) r = R

≠ f ( x)

Ts − Tm

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Friction factor

Developing Fully

region developed

region

Entry Lengths

Laminar flow

– Hydrodynamic

Lh ,laminar ≈ 0.05 Re⋅ D (11)

– Thermal

Lt ,laminar ≈ 0.05 Re⋅ Pr⋅ D = Pr⋅ Lh,laminar (12)

Turbulent flow

– Hydrodynamic

Lh ,turbulent = 1.359 D ⋅ Re1 4 (13)

– Thermal (approximate)

Lh ,turbulent ≈ Lt ,turbulent ≈ 10 D (14)

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• The Nusselt numbers are much

higher in the entrance region.

• The Nusselt number reaches

a constant value at a distance

of less than 10 diameters.

• The Nusselt numbers for the

uniform surface temperature and uniform surface heat

flux conditions are identical in the fully developed

regions, and nearly identical in the entrance regions.

Nusselt number is insensitive to the type of

thermal boundary condition.

• In the absence of any work interactions, the conservation

of energy equation for the steady flow of a fluid in a tube

Q& = q& A = mc

s s

& (T − T ) (W)

p e i

(15)

approximated as:

– constant surface temperature, or

– constant surface heat flux.

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(16)

where hx is the local heat transfer coefficient and Ts and Tm are the

surface and the mean fluid temperatures at that location.

Note that the mean fluid temperature Tm of a fluid flowing in a tube

must change during heating or cooling.

As in the fully developed flow, hx = h = constant,

the surface temperature Ts must change when = constant, and

the surface heat flux must change when Ts = constant.

Thus we may have either Ts = constant or = constant at the

surface of a tube, but not both.

• In the case of constant heat flux, the rate of heat transfer can

also be expressed as

Q& = q& A = mc

s

& (T − T ) (W)

s p e i (17)

• Then the mean fluid temperature at the tube exit becomes

q& A

Te = Ti + s s (18)

mc& p

• The mean fluid temperature increases linearly in the flow direction

since the surface area increases linearly in the flow direction (As is

equal to the perimeter, which is constant, times the tube length).

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case of constant surface heat

flux can be determined from

q&

q& s = h (Ts − Tm ) → Ts = Tm + s

h

(19)

• In the fully developed region,

the surface temperature Ts will

also increase linearly in the

flow direction

• since h is constant and thus

Ts - Tm = constant (Figure).

• Of course this is true when the

fluid properties remain

constant during flow.

to a tube slice of thickness dx, the slope

of the mean fluid temperature Tm can be

determined

dTm q&s p

& p dTm = q&s ( pdx ) →

mc = = constant (20)

dx mc & p

• Noting that both the heat flux and h (for

fully developed flow) are constants

dTm dTs (21)

=

dx dx

• In the fully developed region (Ts-Tm=constant)

∂ Ts − T 1 ∂Ts ∂T ∂T dTs

=0→ − =0→ =

∂x Ts − Tm Ts − Tm ∂x ∂x ∂x dx

(22)

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∂T dTs dTm q&s p

= = = = constant (23)

∂x dx & p

dx mc

.

• For a circular tube, p= 2πR and m = ρVm Ac = ρVm(πR2),

and Eq. 23 becomes

∂T dTs dTm 2q&s

= = = = constant (24)

∂x dx dx ρVavg c p R

FIGURE

The shape of the temperature

profile remains unchanged in the

fully developed region of a tube

subjected to constant surface heat flux.

• The energy balance on a differential control volume

δ Q& = mc

& p dTm = h (Ts − Tm ) dAs (25)

• Since the mean temperature of the fluid Tm increases in the flow

direction as a result of heat transfer, so the heat flux decays with x.

• We can write, (dTm=-d(Ts-Tm)) as the surface temperature is

constant and dAs=pdx, therefore,

d (Ts − Tm ) hp (26)

=− dx

Ts − Tm & p

mc

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to x=L (tube exit where Tm=Te) gives

Ts − Te hA

ln =− s (27)

Ts − Ti & p

mc

• Where As=pL

• Taking the exponential of both sides and solving for

Te

Te = Ts − (Ts − Ti ) exp ( −hpL mc

& p) (28)

• or

Tm ( x ) = Ts − (Ts − Ti ) exp ( −hpx mc

& p)

surface decays exponentially in the flow direction, and the

rate of decay depends on the magnitude of the exponent

& p

hAs mc

• This dimensionless parameter is

called the number of transfer

units (NTU).

– Large NTU value – increasing tube

length marginally increases heat

transfer rate.

– Small NTU value – heat transfer increases

significantly with increasing tube length.

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__

hAs

& p=

mc (29)

ln (Ts − Te ) (Ts − Ti )

• Substituting this into Eq. 12

Q& = mc

& p (Te − Ti ) (W)

Q& = mc

& p = hAs ∆Tln (30)

where

Ti − Te ∆Te − ∆Ti

∆Tln = = (31)

ln (Ts − Te ) (Ts − Ti ) ln [ ∆Te ∆Ti ]

∆Τln is the logarithmic mean temperature

difference.

Problem:

Water enters a 2.5-cm-internal-diameter thin copper tube of a

heat exchanger at 15°C at a rate of 0.3 kg/s, and is heated by

steam condensing outside at 120°C. If the average heat transfer

coefficient is 800 W/m2.C, determine the length of the tube

required in order to heat the water to 115°C

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Problem:

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Assumptions:

• steady laminar flow, • The velocity profile u(r)

• incompressible fluid, remains unchanged in

• constant properties, the flow direction.

• fully developed region, • no motion in the radial

and direction.

• straight circular tube. • no acceleration.

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• Consider a ring-shaped

differential volume element.

• A force balance on the volume

element in the flow direction

gives

( 2π rdrP ) x − ( 2π rdrP ) x + dx

+ ( 2π rdrxτ )r − ( 2π rdrxτ )r + dr = 0

(34)

Px + dx − Px ( rτ )r + dr − ( rτ )r (35)

r + =0

dx dr

dP d ( rτ ) (36)

r + =0

dx dr

• Substituting τ =µ(du/dr) gives

µ d du dP (37)

r =

r dr dr dx

• Rearranging and integrating it twice to give

1 dP

u (r ) = + C1 ln r + C2

(38)

4 µ dx

• Boundary Conditions:

– symmetry about the centerline ∂u/∂r=0 at r=0,

– no-slip condition u=0 at r=R.

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R 2 dP r2

u (r ) = − 1 − (39)

4 µ dx R 2

• Substituting Eq. 39 into Eq. 2, and performing the

integration gives the average velocity

2 R 2 dP r2

R R

2

Vavg = 2 ∫ u ( r ) rdr = − 2 ∫ 1 − rdr

R 0 R 0 4 µ dx R 2

R 2 dP (40)

=−

8µ dx

• Combining the last two equations, the velocity profile is

rewritten as

r2

u ( r ) = 2Vavg 1 − 2 ; umax = 2Vavg (42)

R

(41)

Pressure Drop

• One implication from Eq. 37 is that the pressure

drop gradient (dP/dx) must be constant (the left

side is a function only of r, and the right side is a

function only of x).

• Integrating from x=0 where the pressure is P1 to

x=L where the pressure is P2 gives

dP P2 − P1 (43)

=

dx L

• Substituting Eq. 43 into the Vavg expression in Eq.

40 8µ LV 32 µ LV

avg avg

∆P = P1 − P2 = 2

= 2

(44)

R D

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irreversible pressure loss.

• It is convenient to express the pressure loss for all

types of fully developed internal flows in terms of the

dynamic pressure and the friction factor

dynamic pressure

}

}factor L

friction

ρVavg2

(45)

∆PL = f ⋅ ⋅

D 2

• Setting Eqs. 44 and 45 equal to each other and

solving for f gives

64 µ 64

– Circular tube, laminar: f = = (46)

ρ DVavg Re

power is determined from

(47)

(48)

called the Hagen–Poiseuille flow.

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Number

• Energy is transferred by mass in the

x-direction, and by conduction in the

r-direction.

• The steady flow energy balance for a

cylindrical shell element can be

expressed as mc & pTx + dx + Q& r − Q& r + dr = 0

& pTx − mc (49)

• Substituting

m& = ρ uAc = ρ u ( 2π rdr )

and dividing by 2πrdrdx gives, after rearranging

T −T 1 Q& r + dr − Q& r

ρ c p u x + dx x = − (50)

dx 2π rdx dr

∂T 1 ∂Q& (51)

• or u =−

∂x 2 ρ c pπ rdx ∂r

∂Q& ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T

• Since = − k 2π rdx = −2π kdx r

∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r

(52)

Eq. 51 becomes

∂T α ∂ ∂T k

u = r ; α= (53)

∂x r dr ∂r ρcp

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• Substituting Eqs. 24 and 41 into Eq.53

r2 ∂T 2q&s

u ( r ) = 2Vavg 1 − 2 = = constant

R ∂x ρVavg c p R

(41) (24)

∂T α ∂ ∂T (54)

u = r

∂x r dr ∂r

4q&s r 2 1 d dT (55)

1 − = r

kR R 2 r dr dr

q&s 2 r 4

T= r − 2 + C1r + C2 (56)

kR 4R

• Boundary conditions

∂T ( r = 0 ) C1=0

– Symmetry at r=0: =0

∂r

C2

– At r=R: T(r=R)=Ts

q&s R 3 r 2 r4

T = Ts − − + (57)

k 4 R2 4R4

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the velocity and temperature profile relations (Eqs. 41 and

57) into Eq. 4 and performing the integration

11 q&s R

(58) Tm = Ts − q&s = h (Ts − Tm )

24 k

24 k 48 k k

h= = = 4.36 (59)

11 R 11 D D

Constant heat flux (circular tube, laminar)

hD

Nu = = 4.36 (60)

k

Constant Surface temperature (circular tube, laminar)

hD

Nu = = 3.66 (61)

k

and the Nusselt number

relations are given in

Table 8–1 for fully

developed laminar flow

in tubes of various cross

sections.

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Entrance Region

• For a circular tube of length L subjected to constant

surface temperature, the average Nusselt number for

the thermal entrance region (hydrodynamically

developed flow)

0.065 ( D L ) Re⋅ Pr (62)

Nu = 3.66 + 23

1 + 0.04 ( D L ) Re⋅ Pr

• For flow between isothermal parallel plates

Nu = 7.54 + 23

1 + 0.016 ( Dh L ) Re⋅ Pr

Problem:

Consider the flow of oil at 20°C in a 30-cm-diameter pipeline at

an average velocity of 2 m/s (Fig). A 200-m-long section of the

pipeline passes through icy waters of a lake at 0°C. Measurements

indicate that the surface temperature of the pipe is very nearly

0°C. Disregarding the thermal resistance of the pipe material,

determine (a) the temperature of the oil when the pipe leaves the

lake, (b) the rate of heat transfer from the oil, and (c) the pumping

power required to overcome the pressure losses and to maintain

the flow of the oil in the pipe.

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• Most correlations for the friction and heat transfer

coefficients in turbulent flow are based on experimental

studies.

• For smooth tubes, the friction factor in turbulent flow can

be determined from the explicit first Petukhov equation

−2

f = ( 0.79 ln Re− 1.64 ) 3000<Re<5 ×106 (64)

the Colburn equation

(65)

Nusselt number can be calculated from the Dittus–Boelter

equation

Re > 10, 000 n = 0.4 heating

Nu = 0.023Re0.8 Pr n

0.7 ≤ Pr ≤ 160 n = 0.3 cooling

(66)

• More complex but accurate relations such as the second

Petukhov equation expressed as

(67)

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– liquid metals (Pr<<1),

– large variation in fluid properties due to a large

temperature difference,

– surface roughness,

– flow through tube annulus.

• Original correlations are also approximately

valid for:

– developing Turbulent Flow in the Entrance

Region,

– turbulent Flow in Noncircular Tubes.

Problem:

Water is to be heated from 15°C to 65°C as it flows through a 3-

cm-internal-diameter 5-m-long tube (Fig). The tube is equipped

with an electric resistance heater that provides uniform heating

throughout the surface of the tube. The outer surface of the

heater is well insulated, so that in steady operation all the heat

generated in the heater is transferred to the water in the tube. If

the system is to provide hot water at a rate of 10 L/min,

determine the power rating of the resistance heater. Also,

estimate the inner surface temperature of the pipe at the exit.

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Problem:

un-insulated square duct of cross section 0.2 m x 0.2 m that

passes through the attic of a house at a rate of 0.15 m3/s (Fig).

The duct is observed to be nearly isothermal at 60°C.

Determine the exit temperature of the air and the rate of heat

loss from the duct to the attic space.

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Nusselt numbers— Nui on the inner

tube surface and Nuo on the outer tube

surface— since it may involve heat

transfer on both surfaces.

developed laminar flow with one

surface isothermal and the other

adiabatic are given in Table

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Problem:

In a long annulus (35 mm ID and 50 mm OD), water is heated by

maintaining the outer surface of inner tube at 60oC. Water enters

at 20oC and leaves at 34oC, while its flow velocity is 2 m/s.

Estimate the heat transfer coefficient.

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transfer coefficients than tubes with smooth surfaces.

• Therefore, tube surfaces are often intentionally

roughened, corrugated, or finned in order to enhance the

convection heat transfer coefficient and thus the

convection heat transfer rate.

increased by as much as 400 percent by roughening the

surface.

• Roughening the surface, of course, also increases the

friction factor and thus the power requirement for the

pump or the fan.

• The convection heat transfer coefficient can also be

increased by inducing pulsating flow by pulse generators,

by inducing swirl by inserting a twisted tape into the

tube.

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