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4/22/2017

Internal Forced Convection

Introduction
• Pipe ─ circular cross section.
• Duct ─ noncircular cross section.
• Tubes ─ small-diameter pipes.
• The fluid velocity changes from zero at the surface
(no-slip) to a maximum at the pipe center.
• It is convenient to work with an
average velocity, which remains
constant in incompressible flow
when the cross-sectional area
is constant.

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Average Velocity

• The value of the average velocity is determined from


the conservation of mass principle
m& = ρVavg AC = ∫ ρ u ( r ) dA
Ac
C (1)

• For incompressible flow in a circular pipe of radius R

∫ ρ u ( r ) dA C

R
ρ u ( r ) 2π rdr 2
R
= 2 ∫ u ( r ) rdr
Ac 0
Vavg = =
ρ AC ρπ R 2 R 0
(2)

Average Temperature

• It is convenient to define the value of the mean


temperature Tm from the conservation of
energy principle.
• The energy transported by the fluid through a
cross section in actual flow must be equal to
the energy that would be transported through
the same cross section if the fluid were at a
constant temperature Tm
& pTm = ∫ c pT ( r ) δ m& =
E& fluid = mc ∫ ρ c T ( r ) u ( r )VdA
p c
(3)
m& Ac

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• For incompressible flow in a circular pipe of radius R

∫ c T ( r ) δ m& ∫ c T ( r ) ρu ( r ) 2π rdr
m&
p
Ac
p

Tm = =
& p
mc ρVavg (π R 2 ) c p (4)
R
2
Vavg R 2 ∫0
= T ( r ) u ( r ) rdr

• The mean temperature Tm of a fluid changes during


heating or cooling.

Idealized Actual

Note that the mean temperature Tm of a fluid changes during


heating or cooling.
Also, the fluid properties in internal flow are usually evaluated
at the bulk mean fluid temperature, which is the arithmetic
average of the mean temperatures at the inlet and the exit.
That is, Tb = (Tm, i + Tm, e)/2.

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Laminar and Turbulent Flow in


Tubes
• For flow in a circular tube, the Reynolds number is
defined as
ρVavg D Vavg D (5)
Re = =
µ ν
• For flow through noncircular tubes D is replaced by
the hydraulic diameter Dh.
4A
Dh = c (6)
P
• laminar flow: Re<2300
• fully turbulent: Re>10,000.

The Entrance Region


• Consider a fluid entering a circular pipe at a uniform
velocity.
• Because of the no-slip condition a velocity gradient
develops along the pipe.
• The flow in a pipe is divided into two regions:
– the boundary layer region, and
– the and the irrotational (core) flow region.
• The thickness of this
boundary layer Irrotational Boundary
layer
flow
increases in the flow
direction until it
reaches the pipe
center.

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• Hydrodynamic entrance region ─ the region from


the pipe inlet to the point at which the boundary layer
merges at the centerline.
• Hydrodynamically fully developed region ─ the
region beyond the entrance region in which the
velocity profile is fully developed and remains
unchanged.
• The velocity profile in the fully developed region is
– parabolic in laminar flow, and
– somewhat flatter or fuller in turbulent flow.

Thermal Entrance Region


• Consider a fluid at a uniform temperature entering a circular
tube whose surface is maintained at a different temperature.
• Thermal boundary layer along the tube is developing.
• The thickness of this boundary layer increases in the flow
direction until the boundary layer reaches the tube center.
• Thermal entrance region.
• Thermally fully developed region ─ the region beyond the
thermal entrance region in which the dimensionless
temperature profile
expressed as
(Ts-T)/(
)/(T
Ts-Tm)
remains unchanged.

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– Hydrodynamically fully developed:


∂u ( r , x )
= 0 → u = u (r ) (7)
∂x
– Thermally fully developed:

∂  Ts ( x ) − T ( r , x ) 
 =0 (8)
∂x  Ts ( x ) − Tm ( x ) 

∂  Ts − T  − ( ∂T ∂r ) r = R
  = ≠ f ( x ) (9)
∂r  Ts − Tm  r = R Ts − Tm

• Surface heat flux can be expressed as


∂T k ( ∂T ∂r ) r = R
q& s = hx (Ts − Tm ) = k → hx = (10)
∂r r=R Ts − Tm
• For thermally fully developed region From (Eq. (9))

( ∂T ∂r ) r = R
≠ f ( x)
Ts − Tm

hx ≠ f ( x ) Fully developed flow

hx = constant Fully developed flow

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The Heat Transfer coefficient and


Friction factor
Developing Fully
region developed
region

Entry Lengths
Laminar flow
– Hydrodynamic
Lh ,laminar ≈ 0.05 Re⋅ D (11)
– Thermal
Lt ,laminar ≈ 0.05 Re⋅ Pr⋅ D = Pr⋅ Lh,laminar (12)

Turbulent flow
– Hydrodynamic
Lh ,turbulent = 1.359 D ⋅ Re1 4 (13)

– Thermal (approximate)
Lh ,turbulent ≈ Lt ,turbulent ≈ 10 D (14)

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Turbulent flow Nusselt Number


• The Nusselt numbers are much
higher in the entrance region.
• The Nusselt number reaches
a constant value at a distance
of less than 10 diameters.
• The Nusselt numbers for the
uniform surface temperature and uniform surface heat
flux conditions are identical in the fully developed
regions, and nearly identical in the entrance regions.
 Nusselt number is insensitive to the type of
thermal boundary condition.

General Thermal Analysis


• In the absence of any work interactions, the conservation
of energy equation for the steady flow of a fluid in a tube
Q& = q& A = mc
s s
& (T − T ) (W)
p e i
(15)

• The thermal conditions at the surface can usually be


approximated as:
– constant surface temperature, or
– constant surface heat flux.

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Surface heat flux is expressed as:

(16)

where hx is the local heat transfer coefficient and Ts and Tm are the
surface and the mean fluid temperatures at that location.
 Note that the mean fluid temperature Tm of a fluid flowing in a tube
must change during heating or cooling.
As in the fully developed flow, hx = h = constant,
the surface temperature Ts must change when = constant, and
the surface heat flux must change when Ts = constant.
Thus we may have either Ts = constant or = constant at the
surface of a tube, but not both.

Constant Surface Heat Flux


• In the case of constant heat flux, the rate of heat transfer can
also be expressed as
Q& = q& A = mc
s
& (T − T ) (W)
s p e i (17)
• Then the mean fluid temperature at the tube exit becomes
q& A
Te = Ti + s s (18)
mc& p
• The mean fluid temperature increases linearly in the flow direction
since the surface area increases linearly in the flow direction (As is
equal to the perimeter, which is constant, times the tube length).

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• The surface temperature in the


case of constant surface heat
flux can be determined from
q&
q& s = h (Ts − Tm ) → Ts = Tm + s
h
(19)
• In the fully developed region,
the surface temperature Ts will
also increase linearly in the
flow direction
• since h is constant and thus
Ts - Tm = constant (Figure).
• Of course this is true when the
fluid properties remain
constant during flow.

• Applying the steady-flow energy balance


to a tube slice of thickness dx, the slope
of the mean fluid temperature Tm can be
determined
dTm q&s p
& p dTm = q&s ( pdx ) →
mc = = constant (20)
dx mc & p
• Noting that both the heat flux and h (for
fully developed flow) are constants
dTm dTs (21)
=
dx dx
• In the fully developed region (Ts-Tm=constant)

∂  Ts − T  1  ∂Ts ∂T  ∂T dTs
 =0→  −  =0→ =
∂x  Ts − Tm  Ts − Tm  ∂x ∂x  ∂x dx
(22)

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• Combining Eqs. 20, 21, and 22 gives


∂T dTs dTm q&s p
= = = = constant (23)
∂x dx & p
dx mc
.
• For a circular tube, p= 2πR and m = ρVm Ac = ρVm(πR2),
and Eq. 23 becomes
∂T dTs dTm 2q&s
= = = = constant (24)
∂x dx dx ρVavg c p R

FIGURE
The shape of the temperature
profile remains unchanged in the
fully developed region of a tube
subjected to constant surface heat flux.

Constant Surface Temperature


• The energy balance on a differential control volume

δ Q& = mc
& p dTm = h (Ts − Tm ) dAs (25)
• Since the mean temperature of the fluid Tm increases in the flow
direction as a result of heat transfer, so the heat flux decays with x.
• We can write, (dTm=-d(Ts-Tm)) as the surface temperature is
constant and dAs=pdx, therefore,

d (Ts − Tm ) hp (26)
=− dx
Ts − Tm & p
mc

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• Integrating Eq. 26 from x=0 (tube inlet where Tm=Ti)


to x=L (tube exit where Tm=Te) gives
Ts − Te hA
ln =− s (27)
Ts − Ti & p
mc
• Where As=pL
• Taking the exponential of both sides and solving for
Te
Te = Ts − (Ts − Ti ) exp ( −hpL mc
& p) (28)
• or
Tm ( x ) = Ts − (Ts − Ti ) exp ( −hpx mc
& p)

• The temperature difference between the fluid and the


surface decays exponentially in the flow direction, and the
rate of decay depends on the magnitude of the exponent
& p
hAs mc
• This dimensionless parameter is
called the number of transfer
units (NTU).
– Large NTU value – increasing tube
length marginally increases heat
transfer rate.
– Small NTU value – heat transfer increases
significantly with increasing tube length.

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• Solving Eq. 27 for mcp gives


__
hAs
& p=
mc (29)
ln (Ts − Te ) (Ts − Ti ) 
• Substituting this into Eq. 12
Q& = mc
& p (Te − Ti ) (W)

Q& = mc
& p = hAs ∆Tln (30)
where
Ti − Te ∆Te − ∆Ti
∆Tln = = (31)
ln (Ts − Te ) (Ts − Ti )  ln [ ∆Te ∆Ti ]
∆Τln is the logarithmic mean temperature
difference.

Problem:
Water enters a 2.5-cm-internal-diameter thin copper tube of a
heat exchanger at 15°C at a rate of 0.3 kg/s, and is heated by
steam condensing outside at 120°C. If the average heat transfer
coefficient is 800 W/m2.C, determine the length of the tube
required in order to heat the water to 115°C

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Problem:

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Laminar Flow in Tubes


Assumptions:
• steady laminar flow, • The velocity profile u(r)
• incompressible fluid, remains unchanged in
• constant properties, the flow direction.
• fully developed region, • no motion in the radial
and direction.
• straight circular tube. • no acceleration.

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• Consider a ring-shaped
differential volume element.
• A force balance on the volume
element in the flow direction
gives

( 2π rdrP ) x − ( 2π rdrP ) x + dx
+ ( 2π rdrxτ )r − ( 2π rdrxτ )r + dr = 0
(34)

• Dividing by 2πdrdx and rearranging


Px + dx − Px ( rτ )r + dr − ( rτ )r (35)
r + =0
dx dr

• Taking the limit as dr, dx → 0 gives


dP d ( rτ ) (36)
r + =0
dx dr
• Substituting τ =µ(du/dr) gives
µ d  du  dP (37)
 r  =
r dr  dr  dx
• Rearranging and integrating it twice to give
1  dP 
u (r ) =   + C1 ln r + C2
(38)
4 µ  dx 
• Boundary Conditions:
– symmetry about the centerline ∂u/∂r=0 at r=0,
– no-slip condition u=0 at r=R.

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• Eq. 38 with the boundary conditions


R 2  dP   r2 
u (r ) = −   1 −  (39)
4 µ  dx   R 2 
• Substituting Eq. 39 into Eq. 2, and performing the
integration gives the average velocity
2 R 2  dP   r2 
R R
2
Vavg = 2 ∫ u ( r ) rdr = − 2 ∫   1 −  rdr
R 0 R 0 4 µ  dx   R 2 
R 2  dP  (40)
=−  
8µ  dx 
• Combining the last two equations, the velocity profile is
rewritten as
 r2 
u ( r ) = 2Vavg 1 − 2  ; umax = 2Vavg (42)
 R 
(41)

Pressure Drop
• One implication from Eq. 37 is that the pressure
drop gradient (dP/dx) must be constant (the left
side is a function only of r, and the right side is a
function only of x).
• Integrating from x=0 where the pressure is P1 to
x=L where the pressure is P2 gives
dP P2 − P1 (43)
=
dx L
• Substituting Eq. 43 into the Vavg expression in Eq.
40 8µ LV 32 µ LV
avg avg
∆P = P1 − P2 = 2
= 2
(44)
R D

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• A pressure drop due to viscous effects represents an


irreversible pressure loss.
• It is convenient to express the pressure loss for all
types of fully developed internal flows in terms of the
dynamic pressure and the friction factor
dynamic pressure
}
}factor L
friction
ρVavg2
(45)
∆PL = f ⋅ ⋅
D 2
• Setting Eqs. 44 and 45 equal to each other and
solving for f gives

64 µ 64
– Circular tube, laminar: f = = (46)
ρ DVavg Re

Once the pressure drop is available, the required pumping


power is determined from
(47)

(48)

This equation is known as the Poiseuille’s Law, and this flow is


called the Hagen–Poiseuille flow.

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Temperature Profile and the Nusselt


Number
• Energy is transferred by mass in the
x-direction, and by conduction in the
r-direction.
• The steady flow energy balance for a
cylindrical shell element can be
expressed as mc & pTx + dx + Q& r − Q& r + dr = 0
& pTx − mc (49)
• Substituting
m& = ρ uAc = ρ u ( 2π rdr )
and dividing by 2πrdrdx gives, after rearranging
T −T 1 Q& r + dr − Q& r
ρ c p u x + dx x = − (50)
dx 2π rdx dr

∂T 1 ∂Q& (51)
• or u =−
∂x 2 ρ c pπ rdx ∂r
∂Q& ∂  ∂T  ∂  ∂T 
• Since =  − k 2π rdx  = −2π kdx  r 
∂r ∂r  ∂r  ∂r  ∂r 
(52)
Eq. 51 becomes
∂T α ∂  ∂T  k
u = r  ; α= (53)
∂x r dr  ∂r  ρcp

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Constant Surface Heat Flux


• Substituting Eqs. 24 and 41 into Eq.53
 r2  ∂T 2q&s
u ( r ) = 2Vavg 1 − 2  = = constant
 R  ∂x ρVavg c p R
(41) (24)

∂T α ∂  ∂T  (54)
u = r 
∂x r dr  ∂r 

4q&s  r 2  1 d  dT  (55)
1 − = r 
kR  R 2  r dr  dr 

• Separating the variables and integrating twice


q&s  2 r 4 
T=  r − 2  + C1r + C2 (56)
kR  4R 
• Boundary conditions

∂T ( r = 0 ) C1=0
– Symmetry at r=0: =0
∂r
C2
– At r=R: T(r=R)=Ts

q&s R  3 r 2 r4 
T = Ts −  − +  (57)
k  4 R2 4R4 

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• The bulk mean temperature Tm is determined by substituting


the velocity and temperature profile relations (Eqs. 41 and
57) into Eq. 4 and performing the integration

11 q&s R
(58) Tm = Ts − q&s = h (Ts − Tm )
24 k

24 k 48 k k
h= = = 4.36 (59)
11 R 11 D D
Constant heat flux (circular tube, laminar)
hD
Nu = = 4.36 (60)
k
Constant Surface temperature (circular tube, laminar)
hD
Nu = = 3.66 (61)
k

Laminar Flow in Noncircular Tubes

• The friction factor (f)


and the Nusselt number
relations are given in
Table 8–1 for fully
developed laminar flow
in tubes of various cross
sections.

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Developing Laminar Flow in the


Entrance Region
• For a circular tube of length L subjected to constant
surface temperature, the average Nusselt number for
the thermal entrance region (hydrodynamically
developed flow)
0.065 ( D L ) Re⋅ Pr (62)
Nu = 3.66 + 23
1 + 0.04 ( D L ) Re⋅ Pr 
• For flow between isothermal parallel plates

0.03 ( Dh L ) Re⋅ Pr (63)


Nu = 7.54 + 23
1 + 0.016 ( Dh L ) Re⋅ Pr 

Problem:
Consider the flow of oil at 20°C in a 30-cm-diameter pipeline at
an average velocity of 2 m/s (Fig). A 200-m-long section of the
pipeline passes through icy waters of a lake at 0°C. Measurements
indicate that the surface temperature of the pipe is very nearly
0°C. Disregarding the thermal resistance of the pipe material,
determine (a) the temperature of the oil when the pipe leaves the
lake, (b) the rate of heat transfer from the oil, and (c) the pumping
power required to overcome the pressure losses and to maintain
the flow of the oil in the pipe.

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Turbulent flow in Tubes


• Most correlations for the friction and heat transfer
coefficients in turbulent flow are based on experimental
studies.
• For smooth tubes, the friction factor in turbulent flow can
be determined from the explicit first Petukhov equation
−2
f = ( 0.79 ln Re− 1.64 ) 3000<Re<5 ×106 (64)

• The Nusselt number in turbulent flow can be calculated by


the Colburn equation

(65)

• For fully developed turbulent flow the more accurate


Nusselt number can be calculated from the Dittus–Boelter
equation
Re > 10, 000 n = 0.4 heating 
Nu = 0.023Re0.8 Pr n  
0.7 ≤ Pr ≤ 160 n = 0.3 cooling 
(66)
• More complex but accurate relations such as the second
Petukhov equation expressed as

(67)

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• Modified correlations are available for/due to :


– liquid metals (Pr<<1),
– large variation in fluid properties due to a large
temperature difference,
– surface roughness,
– flow through tube annulus.
• Original correlations are also approximately
valid for:
– developing Turbulent Flow in the Entrance
Region,
– turbulent Flow in Noncircular Tubes.

Problem:
Water is to be heated from 15°C to 65°C as it flows through a 3-
cm-internal-diameter 5-m-long tube (Fig). The tube is equipped
with an electric resistance heater that provides uniform heating
throughout the surface of the tube. The outer surface of the
heater is well insulated, so that in steady operation all the heat
generated in the heater is transferred to the water in the tube. If
the system is to provide hot water at a rate of 10 L/min,
determine the power rating of the resistance heater. Also,
estimate the inner surface temperature of the pipe at the exit.

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Problem:

Hot air at atmospheric pressure and 80°C enters an 8–m-long


un-insulated square duct of cross section 0.2 m x 0.2 m that
passes through the attic of a house at a rate of 0.15 m3/s (Fig).
The duct is observed to be nearly isothermal at 60°C.
Determine the exit temperature of the air and the rate of heat
loss from the duct to the attic space.

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Flow through Tube Annulus

Annular flow is associated with two


Nusselt numbers— Nui on the inner
tube surface and Nuo on the outer tube
surface— since it may involve heat
transfer on both surfaces.

The Nusselt numbers for fully


developed laminar flow with one
surface isothermal and the other
adiabatic are given in Table

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Problem:
In a long annulus (35 mm ID and 50 mm OD), water is heated by
maintaining the outer surface of inner tube at 60oC. Water enters
at 20oC and leaves at 34oC, while its flow velocity is 2 m/s.
Estimate the heat transfer coefficient.

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Heat Transfer Enhancement

• Tubes with rough surfaces have much higher heat


transfer coefficients than tubes with smooth surfaces.
• Therefore, tube surfaces are often intentionally
roughened, corrugated, or finned in order to enhance the
convection heat transfer coefficient and thus the
convection heat transfer rate.

• Heat transfer in turbulent flow in a tube has been


increased by as much as 400 percent by roughening the
surface.
• Roughening the surface, of course, also increases the
friction factor and thus the power requirement for the
pump or the fan.
• The convection heat transfer coefficient can also be
increased by inducing pulsating flow by pulse generators,
by inducing swirl by inserting a twisted tape into the
tube.

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