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Annie Broadhead Ginni Light

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Student’s Book
Reading and Use of
UNIT Page Vocabulary Grammar English 1, 2, 3, 4
Education & The Collocations: Present Simple and
RUE1: Trust the teacher
Mind adjective + noun Present Continuous RUE2: Studying with background
page 8 Education Articles: a/an/the/zero music
RUE3: Education can change lives

People & Success Describing people Past Simple and

RUE2: The meaning of success
page 18 Phrasal verbs Past Continuous RUE3: Going for Gold
RUE4: Key word transformation

Society & Equality Afixes: Sufixes and Present Perfect

RUE1: Politician lives as a migrant
page 28 Preixes Simple and for a day
Continuous RUE2: Getting closer to equal pay
Question tags for women in the US
RUE3: Exploring the different
experiences teenagers have

Entertainment & Confusing words Used to and would

RUE2: Technology is becoming
Sociability Comparatives and more human
page 38 superlatives RUE3: Video didn’t kill the radio
RUE4: Key word transformation

The Environment & Environmental Future forms 1

RUE1: Vertical farming
New Technologies phenomena Future forms 2 RUE2: Commuting by bike in
page 48 Linkers of cause and London
effect RUE3: Aren’t temperature
changes natural?

Fashion & Status Apostrophes and Zero, irst and second

RUE1: No one should die for
page 58 possessives conditionals fashion
Compound nouns RUE2: Allergic to woollen clothes?
Clothes Try alpaca
RUE3: Key word transformation

Sport & Sport Modal verbs to

RUE1: Is competitive eating the
Competition Phrasal verbs express ability and world’s strangest sport?
permission RUE2: The Eton Wall Game
page 68
RUE3: The history of the Olympic

Crime & Crime 1 Be/Get used to +

RUE1: Pickpocket picks the wrong
Punishment Crime 2 verb + -ing person
page 78 Preixes Past Perfect Simple RUE2: A hair for a hair – the
and Continuous punishment to it the crime
Past Perfect and Past RUE4: Key word transformation

FIRST-style activities are labelled RUE (Reading and Use of English), W (Writing), L (Listening) and S (Speaking).
2 The number of the part is also given, e.g. L1 = Listening Part 1.
Reading and Use of
English 5, 6, 7
Writing Listening Speaking

Mind mapping Education Dialogues Talking about yourself

RUE5: Multiple choice W1: Essay L1: Multiple choice S1: Interview
Exam Tip! Exam Strategies Exam Strategies

George Dinning on being sent to An inspirational person The history of money Comparing photographs
outer Mongolia W2: Article L2: Sentence completion S2: Long turn
RUE6: Gapped text Exam Strategies Exam Tip!
Exam Tip!

Blogs An email to a pen friend Aspects of society A sense of community

RUE7: Multiple matching W2: Email L3: Multiple matching S3: Collaborative task
Exam Tip! Exam Tip! Exam Strategies

Secret Cinema Film review An interview with a rock Entertainment &

RUE5: Multiple choice W2: Review star Sociability
L4: Multiple choice S4: Discussion
Exam Strategies Exam Tip!

The ship that is drilling down into Protecting the local Dialogues Talking about where you
the Earth’s crust environment L1: Multiple choice live
RUE6: Gapped text W2: Report S1: Interview
Exam Strategies Exam Tip!

Proiles of four famous fashion An exciting evening Bamboo as a fabric Comparing photographs
designers W2: Story L2: Sentence completion S2: Long turn
RUE7: Multiple matching Exam Strategies
Exam Strategies

Sport – fun or stress? A new sport Sport Sports facilities

RUE5: Multiple choice W2: Email L3: Multiple matching S3: Collaborative task
Exam Strategies

Should teenagers be sent to jail? The punishment should An interview with a Pronunciation
RUE6: Gapped text it the crime criminologist S4: Discussion
Exam Strategies W2: Article L4: Multiple choice
Exam Tip!

Reading and Use of
UNIT Page Vocabulary Grammar English 1, 2, 3, 4
Food & Food Food Modal verbs of
RUE1: Does your food sound
Issues Collocations: verb + certainty/probability good?
page 88 dependent preposition RUE2: Keeping teenagers healthy
RUE3: Eat more algae

Nature & Animals Gerund and Ininitive

RUE2: The kakapo parrot
Endangered Linkers of sequencing RUE3: Shooting wildlife – with a
and addition camera
Collective nouns RUE4: Key word transformation
page 98

Work & Job So and such Relative pronouns

RUE1: Are internships worth it?
Satisfaction Too and enough and relative clauses RUE3: Helpful advice on how to
page 108 Work make those dificult life
RUE4: Key word transformation

Youth Culture & As long as, providing Third conditional

RUE1: The Technology Culture
and provided that Wish and if only and
Changing Values wish and would RUE2: How teenagers see
page 118 Commonly-used themselves
slang If and in case
Future in the past: RUE4: Key word transformation
Phrasal verbs
was/were going to

Festivals & Noun + noun The passive

RUE1: The changing attraction of
Globalisation expressions music festivals
RUE2: Mobile phone throwing
page 128 festival
RUE3: The advantages of

Family & Friends Family and friends Indirect speech

RUE2: Identical twins – but
page 138 Idioms Indirect questions different personalities
Orders and requests RUE3: Talking at or with a friend?
in indirect speech RUE4: Key word transformation

Travel & Ecotravel Travel A lot of/much/many;

RUE1: Green Hotel Trend: Wooden
page 148 Countable and little/few Key Cards
uncountable nouns Modal verbs: RUE3: Bangladesh – visit before
Idioms connected obligation/deduction the tourists come
with travel RUE4: Key word transformation

Health & Health Causative

RUE1: The world’s happiest
Happiness Prepositional phrases country
page 158 Ways of laughing RUE2: Life lessons from the
World’s Happiest Man
RUE4: Key word transformation

FIRST overview page 6 Speaking Bank page 187

Reading and Use of English Bank page 168 Appendices page 188
Writing Bank page 178 Irregular verbs page 190
4 Listening Bank page 183
Reading and Use of
English 5, 6, 7
Writing Listening Speaking

Ban on ugly fruit and vegetables is Modern food production Dialogues Talking about food &
scrapped methods L1: Multiple choice eating
RUE7: Multiple matching W1: Essay Exam Tip! S1: Interview
Exam Strategies

The hunters that became the Nature programmes Wildlife conservation Comparing photographs
hunted W2: Review L2: Sentence completion S2: Long turn
RUE5: Multiple choice Exam Strategies
Exam Tip!

Getting the most from your job Interview preparation Job interviews Facilities for employees
RUE6: Gapped text W2: Report L3: Multiple matching S3: Collaborative task
Exam Strategies Exam Tip!

Teenagers in their own words on The views of young An interview with a Youth culture
the impact of TV people sociologist S4: Discussion
RUE7: Multiple matching W2: Story L4: Multiple choice Exam Strategies
Exam Tip!

The Sundance Film Festival Festivals and traditions Dialogues Festivals

RUE5: Multiple choice W2: Article L1: Multiple choice S4: Discussion
Exam Strategies Exam Tip!

Family relationships Listening to advice Genealogy Comparing photographs

RUE6: Gapped text W1: Essay L2: Sentence completion S2: Long turn
Exam Tip! Exam Strategies

Space Travellers Travel writing Ecotourism Ideas to attract more

RUE7: Multiple matching W2: Review L3: Multiple matching tourists
Exam Tip! Exam Strategies Exam Tip! S3: Collaborative task
Exam Strategies

The Power of Laughter Health and happiness An interview with a A healthy life
RUE5: Multiple choice W2: Report itness professional S4: Discussion
Exam Strategies Exam Strategies L4: Multiple choice Exam Strategies
Exam Strategies

The FIRST Certiicate in English is a Cambridge ESOL exam. It is at level B2 of the Council of Europe
Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) for languages and at level 3 of the Association of
Language Testers in Europe (ALTE) framework. It is divided into four papers as follows:
Reading and Use of English – 1 hour 15 minutes
Writing – 1 hour 20 minutes
Listening – approximately 40 minutes
Speaking – 14 minutes

What do you have to do in the FIRST Reading and Use of English test?
Part What you see The task What you do
RUE 1 A continuous piece of text. Answer eight multiple-choice Choose A, B, C or D.
questions. There are four choices
for each answer.
RUE 2 A continuous piece of text with 8 Think of the most appropriate word Write one word only for each gap.
gaps corresponding to one word. to fill each gap.
RUE 3 A continuous piece of text with 8 Change the stems of the words to Write one word only for each gap.
gaps corresponding to one word. form the missing words.
The stems of the missing words
are given beside the text.
RUE 4 Six separate sentences, each Complete the second sentence so Write your answer in 2-5 words.
followed by a similar sentence that it has a similar meaning to
with a gap and a key word. the first including the key word
given. You cannot change the key
RUE 5 A continuous piece of text. Answer six multiple-choice Choose A, B, C or D.
questions on the text. There are
four choices for each answer.
RUE 6 A gapped continuous piece of text. Six sentences have been removed Choose a sentence A-G for each
from the text and placed in gap 37-42. There is one extra
jumbled order. sentence.
RUE 7 A text or several short texts. Answer ten questions on the Locate the specific information in
text(s). the text(s) which matches the

What do you have to do in the FIRST Writing test?

Part What you see The task What you do
W1 – this is A statement. Write an essay presenting your Write 140-190 words in an
compulsory argument. appropriate style.
W2 – choose A call for an article for an Write an article giving e.g. Write 140-190 words in an
one of the English-language magazine or descriptions, examples, and appropriate style.
following newspaper. anecdotes.
A situation outlining the context. Write an email or a letter in Write 140-190 words in an
response. appropriate style.
A situation outlining the context Write a report in response giving Write 140-190 words in an
(First Exam only). factual information and making appropriate style.
suggestions or recommendations.

Health & Happiness

A call for a review for an English- Write a review in response Write 140-190 words in an
language magazine, newspaper describing e.g. a film and express appropriate style.
or website. a personal opinion.
Set text questions (First for Write e.g. an article, essay, letter, Write 140-190 words in an
Schools only). report or review on the set text. appropriate style.
The beginning or end sentence of Write a short story developing a Write 140-190 words.
a story (First for Schools only). clear storyline from the prompt

What do you have to do in the FIRST Listening test?

Part What you hear The task What you do
L1 Eight short unrelated extracts from Answer a multiple-choice question Choose A, B or C.
monologues or exchanges about each text. There are three
between interacting speakers. choices for each answer.
L2 A longer monologue. Complete ten sentences with the Complete the ten sentences.
information you hear.
L3 Five short related monologues. Match five sentences to the Match the sentences to the
information you hear. speakers 1-5. There are three extra
L4 An interview or an exchange Answer seven multiple-choice Choose A, B or C.
between two speakers. questions on the text. There are
three choices for each answer.

What do you have to do in the FIRST Speaking test?

Part What you talk to The task What you do
S1 The interlocutor. Examiner’s questions Two minutes
General questions about yourself, your
S2 The interlocutor and your partner. Two photographs on a theme e.g. people One minute for each
This is your individual ‘long turn’. making music, pointing out the candidate plus 30-second
similarities and differences while the response from the second
interlocutor and your partner listen. You candidate
will be asked to comment on your
partner’s photographs e.g. which type of
music would you prefer to listen to?
S3 Your partner. This is a two-way You maintain a conversation with your Four minutes
conversation between you and partner in response to written prompts
your partner. e.g. agreeing/disagreeing, exchanging
ideas/suggesting etc.
S4 The interlocutor and your partner. A more in-depth discussion of the topic Four minutes
This is a discussion related to the with your partner, responding to
Part 3 topic. questions asked by the interlocutor e.g.
expressing/justifying opinions etc.

1 Education &
The Mind

Vocabulary: Reading and Use of

Collocations: adjective English: Part 5
+ noun

Vocabulary: Education

Grammar: Present Simple

and Present Continuous

Articles: a/an/the/zero
Speaking: Part 1

Listening: Part 1

Writing: Part 1


1 Look at these pictures. Which school subjects do 2 These are the most popular subjects to study at
they represent? university in the UK. The letters are jumbled up.
What are the subjects?

1 awl 4 agemmnetan (studies)

2 sidegn (studies) 5 essbiusn (studies)
3 ogychpsyol 6 terpumoc cenesci

3 In pairs, discuss these questions.

1 What is your favourite school subject? Why?
A B 2 Which subjects do you find easy/difficult?
3 Do you think it’s important to go to university?
Why/Why not?
4 Some people say that school is the happiest
time of your life. What do you think?
5 What’s your definition of a good teacher?

Education & The Mind

6 Choose the correct adjective for each sentence.

1 Failing the exam was a ......... point that he didn’t
Collocations: adjective + noun like to talk about.
4 In the first paragraph of the text on page 10, you A sore C difficult
can find the words tough problem. This is a common B hard D hurtful
adjective + noun collocation. Collocations don’t
2 If you take the ......... cut, you will get to school
follow any grammatical rules.
much faster.
Work with a partner. Tick (✓) the adjective + noun A quick C easy
collocations which are commonly used. B narrow D short

3 The student gave a ......... excuse for not handing
1 decision
in his homework.
times A binding C convincing
haircut B empty D fruitless
steak 4 Having ......... parents can be both a good and a
tough bad thing.
A right C obsessed
pressure B protective D current
problem 5 Children who have ......... minds often do well at
music school.
A asking C requesting
2 wind ✓ B enquiring D demanding
7 Discuss with your partner how you are going to
woman remember new vocabulary. Here are some ideas.
Then add two more ideas of your own.
influence • Write a list either on paper or on your
cough computer.

cold • Use a card system and put the new

words/expressions onto the card. It’s a
argument good idea to put the new word/
expression into a sentence because it is

3 easier to remember in context. You could
also translate it into your own language
problem and put it on the back of the card.

5 Now write ten sentences using some of the

collocations from exercise 4.

Education is the passport to a good job but
unbelievably, more and more young people are
leaving school without a good standard of literacy
or numeracy and many are also unable to hold a
basic conversation in a foreign language. This is a
tough problem that many governments are trying
to solve: in today’s world, what you know
determines what kind of job you can get and the
more you know, the more you earn. The same is
true for English – English is the language of
business, the Internet, and travel and without
having a reasonable linguistic level, it might be
more difficult to get an international job. But You can add another series of lines, representing
how do you go about learning the language in an different associated ideas or themes, to the
effective way? One way you can help yourself original lines if you wish. You can also use colours,
learn that tricky vocabulary is to use a technique symbols, or arrows to link ideas, depending on
called mind mapping. how complex your original topic is.
Mind maps have been used for centuries in After years of being regarded with scepticism by
learning, memory, brainstorming, visual thinking, educators, mind mapping is currently helping
and problem solving. The idea of representing dyslexics write and achieve high marks at school
ideas or thoughts diagrammatically is not a new and university. Dyslexia is a specific learning
one. As early as the third century, Porphyry of difficulty which mainly affects the development
Tyros, a philosopher, produced map-like images of literacy and language-related skills. It may
to explain Aristotle’s philosophical concepts. In result in difficulties with reading, time
recent times, some of the earliest examples of management, sequencing, organising thoughts
mind maps were developed by Tony Buzan, a clearly, and spelling. Yet dyslexics are often
British psychologist, who maintains he pioneered innovative, lateral thinkers, creative, good
contemporary mind mapping. He argues that troubleshooters, and great problem solvers. Mind
while traditional pages force readers to scan from mapping can help people with dyslexia as it can
left to right, people actually tend to scan a page in consist solely of images.
a non-linear fashion. While traditional learning However, not everyone is a fan of mind mapping
such as taking notes uses very few of the brain’s and some researchers have found that it has a
resources, mind maps use all the skills, combining limited impact on memory. Yet others have found
logic, words, colour and images. that learners prefer to use more conventional
A mind map is often created around a single word methods such as taking notes and resist using
and you add associated ideas, concepts, or words. mind mapping because it is an unfamiliar
To build a mind map, you first start with a blank technique. Although the scientific community
piece of paper on which you draw a picture of the remains divided, mind mapping has proved to be
topic or write the topic word you are trying to helpful for some students – so why not try it and
learn about. You can then draw up to nine lines see if it helps you to remember what can appear
representing words or themes connected with the to be illogical collocations.
topic, radiating out from the centre.

Education & The Mind

4 According to the writer, building a mind map

Reading and Use of English often involves
PART 5 – Multiple choice A using complicated equipment.
8 You are going to read a magazine article about mind B using good artistic skills.
mapping, which is a study technique. Before you C drawing lines from a central circle.
read the text, discuss these questions with a partner.
D drawing lines between unrelated
1 Do you know what mind mapping is? What do topics.
you think it is? 5 Teachers think that mind mapping
2 Do you think it’s important to study foreign A can help people who have difficulty
languages at school? Why/Why not? spelling.
3 Do you think you need a good memory to study B is a waste of time for most people.
languages? Why/Why not?
C can help learners express themselves.
4 Do you think you have a good memory?
D can get students into university.
9 Read the text on page 10. For questions 1-6, choose 6 The writer suggests that mind mapping
the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best A will probably not help you learn new
according to the text. vocabulary.
1 How does the writer feel about the fact that some B may be a method to help you learn new
teenagers leave school with few skills? vocabulary.
A anxious C surprised C is the only way to learn new vocabulary.
B indifferent D irritated
D will definitely help you learn new
2 In the second paragraph, what does the writer say vocabulary.
about Tony Buzan?
A He supports the traditional view of reading. 10 Have you ever used mind maps? Do you think they
B He is the author of several books on would be a useful way to remember information?
C He uses mind maps frequently.
D He claims he developed modern mind
maps. Education
3 When working with mind maps, people have to 11 Use this simple mind map to help you remember
words connected with education. Write at least five
A have good reading skills.
words for each category. Use different colours or
B use the right-hand side of the brain.
drawings to give your mind map impact.
C take extra notes.
D use a range of the brain’s resources.

grammar places
aspects chemistry
of studying
education subjects
pencil case

materials university

Articles: a/an/the/zero
See page 15
Present Simple and Present Continuous
15 Read the following paragraph with your partner and
See page 15 insert articles a/an/the where you think it’s necessary.
12 Read the paragraph below about deciding on a
future career. Underline the verbs in the Present
Simple and circle the verbs in the Present

You are sitting around on the couch one day

watching TV and the thought crosses your mind,
‘This is so boring, there must be better things to do
with my time.’ Let’s say you want to improve your
chances of getting a good job in the future in
something you really like. What you need to do is to
teach yourself a skill that is valuable and that
people are willing to pay for. For example, you like
watching films and you want to know how films are
So you’ve decided to make 1 ......... film. It looks
made. So you go out and buy yourself a camera
so easy when you watch them on TV but it turns
and start shooting a film; then you organise your
out to be incredibly difficult to make 2 ......... good
friends and write a script and make a short film. It’s
one. It’s 3 ......... lot harder than it looks to create
as simple as that. Or is it?
4  ......... interesting story. It’s also much harder
than it looks to get people to do what you want.
13 In pairs, answer the following questions. So you need to start reading books on how to
1 When do we use the Present Simple? make 5  ......... film and you also need to learn
about equipment you need to use to edit and
2 How do we form the interrogative and negative?
create 6 ......... special effects. 7 ......... good idea
3 When do we use the Present Continuous?
is to talk to people who actually make films – you
4 Can you think of five verbs we normally don’t use could get 8 ......... job at 9 ......... local TV station
in the Present Continuous? (be 10  ......... volunteer if necessary) or take
11  ......... tour there and meet 12  ......... few
14 Put the verbs into the correct tense, Present Simple people. If you really want to make films, this will be
or Present Continuous, in the sentences below.
13 ......... most fun and interesting thing you have
1 Every Monday, after school, I ...... basketball. (play) ever done and in time you will learn 14  .........
2 I usually ....... maths a lot but I ....... this lesson. skills you need. Suddenly you will find you have
(enjoy, not/enjoy) something that you might want to study, and most
importantly you will have started your career.
3 What ....... at the moment? ....... to come to the
cinema? (you/do, you/want)
4 Barack Obama ....... from Hawaii but ....... in 16 With your partner, think about and then write down
three rules for when we use a, an, the and the zero
Washington now. (come, live)
5 The earth ....... the sun. (orbit)
6 She ....... playing double bass but she ....... the Frequent Mistakes
electric guitar. (like, prefer)
I come from Italy.
7 They ....... French at the moment but I ....... NOT I’m coming from Italy.
Mandarin ....... more useful. (study, believe, be) Oh no! It’s raining!
8 ....... anywhere interesting on holiday this year? NOT Oh no! It rains!

Education & The Mind

19 Now work with a different partner. Ask and answer

Speaking four of the questions in exercise 17. This time try to
PART 1 – Interview improve your performance by thinking about the
points in exßercise 18.
Exam Strategies
1 At the beginning of the test, smile. It’ll make Listening
you feel better and create a good first PART 1 – Multiple choice
2 In Part 1 you will be asked questions about Exam Strategies
yourself so answer from your own
1 You will hear the context sentence on the
recording first. Read the question and
3 Relax and speak clearly and confidently.
options carefully.
4 Listen carefully and answer the interlocutor’s
2 Listen for paraphrases of the correct answers.
questions fully, not with just one-word
3 Check that the wrong answers are wrong by
thinking about why they are wrong.
5 Use fillers, e.g., mmm, let me think; oh yes ...
4 Don’t keep thinking about a question when
to give yourself thinking time if necessary.
the next question starts.
5 Don’t choose an answer just because you
17 Read these questions. Then ask and answer the hear the same word as you see on the paper.
questions with a partner. Find out something new
about him/her.

1 Where are you from? 20 You will hear people talking in eight different
situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best
2 What do you like about living in ............?
answer – A, B or C.
3 Do you like studying English?
1 You hear a student talking about his favourite
4 What’s your favourite book?
subject at school. Why does he like it?
5 Where do you find it easy to study?
A It challenges him intellectually.
6 Who do you spend your free time with?
B It can make a difference to the planet.
7 What sort of music do you listen to?
C It combines several topics that interest him.
8 What’s an interesting thing you found out about
recently? 2 You hear a woman talking about the human brain.
What is she doing as she speaks?
18 Tick the things you did in the task above. Which A explaining a theory
things would you like to improve? B criticising a theory
Checklist C justifying a theory
1 I smiled. 3 You overhear two young people talking about
2 I gave interesting answers. their careers. What job do they both have?
3 I spoke clearly in English. A architect
4 I didn’t make many grammatical mistakes. B lawyer
5 I answered the question that was asked. C doctor
6 I didn’t repeat the same word several times. 4 You hear two business students talking about
I used a range of vocabulary. cultural differences. They agree that to be
7 I listened to my partner’s answers. successful in international business you have to
8 I didn’t just give one-word answers. A be aware of different attitudes to time.
9 I didn’t hesitate too much. B learn a little of the other person’s language.
10 I showed interest and enthusiasm. C make sure you address people in the correct way.

PART 1 – Essay
See Writing Bank on page 178
22 You are going to write an essay. Before you start, put
these instructions for essay writing into the correct
A Organise the main points into a logical order.
B Decide how many paragraphs you will write
and what goes into each one.
C Check for range and accuracy of grammar.
D Think about any examples or sub-points that
you can add.
E Read through the essay to make sure that
your ideas come across clearly.
5 You hear a tennis coach talking about a young
F Decide what to write in the introduction.
player called Jack. Why did the coach doubt Jack
G Decide what to write in the conclusion.
could become a good tennis player?
H Brainstorm the main points to include.
A He thought Jack’s stamina was limited.
I Check you have answered the question.
B He thought Jack got a lot of injuries.
J Check for range and suitability of vocabulary.
C He thought it would be financially difficult for Have you repeated words?
Jack’s parents. K Decide if you should write in formal, informal
6 You overhear a girl talking on the phone about or neutral style.
her new school. How does she feel about it?
23 In your English class you have been talking about
A It’s better than she expected. education. Now, your English teacher has asked you
B It’s similar to her last school. to write an essay.
C It’s going to be a challenge. Write an essay using all the notes and give reasons
7 You hear two friends talking about the school film for your point of view. Write your essay in 140-190
club. The girl joined the club in order to words in an appropriate style.

A meet new people

B have opportunities to discuss films Everybody needs a good education to make the
C get ideas for a project she’s working on best of their life. Do you agree with this opinion?

8 You will hear a woman talking about competition Notes

at school. Why does she think it’s a good thing? Write about:
A Because her daughter is doing better at sport 1 opportunities to go to college or university
now. 2 choice of interesting employment
B Because she believes competition is part of 3 ........................................................................
everyday life. (your own idea)

C Because all children can show they are good

at something. ! Exam Tip!
In the exam, you will always be asked to write
21 What is the most difficult aspect of this task for an essay in Part 1. Write your essay in neutral
you? How can you improve it?
or formal style.

Present Simple and Present Articles: a, an, the and zero
Continuous (no) article
The uses of the Present Simple and Present Continuous A countable noun is the name of something that can be
are quite distinct and not interchangeable. counted: one book, two books, etc. An uncountable noun
The Present Simple is used: is the name of something that cannot be counted: milk,
1 to describe a permanent state. money, freedom, justice, etc. An uncountable noun does
not take a or an and does not have a plural form.
– My favourite subject at school is Maths.
Use a or an:
2 to describe repeated or habitual actions.
– I always get up at seven. 1 with a singular countable noun when you mean one
of many.
3 to express general truths.
– Annie is a student (one of many students).
– Two plus two equals four.
2 the first time you use a noun in a paragraph.
4 to give instructions and describe procedures.
– I read a great book last night.
– You plug in the machine and then you press the
power button. Use the:

5 to express the future for timetables. 1 with any noun when the meaning is specific; for
– The exam starts at 1 pm on Friday. example, when the noun names the only one (or one)
of a kind.
6 in conditional and time clauses referring to the future – Neil Armstrong was the first man on the moon (the
(see Grammar Unit 6). only first man).
7 with certain verbs not normally used in the 2 the second time you use that same noun in the same
continuous form: paragraph.
A verbs describing states of mind, emotion, and – The book I read was about…
perception, e.g. think, believe, know, mean, Don’t use a, an, or the:
remember, forget, love, need, see, hear, feel, etc. 1 with an uncountable noun when you mean in general.
B verbs which refer to a permanent state, e.g. be, have, – Higher education is expensive.
belong, contain, consist, cost, equal, fit, depend, etc. 2 with a plural countable noun when you mean in
The Present Continuous is used: general.
– Classical music concerts are very relaxing (in
1 to describe an action happening now.
– I am studying the present tenses at the moment.
2 to describe a temporary state or activity.
– My laptop isn’t working. It broke down this
1 Read the paragraph with your partner and insert
articles a/an/the where necessary.
3 to describe an action happening around the time of
speaking. Every animal you can think of, whether 1 .....
mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, etc, has 2 ..... brain. But
– We’ re studying Hamlet in English.
3 ..... human brain is unique. Although it’s not 4 .....
4 to describe the background to habitual actions.
largest, it gives us 5 ..... power to speak, imagine and
– I listen to music while I’m doing my homework. problem solve. It is 6 ..... amazing organ.
5 to describe changing situations. 7 ..... brain performs 8 ..... incredible number of
– Is your English improving? tasks, such as controlling your body temperature and
6 to express future arrangements. blood pressure. It also accepts 9 ..... flood of
– I am playing tennis at 5 p.m. today. information about 10 ..... world around you.
7 with always to describe irritating or surprising habits. 11 ..... human brain is 12 ..... knot of 100 billion
– He’ s always criticising people and making neurons and support cells where we can store 13 .....
inappropriate comments about them. lifetime of 14 ..... memories.

Part 1 – Multiple-choice cloze
Exam Strategies
• Read the title so that you understand what the text is going to be about.
• Read the whole text first to understand the main ideas expressed.
• Read the sentence where the gap is very carefully as well as the sentences before and after the gap.
• Think about each option carefully before choosing your answer.

For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an
example at the beginning (0).

Trust the teacher

Finland’s education (0) ................ is one of the best in the world – why? To a large (1) ................ it’s
because its teachers are trusted to do whatever it takes to turn young lives around. For example, Anneli
Kalas saw that one of her pupils, a recent immigrant from Kosovo, was (2) ................ all her attempts
to integrate him so she decided to do
something quite (3)  ................ . The
13-year-old boy received something
(4)  ................ different from most other
13-year-olds. Anneli took him (5) ................
as her private student. When the boy wasn’t
studying science, geography and maths, he
sat next to Anneli’s desk at the front of her
other classes, taking books from a tall
(6)  ................ , slowly reading one, then
another, then devouring them by the
dozens. By the end of the year, the son of
Kosovo war (7) ................ , had conquered
his (8)  ................ country’s vowel-rich
language and arrived at the realisation that
he could, in fact, learn.

0 A category B duty C system D arrangement

1 A amount B extent C range D level
2 A struggling B arguing C disapproving D resisting
3 A intense B ultimate C extreme D severe
4 A entirely B fully C perfectly D thoroughly
5 A off B out C at D on
6 A storey B pile C peak D summit
7 A settler B ancestors C refugees D companions
8 A adopted B legal C faithful D authentic

Part 2 – Open cloze
For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each
gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Studying with background music

Research shows (0) .............................. music stimulates different parts of the brain. But does listening
to music while you study increase (1) .............................. reduce your ability to study? It seems that
(2) .............................. depends on the individual. Some students can study effectively while listening
to music whereas others are distracted (3) .............................. any external stimulus.
One recent experiment produced interesting results. Students who studied while listening to music had
lower average test scores (4) .............................. those who did (5) .............................. . However, the
scores varied depending on (6)  .............................. the students routinely played music while they
studied and the type of music played.
Many students claim that listening to classical music helps (7) .............................. concentrate. This is
called ‘the Mozart effect’; a set of research results assert that listening to classical music can have short-
term benefits (8)  .............................. as increased memory. In fact, many students report that they
study better while listening to music only when the music has no lyrics.

Part 3 – Word formation

For questions 1-8, read the text below. Use the word given in capital letters at the end of some of the lines to form a
new word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Education can change lives

For (0) .............................. living in many parts of Africa going to school is only a dream. CHILD
Education represents the only way out of a life of (1) .............................. for them. Across POOR
Africa millions of young people live on less than 1 Euro a day but if they can get
an education, they might be able to get a better (2) .............................. job later in life. But PAY
schools are also playing an (3) .............................. important role in helping young INCREASE
people protect (4) .............................. against diseases that can spread through poor THEM
communities. Simple information about hygiene can help the (5) .............................. of PREVENT
diseases and (6) .............................. saves lives. Many schools also provide a hot lunch DOUBT
and this may be the only meal many (7) .............................. youngsters get. GROW
Finally, going to school helps young people have more (8) .............................. . They CONFIDENT
are less likely to tolerate violence and abuse and more likely to invest in
improving their communities.

2 People & Success

Vocabulary: Reading and Use of

Describing people English: Part 6

Vocabulary: Phrasal verbs

Grammar: Past Simple and

Past Continuous
Writing: Part 2

Listening: Part 2

Speaking: Part 2


1 Look at the pictures and talk about these questions.
1 What kind of success does each picture represent? 3 Who is thinking what? Match the people in pictures
2 Which kind of success is the most important to you A-D to what they are thinking, 1-5. There is one extra
and why? thought which you do not need to use.

1 Money doesn’t buy you happiness but it

certainly makes life a lot easier.
2 I hope I can inspire young people to follow their
3 Seeing the fans relate to my music is a real
4 Education stays with you for life and is worth
every penny.
5 Can’t believe I did it. I’m the fastest man in the

People & Success

6 Read this text about clothes and complete each gap

Vocabulary with a word from exercise 5.
Describing people
2 Put these words into the correct column. Put a People use clothes
minus sign (–) next to any words which you think to express their
have a negative connotation. personality, attitude,
and style. Take a look
teenager • tallish • frail • stocky • plump
at the 1970s and 80s.
short • well-built • toddler • elderly • slim
The Punk movement
middle-aged • thin • in his/her 20s • skinny
average height • adolescent • tiny was born in London
of medium build • fat and was anarchic and
aggressive. Punks
Height Build Age defined themselves as
tallish frail teenager an anti-fashion urban
youth street culture.
They were easily
recognised by their
1 ........... hair and
2 ........... clothes. In
3 Put these words into the correct column. Some fact, clothes were often ripped or torn to
words can go into two columns.
symbolise Punks’ empathy with the
round • bright • square • scarred • wrinkled unemployed. After Punk, there was a huge
cold • freckled • pale • narrow • sad • oval reaction in the 80s with two opposing
almond-shaped movements; Yuppies and New Romantics.
Yuppies worked in good jobs and wore
Face Eyes 3 ........... clothes because they were out to
round bright make money and impress. Women had ‘big’
hair, often 4 ..........., and they wore jackets
with padded shoulders to make them look
more powerful. In contrast, the New
Romantics wore loose, 5 ........... clothes.
Both men and women wore blouses with
4 Work with a partner and describe the people in the frills often made of fine fabrics.
photos on page 18.

5 Now put these words into the correct column. Some

words can go into two columns.

cool • curly • trendy • wavy • baggy

straight • dyed • shabby • permed • lank
tight • floaty • bald • greasy • casual
scruffy • smart • spiky • messy

Hair Clothes
cool cool

Reading and Use of English George Dinning on
PART 6 – Gapped text being sent to Outer
7 You are going to read an article about a young
person who decided to do something extraordinary.
Do you know anyone who has done something George Dinning is an extraordinary 19-year-old
extraordinary that you admire? who has gone to great lengths to help others
less fortunate than himself. He explains what
! Exam Tip! made him do it.
Read the whole base text first to understand ‘As I was driving to college one day, I heard this
the general meaning of it. Remember to look radio program about people who were dying in
out for language and topic links between the Mongolia simply because they couldn’t get to a
gapped sections and the sentences which have
hospital on time. I found it really upsetting to
been removed.
hear that people living in the countryside had to
travel for two or three days to get to a hospital.
8 Six sentences have been removed from the article. 1 So I thought about what I could do to
Choose from the sentences A-G the one which fits
change this situation.
each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which
It suddenly came to me that if I could get the
you do not need to use.
money together, I could buy an old ambulance,
A In another, I suddenly saw a police car behind me
do it up, and drive it over to give to a rural
with flashing blue lights.
community. The sticking point was money of
B Having the ambulance there has cut down the course... so I decided to go knocking on doors to
time it takes to get people to hospital and it’s
see who would help out. 2 So some of the
already saved lives.
things we came up with were a karaoke night, a
C So I asked them to stop any speeding drivers that 60s disco and a mini-marathon. Then I did the
were trying to pass.
rounds of the local companies and managed to
D That is a very long time to have to wait if you are get some corporate sponsors. All in all, we got
ill and need urgent medical help. the money together amazingly quickly.
E I started with the students at my college and we
decided we had to put on some pretty big events
if we were going to come up with the kind of
funds we needed.
F The next thing was to buy the ambulance and do
it up – that was actually quite cheap.
G After that, we’re going to extend the project to
Nepal because, like Mongolia, the mountain
kingdom is not high on the list of countries that
receive international aid.

9 Talk to your partner about these questions.

1 What are older people’s attitudes to young
people’s behaviour in your country?
2 What’s your opinion of what George Dinning has
3 Which charity would you like to support? Why?

People & Success

Phrasal verbs
See Appendix 1 on page 188
10 Look at sentences A-F from the text. Match the
underlined phrasal verbs to definitions 1-6 below.
A I could buy an old ambulance, do it up, and drive
it over to give to a rural community.
B So some of the things we came up with were a
karaoke night, a 60s disco and a mini-marathon.
C Finally, three months later, I set off.
D As it turned out though, they simply asked me for
$2 for each policeman there, as a fine for not
having stopped when requested.
3 A lot of my friends are car-crazy so we E Anyhow, eventually I got to Mongolia and dropped
had a team of people making the old car we’d off the ambulance at a rural clinic.
bought into a vehicle that could make the F Having the ambulance there has cut down the
journey. Finally, three months later, I set off. time it takes to get people to hospital.
The trip took me 32 hours – I covered 8,000
1 to reduce
miles and crossed five mountain ranges. It was
2 to have ideas
an eventful trip – for example, in one country I
3 to deliver
got arrested because I didn’t have the right visa.
4 to start a journey
4 I didn’t know what to do as I couldn’t
5 to happen in the end
speak the language and was pretty sure I hadn’t
6 to repair
been speeding. Then I noticed that they were
driving an ancient car so I put my foot down. All 11 Work with a partner and answer these questions
was going smoothly until I came round a bend about phrasal verbs. Answer true (T) or false (F).
in the road and saw three police cars in front of 1 Phrasal verbs can have two or three parts.
me blocking the road. They flagged me down
2 Phrasal verbs are followed by the -ing form when
and I had no option but to stop. I remember the next word is a verb.
thinking – I hope they don’t take the ambulance 3 The meaning of a phrasal verb is exactly the
from me. As it turned out though, they simply same as the meaning of each part of it.
asked me for $2 for each policeman there, as a 4 Phrasal verbs are often used in informal English.
fine for not having stopped when requested. 5 We can say do the car up or do up the car.
Obviously I had no choice but to pay up. 6 Set off is not followed by an object when it means
Anyhow, eventually I got to Mongolia and start a journey.
dropped off the ambulance at a rural clinic. The
feedback I’ve had since is great. 5 12 Choose five phrasal verbs from exercise 10. Write
Next on the agenda is to take some more five sentences using one phrasal verb in each.
ambulances this year – we’ve already managed 1 .........................................................................
to raise £22,000 in just three months so ten of us 2 .........................................................................
will be going over and hopefully soon we’ll have 3 .........................................................................
covered Mongolia with ambulances. 6 ‘ 4 .........................................................................
5 .........................................................................

14 Circle the Past Simple irregular verbs in the text in
Grammar exercise 13. Complete the table.
Past Simple Past Simple Base Form
See page 25 0 came come
13 Read about another extraordinary teenager. 1
Underline the Past Simple regular verbs. 2

15 Fill in the gaps.

1 We form the Past Simple negative with subject +
the auxiliary verb ......... + base form.
2 We form the Past Simple interrogative with the
auxiliary verb ........ + subject + base form.

Frequent Mistakes
He felt proud of his achievements.
NOT He fell proud of his achievements.
Did you graduate from university last year?
NOT Did you graduated from university last year?

Another young man, who is severely 16 Complete the sentences with the appropriate form
physically disabled, decided to be a sports
of the Past Simple.
coach. He decided to coach others like 1 He ............ to bed at 4 a.m. because he ............
him to play boccia – a Paralympic sport to finish his project. (go, want)
that originally came from Ancient Greece.
2 She ............ from university in 2006 and ............
He was determined to show the world what
a millionaire by the end of 2009. (graduate, be)
he could achieve and, last year, he
coached more than a hundred disabled 3 I ............ trekking in the Himalayas – it ............
kids and encouraged them to take part in too much like hard work! (not/enjoy, be)
sporting events. When he first started out, 4 What ............ you ............ to the President when
adult resident coaches didn’t expect him you ............ him? (say, meet)
to have an easy time but all the children
respected him, followed his instructions,
5 She ............ a shock when she ............ she ............
and didn’t play around. He also gave the winner of the competition. (get, see, be)
advice on what games were suitable for 6 When exactly ............ you ............ round the
the disabled youngsters and along the way world single-handed? (sail)
became a computer expert. Last year, he
7 She ............ any reason for cancelling the
went to college to qualify in computer
concert. (not/give)
science and he intends to take part in the
Paralympics in the not too distant future. 8 One man ............ 40 doughnuts in 30 minutes.
That’s a strange achievement! (eat)

People & Success

Past Continuous
See page 25
PART 2 – Article
17 Read the following introduction to a story and
underline the verbs in the Past Continuous. See Writing Bank on page 181
The man was driving through the town. It was raining 20 Read the information and discuss questions 1-2
hard and a strong wind was blowing. Nobody was below with a partner. You are going to write an
walking along the streets when suddenly, passing by article for a website about a person who has
a parade of shops, he saw the suspected murderer inspired you. The person does not have to be
lighting a cigarette in a shop doorway... someone who is rich and famous. It can be, for
example, a member of your family, someone who
has helped the local community, or a historical

1 Who do you think would be a good person to

write about and why?
2 What sort of articles do you like reading? Why?

21 Think about the structure of a good article. Tick (✓)

the statements you agree with.

1 It has an interesting headline.

2 There are no paragraphs.
18 Why is the Past Continuous tense used here? 3 It’s entertaining.
4 The writer uses linkers such as that’s why,
I was having a shower when my mobile rang.
! I was having a shower 
then, so, because, etc.

X Y X 5 The writer uses a wide range of vocabulary.

Past # Present 6 It is written in the present tense.
my mobile rang 7 Ideas are organised in a logical way.
8 The writer has to think about who is going to
19 Look at the timeline above showing the difference read it.
between the Past Simple and Past Continuous. Put
the verbs into the correct tense in these sentences. 22 The editor of an international website has invited
1 He ................ (climb) Mount Everest when his readers to send in articles. The articles must be
140-190 words. You have decided to write an article
wife ................ (have) their baby.
about a person who has inspired you. Complete this
2 The Formula One driver ................ (not/drive) writing plan for your article.
fast when the accident ................ (happen).
1 Who is going to read the article?
3 The ballerina ................ (go) off stage even though
the audience ................ still ................ (clap). 2 How many words do you need to write?
4 While we ................ (run) the final lap, the rain 3 What information do you want to include?
................ (start). 4 How many paragraphs do you need?
5 What ................ (you/do) when they ................ 5 Write six linkers you can use in your article.
(call) to tell you you had got your dream job?
6 What tenses are you going to use?
6 He ................ (think) about how to raise money
for charity when his friend ................ (come up 23 Now write your article.
with) a great idea.

Listening Speaking
PART 2 – Sentence completion PART 2 – Long turn
24 You are going to listen to a talk on the history of
money. First discuss these questions in pairs. ! Exam Tip!
1 Has money always been a symbol of success and You have to compare two photos for about a
status? Why/Why not? minute and answer a question after your
2 What things have people used in the past for partner has spoken. Don’t forget to do both
money, for example, gold, feathers, etc.? parts of the task!

Exam Strategies 26 Look at photographs A and B. They show young

1 Read the sentences carefully. people in different situations. Compare the
2 Listen to the recording and write the words photographs and say what difficulties the people
you hear to complete the sentences. might face in each situation.
3 Now listen carefully to the recording again.
4 Then check the spelling, check each sentence
makes sense and is grammatically correct.

25 Listen to the talk. For questions 1-10,

complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.
The speaker gives the example of
1 as the first type of goods to
be used to barter with.
As farming developed, it became common to
exchange 2 .
In China, 3 were used as
‘money’ at first.
When people began to recognise the value of metal,
4 could be used as money. A
China was the first country to make a kind of coin
and 5 were put in them so
that they could be used more easily.
Silver coins, which had the image of
6 or heads of State, were
introduced in about 500 B.C.
The first form of money to resemble paper money
was made of 7 .
The phrase to pay through the nose comes from a
punishment for people who did not pay their
8 .
In 9 , paper money died out
in China.
In the 16th century, in North America, the currency
was called Wampum, which actually means
10 B

Past Simple and Past 1 How do we form the Past Continuous? Fill in the
Continuous gaps with your own examples.

The Past Simple is used: Subject Auxiliary Main verb

1 to describe actions completed at a definite time in she was driving

the past. you were driving
– The elections took place last week. he 1…. 2….

2 to describe completed actions when the time is they 3…. 4….
understood but not mentioned, particularly in
narratives and when recounting anecdotes. Auxiliary Subject Main verb

– It took them three days to get to the charity in 5…. I 6….

Africa because first they took a flight, then hired a 7…. you 8….
car and drove for 150 miles.
3 to describe a definite period of time in the past.
2 Choose the most appropriate form of the verb in
– He spent two years at kindergarten. each sentence.
4 to describe repeated or habitual past actions. Tara: Hi Eric, 1 were you going/did you go to the
– She never arrived at school on time. Young Inventor of the Year Awards last night?
Alternatively, we can also say: Eric: Yes, Tara. It was fantastic. And while I
– She never used to arrive at school on time. 2 was waiting/waited for the ceremony to
5 in second conditional sentences (see Grammar begin, I 3 was starting/started talking to a guy
Unit 6). sitting next to me. He was 18 years old and
last year he 4 was inventing/invented a new
The Past Continuous is used: type of water pump.
1 to describe unfinished actions that were happening at Tara: 5 Was he explaining/Did he explain how it
a certain time. The actions had begun before this works?
point in time. Eric: Yes, but I’m not sure that I 6 was
– This time last year I was studying in the States. understanding/understood everything – I
2 to describe the background action when something 7 wasn’t really concentrating/didn’t really
else interrupted it. concentrate on what he said all the time
– I was watching a film when my friend rang. because everyone 8 was getting/got ready for
the awards.
3 to describe simultaneous actions that were
happening in the past. Tara: Last year at college we 9 were having/had to
work in teams and try to invent something. We
– While he was brainstorming the vocabulary, I was
writing down some verbs we could use. 10 were spending/spent ages trying to think
of a new idea. It was a lot harder than I
4 to set the scene for, say, a story.
11 was thinking/thought.
– The wind was howling and the branches were
banging against the windows when she suddenly Eric: Yes, and just imagine the guys who
heard a car door slam outside. 12 were winning/won the awards last night.
They invent several things a year!

Part 2 – Open cloze
Exam Strategies
• Read the instructions carefully so that you know exactly what you have to do.
• Read the title and the whole text first quickly to understand the main ideas expressed.
• Read the sentence where the gap is very carefully, as well as the sentences before and after the gap.
• Think about what kind of word is needed carefully before writing your answer.

For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each
gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

The meaning of success

Being successful does (0) .................... mean the same thing to everyone. For some, a successful person
is someone (1) .................... earns a lot of money, for others success might be best exemplified in a
person working (2) .................... a volunteer.
What (3) .................... ourselves consider a success might be very different from other people’s ideas of
success. A parent might see their daughter getting a good grade and think she was successful in her
exam. The student, (4) .................... the contrary, might just think she was lucky.
The more areas of life a person tries to be
successful in, the more difficult
(5)   .................... becomes to achieve
their goals. Becoming successful could be
relatively easy, (6)  .................... staying
successful is a different story entirely.
Success is usually something we associate
(7)  .................... short-term achievement
in a certain field. Long-term success, on
the other hand, means you
(8)  .................... to keep up the good
work and stay at the same level over a
longer period.

Part 3 – Word formation
For questions 1-8, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a new
word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Going for Gold

More and more young sports people are realising that their hopes of sporting
international stage of the Olympics are not just a dream. With
success on the (0)  ......................... NATION
the right opportunities there will be no limit to their (1)  ......................... . While many ACHIEVE
have the ability and (2)  ......................... to succeed, sometimes the lack of access to DEDICATE
training facilities has limited their progress in their (3)  ......................... field. The CHOOSE
Athletes Academy’s aim is to provide (4) ......................... sportspeople with free access TALENT
to cutting-edge facilities in a number of key cities. (5)  ......................... appropriate WITH
support, many young sportspeople’s potential will be wasted and it is (6) ......................... LIKE
that they will ever enjoy success at the very top.
(7) ......................... , in the future, several of the Academy’s students will be able to stand HOPE
on the podium (8) ......................... a gold medal. The Academy’s mission is simple – to HOLD
invest in young athletes and help them succeed.

Part 4 – Key word transformation

For questions 1-6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word
given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. Here is an
example (0).
0 Sarah has the determination to become a very successful business person.
determined (that) she
Sarah is so ................................................................................ could become a very successful business person.
1 This year was the first time someone from my country won a gold medal.
No one from my country ................................................................................ a gold medal before.
2 It took Martin longer to finish the test than his brother.
Martin’s brother finished the test ................................................................................ Martin.
3 I went to see the film a second time because it was so thrilling.
It ................................................................................ that I went to see it a second time.
4 He is successful because he is hard working.
His success ................................................................................ hard work.
5 Although she felt ill, she went to college.
She went to college ................................................................................ ill.
6 David wouldn’t lend me his computer.
David refused ................................................................................ his computer.

3 Society & Equality

Vocabulary: Reading and Use of

Affixes: Suffixes and English: Part 7

Listening: Part 3
Grammar: Present Perfect
Simple and Continuous

Grammar: Question tags

Speaking: Part 3

Writing: Part 2


1 Match these phrases to the pictures. 2 This is a definition of society: ‘an organisation to which people who
share similar interests can belong’. Think of the society you belong
1 the nuclear family
to and discuss these questions with a partner.
2 ancient civilisations
1 How much do you know about the history of the society you
3 health care
belong to? Is it important to know about its history? Why/Why not?
4 transportation
2 Do you think your society looks after people who need help, e.g.
people who are ill? Should society look after them?


Society & Equality

6 Find nine of the words from the table in exercise 5.

Affixes: Suffixes and Prefixes S I L N Q N Z N K K Y Q W
3 Suffixes are letters which are added to the end of a C O X F X G R Y C N R G J
word to make a new word, e.g. free – freedom. I V W T L T Y H S M W Z X
Prefixes are letters which are added to the
beginning of a word, e.g. advantage – disadvantage.
Underline words which have suffixes in this text.
‘This is a really hard subject to talk about E M B Q C O L G T H G Q B
because it’s so complicated. I live in London, a T E R U D W G J T I G T C
huge multi-cultural city, and what I see that I Q N S E Y P T L F B A Z X
really like is people celebrating everyone else’s
customs. I mean, Chinese New Year is a huge
event in most big cities around the world and
everyone joins in. And I think this is what’s F P T P H L I F E L E S S
important. Even if, as we say, we now live in a
global village, people should still celebrate 7 Put the correct form of the words in bold from the
New Year, Divali, and countless other events table into the sentences below.
wherever they are. They shouldn’t lose this.’
1 Tribes who ...................... throw rubbish into
rivers are in danger of polluting the water. CARE
4 Now change these words into nouns.
2 There are many charities working in developing
1 celebrate ................................................
countries to improve the ...................... of the
2 civilise ................................................
population. HEALTHY
3 global ................................................
3 The ...................... between men and women
4 know ................................................ often leads to women being paid less than men
5 complicated ................................................ for doing the same job. EQUAL
6 appear ................................................ 4 It is extremely hard to do well in ......................
7 vary ................................................ without access to education. LIVE
8 refer ................................................ 5 Everyone should have the ...................... to
practise their chosen religion. FREE
5 When you learn new vocabulary, it’s a good idea to
learn all the different forms of a word. Complete the 6 The family was so ...................... that the town
table below using prefixes and suffixes where possible. was named after them. INFLUENCE

Noun Adjective Verb Adverb

society, sociability, social, socialise socially, sociably
0 socialism, socialist, sociable/unsociable,
socialisation anti-social
1 equal
2 live
3 free
4 success
5 govern XX
6 care
7 healthy XX
8 influence

This area is quite My day starts before C
remote and sometimes 7 a.m. and I’m woken
unsafe so we’ve hired up to the sound of
battered local trucks donkeys, camels, and
to reduce the risks birds. I don’t need an
of car-jacking. We’ve alarm clock! We have
been travelling from breakfast and then
one place to another, set off for the medical
vaccinating children facility. Today I’ve
against measles. I’m been on the wards
amazed how people with the doctors but
A can live in remote I’ve been trying to
places like this with take a backseat role
not much food and sometimes no water. so that the local nurses feel more able to contribute
Unsurprisingly, children often look very dirty. their ideas and suggestions. I take a note of what
We’ve been sleeping on mattresses out in the open drugs are needed where and do my best to make
in the villages so we’ve got quite close to the people. the children laugh.
We only have very limited amounts of water which The people here don’t have much in the way of
can be tough if, like me, you’re used to having a possessions so we might think it strange in the light
shower every day! My day typically starts at about of what they have suffered that they seem so happy.
5 when the sun rises. We wake up, pack up our beds, Perhaps when you live from day to day, not
check the truck for essentials, have breakfast, and preoccupied with getting the latest DVD or pair of
try to leave by 7 a.m. jeans, you appreciate the really important things in
life – the safety and welfare of your loved ones.
B I’m haunted by the SABRINA
vision of the houses I’ve I’m woken up by the D
seen – some with only sounds of drums and
mattresses on the floor trumpets as the local
and the entire family band has taken over the
sleeping in one room. boats. The flooding here
I’m working here as a means that everyone has
psychiatrist in a war to walk along narrow
zone and I’ve had to wooden planks suspended
conduct sessions in so above the water level and
many unlikely places transport is by boat. This
such as under a tree or is one of the wettest
in the middle of a street. I don’t know who has places on earth.
affected the other’s life more, me or my patients. My job is to go into flooded houses and check how
One of my most powerful memories is of a young the people are and if they need medical treatment. I
girl who wanted to have her session in what was bang my head as I walk into one house and ask the
left of her house – we tried to find a seat on some people in it what we can do to help them. The
cement rubble and she showed me where her mother replies, ‘We’re fine,’ and I begin to think my
bedroom, kitchen, and the lounge had been. She language skills have deserted me. The whole
was looking at her room as if it was still there and I population here is determined to carry on as normal
could almost see her home through her eyes – it and are cheerful even though they’re living in the
was a truly humbling experience. worst conditions I’ve ever seen.