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CATIA Training

Foils

Generative Shape
Design

Version 5 Release 8
January 2002
EDU-CAT-E-GSD-FF-V5R8

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Course Presentation

Objectives of the course


This course covers tools for surface design included in the Generative Shape Design
Workbench that are not present in the Wireframe and Surface Design Workbench. At the
end of the course, the student will be able to model complex fillets and analyze surface
quality.

Targeted audience
Mechanical Designers

1 day
Prerequisites
Wireframe and Surface Design

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Table of Contents

 Introduction to Generative Shape Design p.6


 Creating Wireframe Geometry p.12
Creating an Extremum p.13
Creating a Polar Extremum p.21
Creating a Reflect Line Methodology p.29
Creating a Spine p.39
Creating a Parallel Curve onto a Support within GSD p.
Extracting Multiple Edges from a Sketch p.
Tools for Wireframe Geometry Creation p.
 Creating Surfaces p.67
Creating Swept Surfaces p.68
Creating an Adaptative Swept Surface p.72

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Table of Contents

1. Performing Operations p.67


Joining Elements p.
Healing Elements p.
Smoothing Curves p.
Extracting Elements p.
Federating Elements p.
Creating Fillets p.
Inverting Orientation p.
Creating Laws p.
Using Analysis Tools p.
Managing Features and Open Bodies p.
Hybrid Design (Working with Hybrid Parts) p.

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Introduction to Generative Shape Design

In this lesson you will see V5 Generative Shape Design user interface
and basic functions

Generative Shape Design Workbench


Generative Shape Design Interface
Generative Shape Design Terminology

1 hour

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Accessing the Workbench

From the MENUBAR


Start/Shape/Generative Shape
Design

2
By clicking on the current
Workbench icon (top right) to access
the Favourite Workbenches window.

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User Interface: Generative Shape Design General Presentation

Sketcher access...

Part Tree

All Non-Solids
(i.e. Points,
Curves, Shape
Surfaces) Design
grouped under tools...
“Open
Body”

Standard
tools

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User Interface: Generative Shape Design (1/2)

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User Interface: Generative Shape Design (2/2)

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Terminology
A Part is a combination of one or more Bodies and Open Bodies

The PartBody is the default Body for a Part where Solids are stored
The Open Body is where non-solids (points, curves, surfaces) are
stored

Wireframe features

Surface features

Group :Set of surfacic features


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General Process

From Assembly 1
> create a new part
(Top-down approach)
or
Use GSD to create Planes in
Create a new part
3D to support 2D Wireframe
> insert in assembly
geometry 2
(Bottom-up approach)
Go into the Sketcher to
create the planar
Wireframe Geometry

3
4
Create Surfaces on
Use GSD to create all
the Wireframe
required 3D Wireframe
Geometry

5
Optional : Join
Multiple Surfaces
then Offset a solid

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Creating Wireframe Geometry
In this lesson, you will learn how to create all types of Wireframe
elements.

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WFS Wireframe versus GSD Wireframe
Wireframe & Surface Design and Generative Shape Design are two workbenches which have
many common functionalities.
Within GSD you will discover new functionalities that are not in WFS and also advanced
capabilities in some functions that exist in both workbenches. GSD

WFS

Functionality common to Functionalities


both workbenches but specific to the
with more capabilities Generative Shape
within GSD. Design workbench.

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Review of WFS Wireframe Geometry
You can review the tools covered in the Wireframe & Surface Design Course which
are also included in the Generative Shape Design Workbench.

Creating Points in 3D

Creating Lines in 3D

Creating Planes in 3D

Creating Curves in 3D

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Creating an Extremum

In this Skillet you learn what is an Extremum and how to create it.

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Why Create an Extremum?
In order to help CATIA find the maximum or minimum point of a curve or surface along any
direction chosen by the user.

The element might be a sketch, a 3D curve or line, a surface or a solid face.

Maximum Extremum on a
solid face along the Z Axis

Maximum Extremum on a
Curve along the Z Axis
Minimum Extremum on a
Surface along the X Axis

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Creating an Extremum

1
Select the Extremum Icon.

Select the element on which 4 Select Max or Min according to


2 to find the Extremum. your requirement.

Select a line or a plane (normal


3 direction) to specify the direction 5 Click OK to confirm. The Extremum
is added to the specification tree
to evaluate the Extremum

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Additional Information on Extremum

If the Element is a surface, according to the chosen direction you can obtain a curve or a line as
Extremum.

If the element is a surface, you may specify two


others optional directions.

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Creating a Polar Extremum

In this Skillet you learn what is a Polar Extremum and how to create it.

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What is a Polar Extremum?
Any planar curve can be defined with its polar equation (relation linking the radius and the
angle).
The polar extremum function allows you to find the points on the curve corresponding to :

The minimum radius from a specified origin :

The polar extremum is calculated in an


axis system defined by :
- An origin.
The maximum radius from a specified origin : - A reference direction.

The minimum angle regarding to a specified direction :

The maximum angle regarding to a specified direction :

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Creating a Polar Extremum

1 Select the Polar Extremum


Icon.

Select the type of


2 polar extremum you
want to create.
Define the reference
5 axis.

Select the planar contour


3 on which you want to
create the polar
extremum and its
supporting plane.

Click OK to confirm
6 the polar extremum
creation.
Select the origin
4 point from the polar
extremum will be
calculated.

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Creating a Reflect Line Methodology

You will learn what is a Reflect Line and how create it.

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What is a Reflect Line
Reflect lines are curves for which the normal to the support surface in each point presents the
same angle with a specified direction. It is very useful to find the parting plane of a complex
surface.

If we perform a Draft analysis


on this part, we can see, thanks
to the red areas that the part is
non extractible.

Thanks to the Reflect Line


curve, we can cut the part in
two extractible parts.

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Creating a Reflect Line
1

Direction

2 Select a support surface


and a direction. Support

You can define one of the X,Y or Z axis by


opening a contextual menu in the Direction
field.

Key in an angle representing the value between the


3 selected direction and the normal to the surface.
Reflect lines

4 Click OK to confirm reflect line creation


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Creating a Spine

You will learn what is a Spine and how create it.

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What is a Spine ?
For the Swept and Lofted surface, there is a default spine (the guide or a computation from the
guides). If you want to fix an orientation for your surface sections you will have to define a Spine.

The swept sections may be oriented by


another Spine (not the default one). For
instance you want to get the swept sections
Guide perpendicular to the green spine:
Curve
Spine
Swept sections are
Swept sections are perpendicular to the Spine.
perpendicular to the
Profile guide curve
In this Swept surface, the Spine is, by
default, the guide curve. Each section of
the swept surface is perpendicular to this
Guide Curve
The Spine icon will allow you to create a curve that will be use later as a spine
There are two ways to build a spine :

Curve normal to a list of ordered Spine curve computed from


planes or planar curves several guide curves
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Creating a Spine from planes and planar curves

1
Select the Spine Icon.

You can also select a start point.


Successively select planes The point is projected onto the first
2
or planar profiles.  plane as the spine starting point.

3 Click OK to confirm.
The Spine is added to
Use these three buttons to replace, delete or the specification tree.
add a plane or a profile.

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Creating a Spine from Guide Curves

1
Select the Spine Icon.

2 Click in the field Guide


3 Select the Guide Curves

Click OK to confirm. The Spine is


4
added to the specification tree.

Use these three buttons to replace,


delete or add a plane or a profile.

Sweep using the default Sweep using the user


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Creating a Parallel Curve onto a Support Within GSD

You will learn how create various parallel curves.

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Creating a Curve Parallel to another on a Support (1/3)
Support
1

Parallel
Curve
2 Choose the parallelism type :
Reference
curve
Euclidean :
The distance between both curves will
be calculated without taking in
account the support curvature.

Geodesic : Euclidean
The distance between the curves will be
calculated taking the support curvature
into account.

Geodesic
Euclidean
Parallel Curve
Geodesic Reference
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Creating a Curve Parallel to another on a Support (2/3)

3 Select the reference curve and


Select the parallel corner type.
the support plane or surface.

Support

Reference curve

Check here to create two


Specify the Offset by entering a
parallel curves symmetrically
4 value or using the graphic
in relation to the reference manipulator (green arrows).
curve.

If you have chosen the euclidean parallel type, you can


choose to offset the curve at a constant distance or
according to a law.

5
6 Click OK to continue
If you want to create several parallel curves
separated by the same offset check the option The created curve is defined as an Object,
Repeat object after OK i.e. the reference for creating the other
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Creating a Curve Parallel to another on a Support (3/3)

7 Define the number of parallel curves to be created

You can choose to create or not the


instances in a new Open Body.
8 Click OK to confirm parallel curve creation

Object parallel curve

Parallel curve instances in


a new Open Body

• As many parallel curves as indicated in the Object Repetition dialog box are created, including the object parallel curve.
• The parallel curves are separated from the object line by a multiple of the offset value.
• The curve instances are grouped in a new Open Body if you have checked the option.

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Extracting Multiple Edges from a Sketch.

You will learn to extract some geometrical elements from a Sketch.

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Extracting Multiple Edges
If you have a sketch containing several elements, you can extract a subpart of these
elements to create geometry.

1 Select the Extract Multiple Edges icon

Click on this button to delete


a sub element of the list
2 Select the geometry of the multi profile
sketch that you want to extract

Click on OK, the extract is added to the


3 specification tree

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Tools for Wireframe geometry creation.
Now let us look at some Wireframe tools common to the WFS and GSD
Workbenches ...

Stacking Commands
Work on Support

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Stacking Commands

You will learn how to stack commands while creating


wireframe elements.

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Why Do You Need to Stack Commands ?

Stacking commands allows you to create construction elements while creating an


element which requires those construction elements.

What about stacking commands ?


You can create the following construction elements:
- points, - planes, - intersections.
- lines, - projections,
You have access to the stacking commands capability while creating:
- points, - circles, - translations,
- lines, - conics - rotations,
- planes, - corners, - symmetry.

Using mouse button 3 you display


a contextual menu listing all the
elements you can create using the
stacking commands capability.

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Stacking Commands…

While creating an element you


may need a construction
element that you will create on
the fly.

You define the parameters of


the construction element.

The construction element is


created and selected at the
same time.
When using the stacking command
capability you can check the status
of the stack in the Running
Commands window.

Let ’s see now the way to stack


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commands... 38
Stacking Commands (1/4)

When you create some wireframe elements (point, line, plane, circle, corner, conic) or when
you perform a translation, a rotation or a symmetry on an object you can create on the fly the
missing construction elements, i.e. points, lines, planes, intersections or projections.
In the following example you will see how to create a plane from scratch.

2 Select the type of plane you want to create.

3 Using mouse button 3 click in the Point


field and select the Create Point option.
The Point Definition window is displayed.

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Stacking Commands (2/4)

4 Define the parameters to create the point.


The status of the stacking commands is
also displayed in the Running Commands
window.

5 Click OK to accept point creation.


The Plane Definition window is
displayed again with Point.1 in the
Point field.

The Point button next to the


Point field allows you to edit
the point parameters.

6 Using mouse button 3 click in the Line


field and select the Create Line option.
The Line Definition window is displayed.

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Stacking Commands (3/4)

7 Define the parameters to create the line.


The status of the stacking commands is
also displayed in the Running Commands
window.

8 To create the points needed for the


line you can also use the stacking
commands.
In that case the Running Commands
window will look like this:

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Stacking Commands (4/4)

9 Once the two points are created click OK


to accept the line creation.
The Plane Definition window is displayed
again with Line.1 in the Line field.

The Line button next to the


Line field allows you to edit
the Line parameters.

10 Click OK to accept the plane creation.

Point.3

If you want to modify a parameter of the


Line.1 plane you can also double-click on its
identifier in the specification tree.

Point.1

Plane.1
Point.2

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Working on a Support

You will learn how to define a planar or non-planar support,


work on it with or without a grid and snap to a point.

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Why Do You Need to Work on a Support ?

You can select a plane or a surface to use it as a support for further element creation.

What about support ?


• If you define a plane as a support a grid is displayed and
positioned in the plane of the screen. In that case you have access
to the ‘Snap to Point’ capability.
• If you define a surface as a support the elements created after
selection of the surface will be located on the surface by default.

Support plane = YZ
With the ‘Snap to Point’
capability the created points
are located at the nearest
intersection of the grid.

Support surface = Extrude.1


When you create a point after
selecting the surface as a
support the Point Definition
window automatically displays
the option ‘On surface’.

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Working on a Support – Plane Support (1/3)

The Work on Support window is displayed. A Working support.1 feature is added to


the specification tree under the Working supports entry.
By default the last created working
support (current) is displayed in red
in the specification tree. The ‘not
current’ working supports are
displayed in blue.

2 Select the plane you want to define as a support, here the YZ plane.

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Working on a Support – Plane Support (2/3)
The Work on Support window changes and displays several options to define the grid.

Selected plane

Define the number


Define the total length of steps in a grid
of the grid subdivision subdivision

Define which axis is


taken as H direction
in the 2D plane

Check this option if


Set the grid
you want a different
visualization
primary spacing in
parallel to the
the second direction
screen

3 Click OK to confirm grid creation.

4 If you want your cursor to move


directly to an intersection point
of the grid click on the Snap to
If you enter coordinates when the ‘Snap to point’ icon is
Point icon. active, the system does not take the grid into account.
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Working on a Support – Plane Support (3/3)

5 Create an element on the support.

Here you are creating a point. Note that :


- the point type is automatically set to ‘On plane’,
- the cursor points only on the grid intersection points.

6 Exit the working support :

Using the Working Using the Set as Not Current


Supports Activity icon option in the contextual menu

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Working on a Support – Surface Support (1/2)

The Work on Support window is displayed. A Working support.1 feature is added to


the specification tree under the Working supports entry.
By default the last created working
support (current) is displayed in red
in the specification tree. The ‘not
current’ working supports are
displayed in blue.

2 Select the surface you want to define as a support, here the extruded surface.

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Working on a Support – Surface Support (2/2)

3 Click OK to confirm grid creation.

4 Create an element on the support.

Here you are creating a point. Note


that the point type is automatically
set to ‘On surface’.

5 Exit the working support :

Using the Working Using the Set as Not Current


Supports Activity icon option in the contextual menu
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Creating Surfaces
In this lesson, you will review all the Surface creation tools that were
covered in WFS and that are also available in the GSD Workbench

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Why Do You Need Surfaces ?
You can use basic surfaces either to create a new part or to complete the design of a solid
part

What about surfaces ?


You can create a surface from:
- a line, curve or sketch
- other surfaces

Offset surface created


from another surface
and a direction

Surface of revolution
created from a profile
(Spline) and an axis of
revolution

For each type of surface you will also define its limits or the angle of revolution
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 51
WFS Surfaces versus GSD Surfaces
Wireframe & Surface Design and Generative Shape Design are two workbenches which have
many common functionalities.
Within GSD you will discover new functionalities that are not in WFS and also advanced
capabilities in some functions that exist in both workbenches.

WFS GSD

Functionality common to
both workbenches but
with more capabilities
within GSD.

Functionality specific to
the Generative Shape
Design workbench.

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Review of WFS Surfaces
You can review the tools covered in the Wireframe & Surface Design Course which
are also included in the Generative Shape Design Workbench.

Creating a Surface from a profile


- Creating a Extruded Surface
- Creating a Surface of Revolution
- Creating a Sphere
Creating a Surface from Boundaries
- Creating a Fill Surface
- Creating a Blend Surface
Creating a Surface from another Surface
- Creating an Offset Surface
Creating a Lofted Surface

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Creating Swept Surfaces
You will learn how to create Explicit and Implicit Swept Surfaces
within the Generative Shape Design Workbench

Explicit Swept Surfaces

Implicit Swept Surfaces

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Creating Explicit Type Swept Surfaces
You will learn how to create swept surfaces using Any Profile

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Creating an Explicit-type Swept Surface (1/7)

1 Select the Sweep Surface icon.

Select the guide curve and the profile.


2 You can then choose to give a reference plane or surface (Reference tab) or to select
another guide curve and anchor points (Second Guide tab).

By default, the swept


profile is constant in
each section along
the guide curve.
If no spine is selected the
guide curve is used as spine.

3 Confirm swept surface creation

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Creating an Explicit-type Swept Surface (2/7)
Using a reference surface :

You can define a


reference
surface to
control the
position of the
profile along the
sweep.

You can define a


law to drive the
angle evolution
between the profile
and the reference
surface

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Creating an Explicit-type Swept Surface (3/7)
Position Profile
You can position the profile with the guide curve.
Using the Position profile mode, the reference is no more the profile but the Guide Curve.
Using no positioning :
When the profile position is fixed with respect to the guide
curve, the sweep lies on the profile and on the guide curve
(if it intersects the profile) or on the parallel to the guide
curve crossing the profile (minimum distance).
Using positioning :
The profile is oriented in the guide curve axis system. Using positioning and a reference surface :
The guide curve axis system is now oriented
regarding the reference surface orientation :
Grey axis-system :
profile reference axis

Green axis-system :
current profile orientation

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Creating an Explicit-type Swept Surface (4/7)
Position Profile : Parameters
In the Position profile mode you can display parameters to modify the position of the sweep
profile on the guide curve defining a new origin and a rotation angle or direction.

Or

These coordinates (or the selected point) define the position of


the origin of the positioning axis system (green) in the first
sweep plane.

You can rotate


the positioning
axis system
around the guide
The direction
curve with
defines the X
45 deg respect to initial
axis of the
axis system of
positioning
the profile.
axis system.

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Creating an Explicit-type Swept Surface (5/7)
Position Profile : Parameters
In the Position profile mode you can display parameters to modify the position of the sweep
profile on the guide curve defining a new origin and a rotation angle or direction.

You may want to


invert the orientation
of the X or Y axes of
the positioning axis
system.

You can select a point defining the


origin of the axis system linked to
the profile.

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Creating an Explicit-type Swept Surface (6/7)
Second Guide Curve and Anchor Points
You can select a second guide curve to define the sweep.
If no spine is selected, the first
guide curve is the spine :

You can create a spine if you


want to obtain a more regular
surface :

• If you check the Profile extremities


inverted option, the profile extremities
connected to the guides are inverted.
• If you check the Vertical orientation
inverted option, the vertical orientation
of the profile is inverted.
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Creating an Explicit-type Swept Surface (7/7)
Second Guide Curve and Anchor Points

You also can use Anchor Points to position the


profile on the guide curves.

Guide curves

Profile While creating the swept surface, the


anchor points are remaining on the guide
curves all the sweep long.

So, the profile is positioned regarding to


the initial geometrical conditions between
Anchor points the profile and the anchor points.

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Creating Line Type Swept Surfaces
You will learn how to create swept surfaces using Linear Profiles

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Creating a Line-type Swept Surface : Two Limits

1 Line type : Subtype : Two limits

2 Click on the Line icon, then select the Two limits subtype and the two guide curves.

If no spine is selected the first


guide curve is used as spine.
You can select the
second guide Guide
curve as middle curve 1
curve instead of
entering length
values (same as
Length 1
Limit and middle
subtype)

Length 2
Guide
curve 2

3 Confirm surface creation


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Creating a Line-type Swept Surface : Reference Surface

1 Line type : Subtype : With reference surface

2 Click on the Line icon, then select the With reference surface subtype, the guide curve
and the reference surface. Key in an angle value and define the length of the surface.

If no spine is selected the first


guide curve is used as spine.

Length 2
Length 1

Angle between the


sweep and the
reference surface.
Guide Angle
curve 1
Reference surface

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3 Confirm surface creation 65
Creating a Line-type Swept Surface : Tangency Surface

1 Line type : Subtype : With tangency surface

2 Click on the Line icon, then select the With tangent surface subtype, the guide curve
and the tangency surface.
If no spine is selected the first guide
curve is used as spine.
Guide
curve 1

Tangency
surface

3 Confirm surface creation


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Creating Circle Type Swept Surfaces
You will learn how to create swept surfaces using Circular Profiles

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Creating a Circle-type Swept Surface : Two Guides and Radius

1 Circle type : Subtype : Two guides and radius

Click on the Circle icon, then select the Two guides and radius subtype, the two guide
2 curves and the radius.

If no spine is selected the


first guide curve is used as
spine.

Radius

In case of several solutions you can


check them all and then select one of
them (green color = active solution) 3 Confirm surface creation
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Creating a Circle-type Swept Surface : Center and Radius

1 Circle type : Subtype : Center and radius

2 Click on the Circle icon, then select the Center and radius subtype, a center curve
and a radius.
If no spine is selected the
center curve is used as spine.

3 Confirm surface creation


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Creating a Circle-type Swept Surface : One Guide and Tangency
Surface

1
Circle type : Subtype : One Guide and Tangency Surface

Click on the Circle icon, then select the one guide and tangency surface as subtype.
2 Select the guide curve, the tangency surface, and key in a radius sufficient to link
the guide curve and the tangency surface.

In case of several solutions you can check them all and


then select one of them (orange color = active solution)

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Creating Conical Type Swept Surfaces
You will learn how to create swept surfaces using Conical Profiles

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Creating a Conical-type Swept Surface : Two Guide Curves

1
Conical type : Subtype : Two Guide curves

2 Click on the Conic icon, then select Two guide


curves and their tangency supports.

Define an angle between the swept surface


and the tangency surface

Set the parameter value (ranges from 0 to 1)


indicating the sweep proximity to the spine.
3 Confirm surface creation
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Creating a Conical-type Swept Surface : Five Guide Curves

1 Conical type : Subtype : Five Guide curves

2 Click on the Conic icon, then select Four


guide curves and a tangency support.

Five Guide
Curves

You can specify a Spine curve.


The default spine is always the 3 Confirm surface creation
first guide curve.

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Creating an Adaptative Swept Surface

You will learn what is an Adaptative Swept Surface and how create it

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What is an Adaptative Swept Surface.
This particular sweep uses a Sketch as Implicit profile along a Guiding Curve. The guiding
curve is used as the default spine.

Guiding Curve

The Sketch has been


designed in context
directly from the dialog
By giving some points,
Sketch box and represent a
you will define
connex profile
automatically
intermediate sections on
the spine.

You can modify the


constraints defined in the
original sketch
independently for each
section.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 75


What are the differences with the Classic Sweep.
The Implicit sweep is always defined from a sketch. This leads to build a surface that inherits of
the sketch constraints scheme on the whole surface. Besides you can create on the fly
intermediate sections along the guiding curve and modify the constraints independently in each
section.

In an adaptative sweep, In the Explicit sweep the


the surface inherits of surface does not inherit
the sketch constraints. of the constraints defined
in the sketch.

What does that mean ?

If we analyse the
If we analyse the
connections between the
connections between the
surfaces, there is a few
surfaces, there are important
acceptable tangency
tangency discontinuities.
discontinuity areas.

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Creating an Adaptative Swept Surface (1/3)

1
Select the Adaptative Sweep icon.

2 Select the Guide Curve and the Sketch to be swept.

Guiding Curve

Sketch

Select predefined
3 points or vertices on
Intermediate
the guide curve to add sections
intermediate sections.

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Creating an Adaptative Swept Surface (2/3)
Under the Parameters tab, you can modify the constraints defined in the
4 original sketch for each section independently

Use this icon to 75 mm radius


remove a section

22 mm radius

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 78


Creating an Adaptative Swept Surface (3/3)
Under the Moving Frame tab, you can replace the
5 spine (the default one is the guiding curve).

The Discretization scroll bar allows you to define


the precision of the surface. The step value define
the number of virtual intermediate sections used
to create the surface.

Result with a Result with a


discretization discretization
step = 1.00 step = 0.50

6 Click OK to confirm the surface creation

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 79


Additional Information on Adaptative Sweep (1/2)
If you want to create an adaptative swept surface
which lays on other surfaces, you will create your
sketch in context because you want to put some In many cases, you will meet some difficulties to
associative constraints with the existing geometry. build associative elements from existing geometry.

To avoid this problem, it is better to build its sketch


directly from the Adaptative sweep dialog box.

Here we want that the sketch keeps its tangency Open a contextual menu in the Sketch field
with the surfaces (the intersection between the then choose Edit Sketch.
surface and the sketch plane) in each section of the
sweep.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 80


Additional Information on Adaptative Sweep (2/2)
The Sketch Creation for Adaptative You just have to follow the
Sweep dialog box is displayed. instructions of the prompt bar.

Click on OK, the sketch is


automatically defined with the
construction elements.

Associative construction elements

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 81


Performing Operations on the Geometry
In this lesson, you will review WFS tools to transform, to split, and to
trim 3D geometrical elements. You will also see additional, powerful
tools in GSD for Filleting, Extrapolating, Healing, and inverting the
orientation of Surfaces.
Review of WFS Operations
Joining Surfaces
Healing Surfaces
Smoothing Curves
Extracting Elements
Federating Elements
Creating Fillets
Inverting Orientation
Creating Laws
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 82
WFS Operations versus GSD Operations GSD

Wireframe & Surface Design and Generative Shape Design are two
workbenches which have many common functionalities.
Within GSD you will discover new functionalities that are not in
WFS and also advanced capabilities in some functions that exist in
both workbenches.
WFS

Functionalities specific to
the Generative Shape
Design workbench.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 83


Review of WFS Operations
You can review the tools covered in the Wireframe & Surface Design Course which
are also included in the Generative Shape Design Workbench.

Restoring Surfaces
Disassembling Surfaces
Splitting Elements
Trimming Elements
Transforming Elements
- Translating an Element
- Rotating an Element
- Applying a Symmetry to an Element
- Scaling an Element
- Creating an Affinity
- Performing an Axis-to-Axis transformation

Extrapolating Elements
Creating Near Elements
Creating Patterns

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 84


Joining Elements

You will learn how to join wireframe or surface elements

Element 2

Join result
Element 1

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 85


Why Joining Elements ?

You can join elements to use two or more elements as a single element in a
further operation.

What about joined elements ?


You can create joined elements from:
- adjacent curves
- adjacent surfaces

Join result

Two adjacent
splines.

Four adjacent
surfaces.
Join result

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 86


How to Join Elements…

Let ’s see now the way to join elements ...


Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 87
Joining Elements (1/2)

To modify the join definition you


2 Select one by one the elements to be joined together. can edit it and remove elements or
replace an element by another.

This option checks


the connexity
Element 2
between the elements
in the resulting join.

Element 1 CATIA will:


- reduce the number
of resulting elements
- ignore the elements
that do not allow the
join to be created.

You can define a merging


distance, i.e. the maximum
distance below which two
elements are considered
as only one element.

3 Click OK to confirm join operation.


Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 88
Joining Elements (2/2)

While joining elements you can exclude some sub-element from the joined
surface.

Face to be
removed

You can also select sub-


elements to exclude from
the joined surfaces.

You can create another join


surface with the excluded
sub-elements.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 89


Additional Information on Joining
While joining surfaces, you can specify an angle tolerance.
If the angle value on the edge between two elements is greater than the Angle
Tolerance value, the elements are not joined

Select the elements to be


joined. The tangency
discontinuity between these
surfaces is 6deg :

CATIA refuses to create the join


surface because the tangency
discontinuity between the
surfaces is greater than the
specified angle tolerance:

Activate the new


option Angle
Tolerance.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 90


Healing Surfaces

You will learn about the Healing operation

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 91


Why Healing?

While Join is a topological integration


of surfaces into one logical surface,
HEALING will mathematically deform
the shape of surfaces at boundary
areas so they smoothly blend into one
another.

When physical parts are


manufactured from CAD models, the
machining is guided by the exact
representation of the individual
surfaces. Hence, Healing is important
to ensure that each one of these
surfaces transitions smoothly
between one another.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 92


Healing Surfaces (1/3)

Select the Join where you know there is a gap that you
2 would like to Heal. You can also select directly the
surfaces to heal.

Choose if you want to heal


3 the point discontinuities or
the tangency discontinuities.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 93


Healing Surfaces (2/3) : Parameters
The objective of the parameters is to choose the discontinuities you want to heal or not :

4 Key in parameters :
Note : a quick violation analysis can help to choose these parameters :

Healed Not healed

Merging distance
Gap value

Not healed Healed

Distance Objective

These parameters are thresholds that allows you to: Healed Not healed
- define the discontinuities to be healed (Merging
distance and Tangency angle). Tangency angle
- define the discontinuities you consider it is not Tangency discontinuity value
necessary to heal (Distance Objective and Tangency
Objective). Not healed Healed

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 Tangency Objective 94


Healing Surfaces (3/3)

5 Click OK to confirm the


healed surface creation.

Note : a quick violation analysis now shows :

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 95


Smoothing Curves

In this Skillet you will learn how smoothing curves.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 96


Why Smoothing Curves
Sometimes when you want create a sweep for instance, CATIA answers you that the
profile curve is not continue in tangency and that it could not build the geometry as you
whish. The Smoothing Curve function allows you to clean these curves in distance and
tangency.

We want to create
a Line-type sweep
from this curve
using the plane as
reference surface.

Using the smoothed


curve, we can create
We need to the swept surface.
smooth the curve
before generating
the sweep.

We can see the


discontinuity
points and their
values to correct
the curve.
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 97
Smoothing Curves (1/2)

Select the Smoothing


1 Curve icon.
A discontinuity analysis is
2 Select the curve to be smoothed. displayed :
- In area : discontinuity
type and value before
smoothing.
- Out area : discontinuity
status after smoothing.

4 Click on OK to create the smoothed curve


Using the displayed values, set the
3 tangency and curvature thresholds
up to the value you want to repair.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 98


Smoothing Curves (2/2)
Smoothing a curve, you have the possibility to select a support surface.

2 Select the curve to smooth.

3 Define the smooth parameters.

4 Select the support surface (the curve


to smooth must lie on this surface).

Click OK to create the smoothed


5 curve : it will lie on the surface.
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 99
Additional Information on Smooth Curve(1/2)
The status of the discontinuities is displayed using a colour code.

Meaning of the boxes colour:

A red box means that the discontinuity has not been


corrected.
Reason : the discontinuity is not within the specified
threshold.

A yellow box means that the discontinuity has been


partially corrected.
Reason : the discontinuity in tangency is within the
tangency threshold, but the curvature discontinuity is
not within the curvature threshold.

A green box means that the discontinuity has been


completely corrected.
Reason : both tangency and curvature discontinuity are
within the curvature and tangency threshold.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 100


Additional Information on Smooth Curve (2/2)
You can choose to visualize only the non-corrected discontinuities :

You can choose to visualize the discontinuities interactively, placing the mouse on the
discontinuity to make the text box appear :

You can also display the information sequentially :

The total number of


discontinuities is
displayed.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 101


Extracting Elements

You will learn how to extract edges and faces from a surface.

Edge Face
extraction extraction

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 102


Extracting an Edge from a Surface
You can extract one or several edges of a surface which can be either boundaries or
limiting edges of faces. You cannot define limit points.

2 Select a surface edge and


choose the propagation type.
Selected
edge

3 Click OK to confirm edge extraction.


Here there is an ambiguity
about the propagation side
you are prompted to select
According to the selected propagation type you get : a support face. In this case,
the dialog box dynamically
updates and the Support
field is added.

Selected
support
face

1- No propagation 2- Tangent continuity 3- Point continuity

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 103


Extracting a Face from a Surface
You can extract one or several faces of a surface with or without propagation.

2 Select a face and choose


the propagation type.

3 Click OK to confirm face extraction.

The complementary mode :


Switching on this button, you can de-select the
elements to extract, and select the non-selected
elements :

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 104


Federating Elements

You will learn how to federate elements while joining surfaces


and extracting faces

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 105


Why federate ? (1/2)

1- Surfaces are made of several faces.


Elements created from a surface are in fact created from its faces.

The pad has been created with the


option “Up to surface”, using the blue
surface.
A fillet have been added to the top
edge of this pad.
This edge depends on a face of the
blue surface.

2- A modification of the part geometry may lead to a change of the supporting face.

The sketch supporting the pad have


been modified so that the filleted edge
does not lie anymore on the same face

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 106


Why federate ? (2/2)

3- This change can lead to an update error because the elements created from these
faces are no longer recognized.

During the update of the part, an


update error occurred : the filleted
edge is not recognized :

4- Federating the faces of the surfaces, this kind of update error does not occur anymore.

To solve the problem, you just have to


federate the faces of the blue surface.
Then the part is updated without any
problem :

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 107


How to Federate Elements
The federation of elements is available through the Join and the Extract tools :

Let’s see now how to federate ...


Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 108
Federating Elements while Joining Surfaces
Joining surfaces, you have the possibility to federate the faces of the resulting surface

2 Select one by one the elements to be joined together.

Expand the new “Federation” panel


3 in the join dialog box.

4 Select one face of the join surface


and choose a propagation type.

Click OK to create the federated


5 joined surface.
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 109
Federating Elements while Extracting Faces
Extracting faces from a solid, you have the possibility to federate the faces of the
resulting surface

2 Select one face of the solid.

3 Choose a propagation type.

4 Activate the federation switch.

Click OK to create the federated


5 extracted surface.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 110


Creating Fillets

Filleting is an operation that is used to smoothly connect surfaces.

You will learn how to create Shape, Edge, Variable, Face-To-Face, and Tri-
Tangent Fillets

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 111


Why Fillets?

Fillets were originally used in industry to remove sharp


edges on parts.

More and more, people having been using Fillets as a


general modelling tool for surface creation.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 112


Creating a Shape Fillet (1/3)
Use these command to create a fillet between two surfaces

Select the Shape Fillet Icon

Select two surfaces and put in the


2
required radius value. Make sure the
red arrows point towards the concave
side of the fillet.
Decide which supporting surface
3
you want to trim.

4 Choose one of the Extremities


conditions (Switch between the
four types - and Apply - to see the
difference)

5 Click OK to confirm. The Shape Fillet


is added to the specification tree

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 113


Creating a Shape Fillet (2/3) : Extremity Type

Here are the different types


of extremities

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 114


Creating a Shape Fillet (3/3) : Trimming the supports
Four combinations are possible :

No support are trimmed Both support are trimmed

The second support is left unchanged. The first support is left unchanged.
Only the first support is trimmed. Only the second support is trimmed.
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 115
Creating an Edge Fillet (1/2)
Use these command to provide a transitional surface along a sharp internal edge of a
surface

1 3 Enter the Radius value.

You can control


Select the Edge Fillet Icon
the Extremities of
the Fillet the
Select one or more internal edges of
2 same way as for
a surface
the Shape Fillet

You can also


fillet an entire
face

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 116


Creating an Edge Fillet (2/2)

4 Choose a Propagation type :

If Minimal, only the selected edges will be filleted.

If Tangency, all edges tangent to the selected edges will also be filleted.

5 Click OK to confirm. The Edge Fillet is added to the specification tree

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 117


Creating a Variable Fillet (1/3)
In this type of fillet the radius varies at selected points along a selected edge

Select the Variable


1 Fillet Icon

Select one or more internal edges of


2 a surface

3 Double-Click on any of the shown


radius values to change it

You can specify a Zero radius value


at limit points of a Variable Fillet

Select inside this box then select


4
anywhere along the edge to put in an
additional radius value along the edge.
(You can also create a point on the edge
and select this point if accuracy is
required)
You can control the Extremities of
the Fillet the same way as for the
Shape Fillet and the Propagation
type the same way as for the Edge
Fillet
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 118
Creating a Variable Fillet (2/3)

5 Choose a radius variation type :


Cubic (function ax3+bx2+cx+d)

Linear (function ax+b)

Click OK to confirm. The Variable Fillet is added to


6
the specification tree
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 119
Creating a Variable Fillet (3/3)
You have the capability to create a variable fillet with the fillet sections keeping
a constant direction in accordance with a spine

Edge to be filleted

The fillet sections are


perpendicular to filleted edge

Spine

The fillet sections are


perpendicular to the Spine

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 120


Creating a Face-To-Face Fillet
Use the Face-Face fillet command when there is no intersection between the
faces or when there are more than two sharp edges between the faces.

Select the two faces


2 (belonging to the same
1
surface) between which you
want to create the Face-To-
Select the Face-To-Face Fillet Face Fillet
Icon

3 Put in the desired


radius

4 Click OK to confirm.
The Face-To-Face Fillet You can control
the Extremities of
is added to the the Fillet the
specification tree same way as for
the Shape Fillet

The shape of the Face-To-Face


Fillet is basically generated by
lying a Cylinder with a specific
radius into the gap between two
faces. If the radius is too small,
the Cylinder will not be able to
touch both faces at once. If the
radius is two big, we will not be
able to achieve a Cylinder tangent
to the faces.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 121


Creating a Tri-Tangent Fillet
The creation of tri-tangent fillets involves the removal of one of the three selected faces.

The three faces must


1 belonging to the same
surface.
Select the Tri-Tangent Fillet Icon

2 Select the two faces you


want to keep

3 Select the face to be removed.

4 Click OK to confirm. The Tri-Tangent


Fillet is added to the specification tree.

The Tri-Tangent Fillet is a variable


radius Fillet tangent to all three
faces selected.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 122


Additional Information on Fillet : Hold Curve and Spine
This option concerns with all type of fillet : we will focus on the shape fillet creation.
Creating Fillets, you can now choose a curve sketched on one of the support to be connected to
control the radius variation. Spine Curve

Hold Curve

Select a hold curve lying on one support to drive


the fillet radius, And a spine curve.

Note : the result is a variable


radius fillet whose radius is driven
by the hold curve.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 123


Additional Information on Fillet : Limiting Elements
This option concerns the edge, the variable radius, the face-face and the tri-tangent fillets.
While creating one of these fillets, you can limit it by selecting an element (plane or surface) that
intersects it completely :

Edge to fillet
Limiting element

Edge to fillet Limiting element


Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 124
Additional Information on Fillet : Trim ribbon
This option concerns the edge and the variable radius fillets.
In some case, fillets may be overlapping. The Trim ribbons option lets you solve this by
trimming the fillets where they overlap.

Overlapping
fillets

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 125


Additional Information on Fillet : Rolling Edge (1/2)
This option concerns the edge and the variable radius fillets.
In some case, you may need to indicate that an edge should not be filleted, if a radius is too
large for instance.

Click on the more button to expand the dialog box, then select the edge
you wish to keep.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 126


Additional Information on Fillet : Rolling Edge (2/2)

You may need that a fillet roll around an edge.

You just have to expand the edge fillet dialog box clicking on the more
button, then select the edge on which the fillet will roll in the Edge to keep
field.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 127


Inverting Orientation

You will learn how to invert the orientation of Curves and Surfaces

Inverting a Surface

Inverting a Curve

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 128


Why Invert Orientation?

The results of most surface creation and


trimming operations depend on the orientations
of the elements involved. Most menu interfaces
allow the user to change these orientations on
the fly.

The Invert Orientation operation exists solely


for the user’s convenience.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 129


How to Invert Orientation

1 Access the Invert Orientation from the


Menubar - under Insert/Operation

2 Select the curve or surface to invert its


orientation. The initial display of the red
arrow is the already inverted direction.

3 Clicking on the red arrow or on the


Reset Initial button displays the initial
(uninverted) orientation of the element

4 Click OK to confirm. The Invert operation is


added to the specification tree

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 130


Laws
You will learn how to create evolution laws, to be used later on when
creating Generative Shape Design elements, such as swept surfaces, or
parallel curves.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 131


What are Laws?
A law is computed as the distance between points on the reference line and their matching
points onto the definition curve.

Definition Curve

The law define the variations of d along L.

L Reference Line

The law is defined on the


common length between
both entities.

The interest to define laws is to reuse them in others tools. You can reuse this variable distance
only to create parallel curves or sweeps.
Instead having a constant distance for a parallel curve you will be able to make vary this distance
with a predefined law.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 132


Creating Laws
Create an evolution function from existing geometry.

1 Select the Law Icon.

2 Select the line you want as reference line.

Reference
Select the line or curve you want as
3 definition curve for the evolution law.
Definition curve

Fix a X value or use


the manipulators to
see the corresponding
Y value

Click OK to confirm. The law is


4 added to the Specification Tree.
When the reference line and definition curve do
not present the same length, only the common
area is used to compute the law.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 133


Additional Information on Laws
You can combine the laws created within GSD with laws created with the Knowledge Law Editor

Define the parameter


Select the Law icon in the names and types
Knowledge toolbar.

Reuse these law


combinations in Parallel
curves or classic sweeps
creation like the other laws.

To reuse the graphic law, check


“Select Feature” then use the
“Evaluate” object as written above.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 134


Using Analysis Tools
In this lesson, you will learn how to use the Draft, Curvature, and
Connection Analysis Tools

The Connect Checker

The Curve Connect Checker

Draft Analysis

Curvature Analysis

Porcupine Curvature Analysis

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 135


The Connect Checker

You will learn how to use the Connect Checker tool to analyze the
connection between surfaces.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 136


Why the Connect Checker?
For surface modeling, to ensure good transition from one surface to another, the Connect
Checker allows the user to examine :

• the distance (mm)


• the tangency (deg)
• the curvature (%)

along an edge joining two surfaces.


Curvature analysis

Tangency analysis

Distance analysis

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 137


How to use the Connect Checker (1/2)

1 Multi-Select the two surfaces between which


you would like to check the connection 2 Select the Connect Checker Icon

Choose the Analysis Type : Note the Minimum and Maximum values
3 between the two surfaces.
distance, tangency or curvature

Choose the type of Display you


4 Adjust the color ranges taking account
require. 5
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002
your Minimum and Maximum values 138
How to use the Connect Checker (2/2)

The number of selected elements and the


number of detected connections are
displayed. Select the Quick button to obtain a simplified analysis
taking into account tolerances (distance, tangency and
curvature).
Check the analysis result on
6
the geometry.

Click OK to confirm. The Connection


7 Analysis is added to the specification tree
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 139
The Curve Connect Checker

You will learn how to use the Connect Checker tool to analyze the curvature
discontinuities on curves.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 140


Why the Curve Connect Checker ?
For wireframe based surface modeling, it is necessary to use curve that are continuous in
tangency and in curvature. The curve connect checker allows you to detect the point, tangency
or curvature discontinuities in order to smooth the non-continuous curves :

• the distance (mm)


• the tangency (deg)
• the curvature (%)

This curve is discontinuous


in tangency.

Building a circle sweep on it,


you get a surface that is not
continuous in tangency.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 141


How to use the Curve Connect Checker (1/2)
This tool allows you to detect the point, tangency and curvature discontinuities on curves.
Select the Curve
1 Connect Checker
icon and the
curve to analyse.
2 Select the Analyse Type you want to process.

Distance analysis

The point discontinuities are displayed on the


analysed curve.

Curvature analysis Tangency analysis

The curvature discontinuities are displayed on The tangency discontinuities are displayed on
the analysed curve. the analysed curve.
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 142
How to use the Curve Connect Checker (2/2)

3 Select the Quick Violation Analysis mode by


clicking on the Quick button.
This option allows the user to give thresholds bellow which the
discontinuity is not detected.

If both tangency and curvature discontinuities are detected, only the


tangency discontinuity is displayed.

Click OK to confirm. The Curve Connect


4 Checker Analysis is added to the
specification tree :

Display of the maximum


discontinuity values on the curve.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 143


Draft Analysis

You will learn how to use the Draft Analysis tool to analyze the draft
values of surfaces or solids

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 144


Why analyze Draft?
For mold design, Drafts need to be analyzed to determine extractability of the part.

For NC Machining, a part is analyzed to look for negative Draft angles in order to determine
if a 5-Axis NC machine will be required to cut the part.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 145


How to use the Draft Analysis Tool (1/2)
The Draft analysis tool gives you at every point the angle between the normal to the
surface and the Draft direction which is by default the Z axis.

1 Select the customized view Select the Draft Analysis


render style. 2
Icon.

Select the surface(s) or solid


3 where you want to examine
Draft
The analysis is displayed
on the selected element.

4 Adjust the color range fields - here Red is negative


draft, Dark Blue is 0-3 Degrees (probably vertical),
Light Blue is 3-15 Degrees, and Green is 15-20 Degrees

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 146


How to use the Draft Analysis Tool (2/2)
The default Draft direction is the Z axis. To modify it drag and drop the compass
5
on a plane or on the surface.
You can manipulate the
compass, the analysis
follows the w axis as draft
direction

Using this draft direction,


the part sould be
extractible

The part is not extractible Click on this button to


invert the draft
direction.
6 Activate the fly analysis checkbox and
navigate with the pointer over the surface

Arrows are displayed under the


pointer. Green arrow is the
normal to the surface, red
represent draft direction.

The displayed value indicates the


angle between the draft direction
and the normal to the surface at 7 Click Close when done.
the current point.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 147


Curvature Analysis

You will learn how to use the Mapping Analysis tool to analyze surface
curvature

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 148


Why Curvature Analysis?

Curvature analysis of surfaces in generally used to help model high quality surfaces.

Abrupt change of curvature on a surface (for example on a car exterior body) can be readily seen by
the naked eye and must be smoothed.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 149


What is a Curvature Analysis? (1/2)
Curvature analysis of surfaces is used to detect the defaults on high quality surfaces. Abrupt change
of curvature on a surface can be readily seen by the naked eye and must be smoothed.
The curvature analysis measure the curvature on each point of a surface according to the following
method :

curvature radius in one point (R): represents the local convexity of the surface

The curvature in one point (C): C = 1 / R If radius R ➬ curvature C ➮


is the inverse of the radius If radius R ➮ curvature C ➬

Intersection
Plane / Surface
Radius (R)

Curvature (C)

Radius measure of the


surface intersection with a Curvature measure of the
cutting plane surface intersection with a
cutting plane
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 150
What is a Curvature Analysis? (2/2)
If we rotate planes around the normal on a point On these intersection curves we can measure an
of the surface, we can build the intersection of infinity of curvature values in this point.
these planes with the surface.

Normal

Point on surface

In each point we will have a maximum curvature value CM and a minimum curvature value Cm.
The Mapping analysis tool allows you to measure these minimum and maximum values, the mean value
(Gaussian analysis) and to see the inflection areas.

Gaussian : C = CM.Cm Minimum Maximum Inflection area

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 151


Measuring the Mean Curvature on a Surface.
Select the customized view Select the surfaces where
1 render style.
2 you want to examine
Curvature

3 Select the Mapping Analysis Icon

Adjust the color range fields taking into account


your observation in Step 3. The objective is to 4 Select Gaussian as analysis type.
differentiate the various curvature sub-areas of
the surfaces

Pass the mouse over the


surfaces and read the
curvature values shown in
order to get a general idea of
Change the color curvature variation on the
scale to linear part

5 Click Close when done

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 152


Measuring the Minimum or Maximum Curvature on a Surface.
Select the customized view Select the surfaces where
1 render style.
2 you want to examine
Curvature

3 Select the Mapping Analysis Icon

4 Select Minimum or Maximum as


Adjust the color range fields taking into account analysis type.
your observation in Step 3 : drag and drop the
arrows or key in directly the right values in the
fields.

Pass the mouse over the


surfaces and read the
curvature values shown in
order to get a general idea of
curvature variation on the
part.

Notice that the minimum


curvature is always in the 5 Click Close when done
perpendicular plane to the
maximum curvature .

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 153


Checking a Surface Using the Limited Radius
Use the Limited Radius analysis to check if the surface can be offset or to check if tool
(an end mill) with a end radius can mill the part.
Select the customized view Select the surfaces where
1 render style.
2 you want to examine
Curvature

3 Select the Mapping Analysis Icon


4 Select Limited as
analysis type.

Set the Limited Radius


5
value.
In the green area, the defined
tool could not mill the part.

6 Click Close when done


Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 154
Checking the Inflection Areas on Surfaces.
Using the Inflection Area analysis type you can check where are the curvature sign
changes.
Select the customized view Select the surfaces where
1 render style.
2 you want to examine
Curvature

3 Select the Mapping Analysis Icon


4 Select Inflexion Area as
analysis type.

In the blue areas, the


Gaussian curvature (mean) is
negative.

5 Click Close when done

In the green area, the


Gaussian curvature (mean) is
positive.

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Additional Information on Mapping Analysis (1/2)
The Analysis is calculated on the mesh used to display the object, the precision of the analysis depends
upon the display settings.

Fix the 3D Accuracy to the


minimum value to have a better
analysis rendering.

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Additional Information on Mapping Analysis (2/2)
Case of a multi surface analysis :
Multi surfaces analysis Global analysis

The displayed curvature The displayed curvature


information values are the information values are kept on
values of the last selected the set of surfaces
surface

The analysis is
done on each The analysis is done
surface apart. on all the set of
surfaces

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Porcupine Curvature Analysis

You will learn how to use the


Porcupine Curvature Analysis tool
to analyze surfaces boundaries
curvature

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Why Porcupine Curvature Analysis?

The Porcupine Curvature analysis is an easy curvature discontinuities visualization tool.

The boundaries of a surface are impacted by the curvature discontinuities of the surface.
The Porcupine Curvature analysis analyses the surfaces boundaries in order to detect the surfaces
curvature discontinuities.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 159


Using the Porcupine Curvature Analysis (1/4)
This tool allows you to detect the curvature discontinuities on curves and to visualize them.

This tool can be applied on :


-A curve.
-A surface (boundaries analysis).

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Using the Porcupine Curvature Analysis (2/4)
Analysis type :

Curvature discontinuities
displayed with a radius
type analysis.

You can choose between a


curvature type and a radius
type analysis.
- Curvature : you visualize
the curvature evolution on
the curve.
- Radius : you visualize the
radius evolution along the
Curvature discontinuities
curve.
displayed with a
curvature type analysis.

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Using the Porcupine Curvature Analysis (3/4)
The diagram :

You can choose to visualize the curvature evolution using the


diagram:
-Each curve analysis posses its own color for a clearer
visualization.
- The extremum values are displayed in the diagram window.
- You can slide the pointer over the diagram to display the
amplitude at a given point of the curve.
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Using the Porcupine Curvature Analysis (4/4)
The Porcupine Curvature Analysis visualization parameters :

Reverse the Display all the


curvature values on extremum on the
the analyzed curves. analyzed curves.

Adjusting these parameters, you can optimize the analysis


visualization. It has no effect on the curvature values along
the curves.

Fills the analysis Envelop the analysis


area. area.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 163


Managing Features and OpenBodies
In this lesson, you will learn advanced tools for managing Open Bodies in
the specification tree. You will also learn how to work in a Hybrid
environment and in a Multi-Model environment.
Review of miscellaneous WFS tools
• Manipulating Elements
• Editing Surface and Wireframe Definition
• Creating Datum Features
• Updating a Part
• Applying Material onto Surfaces

Managing the Geometry


• Using the Historical Graph
• Quick Edition of Geometry
• Deleting Useless Elements
• Auto-Sorting an OpenBody

Managing OpenBodies
Creating a Group
Creating a New OpenBody
Changing the Father Node of an OpenBody
Selecting Bodies using the Body Selector
Duplicating an OpenBody
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 164
WFS Management Features versus GSD Management Features
Wireframe & Surface Design and Generative Shape Design are two workbenches which have
many common functionalities.
Within GSD you will discover new functionalities that are not in WFS and also advanced
capabilities in some functions that exist in both workbenches.
GSD
WFS

Functionalities specific to
the Generative Shape
Design workbench.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 165


Review of WFS Miscellaneous Tools
You can review the tools covered in the Wireframe & Surface Design Course which
are also included in the Generative Shape Design Workbench.

Manipulating Elements
Editing Wireframe and Surface Definition
Creating Datum Features
Updating a Part
Managing OpenBodies

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 166


Managing the Geometry

You will learn the following tools to help you manage Open Bodies in the
specification tree:

Using the Historical Graph

Quick Edition of Geometry

Deleting Useless Elements

Auto-Sorting an OpenBody

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 167


Using the Historical Graph (1/2)
The Historical Graph allows you to display the hierarchical links between the different
features of a part.

Select the feature from which Select the Historical Graph icon.
1 you want to know the 2
hierarchy.

3 Select the Surface Presentation to


display the surfacic hierarchical
elements.
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 168
Using the Historical Graph (2/2)
Reframe the Graph

to Add a Graph

to Remove the Graph

4b Click on plus to expand


the tree.

Select the
4a Parameter Filter
button.

Double click a feature


to edit and modify it.
You can Edit and
modify a Parameter
directly by double
click on it

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 169


Quick Edition of Geometry.
The Quick Edit allows you to quickly access to the parent elements of the selected object.
Select the Quick
1 Edit icon.

2 Select the geometry


You identify the generating elements.
Informations are displayed on the
whole geometry :
Green : the last element generated in
the selected geometry
Red : the direct parent of the last
generated element
Purple (with G letter) : the first
element that generate the final one

You can Edit and Compare with


modify an element the historical
directly by double
graph.
click on it

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 170


Deleting Useless Geometry
This command allows you to quickly delete all un-referenced datums, that are not
participating in the creation of other geometrical elements.

1 Select Delete useless


elements… in the Tools
menu.

2 Click on Yes to
confirm.

CATIA gives
you a list of
elements to
delete and ask
you to confirm
before delete
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 171
Auto-Sorting OpenBodies
This command allows you to sort hierarchically the wireframe features under the
selected OpenBody.

1 Select the OpenBody node in the


Specification tree.

Open a contextual menu, then


2 select Auto-Sort OpenBody.

In this specification
tree certain features
are not in a
hierarchical order.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 172


Managing Open Bodies

You will learn the following tools to help you manage Open Bodies in the
specification tree:

Creating a Group

Creating a new Open Body

Changing the Father node of an Open Body

Duplicating an Open Body

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 173


Why Open Body Management Tools?

In V5, during the creation and trimming of surfaces, the history of parent surfaces is kept in its
entirety in order to allow for automatic update of downstream geometry following a
modification of any parent surface. Due to this fact, the specification tree can get large and
often confusing. The tools listed below help manage this tree.

Creating a Group
Hides all the nodes of an Open Body except for specific nodes the user chooses to see.

Creating a new Open Body


Creates a new Open Body branch in the specification tree with the option of putting nodes from
existing Open Bodies into it. (Allows for multiple groups containing related elements)

Changing the Father node of an Open Body


Allows the user to change the position of an Open Body in the specification tree.

Duplicating an Open Body


One of the modes of this tool duplicates the Open Body in its entirety. This allows the user to edit
nodes in the copied Open Body without affecting the original Open Body.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 174


Creating a Group
Hide all the nodes of an OpenBody except for specific nodes the user chooses to show.

Activate “Create Group” in the Contextual Menu


1 for the Open Body you would like to group.

2 Name the group.

3 Select nodes in the


Open Body that you
would like to remain
displayed in the
specification tree.

Click OK to confirm. The Open Body is replaced by a


4 group of hidden nodes + the nodes in the Open Body that
the user specified to remain displayed.
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 175
Expanding and Collapsing a Group
Expand the tree under the group node see its contents, and collapse it when it is opened.

2 Activate “Collapse
Group” in the
Contextual Menu for the
Group you would like to
close.

1 Activate “Expand Group” in the


Contextual Menu for the Group
you would like to open.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 176


Creating a New Open Body

1 Activate Insert/Open Body from the Menubar.

Specify the node under which the new


2
Open Body will be inserted.
Click OK to confirm. The new
Select nodes from existing 4 Open Body is added to the
3
Open Bodies that you want specification tree.
to move to the new Open
Body.

If Part.1 was selected as the


Father, the new Open Body will
be created under this node

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 177


Changing the Father Node of an OpenBody or a Feature
Activate “Change Body” in the Contextual
1 Menu for the Open Body (or the feature) you
would like to move.

3 Click OK to confirm.

Select the destination node (new Father


2 node) for your Open Body (or your feature)

The Open Body


is moved to its
new location.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 178


Selecting Bodies using the Body Selector
The body selector allows you to quickly select a specific body to define it in Work Object.

Open the combo box of the Body


1 Selector in the Tools toolbar, then
choose the new active body.

You can also rename directly the body in the


2 combo box.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 179


Duplicating an Open Body (1/2)
Select the Duplicate OpenBody icon
1 in the Replication toolbar

Click on the Selected then select


2 Select the Open Body to be duplicated 3 the corresponding generating
features as shown below

Click on the green arrow to


reverse the extrude direction
Click on “Use identical
name” to just create an
identical second
instance of the selected
Openbody.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 180


Duplicating an Open Body (2/2)

4 Select “As Specified in Part document” as format

Click on OK to confirm the duplication


5

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 181


Hybrid Design
In this lesson, you will learn tools to build Hybrid Part using surfacic and
solid features. You will also learn how to work in a Multi-Model
environment.

Working with Hybrid Part.

Review of WFS Skillet.


• Creating a Solid from Surfaces

• Working in a Multi-Model Environment.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 182


Working with Hybrid Parts

You will learn how Surfaces and


Solids can be used as modeling
tools together within the same model

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 183


Why Hybrid Modeling?

With Hybrid modeling we have the best of both


worlds:

- the ease of use and concise (inside/outside)


mathematical definition of solids

- the capability to create complex surfaces

In this illustration, the Extrude.1 surface is used


to create the ThickSurface.1 solid. Later, the
Offset.1 surface was defined from the opposite
face of the ThickSurface.1 solid.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 184


V5 and Hybrid Modeling

1 Surface to Solid Tools Access from within the Part


Design Workbench

Create a surface offset from a


solid face
2 Solid to Surface Tools
Create a Fill Surface from solid
edges
In general, solid edges are seen by V5
surfaces as any ordinary curve. Solid JOIN solid edges into section
faces are seen as any ordinary surface.
Hence, surface creation tools can use curves then LOFT between these
solid edges and faces as input. section curves

Create a Blend Surface between


two solid faces

Extract a surface from a solid face

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 185


Creating a Solid from Surfaces

You will learn how to create a solid from surfaces

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 186


Why Do You Need to Create a Solid from Surfaces ?

You may need to create a surface just for using it in a solid body. The surface is
integrated into the body design.

What about solids created from surfaces ?


You can use a surface to:
- split a solid body
- create a solid body by thickening the surface
- close it into a solid body
- sew it onto a solid body

Split Body Close Surface

Sew Surface

Thicken Surface
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 187
Creating a Solid from a Surface …

1 Click on any Surface-Based Features icon.

2 For each type of feature a dialog box is displayed.

Select the surface


to be processed.

3 Confirm feature creation.

Let ’s see now the different ways to create surface-based features ...
Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 188
Splitting a Body with a Surface

2 Select the surface used as splitting element and orient the arrow
towards the material to be kept.

Material to Splitting
be kept surface

3 Click OK to split the body.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 189


Thickening a Surface

2 Select the surface to be thickened.


Surface to be
thickened

Offset
direction

3 Click OK to thicken the surface.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 190


Closing a Surface into a Body

2 Select the surface to be closed.


Surface to
be closed

3 Click OK to close the surface.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 191


Sewing a Surface to a Body

2 Select the surface to be sewn onto the body and orient the arrow
towards the material to be kept.

Surface to
be sewn

Material to
be kept

3 Click OK to sew the surface to


the body.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 192


Working in a Multi-Model Environment

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 193


Why Work in a Multi-Model Environment?

- To reuse already existing geometry

- To establish associativity between parts

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 194


Surface Modeling and Multi-Model Environment

1 Select the Offset icon (for


instance) Directly select geometry in
2 the Passive Model to create
a surface in the Active
Model
The passive element selected is shown
as an “External Reference” within the
specification tree of the Active Model

In this case, the Offset.1


surface has the Surface.1
External Reference as its
parent. As usual, changes in
the parent will propagate
downstream.

Copyright DASSAULT SYSTEMES 2002 195