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CHAPTER 3 LESSON 1

GRACE I. MAIT
A Closer Look at the Educational
Systems of the Selected Countries of
the World
“Benchmarking is learning the best from
the best practices of the world's best
educational systems.”
As a FUTURE TEACHER…
…you shall be guided by UNESCO's
principle on the four pillars that
Education is for ALL and that this
education is anchored on the Four
Pillars which are:
1. Learning to Know,
2. Learning to Do,
3. Learning to Be, and
4. Learning to Live Together
Educational System of
AUSTRALIA
a. Australia’s Basic Education
• Australia, called by many
as the last paradise on
earth, has a high quality
educational system.
• Many students from all
over the world go to
Australia to study.
• The educational system
in Australia is similar with
that of Canada and
England.
o Primary Schools- 6 years
o High school- 6 years
-junior high school (year 7- year 10)
-senior high school (year 11- year 12)
o College/ University- 3 to 6 years
 Students who intend to go to college or
university entrance examination;
 Other students may get a job after year
ten; or
 Go to a Technical and Further Education
(TAFE) College to learn technical skills.
a) PRIMARY EDUCATION
 Compulsory Education
 6 to 12 years old
 provided by government and non-
government primary schools
 However, in most states, children start
primary school at the age of five when they
enroll in preparatory or kindergarten year.
b) JUNIOR SECONDARY LEVEL
for four years
12 to 16 years old
At the end, a Junior Secondary
Certificate of Education (Year 10
Certificate) is awarded.
c) SENIOR SECONDARY LEVEL
16 to 18 years old
no longer compulsory education
offered by government and non-
government providers
 Senior Secondary Certificate of Education
(Year 12 Certificate) is awarded at the end
of the senior secondary level.
d) HIGHER EDUCATION
1. to enable individuals to develop their
capabilities
2. to advance knowledge and understanding
3. aid the application of knowledge
4. enable individuals to adapt and learn
5. contribute to democratic civilized society.
Universities:
o autonomous
o self-accredited institutions
o established by Federal, State or
Territory legislation

Academic year:
o begins with the undergraduate
level
o a Senior Secondary Certificate of
Education is required for
admission
o university education leads to a
bachelor's degree
A graduate with a bachelor's
degree:

o can proceed to a one-year


to two-year post graduate
course leading to a
postgraduate diploma.
o A student who has qualified
for a bachelor's degree
(Honours) may proceed to a
master's degree.
o A student who has qualified
for a bachelor's degree
(Honours) may proceed to
study for doctorate usually
Ph.D.
Educational System of CHINA
o most populous country of the world is China
o 200 million students attending public schools
taught by over 9 million teachers in the
elementary, junior, and senior high schools
o largest educational system of the world (Wang,
1996; Nanjundiah, 1996)

o The course syllabi are written by scientists and


professors hired by the National Educational
Commission.
o UNIFORM subject matter
and instructional contents
o Primary grades (6 yrs)
devoted to development of
cognitive skills
o High School (6yrs)
3yrs middle school
3yrs senior high
Class size ranged from 40 to
60 students
o University (6 yrs)
For admission, must pass one of the
two versions of the National University
Entrance Examination.
The quality and reputation of the
school will depend on the number of
students passing the examination (Changbin,
1995; Kwang, 2000)
Educational System in JAPAN
Japan Education

o highly centralized
o administered by the Mombusho or Ministry
of Education
o 10% goes to the university
o 1/3 go to the private schools and the rest
are enrolled in the public of national
school system (Abner, 2002)
o seen as a model of how operate schools
In 2005, a book in Japan in the
21st Century: Environment,
Economy and Society says:
" Japan's educational system produces students who
perform for better on international examinations than
Americans do, and Japanese students are indisputably
among the best in the world in solving mathematical
equations...Youngsters are well behaved, envied around
and law abiding; Japan's low crime rates are well known
and widely envied around the world. But what is even
more striking than the lack of crime is the overwhelming
civility; graffiti and vandalism are rare and schools sports
teams not only bow to each other before the game but
rush over the opposing team's stand after the game to
pay their respect."
5 basic levels:
o Kindergarten,
o elementary school
(6years),
o lowers secondary school
(3 years),
o upper secondary (3years)
and
o university (usually around 4
years).
In Japan, education is:
o FREE and compulsory for children 6 to 15
years
o Classes are large and teaching methods
is usually lecture
o Japanese students spend 243 days in a
year in school.
o The school calendar is year-round with
some breaks between sessions.
Standard curriculum includes :
o Japanese language
o Social Studies
o Math
o Science
o Art
o Music
o Home Economics
o Physical Education
Upper secondary schools offer:
a) Academic
-Japanese language
-English
-Science
-Math
b) Technical
c) Vocational programs
-Information Processing
-Navigation
-Fish Farming
-Ceramics
-Business English
Higher Education:
Must take 2 examinations:
- national achievement test
- given by the university itself

Graduate School:
- only 7% of university
graduate gets Master's
degrees

Doctorate Level
- students enroll in medical
programs and the humanities
Educational System of
SOUTH AFRICA
South African Education
o Equal access to basic education
o Opportunities for lifelong learning
o Democratic participation
o Sustainability of development and
relevance of education
Basic Education

Formal education in
South Africa is categorized into sectors or levels:
o public ordinary school education,
o independent school education,
o special school education,
o technical college education,
o teacher training and
o university training.
Public school
Types:
- ordinary public school or
- public school for learners with special needs
Levels:
- pre-primary
- primary
- secondary
- higher education
Phrases:
- foundation (Grades R-III)
- intermediate (Grades-VI) and
- senior (Grades VII-IX
o Grades VII-IX - last stage of
compulsory education and will
lead to General Education and
Training Certificate.
o Further Education and Training (FET)
or senior secondary education
(Grades X-XII) is not compulsory.
o At the end of Grade XII, students sit
a public examination leading to
Senior Certificate.
o Technical secondary education
which generally lasts for three years
are offered in technical centers,
high schools and vocational
schools.
The eight learning areas that form the basis of
all basic education up to the Further
Education Training(FET) Certificate are:
1. Language, Literacy and Communication
2. Mathematical Literacy, mathematics and
Mathematical Science
3. Natural Science
4. Technology
5. Human and Social Science
6. Economics and Management Science
7. Arts and Culture
8. Life Orientation
Higher Education
o correspond to Level 5-8 of the
National Qualification Framework
(NQF) which is used more
advanced than the Senior
Certificate.
o include colleges, technikons and
universities.
o Most colleges of education offer
a three-year programme leading
to the Diploma in Education (four
year for higher diplomas).
Educational System in
UNITED KINGDOM
The National
Curriculum
o minimum educational requirement for
compulsory school age, 5 to 16 years
o mandatory for all state schools which
promotes holistic development, prepares
them for opportunities, responsibilities and
experiences of adult life.
o It includes religious education and for
secondary students sex and career
education.
o Followed by almost all the schools whether
private or state
a. Basic Education

o National curriculum core subjects-


English, Mathematics, and Science. Each
key level has definite emphasis that gradually
becomes more advanced as the level
progresses.
o Foundation Stage- covers children aged 3-5
years, but does not have a strong mandate
as to what needs to happen during these
years of schooling as it is not yet mandatory.
Stage 1
o 5-7 years old
o Grades 1-2
o Core Subjects: English, Mathematics,
and Science
o Non-core Subjects: design/technology,
history, art/design, music and physical
education.
o Statutory Areas: religious education
o format is decided by Local Education
Authorities (LEA’S) or by the faith in
which the school was founded.
Stage 2
o 7-11 years old
o year groups 3-6
o same core and non-core foundation
subjects
o emphasis on more difficult topics
o addition of sex education to
additional statutory areas
Stage 3
o 11-14 years old
o year groups 7-9
o Same basics in Key Stages One and
Two, adds Foreign Language, and
Information/ Communication
Technology
o adding appropriate difficulty to the
core subjects.
Stage 4
o 14-16 years old
o year groups 10-11
o covers the statutory program that must be
taught to all students.
o Most schools include in their core
curriculum courses that lead to
qualifications in each of the five subject
areas which are English, Math, Science,
Information and Communication
Technology (ICT), and Physical Education.
Post 16 Education
 not mandatory in England
 Students can either continue education or
enter working world
 certificates or diploma awarded:
o General Certificate of Education (GCE), a
level comprising advanced subsidiary (AS)
and A2, each of these usually containing
three assessed units.
o Vocational Certificate of Education (VCE) ---
a level, dealing with the more applied
aspects of the subject; they are available in
three, six, and twelve unit sizes; General
National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs).
Higher Education

o Divisions label pre-1992 universities as


the “old” universities and the former
polytechnics as the “new” universities.
o Higher education system in the UK
needs to include reference to the Open
University who pioneered the way for
opening access by offering greater
flexibility for adult learners through
distance learning programs.
o Ordinary degree programmes in the
UK universities are usually 3-year
courses.
o Undergraduates completing these
programmes successfully are awarded
either a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) or
Bachelor of Science (B. Sc.) degrees
are not permitted to place B.A. or B.Sc
after their names.
o Honours degree programmes are
usually four-year courses. The degree
title is extended to B.A. (Hons.) and
B.Sc. (Hons.), respectively.
o Masters degree is usually
achieved after two more years
study following an Ordinary or an
Honour degree. The students are
awarded M.A. or M.Sc.
o A doctorate is normally awarded
after several years (three years
full time) of research under the
direction of a member of a
department of a possession of a
doctorate and the presentation
of a doctoral dissertation or
thesis.
Educational System of the
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
o There are public and private
colleges, schools and universities
in the United States.
o The public schools are funded, in
part, by a city, and/or state, and
or state pay less tuition because
some tax money is used to
subsidize the tuition.
o Private colleges and universities
are supported primarily by tuition
and private contributions. All
students must pay the same
tuition no matter where they
come from.
Basic
Education
Pre-primary education:
o kindergartens, nursery
schools, preschool
programmes, and
child/day care centers.
o 4-6 years old and the
duration is 2 years.
o Grades 1-4- children are
from ages 6 to 10.
Transition to middle school
o Grades 1 to 5- children
are from ages 6 to 11
Transition to middle school
o Grades 1-6- children are
from ages 6 to 12
Transition to junior high school
o Grades 1-7- children
ages 6 to 14
Transitions to junior high school
Middle School Education
o Grades 4-6, 5-7, or 6-8.
o Age level is from 10-14
o Length of the program
is 3 years.
Secondary Education (high school)
o Grades 7-12 or 8-12
o Ages 12-18 years old
o 2 levels:
Junior high school
Grades 7-8, 7-9, or 8-9
Ages 12-14 years old
Senior high school
Grades 9-12, or 10-12
Ages 14-18 years old.
o Duration of compulsory education is
from entry of 6 years old to exit of 18
years old.
Higher Education
It is diverse and autonomous
community of publicly and
privately supported
institutions.
7 Categories of Higher
Education Institution
Research Universities (I and II) -
Comprehensive doctorate granting
institutions that have extensive theoretical
and applied research in a wide variety of
programs.

Doctorate – granting universities (I and II)


Universities offering comprehensive
studies but awards Doctorate in limited
fields or areas.
Master’s (Comprehensive) universities
and colleges (I and II) – Institutions offering
academic and professional programmes
at the Bachelor’s and Master’s levels but
do not award research doctorate.
Baccalaureate (Liberal Arts) Colleges (I
and II)- Institutions offering Bachelor’s
degrees but not higher.
Associate of Arts Colleges- they offer
academic and professional or
occupational studies at the Associate
Degree level including public community
colleges and public and private junior
colleges.
Professional School and the other
specialized institutions- institutions that offer
only one or few related courses in the
professional or academic with degree
levels from associate to research
doctorates.
Posts Secondary Vocational and
Technical Schools- institutions offering
short non-degree training programs of
less than two years duration, leading
to certificates or diplomas in
occupational specialties.
Post Secondary
Education
o there is no real age
categories
o About 60% of all students
who graduate from high
school enter college at
some point in their life
o In reality, the average American takes
over 6 years to finish a four year degree.
Reasons:
More than 50% of college freshmen do not
know what major or specialization they wish
to study.
Many students work to pay for college
expenses. Thus, they may take fewer classes in
order to work.
Thank you!