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Lesson Plan

Lesson: Determining Rate Equations

Aim :

To study how rate equations can be determined using the Initial Rate Method.

Learning Outcomes :

At the end of the lesson, students will be able to :

1. deduce order of reaction using the Initial Rate Method.

2. calculate the rate constants from rate equations.

3. predict initial rate from rate constants.

Assumed prior knowledge :

Students should already :

1. be familiar with terms rate equation, rate constant and order of reaction.

2. be familiar with zero, first and second order reactions.

Underlying Principles

1. Enabling students to know what to look for.

2. Enabling students to manage data.

Time taken to complete the activities : 80 minutes

Differentiation

Questions in the student notes are designed to enable all students to complete the activity. The pop-up answers are provided for the students to view when they have considered their

responses.

application of the new concepts learned.

Worksheet questions include questions that require recall, understanding and

Development of Lesson :

 No. Steps Strategy Resources 1 Set Induction. (Ascertaining prior knowledge and introducing lesson topic for the day). • Teacher to get students to recall what they have learnt about the effects on the rate of reaction when concentrations of reactants are doubled in zero, first and second order reactions. • Teacher to introduce lesson objectives for the day. 2 Student Activity Teacher to go through Activities 1 - 4 with the students. • Courseware • Activity 1 : Rate equation Students get to investigate the rate equation of a reaction whose rate depends on more than one reactant. • Activity 2 : Experimental determination of rate equation Students get to investigate how the rate equation of a reaction can be determined using initial rates obtained by experimental means. • Activity 3 : Rate constants Students are shown how the rate constant can be determined using the rate equation and known concentrations of the reactants. • Activity 4 : Initial rates Students are shown how the initial rate of a reaction can be determined using the rate equation, given the rate constant and concentrations of reactions. 3 Evaluation • Students to answer questions in the student worksheet on their own. • Worksheet 4 Extension activity • Students to go through the extension activities on their own. • Websites • Reference books.

1.

1.1

1.2

1.3

Rate equation.

a. The sum of the powers of all the reactant concentration terms in the experimentally determined rate equation. Overall order of reaction = m + n

b. rate = k[A] 1 [B] 0

= k[A]

a. first order

b. rate = k[N 2 O 5 ]

a. Overall order = 2

b. dm 3 mol -1 s -1

c. CO does not take part in the rate-determining step of the reaction.

1.4

d.

i.

1

The rate is ( 2

times.

1

) 2 = 4 times of the original rate ie. it is decreased by 4

ii. The rate remains the same.

a. rate = k[CH 3 CH=CH 2 ] [Br 2 ]

b. rate = k[CH 3 CH=CH 2 ] [Br 2 ] = 30.0 (0.020)(0.020) = 0.012 mol dm 3 s -1

2.

2.1

Experimental determination of rate equation, rate constant and initial rates.

a. The initial rate of reaction is doubled.

i.

 ii. The initial rate of reaction is quadrupled (increased by 4 times). b. i. First order. ii. Second order

c. rate = k[P] 2 [Q] 1

 2.2 a. i. Zero order ii. Second order. b. rate = k[Y] 2 c. 0.0040 = k(0.20) 2 k = 0.10 dm 3 mol -1 min -1 d. 0.0040 mol dm -3 min -1 e. X + X X 2 (slow) X 2 + Y X 2 Y (fast) 2.3 a. 2NO(g) + 2H 2 (g) N 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g) b. Second order with respect to NO. i. ii. First order with respect to H 2 .

c. rate = k[NO] 2 [H 2 ]

d. From experiment 1 :

k = rate / [NO] 2 [H 2 ] = 0.0033/(0.0020) 2 (0.0120) = 6.88 x 10 4 dm 6 mol -2 s -1

e. The rate of reaction would increase. A decrease in volume will cause the concentration of the gases per volume to increase.