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Lesson Plan Lesson: Phase Diagrams Aim: To investigate the equilibrium between phases of a system

Lesson Plan

Lesson: Phase Diagrams

Aim: To investigate the equilibrium between phases of a system and the phase diagrams of water and carbon dioxide.

Learning Outcomes :

At the end of the lesson, students will be able to :

1. explain the terms : phase, equilibrium and closed system.

2. interpret phase diagrams as curves describing the conditions of equilibrium between phases and as regions each representing a single phase.

3. sketch the phase diagram for water and carbon dioxide.

4. predict how a phase may change with changes in temperature and pressure.

Assumed prior knowledge :

Students should already :

1. be familiar with the concept of boiling, melting, condensation and sublimation.

2. be able to distinguish the difference in movement and arrangement of particles in the three different

states : solid, liquid and gas.

Underlying Principles

1. Making the invisible, visible.

2. Enabling students to know what to look for.

Time taken to complete the activities : 80 minutes

Differentiation

Questions in the student notes are designed to enable all students to complete the activity. The pop-up answers are provided for the students to view when they have considered their responses. Worksheet questions include questions that require recall, understanding and application of the new concepts learned.

Development of Lesson : No. Steps Strategy Resources 1 Set Induction. (Ascertaining prior knowledge and

Development of Lesson :

No.

Steps

Strategy

Resources

1

Set Induction. (Ascertaining prior knowledge and

Teacher to quiz students on the differences between solid, liquid and gaseous particles in terms of their arrangement and movement.

 

introducing lesson topic for the day).

Teacher to use ice and ‘dry ice’ to illustrate changes in state and to introduce topic lesson.

2

Student Activity

Teacher to go through Activities 1 & 2 with the students.

Courseware

Activity 1 : Phases of a system.

 

Students get to view the change in movement and arrangement of particles in a substance as it undergoes changes in state. Students are introduced to the concept of phases of a system and the state of equilibrium between the liquid and vapour state of a substance.

Activity 2 : Phase diagrams

Students get to examine the various parts of a phase diagram. They will be guided on how to use these phase diagrams to predict the physical state of water and carbon dioxide at different conditions of temperature and pressure.

3

Evaluation

Students to answer questions in the student worksheet on their own.

Worksheet

4

Extension activity

Students to go through the extension activities on their own.

Reference

books

Worksheet Answers 1. Phases of a system 1.1 a. A phase is any part of

Worksheet Answers

1.

Phases of a system

1.1

a. A phase is any part of a system, which is homogenous and separated from other parts of the system by a distinct boundary.

b. A closed system is one in which there is no loss or gain of materials to or from the surroundings.

c. Equilibrium is the state at which the properties of a system do not change with time.

1.2

a. Melting point is the temperature at which a solid is in equilibrium with its liquid at a given pressure.

b. Boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid is in equilibrium with its vapour at a given pressure.

2.

Phase diagrams

2.1

a.

 
 
 

b.

O is the triple point and G is the critical point. Triple point is the conditions of temperature and pressure at which the solid phase, liquid phase and gas phase of the substance can exist together at equilibrium. Critical point is the conditions of temperature and pressure beyond which the liquid and gas phases merge and become indistinguishable.

c.

Solid state.

  d. At point X , substance W exists as a solid. When substance W
 

d.

At point X, substance W exists as a solid. When substance W is heated, it will

reach a state

 

where the solid and liquid W are at equilibrium (on line OF). After this, substance W will exist

as a liquid. When the temperature reaches the line OG, W will exist as liquid and gas in equilibrium. When the temperature rises, the substance W will exist as a gas. At 400 o C, substance W would exist as a gas.

 

e.

When a substance changes directly from a solid to a gas, it is said to sublime.

f.

Curve OH

2.2

a.

 
 
 

b.

The pressure in the container must be higher than 5 atm and the temperature must be higher than -57 o C but lower than 31 o C.

2.3

 
 

2.4

a.

i.

PR represents the conditions of temperature and pressure where solid and liquid water can exist together at equilibrium. This line represents the variation of the melting point of water with pressure.

ii. It has a negative gradient. iii. It means that the melting point of water

ii.

It has a negative gradient.

iii.

It means that the melting point of water decreases with increasing pressure. When water changes from liquid state to solid state, its volume increases.

b. The substance would change from a gas to a solid.

i.

ii.

The substance would condense from a gas to a liquid.

c. Water would exist as a solid. These conditions of temperature and pressure are found in the area representing the solid phase in the phase diagram of water.