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08-11-2017

Fluid Mechanics

GROUNDWATER
HYDRAULICS

Prof. Manasa R. Behera


Dept. of Civil Engineering
IIT BOMBAY
Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

Fluid Mechanics

GROUNDWATER HYDRAULICS
Definitions
• Groundwater is a major source of water supply requiring minimal treatment.

• Vadose zone is partially saturated zone above the water table. Capillary forces play a
major role in it.

Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

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08-11-2017

Fluid Mechanics

GROUNDWATER HYDRAULICS
Definitions
• Aquifer is a geological formation that contains and transmits ground water. Velocity of
ground water is less than 1m/day

• Aquiclude is an impermiable geological formation (clay, shale etc.)

• Confined aquifer is an aquifer confined by two aquicludes. Recharge takes place


through outcrops

• Unconfined aquifers is an aquifer with free water surface for an upper boundary.
Recharge takes place through ground surface above the aquifer

Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

Fluid Mechanics

GROUNDWATER HYDRAULICS
Definitions
• Volumetric porosity,

volume of voids
n
total volume

• Specific yield is the fractional volume of water that will drain freely by gravity from a
unit volume of formation.

• Safe yield is the amount of groundwater that can be withdrawn without impairing the
aquifer as a water source.

• A soil is called anisotropic when the permeability is not the same in different
directions. Opposite: isotropic

• A soil is called heterogeneous when the permeability differs from place to place.
Opposite: homogeneous
Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

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08-11-2017

Fluid Mechanics

CREEPING MOTION
• In 1856, H. Darcy found experimentally that the velocity (averaged over pores and
solid region) is given by

Q dH
vx   k   ki
A dx

where, k is the hydraulic conductivity, m/s

H is the piezometric head, m

vx is the superficial velocity, m/s and is known as


Darcy velocity.

Q
• Through the pores, the seepage velocity 
nA
(actual velocity)

Henry Darcy
Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

Fluid Mechanics

CREEPING MOTION
• For creeping flow in a gap of height b we had found

b 2 p b2   p  b 2 H
vx         
12 x 12 x    12 x

• For a stream-tube in porous media, b is proportional to the particle size diameter. Thus,

d2 H d 2g H
vx   g 
12 x 12 x

• By comparing with Darcy’s equation, the hydraulic conductivity,

d 2g
k
12

Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

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08-11-2017

Fluid Mechanics

CREEPING MOTION
• Hydraulic conductivity (k) depends on both physical properties of the porous medium
and the fluid properties.

• Intrinsic permeability (in m2) depends upon the physical properties of the porous
medium

 
• Hence, k  ki or ki  k
 

• The intrinsic permeability is important in reservoir engineering where different fluids


(oil, gas, water) occur and in aquifers where both fresh and saline water occurs.

• The intrinsic permeability is measured by the unit Darcy. 1 Darcy = 10-12 m2

• Commonly used is the milli-Darcy (md). 1 md = 10-3 Darcy

Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

Fluid Mechanics

CREEPING MOTION
• Lets consider Darcy’s law in Cartesian component form

H H H
uk , vk , and wk
x y z

• For isotropic material, k is the same in all directions. Substituting in the continuity
equation, we get

  2H  2H  2H 
 k 2  2  2   0  2H  0
 x y z 

• H behaves like a potential function

v d 50
• Darcy’s law is valid for  10

• Thus, the flow is called Darcy flow

Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

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08-11-2017

Fluid Mechanics

BORE WELL

H-h
Variation of
pressure head

A confined aquifer
Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

Fluid Mechanics

STEADY STATE EQUATION FOR WELLS


• After a well has been pumped for an extended period, steady state conditions are
approached

• In the simplest possible case, use Darcy’s equation for an isotropic, homogeneous
aquifer

• (a) Confined aquifer


dh
Q  k A i   k (2rb)
dr
r2 h2
dr
• Or Q  2(bk )  dh
r1
r h1
where ‘T’ is known as the
transmissivity and equal to
2(bk ) (h 2  h1 ) 2 T (h 2  h1 )
• Therefore, Q  (bk)
r2 r
ln ln 2
r1 r1

• The above equation is known as Thiem equation


Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

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08-11-2017

Fluid Mechanics

STEADY STATE EQUATION FOR WELLS


R
Q ln 
• Draw down = H  h   rw 
2 T

where, R is the radius of influence and rw is the radius of well

Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

Fluid Mechanics

STEADY STATE EQUATION FOR WELLS


• (b) Unconfined aquifer
dh
Q  k (2rh )
dr
‘h’ is variable

• Integrating from r1 to r2,

2 2
 k (h 2  h1 )
Q
r 
ln 2 
 r1 

An unconfined aquifer
Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

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08-11-2017

Fluid Mechanics

ASSUMPTIONS
• In unconfined aquifers, usually two assumptions are involved

• Dupuit’s approximation:

1) The gradient of the piezometric head is constant over any vertical section and is
H
equal to at the free surface
x

2) The velocity is horizontal and uniform from top to bottom of any vertical section

Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

Fluid Mechanics

WELL INTERFERENCE

Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

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08-11-2017

Fluid Mechanics

EFFECT OF PROLONGED PUMPING

Longer pumping events increase the size of


cone of depression

Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in

Fluid Mechanics

Prof. Manasa Ranjan Behera, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. Email – manasa.rb@iitb.ac.in