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Subject-Corporate Leadership



Organizational leadership Organizations need strong leadership for optimum effectiveness. Leadership, as we know, is a trait which is both inbuilt and can be acquired also. Organizational leadership deals with both human psychology as well as expert tactics. Organizational leadership emphasizes on developing leadership skills and abilities that are relevant across the organizations. It means the potential of the individuals to face the hard times in the industry and still grow during those times. It clearly identifies and distinguishes the leaders from the managers. The leader should have potential to control the group of individuals. Essentials for Effective Organizational Leadership

1. A leader must lead himself, only then he can lead others. He must be committed on personal and professional front, and must be responsible. He must be a role model for others and set an example for them.

2. A leader must boost up the morale of the employees. He should motivate them well so that they are committed to the organization. He should be well acquainted with them, have concern for them and encourage them to take initiatives. This will result in more efficient and effective employees and ensure organizational success.

3. A leader must work as a team. He should always support his team and respect them. He should not hurt any employee. A true leader should not be too bossy and should not consider him as the supreme authority. He should realize that he is part of the organization as a whole.

Organizational leadership involves all the processes and possible results that lead to development and achievement of organizational goals. It includes employees’ involvement, genuineness, effective listening and strategic communication.

Corporate leadership is comprised of the executives and managers who run a company. It occurs when a company foresees ultimate success from the strong leaders that run its daily operations. Leaders themselves are responsible for effectively managing the company's resources, working with advertising teams and inspiring others to do their best work. They also envision ways to improve the company from the perspective of overall involvement. Ultimately, the actions and decisions of executives are what is referred to as corporate leadership.

In the broadest sense of the word, a "leader" is someone who brings people together and guides them toward a common goal. Anyone can tell others what to do, but effective leadership requires much more than the ability to assign tasks to a group. Leadership is a vital role in any organisation. It involves defining the direction of a team and communicating it to people, motivating, inspiring and empowering them to contribute to achieving organisational success. Leadership requires being strategically focused and applying behavioural techniques to build commitment and attain the best work from your people.

Attributes of Leadership Leadership is the ability to adapt the setting so everyone feels empowered to contribute creatively to solving the problems.

Subject-Corporate Leadership



Here are some of the most common traits in the characteristic of leadership:

Empathy: Creating a legitimate rapport with your staff makes it less likely that personal issues and resentment can creep in and derail the group. When your team knows that you are empathetic to their concerns, they will be more likely to work with you and share in your vision, rather than foster negative feelings.

Consistency: Being a consistent leader will gain you respect and credibility, which is essential to getting buy-in from the group. By setting an example of fairness and credibility, the team will want to act the same way.

Honesty: Another characteristic of leadership that lends itself to credibility. Those who are honest, especially about concerns, make it far more likely that obstacles will be addressed rather than avoided. Honesty also allows for better assessment and growth.

Direction: Having the vision to break out of the norm and aim for great things --then the wherewithal to set the steps necessary to get there-- is an essential characteristic of good leadership. By seeing what can be and managing the goals on how to get there, a good leader can create impressive change.

Communication: Effective communication helps keep the team working on the right projects with the right attitude. If you communicate effectively about expectations, issues and advice, your staff will be more likely to react and meet your goals.

Flexibility: Not every problem demands the same solution. By being flexible to new ideas and open-minded enough to consider them, you increase the likelihood that you will find the best possible answer. You will set a good example for your team and reward good ideas.

Conviction: A strong vision and the willingness to see it through is one of the most important characterizes of leadership. The leader who believes in the mission and works toward it will be an inspiration and a resource to their followers

Functions of Leadership

There is no unanimity of opinion as to what the functions of the leadership are. This is because detailing of functions depends on one’s general concept of leadership. Leadership functions are related to goal achievement and to the maintenance and strengthening of the group. Functions in the former category, instrumental to achieving the goals of the group include making suggestions for action, evaluating movement towards the goal, preventing activities irrelevant to the goal and offering effective solutions for goal achievement. Functions in the second category include encouraging the members, releasing tension that builds up and giving everyone a chance to express himself. The main functions of leadership are to contribute to the achievement of the group goal and to help hold the group together. The leader by himself alone cannot achieve the group goal and help it maintain its solidarity and strength.

Subject-Corporate Leadership



Subject-Corporate Leadership Unit-1 By-K.R.Ansari Great Man Theory (1840s) The Great Man theory evolved around the mid

The Great Man theory evolved around the mid 19th century. Even though no one was able to identify with any scientific certainty, which human characteristic or combination of, were responsible for identifying great leaders. Everyone recognized that just as the name suggests; only a man could have the characteristic (s) of a great leader.

The Great Man theory assumes that the traits of leadership are intrinsic. That simply means that

great leaders are born

destined by birth to become a leader. Furthermore, the belief was that great leaders will rise when confronted with the appropriate situation.


are not made. This theory sees great leaders as those who are

In 1860, Herbert Spencer, an English philosopher disputed the great man theory by affirming that these heroes are simply the product of their times and their actions the results of social conditions.

The trait leadership theory believes that people are either born or are made with certain qualities that will make them excel in leadership roles. That is, certain qualities such as intelligence, sense of responsibility, creativity and other values puts anyone in the shoes of a good leader. In

Subject-Corporate Leadership


fact, Gordon Allport, an American psychologist,"

relevant terms" (Matthews, Deary & Whiteman, 2003, p. 3).



almost 18,000 English personality-

The trait theory of leadership focused on analyzing mental, physical and social characteristic in order to gain more understanding of what is the characteristic or the combination of characteristics that are common among leaders.

There were many shortfalls with the trait leadership theory. However, from a psychology of personalities approach, Gordon Allport's studies are among the first ones and have brought, for the study of leadership, the behavioural approach.

In the 1930s the field of Psychometrics was in its early years.

Personality traits measurement weren't reliable across studies.

Study samples were of low level managers

Explanations weren't offered as to the relation between each characteristic and its impact on leadership.

The context of the leader wasn't considered.

Many studies have analyzed the traits among existing leaders in the hope of uncovering those responsible for ones leadership abilities! In vain, the only characteristics that were identified among these individuals were those that were slightly taller and slightly more intelligent!

In reaction to the trait leadership theory, the behavioural theories are offering a new perspective, one that focuses on the behaviours of the leaders as opposed to their mental, physical or social characteristics. Thus, with the evolutions in psychometrics, notably the factor analysis, researchers were able to measure the cause an effects relationship of specific human behaviours from leaders. From this point forward anyone with the right conditioning could have access to the once before elite club of naturally gifted leaders. In other words, leaders are made not born.

The behavioural theories first divided leaders in two categories. Those that were concerned with the tasks and those concerned with the people. Throughout the literature these are referred to as different names, but the essence are identical

Transactional theories, also known as exchange theories of leadership, are characterized by a transaction made between the leader and the followers. In fact, the theory values a positive and mutually beneficial relationship.

For the transactional theories to be effective and as a result have motivational value, the leader must find a means to align to adequately reward (or punish) his follower, for performing leader- assigned task. In other words, transactional leaders are most efficient when they develop a

Subject-Corporate Leadership



mutual reinforcing environment, for which the individual and the organizational goals are in sync.

The transactional theorists state that humans in general are seeking to maximize pleasurable experiences and to diminish un-pleasurable experiences. Thus, we are more likely to associate ourselves with individuals that add to our strengths.

Transformational Theory This theory states that leadership is the process by which a person engages with others and is able to create a connection that results in increased motivation and morality in both followers and leaders. It is often likened to the theory of charismatic leadership that espouses that leaders with certain qualities, such as confidence, extroversion, and clearly stated values, are best able to motivate followers. The key in transformational leadership is for the leader to be attentive to the needsand motives of followers in an attempt to help them reach their maximum potential. In addition, transformational leadership typically describes how leaders can initiate, develop, and implement important changes in an organization. This theory is often discussed in contrast with transactional leadership.


The customary approach to the analysis of leader behavior is to classify various types of leadership into styles. The styles are the way in which the leader influences followers. The styles are based on types of control leader's exercise in a group and behavior towards group's members. The styles vary on the basis of the duties. The leader feels he alone should perform the responsibilities, which the leader expects his followers to accept, and the philosophical commitment of the leader to the development and fulfillment of subordinate's expectations. It also varies with the occasion, as well as with the types of leaders and followers. Most important is that effective leaders alter their own styles to fit the needs of a particular situation.

According to the philosophies of leaders their followers, the techniques of leadership its pattern and styles may now be classified are:- ,

1. Autocratic leadership or authoritarian or leader-centered leadership.

2. Consultative, participative, democratic or group-centered leadership.

3. Laissez-faire, free-rein, or individual-centered leadership.

4. Bureaucratic or rules- centered leadership.

5. Manipulative leadership.

6. Expert leadership.


An autocratic leadership is work centered or leader centered .He concentrates all the authority and the entire decision- making powers in him. He structures the complete work situation for his employees. There is no participation by his subordinates in the decision making process, they simply do what the are told to do. He tolerates no deviation from the orders. His subordinates

Subject-Corporate Leadership



fully depend upon him and are unaware of the goals of the organization. The leader tasks and assumes full responsibility for decision making for initiating action and for directing, motivating and controlling his subordinates. This is because the autocratic leader may think that he is· the only competent and capable individual, and that his subordinates' are incapable or unwilling to guide themselves, or he may have other reason for assuming a strong position of guidance and control . The leader usually says: 1\ "Look, I am the boss around here. I'll make the make the decision and I'll tell you what I want you you to do. You would better do you to do. You would better do your job because I will be watching your every move." Autocratic style is efficient, needs little or no time to consult others during the decision making process, and it works well in developed situation when decision must be made and acted on quickly and without question .The tough autocrat leadership is useful when:

a) Subordinates are new on a job and have had no experience,

b) In an emergency, when decision must be taken immediately,

c) When disciplinary action is called and when hostility and aggressiveness are to be dealt with



This type of leadership centralizes managerial authority .The leader's decision are taken after consultation with his followers and after their participation in the decision making process .He involves the members of his groups in the decision on the feasibility and work ability of an idea, or a job and its content and on the extend and the content of the problems that affect them. Participative style is very useful in many ways. When workers feel their ideas are important and being made use of, they feel considerably committed to change in which they have participated. Workers also develop a greater feeling of self-esteem. This style of leadership is more appropriate under condition in which:

1. The company has communicated its goals and objectives to the subordinates.

2. Where the company practices use rewards and involvement as the primary means of

motivation and control.

3. Where the leader - supervisor truly desires to hear the ideas of others before making decision

4. Where the leader wishes to develop analytical and self control abilities in the subordinates.

5. Where the workers are reasonably knowledgeable and experienced.


This is often described "as no leadership at all", for there is the absence of direct leadership. Under this style, the leader delegates the authority for decision making into the hands of the subordinates rather completely. A task is ordinarily presented to the group, which establishes its own goals and works out its own techniques for accomplishing those goals. Within the framework of organizational policy. The leader expects his subordinates to assume responsibility

Subject-Corporate Leadership



for their own motivation, guidance and control. Expects for the stating of a minimum member of ground rules, leader provides very little guidance and support for the followers.

The free rein style of leadership would be most effective:

i) Under companies where it's go goals and the subordinates 'goals are highly compatible and

they thoroughly communicated and are acceptable to the subordinates.

ii) When the leader desires to delegate decision making fully

iii) We have been n the leader has a high degree of confidence in the abilities of his subordinates.

iv) When the subordinates themselves are well trained and highly knowledgeable concerning

their jobs and are willing to assume responsibility for decision-making and self control.

v) When the subordinates have a high need for independence.


The leader's behavior is characterized by a high degree of reliance on rules, regulation and procedures, to which both he and his subordinates subscribe. As a result, the process of administration is reduced to a series of routine actions. The rules specify the obligation of the subordinates, and enjoy upon them to do particular things in specific ways. There is no participation or initiative on his or her part. This style of leadership fosters workers apathy.


This style of leadership is based on the belief that employees are persona who should be manipulated by the leader so that his goals may be attained. It exploits the aspirations of the employees know that they are being manipulated, and therefore become resentful and bitter. A manipulative leader, however, is very sensitive about the needs and desires of his employees as individuals. But the information gathered, as a result of this sensitivity is not used for the benefit of the employees instead it is utilized by him for his own personal profit.

The main characteristics of this style of leadership are:

a) Personal goals are reached by a manipulation of the ·employees.

b) Employee need and desires are viewed as tool's to extract performance.


This is an emerging style of leadership resulting in part from the complexity of modern organization. The basis to expert leadership is the individual leader's knowledge and ability, and he assumes the role of the leader regardless of his age, sex, physical, or other attributes. It depends largely on the approximate mix of skills and the needs of others in a situation. In these

Subject-Corporate Leadership



circumstances group members look upon a person as an expert who must continuously demonstrate his expertise in order to maintain his position as a leader. In this style of leadership:

a) The perception of group members ensures that the leader's talent and expertise are joined with

the needs of the situation.

b) Leadership skills are usually transferable.

The expert leader who is effective in one situation may really "bomb" in another.

Leadership Effectiveness

A working definition of leadership effectiveness is as follows:

“The successful exercise of personal influence by an individual, which results in accomplishing one or several goals as a result of the coordinated efforts of those who are led.”

This definition assumes that there is some formal control of one person over others (for influence

to occur) and that the purpose of any group of people is for goals or pre-set targets to be

achieved. It also assumes that a team of people can be led to better coordinate their efforts.

There are five key areas of executive competence that correlate strongly with superior performance:

1. Cognition or intellectual functioning directed at problems solving and managing complexity (refer to our Cognitive Process Profile)

2. Motivation, emotional intelligence, values and drivers

3. Personality and Temperament, which determine how closely personal characteristics match those of the role

4. Technical Know-how related to the business

5. Management Behaviours demonstrating Leadership competence

Leadership Effectiveness in any context will depend on a mix of these factors:

The link between having a strategy and achieving business objectives is the practice of effective leadership behaviour

Objective knowledge of how your leaders rank against others is a good starting point for honing skills

The essential purpose of leadership assessment is to provide insight and information to improve leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Effectiveness Analysis (LEA) is designed to increase the effectiveness of team members by providing an individualised feedback profile. This profile gives a framework for understanding how your style and approach affects your ability to lead and influence others

Subject-Corporate Leadership



Leaders need to take responsibility for their interpersonal impact. Individuals are assisted in setting goals for enhanced interpersonal performance and create action plans to modify their behaviour in need.