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1. Define regular wave.

 The sine (or cosine) function defines what is called a regular


wave.
 Regular waves are nothing but a simplified mathematical concept.
 In order to specify a regular wave we need its amplitude, a, its
wavelength, λ , its period, T.
 And in order to be fully specify it we also need its propagation
direction and phase at a given location and time.
2. Define wave length
The distance between successive crests of a wave.

3. Define wave period

The wave period is the tim

e it takes
to complete one cycle.
4.Define wave frequency.

The frequency, f, of a wave is the number of waves passing a point


in a certain time.

5. Draw ship coordinate system.

6. Name the six degrees of freedom motions

Roll , pitch , yaw , surge, sway , heave .

7. Name the translational motions of the ship

Surge , sway , heave

8. Name the rotational motions of the ship.

Roll , pitch , yaw

9. Name the inertial motion of the ship.


 Roll
 Pitch
 Heave

10. Name the non- inertial motions of the ship

 Surge
 Sway
 Yaw

11. Define heave motion of ships.

12. Define pitch motion of ships


13. Define roll motion of ships
14. Define surge motion of ships
15. Define sway motion of ships
16. Define yaw motion of ships

Translation:

1. Moving forward and backward on the X-axis. (Surging)


2. Moving left and right on the Y-axis. (Swaying)
3. Moving up and down on the Z-axis. (Heaving)
Rotation

1. Tilting side to side on the X-axis. (Rolling)


2. Tilting forward and backward on the Y-axis. (Pitching)
3. Turning left and right on the Z-axis. (Yawing)
17. What are coupled motions

Coupled motion is the phenomenon of a consistent association of a


motion along or about one axis, whether it is a translation or a rotation, with
another motion about or along a second axis. Some of the coupled motions
are
 Heave and Pitch
 Yaw and Sway
 Yaw, Sway and Roll
 Roll, Yaw and Pitch

18. Write the equation of motion for heave.

𝑎𝑧̈ + 𝑏𝑧̇ + 𝑐𝑧 = 𝐹˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

Where,

 a = added mass (inertial coefficient)


 𝑧̈ = heave acceleration
 𝑏 = damping coefficient
 𝑧̇ = heave velocity
 𝑐 = restoring coefficient
 𝑧 = heave displacement
 𝐹˳ = exciting or encountering force
 𝜔ₑ = encounter frequency
 𝑡 = time taken

19. Write the equation of motion for roll

𝑎ф̈ + 𝑏ф̇ + 𝑐ф = 𝑀˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

Where,

 a = added mass (inertial coefficient)


 ф̈ = rolling acceleration
 𝑏 = damping coefficient
 ф̇ = rolling velocity
 𝑐 = restoring coefficient
 ф = roll displacement
 𝑀˳ = exciting or external moment
 𝜔ₑ = encounter frequency
 𝑡 = time taken

20. Write the equation of motion for pitch

𝑎𝛳̈ + 𝑏𝛳̇ + 𝑐𝛳 = 𝑀˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

Where,

 a = added mass (inertial coefficient)


 𝛳̈= rolling acceleration
 𝑏 = damping coefficient
 𝛳̇ = rolling velocity
 𝑐 = restoring coefficient
 ϴ = roll displacement
 𝑀˳ = exciting or external moment
 𝜔ₑ = encounter frequency
 𝑡 = time taken

21. Define radiation forces

Radiation forces are caused by the fluid on our frame when it is


oscillating in still water. Important forces here are the added mass and the
radiation damping, which more or less depend on our frame geometry.

22. What is strip theory?

Strip theory is developed to solve nonlinear ship motion problems in the time-
domain. The hydrodynamic model uses linearized free surface conditions for
computational efficiency and stability, and exact body boundary conditions
to capture events such as slamming and submergence.

23. Define tuning factor


Tuning factor is defined as the ratio of the encountering frequency to
the natural frequency of the system.

24. Define magnification factor

there is a ratio of the forced motion amplitude to the static deflection. This
quantity is often called magnification factor.

25. Define non dimensional damping factor

Part-B

3.Explain why the heave and pitch motions are coupled.

The coupled heave and pitch Forehead Sea conditions have been
investigated analytically by method known as strip theory.
Motion of pitch and heave, which are usually the factor limiting ship
speed in rough weather. At high speed a ship moving into large head
seas will experience pitch and heave amplitude at may alternative
bring bow complete out of water and submerge it. These severe
motions have effect on ship structure. The ability to predict motion of
pitch and have more accuracy is very helpful in improving design for
rough weather performance.

Consider a ship floating on the free surface in waves. The ship will
naturally heave due to the incident waves simultaneously, the ship is also
moving forward, so it will pitch as it encounters the crests and troughs of
waves. Hence, the two motions are not independent of each other. Both
heave and pitch are vertical and hence they are coupled.

4. Describe the coupled ship motions


Following are the coupled forces on which our study is restricted to –
Heave and Pitch
Yaw and sway
Yaw , sway and roll
Roll ,pitch and yaw
The coupled heave and pitch Forehead Sea conditions have been
investigated analytically by method known as strip theory.
Motion of pitch and heave, which are usually the factor limiting ship
speed in rough weather. At high speed a ship moving into large head
seas will experience pitch and heave amplitude at may alternative
bring bow complete out of water and submerge it. These severe
motions have effect on ship structure. The ability to predict motion of
pitch and have more accuracy is very helpful in improving design for
rough weather performance.

In an actual sea way, a ship experiences all six degrees of freedom of


motion. Study of these coupled motions is rather difficult and investigation is
often restricted to the following coupled motions.

 Heave and Pitch


 Yaw and Sway
 Yaw, Sway and Roll
 Roll, Yaw and Pitch

of these four coupled motions, the one dealing with vertical motions, namely
pitching and heaving can be investigated easily in a model basin. Coupled
heave and pitch for head seas can be investigated analytically by strip
theory.

2. Write a summary on damping force.

The damping force always acts in the opposite direction to the motion
of the ship and produces a gradual reduction in the amplitude of motion. To
determine the effect of damping, the equation of motion must include the
damping force, which in our simplified case is
𝑑𝑧
𝐹𝑏 = −𝑏
𝑑𝑡
Where b is the coefficient for the damping force in heaving. The
damping coefficient normally depends on the following factors.

 Type of oscillatory motion.


 Encountering frequency of oscillation.
 Form of vessel.

1. Explain inertial force.

 An inertial force is a force that resists a change in velocity of an


object. It is equal to—and in the opposite direction of—an applied
force, as well as a resistive force.
 The concept is based on Newton's Laws of Motion, including the Law
of Inertia and the Action-Reaction Law.
 Inertial force can be examined both when you apply a force on an
object and when a force is applied on you.
 The concept of an inertial force comes from Newton's Laws of
Motion, which state:

 Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state


of motion unless an external force is applied to it (Law of Inertia).
 The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and
the applied force F is: F = ma.
 If a force is applied to an object, there is an equal and opposite
reaction (Action-Reaction Law).

That equal and opposite reaction is called the inertial force. It is equal to −F
= ma.

5. Illustrate free undamped heaving motion.

For free undamped heaving motion, 𝑎𝑧̈ + 𝑐𝑧 = 0

Let 𝑧 = 𝑒 𝑘𝑡
𝑧̇ = 𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑡 , 𝑧̈ = 𝑘 2 𝑒 𝑘𝑡

a𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑡 + 𝑐𝑘 2 𝑒 𝑘𝑡 = 0

𝑒 𝑘𝑡 (𝑎𝑘 2 + 𝑐) = 0

𝑎𝑘 2 + 𝑐 = 0
√−4𝑎𝑐 2𝑖 √𝑎𝑐
𝑘= ± => ±
2𝑎 2𝑎

𝑐 𝑐
𝑘 = ±𝑖√ 𝛼=0 𝛽= √
𝑎 𝑎

𝑧 = 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽𝑡 + 𝐵𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛽𝑡)

𝑧 = (𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑤𝑧 𝑡 + 𝐵𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑤𝑧 𝑡)

𝑤𝑧 = Natural frequency

𝑐
𝑤𝑧 = √
𝑎

2𝜋
𝑇𝑧 =
𝑤𝑧

6. Describe free damped heaving motion.

For free damped heaving motion, 𝑎𝑧̈ + 𝑏𝑧̇ + 𝑐𝑧 = 0

𝑧 = 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡 + 𝐶2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡)


𝑏
𝜐= [Decaying constant]
2𝑎

𝜔𝑑 = √𝜔𝑧2 − 𝜐 2 [Damped frequency]


2𝜋
𝑇𝑑 =
𝜔𝑑

When 𝑡 = 0

𝑧 = 𝐶1 ; 𝑧𝑎 = 𝐶1
𝑑𝑧
= 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (−𝜐)(𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡 + 𝐶2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡) + 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (𝜔𝑑 ) (−𝐶1 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡 +
𝑑𝑡
𝐶2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡)

0 = (−𝜐𝐶1 + 𝐶2 )

𝜐 = (𝐶2 ⁄𝑧𝑎 )𝜔𝑑


𝑧𝑎 𝜐
𝐶2 =
𝜔𝑑

7. Write summary on forced heaving motion.

𝑎𝑧̈ + 𝑏𝑧̇ + 𝑐𝑧 = 𝐹˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

𝑧 = 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡 + 𝐶2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡) + 𝑧𝑎 cos(𝜔𝑒 𝑡 − 𝜀2 )

𝑧𝑎 = 𝑧𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝜇𝑧
𝐹˳
𝑧𝑠𝑡 = [Static heave amplitude]
𝐶

1
𝜇𝑧 = [Magnification factor]
√(1−⩘2 )2 +4⩘2 𝑘 2

𝜔𝑒
⩘= [Tuning factor]
𝜔𝑧

𝑧𝑎 can be decreased by

 Increasing the non dimensional damping factor.


 Increasing the tuning factor.
 Increasing the encountering frequency.
 Decreasing the magnification factor.
 Increase in C hence decreasing static heave amplitude.

8. Explain forced pitch motions.

𝑎𝜃̈ + 𝑏𝜃̇ + 𝑐𝜃 = 𝑀˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

𝜃 = 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡 + 𝐶2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡) + 𝜃𝑎 cos(𝜔𝑒 𝑡 − 𝜀2 )


𝜃𝑎 = 𝜃𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝜇𝜃
𝑀˳
𝜃𝑠𝑡 = [Static heave amplitude]
𝐶

1
𝜇𝜃 = [Magnification factor]
√(1−⩘2 )2 +4⩘2 𝑘 2

𝜔𝑒
⩘= [Tuning factor]
𝜔𝑧

9. Elucidate the forced roll motions.

𝑎ф̈ + 𝑏ф̇ + 𝑐ф = 𝑀˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

ф = 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡 + 𝐶2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡) + ф𝑎 cos(𝜔𝑒 𝑡 − 𝜀2 )

ф𝑎 = ф𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝜇ф
𝑀˳
ф𝑠𝑡 = [Static heave amplitude]
𝐶

1
𝜇ф = [Magnification factor]
√(1−⩘2 )2 +4⩘2 𝑘 2

𝜔𝑒
⩘= [Tuning factor]
𝜔𝑧

10. Show that, if the linear dimensions of a ship and those of its
geometrically similar model are in the ratio of λ, the natural heaving
period of the ship is SQRT(λ) times that of the model.
2𝜋
𝑇𝑧 =
𝜔𝑧

𝑎
𝑇𝑧 = 2𝜋√
𝑐

λ3
𝑇𝑧 = 2𝜋√
λ2

𝑇𝑧 = √λ 2𝜋
Hence proved.

11. A ship having a displacement of 10,000 tons rolls with a period of


10 sec. Its sister ship has a displacement of 12,000 tons. The weight
distribution in both cases is similar in all respects. Calculate the roll
period of the sister ship.

Let us consider the sister ship as a model,


displacement of ship
W.K.T λ3 =
displacement of model

12000
λ3 =
10000

λ = 1.06

𝑇ф𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑙 = 𝑇ф𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝 ∗ √λ

𝑇ф𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑙 = 10 ∗ √1.06

𝑇ф𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑙 = 10.3 𝑠𝑒𝑐

12. Given: L = 160m; Kyy = 0.25L; GML = 160m; Disp = 1500tons; If the
added mass moment of inertia is about 90% if the mass moment of
inertia of the ship, find the natural pitching period.

𝐼𝑦𝑦
𝑇𝜃 = 2𝜋√
∆𝐺𝑀𝐿

𝐼𝑦𝑦 = 𝑀 ∗ 𝐾𝑦𝑦 2 ∗ 1.9

𝐼𝑦𝑦 = 1500 ∗ 1600 ∗ 1.9

𝐼𝑦𝑦 = 4560000

4560000
𝑇𝜃 = 2𝜋√
1500∗9.81∗160
𝑇𝜃 = 8.74 𝑠𝑒𝑐

13. Given: L = 160m; Kxx = 0.35L; GML = 10m; Disp = 1500tons; If the
added mass moment of inertia is about 20% if the mass moment of
inertia of the ship, find the natural rolling period.

𝐼𝑥𝑥
𝑇ф = 2𝜋√
∆𝐺𝑀𝑇

𝐼𝑥𝑥 = 𝑀 ∗ 𝐾𝑥𝑥 2 ∗ 1.2

𝐼𝑥𝑥 = 1500 ∗ 3136 ∗ 1.2

𝐼𝑥𝑥 = 5644800

5644800
𝑇ф = 2𝜋√
1500∗9.81∗10

𝑇ф = 38.92 𝑠𝑒𝑐

(10 Marks)

1. Explain in detail about strip theory.

Strip theory is a popular approximation of the 3-D Neumann-Kelvin


formulation for ships which are slender as it most often the case when
vessels are expected to cruise at significant forward speeds.
𝐵 𝐼
, = 𝑂(𝜀), 𝜀 ≪ 1
𝐿 𝐿

 The principle assumption of strip theory is that certain components


of the radiation and diffraction potentials very slowly along the ship
length loading to a simplification of the n-k formulation
 In head or bow seas where heave and pitch attain their maximum
values, the encounter frequency is usually high.
 We slice the ship into strips. Our aim is to find the hydrodynamic
loads which are acting on each strip.
 Hydrodynamic loads are classified into radiation loads, diffraction
loads, incident wave loads.
 The whole problem of finding these forces is caused by the
geometry of our frames which is not regular.
 Then in the last part of strip theory, all these loads calculated for
each frame needs to be integrated over the length of vessel to get
the total load acting on the ship.

2. Write a detailed note on equations of Ship motion.

Consider a seaway with irregular waves of which the energy


distribution over the wave frequencies (wave spectrum) is known. Theses
waves are input to a system that possesses linear characteristics. These
frequencies characteristics are known, for instance via model experiments
or computations. The output of the system is the motion of the floating
structure. This motion has an irregular behaviour, just as the seaway that
causes the motion.

As a consequence of the linear theory, the resulting motions in


irregular waves can be obtained by adding together results from regular
waves of different amplitudes, frequencies and possibly propagation
direction. With known wave energy spectra and the calculated frequency
characteristics of the responses of the ship the response spectra and the
statistics of the responses can be found.

For example, heave equations of motions are

 Free undamped, 𝑎𝑧̈ + 𝑐𝑧 = 0


 Free damped, 𝑎𝑧̈ + 𝑏𝑧̇ + 𝑐𝑧 = 0
 Forced damped, 𝑎𝑧̈ + 𝑏𝑧̇ + 𝑐𝑧 = 𝐹˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

3. Explain the detailed procedure to predict the motions using strip theory.

A ship has a long and slender hull shape in comparison with its
breadth and depth. Taking advantage of the above assumptions, fluid
motion around hull surface due to ship motion can be regarded as if it
moves in cross sectional plane. In other words, the fluid force can be
obtained by integrating the force acting on transverse strips. Consequently
the interacting force between each strip is neglected. The strip method is
utilized to calculate ship motion, wave induced longitudinal strength loads
and wave pressure distribution around the hull in regular waves. The added
mass for heaving can be calculated as
𝐿/2
𝑎𝑧 = ∫−𝐿/2 𝑎𝑛 𝑑𝑥

Where,
𝜌𝜋𝐵𝑛2
 𝑎𝑛 = added mass of a ship section, 𝑎𝑛 =
8
 𝐵𝑛 = breadth at that section
𝜌𝜋 𝐿/2
 𝑎𝑧 = added mass of the total ship, 𝑎𝑧 = ∫−𝐿/2 𝑐𝑦 2 (𝑥)𝑑𝑥
2

Where,

 𝑐 = added mass coefficient


 𝑦(𝑥) = half breadth of the waterline.

4. Explain in detail the hydrodynamic forces acting on the ship.

Inertial force:-

A body having an accelerated motion in a continuous medium of fluid


experiences a force that is greater than the mass of the body times the
acceleration. Since the increment of the force can be defined as the product
of the body acceleration and a quantity having the same dimension as the
mass it is termed added mass. Inertial force is represented as 𝑎𝑧̈

𝑎𝑧̈ = 𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 + 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒

Damping force:-

The damping force always acts in the opposite direction to the motion
of the ship and produces a gradual reduction in the amplitude of motion. To
determine the effect of damping, the equation of motion must include the
damping force, which in our simplified case is
𝑑𝑧
𝐹𝑏 = −𝑏
𝑑𝑡
Where b is the coefficient for the damping force in heaving. The
damping coefficient normally depends on the following factors.

 Type of oscillatory motion.


 Encountering frequency of oscillation.
 Form of vessel.

Restoring force:-

The restoring force for heaving is given as the additional buoyancy force
that acts on a body when it is submerged to a deeper draft. If it is assumed
that there is no significant change in the waterplane area during heaving (i.e.
the ship is said to be wall sided near the load waterline), the restoring force
is given as the amount of water displaced, which is equal to specific weight
times additional submerged volume.

Exciting force:-

To determine the exciting force for ship motions, the water waves must
be studied, since they are the only source of ship excitation in a seaway.

5. Write detailed notes on roll motion equations in waves.

The following four moments act in rolling motion.

 Inertial moment
 Damping moment
 Restoring moment
 Exciting moment

𝑎ф̈ + 𝑏ф̇ + 𝑐ф = 𝑀˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡


 𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑎ф̈

𝑎 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑖𝑟𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ф 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔

 𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑏ф̇

𝑏 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ф 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑐ф

𝑐 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ф 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔

 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑀˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

For free undamped motion,

𝑎ф̈ + 𝑐ф = 0

ф = (𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑤ф 𝑡 + 𝐵𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑤ф 𝑡)

𝑤ф = Natural frequency

𝑐
𝑤ф = √
𝑎

2𝜋
𝑇ф =
𝑤ф

For free damped motion,

𝑎ф̈ + 𝑏ф̇ + 𝑐ф = 0

ф = 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡 + 𝐶2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡)


𝑏
𝜐= [Decaying constant]
2𝑎

2
𝜔𝑑 = √ 𝜔ф − 𝜐 2 [Damped frequency]
2𝜋
𝑇𝑑 =
𝜔ф

For forced damped motion,

𝑎ф̈ + 𝑏ф̇ + 𝑐ф = 𝑀˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

ф = 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡 + 𝐶2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡) + ф𝑎 cos(𝜔𝑒 𝑡 − 𝜀2 )

ф𝑎 = ф𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝜇ф
𝑀˳
ф𝑠𝑡 = [Static heave amplitude]
𝐶

1
𝜇ф = [Magnification factor]
√(1−⩘2 )2 +4⩘2 𝑘 2

𝜔𝑒
⩘= [Tuning factor]
𝜔ф

6. Write detailed notes on pitch motion equations in waves.

𝑎𝜃̈ + 𝑏𝜃̇ + 𝑐𝜃 = 𝑀˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

 𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑎𝜃̈

𝑎 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑖𝑟𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜃 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔

 𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑏𝜃̇

𝑏 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜃 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑐𝜃

𝑐 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜃 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔

 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑀˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

For free undamped motion,

𝑎𝜃̈ + 𝑐𝜃 = 0
𝜃 = (𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑤𝜃 𝑡 + 𝐵𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑤𝜃 𝑡)

𝑤𝜃 = Natural frequency

𝑐
𝑤𝜃 = √
𝑎

2𝜋
𝑇𝜃 =
𝑤𝜃

For free damped motion,

𝑎𝜃̈ + 𝑏𝜃̇ + 𝑐𝜃 = 0

ф = 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡 + 𝐶2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡)


𝑏
𝜐= [Decaying constant]
2𝑎

𝜔𝑑 = √𝜔𝜃2 − 𝜐 2 [Damped frequency]

2𝜋
𝑇𝑑 =
𝜔𝜃

For forced damped motion,

𝑎𝜃̈ + 𝑏𝜃̇ + 𝑐𝜃 = 𝑀˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

𝜃 = 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡 + 𝐶2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡) + 𝜃𝑎 cos(𝜔𝑒 𝑡 − 𝜀2 )

𝜃𝑎 = 𝜃𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝜇𝜃
𝑀˳
𝜃𝑠𝑡 = [Static heave amplitude]
𝐶

1
𝜇𝜃 = [Magnification factor]
√(1−⩘2 )2 +4⩘2 𝑘 2

𝜔𝑒
⩘= [Tuning factor]
𝜔𝜃