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Apr 23, 2018

Ship Motions in Regular Waves

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ship motions

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Ship Motions in Regular Waves

ship motions

© All Rights Reserved

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wave.

Regular waves are nothing but a simplified mathematical concept.

In order to specify a regular wave we need its amplitude, a, its

wavelength, λ , its period, T.

And in order to be fully specify it we also need its propagation

direction and phase at a given location and time.

2. Define wave length

The distance between successive crests of a wave.

e it takes

to complete one cycle.

4.Define wave frequency.

in a certain time.

Roll

Pitch

Heave

Surge

Sway

Yaw

13. Define roll motion of ships

14. Define surge motion of ships

15. Define sway motion of ships

16. Define yaw motion of ships

Translation:

2. Moving left and right on the Y-axis. (Swaying)

3. Moving up and down on the Z-axis. (Heaving)

Rotation

2. Tilting forward and backward on the Y-axis. (Pitching)

3. Turning left and right on the Z-axis. (Yawing)

17. What are coupled motions

motion along or about one axis, whether it is a translation or a rotation, with

another motion about or along a second axis. Some of the coupled motions

are

Heave and Pitch

Yaw and Sway

Yaw, Sway and Roll

Roll, Yaw and Pitch

Where,

𝑧̈ = heave acceleration

𝑏 = damping coefficient

𝑧̇ = heave velocity

𝑐 = restoring coefficient

𝑧 = heave displacement

𝐹˳ = exciting or encountering force

𝜔ₑ = encounter frequency

𝑡 = time taken

Where,

ф̈ = rolling acceleration

𝑏 = damping coefficient

ф̇ = rolling velocity

𝑐 = restoring coefficient

ф = roll displacement

𝑀˳ = exciting or external moment

𝜔ₑ = encounter frequency

𝑡 = time taken

Where,

𝛳̈= rolling acceleration

𝑏 = damping coefficient

𝛳̇ = rolling velocity

𝑐 = restoring coefficient

ϴ = roll displacement

𝑀˳ = exciting or external moment

𝜔ₑ = encounter frequency

𝑡 = time taken

oscillating in still water. Important forces here are the added mass and the

radiation damping, which more or less depend on our frame geometry.

Strip theory is developed to solve nonlinear ship motion problems in the time-

domain. The hydrodynamic model uses linearized free surface conditions for

computational efficiency and stability, and exact body boundary conditions

to capture events such as slamming and submergence.

Tuning factor is defined as the ratio of the encountering frequency to

the natural frequency of the system.

there is a ratio of the forced motion amplitude to the static deflection. This

quantity is often called magnification factor.

Part-B

The coupled heave and pitch Forehead Sea conditions have been

investigated analytically by method known as strip theory.

Motion of pitch and heave, which are usually the factor limiting ship

speed in rough weather. At high speed a ship moving into large head

seas will experience pitch and heave amplitude at may alternative

bring bow complete out of water and submerge it. These severe

motions have effect on ship structure. The ability to predict motion of

pitch and have more accuracy is very helpful in improving design for

rough weather performance.

Consider a ship floating on the free surface in waves. The ship will

naturally heave due to the incident waves simultaneously, the ship is also

moving forward, so it will pitch as it encounters the crests and troughs of

waves. Hence, the two motions are not independent of each other. Both

heave and pitch are vertical and hence they are coupled.

Following are the coupled forces on which our study is restricted to –

Heave and Pitch

Yaw and sway

Yaw , sway and roll

Roll ,pitch and yaw

The coupled heave and pitch Forehead Sea conditions have been

investigated analytically by method known as strip theory.

Motion of pitch and heave, which are usually the factor limiting ship

speed in rough weather. At high speed a ship moving into large head

seas will experience pitch and heave amplitude at may alternative

bring bow complete out of water and submerge it. These severe

motions have effect on ship structure. The ability to predict motion of

pitch and have more accuracy is very helpful in improving design for

rough weather performance.

motion. Study of these coupled motions is rather difficult and investigation is

often restricted to the following coupled motions.

Yaw and Sway

Yaw, Sway and Roll

Roll, Yaw and Pitch

of these four coupled motions, the one dealing with vertical motions, namely

pitching and heaving can be investigated easily in a model basin. Coupled

heave and pitch for head seas can be investigated analytically by strip

theory.

The damping force always acts in the opposite direction to the motion

of the ship and produces a gradual reduction in the amplitude of motion. To

determine the effect of damping, the equation of motion must include the

damping force, which in our simplified case is

𝑑𝑧

𝐹𝑏 = −𝑏

𝑑𝑡

Where b is the coefficient for the damping force in heaving. The

damping coefficient normally depends on the following factors.

Encountering frequency of oscillation.

Form of vessel.

object. It is equal to—and in the opposite direction of—an applied

force, as well as a resistive force.

The concept is based on Newton's Laws of Motion, including the Law

of Inertia and the Action-Reaction Law.

Inertial force can be examined both when you apply a force on an

object and when a force is applied on you.

The concept of an inertial force comes from Newton's Laws of

Motion, which state:

of motion unless an external force is applied to it (Law of Inertia).

The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and

the applied force F is: F = ma.

If a force is applied to an object, there is an equal and opposite

reaction (Action-Reaction Law).

That equal and opposite reaction is called the inertial force. It is equal to −F

= ma.

Let 𝑧 = 𝑒 𝑘𝑡

𝑧̇ = 𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑡 , 𝑧̈ = 𝑘 2 𝑒 𝑘𝑡

a𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑡 + 𝑐𝑘 2 𝑒 𝑘𝑡 = 0

𝑒 𝑘𝑡 (𝑎𝑘 2 + 𝑐) = 0

𝑎𝑘 2 + 𝑐 = 0

√−4𝑎𝑐 2𝑖 √𝑎𝑐

𝑘= ± => ±

2𝑎 2𝑎

𝑐 𝑐

𝑘 = ±𝑖√ 𝛼=0 𝛽= √

𝑎 𝑎

𝑧 = (𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑤𝑧 𝑡 + 𝐵𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑤𝑧 𝑡)

𝑤𝑧 = Natural frequency

𝑐

𝑤𝑧 = √

𝑎

2𝜋

𝑇𝑧 =

𝑤𝑧

𝑏

𝜐= [Decaying constant]

2𝑎

2𝜋

𝑇𝑑 =

𝜔𝑑

When 𝑡 = 0

𝑧 = 𝐶1 ; 𝑧𝑎 = 𝐶1

𝑑𝑧

= 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (−𝜐)(𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡 + 𝐶2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡) + 𝑒 −𝜐𝑡 (𝜔𝑑 ) (−𝐶1 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑑 𝑡 +

𝑑𝑡

𝐶2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑑 𝑡)

0 = (−𝜐𝐶1 + 𝐶2 )

𝑧𝑎 𝜐

𝐶2 =

𝜔𝑑

𝑧𝑎 = 𝑧𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝜇𝑧

𝐹˳

𝑧𝑠𝑡 = [Static heave amplitude]

𝐶

1

𝜇𝑧 = [Magnification factor]

√(1−⩘2 )2 +4⩘2 𝑘 2

𝜔𝑒

⩘= [Tuning factor]

𝜔𝑧

𝑧𝑎 can be decreased by

Increasing the tuning factor.

Increasing the encountering frequency.

Decreasing the magnification factor.

Increase in C hence decreasing static heave amplitude.

𝜃𝑎 = 𝜃𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝜇𝜃

𝑀˳

𝜃𝑠𝑡 = [Static heave amplitude]

𝐶

1

𝜇𝜃 = [Magnification factor]

√(1−⩘2 )2 +4⩘2 𝑘 2

𝜔𝑒

⩘= [Tuning factor]

𝜔𝑧

ф𝑎 = ф𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝜇ф

𝑀˳

ф𝑠𝑡 = [Static heave amplitude]

𝐶

1

𝜇ф = [Magnification factor]

√(1−⩘2 )2 +4⩘2 𝑘 2

𝜔𝑒

⩘= [Tuning factor]

𝜔𝑧

10. Show that, if the linear dimensions of a ship and those of its

geometrically similar model are in the ratio of λ, the natural heaving

period of the ship is SQRT(λ) times that of the model.

2𝜋

𝑇𝑧 =

𝜔𝑧

𝑎

𝑇𝑧 = 2𝜋√

𝑐

λ3

𝑇𝑧 = 2𝜋√

λ2

𝑇𝑧 = √λ 2𝜋

Hence proved.

10 sec. Its sister ship has a displacement of 12,000 tons. The weight

distribution in both cases is similar in all respects. Calculate the roll

period of the sister ship.

displacement of ship

W.K.T λ3 =

displacement of model

12000

λ3 =

10000

λ = 1.06

𝑇ф𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑙 = 𝑇ф𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝 ∗ √λ

𝑇ф𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑙 = 10 ∗ √1.06

12. Given: L = 160m; Kyy = 0.25L; GML = 160m; Disp = 1500tons; If the

added mass moment of inertia is about 90% if the mass moment of

inertia of the ship, find the natural pitching period.

𝐼𝑦𝑦

𝑇𝜃 = 2𝜋√

∆𝐺𝑀𝐿

𝐼𝑦𝑦 = 4560000

4560000

𝑇𝜃 = 2𝜋√

1500∗9.81∗160

𝑇𝜃 = 8.74 𝑠𝑒𝑐

13. Given: L = 160m; Kxx = 0.35L; GML = 10m; Disp = 1500tons; If the

added mass moment of inertia is about 20% if the mass moment of

inertia of the ship, find the natural rolling period.

𝐼𝑥𝑥

𝑇ф = 2𝜋√

∆𝐺𝑀𝑇

𝐼𝑥𝑥 = 5644800

5644800

𝑇ф = 2𝜋√

1500∗9.81∗10

𝑇ф = 38.92 𝑠𝑒𝑐

(10 Marks)

formulation for ships which are slender as it most often the case when

vessels are expected to cruise at significant forward speeds.

𝐵 𝐼

, = 𝑂(𝜀), 𝜀 ≪ 1

𝐿 𝐿

of the radiation and diffraction potentials very slowly along the ship

length loading to a simplification of the n-k formulation

In head or bow seas where heave and pitch attain their maximum

values, the encounter frequency is usually high.

We slice the ship into strips. Our aim is to find the hydrodynamic

loads which are acting on each strip.

Hydrodynamic loads are classified into radiation loads, diffraction

loads, incident wave loads.

The whole problem of finding these forces is caused by the

geometry of our frames which is not regular.

Then in the last part of strip theory, all these loads calculated for

each frame needs to be integrated over the length of vessel to get

the total load acting on the ship.

distribution over the wave frequencies (wave spectrum) is known. Theses

waves are input to a system that possesses linear characteristics. These

frequencies characteristics are known, for instance via model experiments

or computations. The output of the system is the motion of the floating

structure. This motion has an irregular behaviour, just as the seaway that

causes the motion.

irregular waves can be obtained by adding together results from regular

waves of different amplitudes, frequencies and possibly propagation

direction. With known wave energy spectra and the calculated frequency

characteristics of the responses of the ship the response spectra and the

statistics of the responses can be found.

Free damped, 𝑎𝑧̈ + 𝑏𝑧̇ + 𝑐𝑧 = 0

Forced damped, 𝑎𝑧̈ + 𝑏𝑧̇ + 𝑐𝑧 = 𝐹˳𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜔ₑ𝑡

3. Explain the detailed procedure to predict the motions using strip theory.

A ship has a long and slender hull shape in comparison with its

breadth and depth. Taking advantage of the above assumptions, fluid

motion around hull surface due to ship motion can be regarded as if it

moves in cross sectional plane. In other words, the fluid force can be

obtained by integrating the force acting on transverse strips. Consequently

the interacting force between each strip is neglected. The strip method is

utilized to calculate ship motion, wave induced longitudinal strength loads

and wave pressure distribution around the hull in regular waves. The added

mass for heaving can be calculated as

𝐿/2

𝑎𝑧 = ∫−𝐿/2 𝑎𝑛 𝑑𝑥

Where,

𝜌𝜋𝐵𝑛2

𝑎𝑛 = added mass of a ship section, 𝑎𝑛 =

8

𝐵𝑛 = breadth at that section

𝜌𝜋 𝐿/2

𝑎𝑧 = added mass of the total ship, 𝑎𝑧 = ∫−𝐿/2 𝑐𝑦 2 (𝑥)𝑑𝑥

2

Where,

𝑦(𝑥) = half breadth of the waterline.

Inertial force:-

experiences a force that is greater than the mass of the body times the

acceleration. Since the increment of the force can be defined as the product

of the body acceleration and a quantity having the same dimension as the

mass it is termed added mass. Inertial force is represented as 𝑎𝑧̈

Damping force:-

The damping force always acts in the opposite direction to the motion

of the ship and produces a gradual reduction in the amplitude of motion. To

determine the effect of damping, the equation of motion must include the

damping force, which in our simplified case is

𝑑𝑧

𝐹𝑏 = −𝑏

𝑑𝑡

Where b is the coefficient for the damping force in heaving. The

damping coefficient normally depends on the following factors.

Encountering frequency of oscillation.

Form of vessel.

Restoring force:-

The restoring force for heaving is given as the additional buoyancy force

that acts on a body when it is submerged to a deeper draft. If it is assumed

that there is no significant change in the waterplane area during heaving (i.e.

the ship is said to be wall sided near the load waterline), the restoring force

is given as the amount of water displaced, which is equal to specific weight

times additional submerged volume.

Exciting force:-

To determine the exciting force for ship motions, the water waves must

be studied, since they are the only source of ship excitation in a seaway.

Inertial moment

Damping moment

Restoring moment

Exciting moment

𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑎ф̈

𝑎 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑖𝑟𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ф 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔

𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑐ф

𝑎ф̈ + 𝑐ф = 0

ф = (𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑤ф 𝑡 + 𝐵𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑤ф 𝑡)

𝑤ф = Natural frequency

𝑐

𝑤ф = √

𝑎

2𝜋

𝑇ф =

𝑤ф

𝑎ф̈ + 𝑏ф̇ + 𝑐ф = 0

𝑏

𝜐= [Decaying constant]

2𝑎

2

𝜔𝑑 = √ 𝜔ф − 𝜐 2 [Damped frequency]

2𝜋

𝑇𝑑 =

𝜔ф

ф𝑎 = ф𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝜇ф

𝑀˳

ф𝑠𝑡 = [Static heave amplitude]

𝐶

1

𝜇ф = [Magnification factor]

√(1−⩘2 )2 +4⩘2 𝑘 2

𝜔𝑒

⩘= [Tuning factor]

𝜔ф

𝑎 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑖𝑟𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜃 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔

𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑐𝜃

𝑎𝜃̈ + 𝑐𝜃 = 0

𝜃 = (𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑤𝜃 𝑡 + 𝐵𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑤𝜃 𝑡)

𝑤𝜃 = Natural frequency

𝑐

𝑤𝜃 = √

𝑎

2𝜋

𝑇𝜃 =

𝑤𝜃

𝑎𝜃̈ + 𝑏𝜃̇ + 𝑐𝜃 = 0

𝑏

𝜐= [Decaying constant]

2𝑎

2𝜋

𝑇𝑑 =

𝜔𝜃

𝜃𝑎 = 𝜃𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝜇𝜃

𝑀˳

𝜃𝑠𝑡 = [Static heave amplitude]

𝐶

1

𝜇𝜃 = [Magnification factor]

√(1−⩘2 )2 +4⩘2 𝑘 2

𝜔𝑒

⩘= [Tuning factor]

𝜔𝜃

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