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Department of Electrical Engineering

Group members:
Arslan Arshad Bsee14021
Zarmena Tanveer Bsee14044
Subject:
Antenna Engineering And Design
Instructor:
Dr. Muhammad Qasim
Design problem:
Design an amplifier to have a gain of 10 dB at 6.0 GHz, using a
transistor with the following scattering parameters (Z0 = 50 Ω): S11 = 0.61∟ -170◦, S12 = 0,
S21 = 2.24∟ 32◦, and S22 = 0.72∟ -83◦.Plot (and use) constant-gain circles for GS = 1 dB and
GL = 2 dB. Use matching sections withopen-circuited shunt stubs.

Amendments:
Frequencies changes 6 GHz to 2.4 GHz according to the available instrument.
Matlab Code:
Z0=50;
d2r=pi/180;
r2d=180/pi;
S11=(0.61)*exp(-170*j*d2r);
rcs=conj(S11)
polar_rcs=[abs(rcs) (angle(rcs)*r2d)]
S12=0;
S21=(2.24)*exp(32*j*d2r);
S22=(0.72)*exp(-83*j*d2r);
rcl=conj(S22)
polar_rcl=[abs(rcl) (angle(rcl)*r2d)]
% stability
%DELTA TEST ,IT SHOULD BE <1
Delta=(S11*S22-S12*S21);
polarDelta=[abs(Delta) (angle(Delta)*r2d)]
%K TEST, IT SHOULD BE >1
K=(1-(abs(S11))^2-(abs(S22))^2+(abs(Delta))^2)/(2*(abs(S12*S21)))
%if the K-Delta test is satisfied then rhe device will be unconditionally
%satble
% mu test it should be >1
MU=(1-(abs(S11))^2)/(abs(S22-(Delta*conj(S11))))+(abs(S12*S21));
%if mu > 1, the device is unconditionally stable.
%the variables B1, B2,C1,C2 are defined here
% B1=1+(abs(S11))^2-(abs(S22))^2-(abs(Delta))^2;
% B2=1+(abs(S22))^2-(abs(S11))^2-(abs(Delta))^2;
% C1=S11-(Delta*conj(S22));
% C2=S22-(Delta*conj(S11));
RCS=conj(S11)
polarRCS=[abs(RCS) (angle(RCS)*r2d)]
RCL=conj(S22)
polarRCL=[abs(RCL) (angle(RCL)*r2d)]
% %reflection cofficent from source RCS1
% RCS1=(B1-sqrt((B1^2)-4*(abs(C1))^2))/(2*C1);
% polarRCS1=[abs(RCS1) (angle(RCS1)*r2d)];
% %reflection cofficent from source RCL1
% RCL1=(B2-sqrt((B2^2)-4*(abs(C2))^2))/(2*C2);
% polarRCL1=[abs(RCL1) (angle(RCL1)*r2d)];
%The expression for GS and GL for the unilateral case are given
% GS=(1-(abs(RCS)^2))/((abs(1-(S11*RCS)))^2);
GS_db=1
%10*log10(GS)
G0=(abs(S21))^2;
G0_db=10*log10(G0)
% GL=(1-(abs(RCL)^2))/(abs(1-S22*RCL))^2;
GL_db=2
%10*log10(GL)
% GTmax=GS_db+G0_db+GL_db;
%maximum source gain
GSmax= 1/(1-abs(S11)^2)
GSmax_db=10*log10(GSmax)
%maximum load gain
GLmax= 1/(1-abs(S22)^2)
GLmax_db=10*log10(GLmax)
%Define normalized gain factors gS and gL as
gS = GS_db/GSmax_db
gL =GL_db/GLmax_db
%the maximum unilateral transducer gain is
GTUmax=GSmax_db+G0_db+GLmax_db
%Constant-Gain Circles ,radius and Design for Specifie Gain
CS=(gS*conj(S11))/(1-((1-gS)*(abs(S11))^2));
polarCS=[abs(CS) (angle(CS)*r2d)]
RS =((sqrt(1-gS))*(1-(abs(S11))^2))/((1-(1-gS)*(abs(S11))^2))
%for load
CL=(gL*conj(S22))/(1-(1-gL)*(abs(S22))^2);
polarCL_specficgain=[abs(CL) (angle(CL)*r2d)]
RL =((sqrt(1-gL))*(1-(abs(S22))^2))/((1-(1-gL)*(abs(S22))^2))
polarRL=[abs(RL) (angle(RL)*r2d)]

Tests for Unconditional Stability:

Delta and K Test:


can be used to determine unconditional stability. One of these is the K − _
test, where it can be shown that a device will be unconditionally stable.
K should be >1 and Delta should be <1;
So the following results shows that
Delta= 0.4392 107.0000
K =Inf
MU Test:
MU =1.3889

Gains:
Following are the gain results that we get by using the matlab code
GS_db =1
Overall gain
G0_db =7.0050
GL_db =2
Maximum input gain:
GSmax =1.5926
GSmax_db =2.0211
Maximum Output Gain:
GLmax =2.0764
GLmax_db =3.1731
gS =0.4948
gL =0.6303
maximum transducer gain
GTUmax =12.1992

Advance Design System (ADS) results:


To get the desire results I use “NE71083”
Following are the feature of the transistor that we select
 Very high fmax=90GHz
 Low Noise Figure
 High Associated gain
 0.3 Micron Recessed Gate
 N+ Contact layer
 Proven reliability and Stability
ADS Circuit:

Results:
Following are the ADS simulations results
 Scattering parameters
 K test
 Delta Test
 Mu test
 Unilateral figure of merit
 Maximum gain
Gain circles:
Gain circle tells us about the gain that we can select near to it in the smith chart as we can the
inner one circle is more close to the center so that is why it has maximum gain than other

Stability circles:
Following are the input and output stability circles