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CVP 342

Structures & Materials Lab

Elastic Global Buckling of Rolled Steel Members of
Channel Section
Date of Submission:-09/03/2017
Date of Experiment:-23/02/2017

Submitted By:
Shivam Rana
Thursday Group
Cycle 2
 To find the load at which the channel section buckles
 Compare it with the theoretical Euler’s buckling load


1. Loading system (Hydraulic Jack)

2. Vernier calipers
3. Data Acquisition System

Cross Section: ISMC 75
Sectional Area: 8.67 cm2
Depth of section: 75 mm
Length of column: 1.7 m
Moment of Inertia about Y-axis, Iyy = 1.29 * 10-7 m4

Fig. Specimen in the loading system


Buckling Theory
If a rod is subjected to longitudinal forces, as implied in the sketch, it can
fail in two ways. On the one hand, it can be plasticized and flattened if its
admissible compressive strain is exceeded. On the other hand, it is possible
that it will suddenly shift to one side and buckle before attaining the
admissible compressive strain. This effect is called buckling. The shape of
the rod is the factor determines which of the two cases of failure will occur.
A slender, thin rod is more likely to buckle than a thick, stout rod.

Modes of buckling
 Global buckling: where the member deforms with no deformation
in its cross-sectional shape, consistent with classical beam theory
 Local buckling: which involves plate-like deformations alone,
without the translation of the intersection lines of adjacent plate

Our experiment was of global buckling case as no distortion was there in the
section of the member and also the whole member buckled or deformed laterally
at the same time.
Euler Formula
The critical load is the maximum load which a column can bear while
staying straight. It is given by the formula:

Pcr: Euler’s critical load
E: modulus of elasticity of material
I: minimum area moment of inertia of the cross section of the column
L: unsupported length of column
K: column effective length factor

It can be seen from the above image as the end conditions of loading
changes the value of K changes.

Yielding before buckling

We should always compute the stress at which the beam will buckle. It is
obtained by dividing the critical load by cross sectional area. If it exceeds
the compressive strength of the material, then the column will yield before
buckling. This phenomena is quite prominent in case of short column as
the term L2 in denominator is very small.

 Initially, we arrange the set up i.e., both end fixed fixed. Practically this
arrangement is not possible but we try to achieve as much as possible
using welding connection.
 Now we start loading the column till significant bending is visible i.e
limit in the stress strain curve is reached.
 Experimental critical load is noted.


We know that

Cross Section: ISMC 75

Sectional Area: 8.67 cm2
Depth of section: 75 mm
Length of column: 1.7 m
Moment of Inertia about Y-axis, Iyy = 1.29 * 10-7 m4
E for steel = 200 GPa

For different end conditions value of Pcr is calculated

End Conditions Value of K Pcr (kN)

Both ends hinged 1 88.10
Fixed free 2 22.00
Fixed fixed 0.5 352.43
Fixed hinged 0.7 179.81

Critical load came out to be 105 kN experimentally which is much less than
the theoretically calculated load for fixed-hinged condition.
1. Critical load value was very much different compared to the
theoretically calculated value using Euler’s formula. Experimental value
was 41.6% less than the theoretically calculated. Following reasons can
lead to this result:
 Material was assumed to be isotopically homogenous which can’t
be assured as there are always some non-uniformity
 Section buckle along the plane for which cross section has
minimum inertia. Since our cross section was circular, no plane can
be identified. Due to which strain gauge readings can’t be obtained.
 We assumed that load was concentric but point load application
isn’t possible as there is always some area of contact. Therefore
there is some eccentricity.
 Ends were in between fixed-fixed and pinned-pinned as both the
conditions are practically not possible
2. It is possible to plot a load v/s deflection curve for a channel section as
it is asymmetrical and we can deduce the plain in which buckling will
occur. It’ll be the plain along which we have minimum inertia.
3. Firstly deflection was increasing linearly with the increase in load. But
after we have reached the critical buckling load no such relation was

 IS-800