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‘IDEAS AND ENLIGHTENMENT’

THE LONG EIGHTEENTH


CENTURY

CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS

10-12 DECEMBER 2014


THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY
AUSTRALIA

DAVID NICHOL SMITH SEMINAR IN


EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY STUDIES XV
Keynotes

Michael McKeon (Rutgers University)


Paradise Lost, Poem of the Restoration Period
‘Putting Periodisation to Use’ Keynote

One of the more striking vagaries of literary historical periodization


is the tendency to see Paradise Lost (1667, 1674) as the
culminating production of the English Renaissance, and therefore
to read it in the context of an earlier age and not in that of the age
in which it was written. As a narrative poem Paradise Lost is,
generically speaking, most plausibly compared to other
narratives—by Samuel Butler (1663-64), Margaret Cavendish
(1666), John Dryden (1667, 1681), John Bunyan (1678, 1684), and
Aphra Behn (1684, 1685, 1687), as well as to proto-novelistic
narratives of the period. The number and range of comparative
texts may be reduced if we focus on one well-known feature in
particular of Paradise Lost, Milton’s self-conscious attention to his
formal models. Milton’s contemporaries share with him a preoccupation with questions of how discursive
form can be used to draw upon and turn to account the authority of both ancient and divine sources. And
although Restoration writers use a disparate range of formal techniques to this end, all of them are used in a
broadly parodic fashion. Parody combines in variable ratios the imitation of another form, on the one hand,
and an adaptive detachment from it on the other. In other words, parody preserves form in the very process
of superseding it. Understood in this way, parody is fundamental to interpretation and historical change;
nonetheless there is a family resemblance in the ways it is used during this period. The canonical literary
genres these authors find problematic yet not easily replaced are epic, romance, and allegory. In order to
bridge the gap between these forms, which are known but questionable, and forms that are apt but
unknown, they experiment with mixed and less stable modes: mock epic, mock typology, heroic poetry (an
amalgam of epic and romance), the secret history, and antiromance. As a participant in these experiments
Paradise Lost comes into view as a Restoration poem, the product of a literary history that entails both
preservation and supersession.

Michael McKeon is Board of Governors Distinguished Professor of Literature at


Rutgers University-New Brunswick. He is the author of several books: Politics and
Poetry in Restoration England (1975), The Origins of the English Novel, 1600-1740
(1987, 2002), and The Secret History of Domesticity (2005). He also has edited an
anthology: Theory of the Novel: A Historical Approach (2000). McKeon has
published essays on many topics: pastoral and pastoralism, the idea of the aesthetic,
dialectical method, historicizing patriarchy, poems on affairs of state, tacit
knowledge, political poetry, the idea of the public sphere, civic humanism, scientific method and the
aesthetic, biography, interdisciplinary studies, sex and gender 1600-1800, family romance, civil and religious
liberty and secularization; and on John Dryden, Samuel Richardson, Tobias Smollett, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Karl
Marx, and Raymond Williams.

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John Dixon Hunt (University of Pennsylvania)
Fruit from the 'Inlightened' Tree: The Royal Society, History & the Picturesque

The usual perception of the picturesque in the late 18th century was that
it had developed an interest in painterly technique and employed it on
making and viewing landscapes. Today even those emphases have been
lost in a largely journalist and banal use of the term. But the picturesque
was essentially a tool for comprehension, for learning how to look, how
to seize the substance of a place, to parse what you saw, and learn about
its components. For that skill, one could certainly learn from looking at
carefully composed landscape paintings, and that scrutiny (that ‘tutorial’)
sharpened the mind in its other inquiries beyond paintings. But I will
argue that the real impetus for the picturesque came from the emphasis
on ‘histories’ by members of the Royal Society in the later 17th century.
Its members' concern for reading and understanding the land – its
history, its monuments and topography, even the texture of what the
landscape offered to the enquiring eye and mind of the traveler. And it
was this that energized at least the early years of the 18th-century
picturesque and arguably even some of its later exponents.

John Dixon Hunt is Professor Emeritus of Landscape


Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania and the
former Director of Studies in Landscape Architecture at
Dumbarton Oaks. He is the author of numerous articles
and books on garden history and theory, including
a catalogue of the landscape drawings of William Kent,
Garden and Grove, Gardens and the Picturesque, The
Picturesque Garden in Europe (2002), The Afterlife of
Gardens (2004), and A World of Gardens (2012), as well as
editor of the journal Studies in the History of Gardens and
Designed Landscapes. Professor Hunt is also the inaugural
series editor of the Penn Studies in Landscape
Architecture, in which was published his own theoretic
study of landscape architecture, Greater Perfections: The
Practice of Garden Theory (1999). His interests focus upon
landscape architectural theory, the development of
garden design in the city of Venice, modern(ist) garden design, and ekphrasis.

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Erika Naginski (Harvard University)
Impossible Design: Porsenna’s Tomb and French Visionary Architecture

Against the backdrop of architecture’s longstanding obsession with


archaeology, this lecture treats the various reconstitutions of the fabled
tomb of the Etruscan King Lars Porsenna at Clusium. The cryptic
description left us by Pliny the Elder (after Varro) prompted architects
from Antonio da Sangallo the Younger to Jean-Jacques Lequeu to attempt
the translation of Porsenna’s Tomb into visual form. Their plans and
elevations evoke an impossibly colossal structure premised on the
repetitive logic of stacked geometric elements. Interestingly, to take Pliny
at his word is to confront the engineering of something that contradicted
architecture’s mantra of solidity, utility and beauty established by
Vitruvius. In so doing, Porsenna’s tomb made manifest a monstrous and
incommensurable object of wonder, which clearly haunted the Western
architectural imaginary from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. It is
arguably with so-called French Visionary Architecture—and especially
with Étienne-Louis Boullée and his students—that this obsession found its
culmination. We shall speculate on why this might have been so, that is, on how it came to be that this
ancient and megalomaniacal architecture erected in the name of royal memory resurfaced in the historical
period that witnessed the demise of absolutism.

A historian of 17th and 18th century architecture, Erika Naginski is Professor of


Architectural History and Director of the PHD Program in Architecture, Landscape
Architecture, and Urban Planning at the Harvard University’s Graduate School of
Design. Her writings on architecture engage a variety of perspectives including
public space, aesthetic philosophy and the critical traditions of the design disciplines.
Books and edited volumes include: Sculpture and Enlightenment (2009), a study of
public art and architecture in an age of secular rationalism and revolutionary
politics; Polemical Objects (2004) co-edited with Stephen Melville, which explores
the philosophy of medium in Hegel, Heidegger and others; and The Return of
Nature: Sustaining Architecture in the Face of Sustainability (2013) with the architect
Preston Scott Cohen. She has been a fellow at the Harvard Society of Fellows, the Radcliffe Institute for
Advanced Study, the Clark Art Institute, and the Deutsches Forum für Kunstgeschichte. She was awarded a
John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship for Architectures of Retrospection, her current
book project on architecture, archaeology and conceptions of history between 1650 and 1800. In 2012-
2013, She served as Robert Sterling Clark Visiting Professor at the Clark/Williams Graduate Program in Art
History.

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Jeffrey Collins (Bard Graduate Center, New York)
From Ditch To Nitch: Making The Hall Of The Muses
'Undoing the Ancient' Keynote

Art museums as we know them today


were invented in eighteenth-century
Europe in tandem with new ideas
about art’s cultural value, social
purpose, appropriate setting, and
intended audience. But how, where,
and in what form did these proto-
modern museums take shape? What
practical and conceptual operations
were required to create an
eighteenth-century installation, and
how did these intersect with legal,
scientific, political, economic, and
aesthetic concerns? This talk grounds
these questions by focusing on one
remarkable room—the soaring Hall of the Muses at the Vatican’s Museo Pio-Clementino—created to display
an important nucleus of “Greek” statuary (a touchstone of eighteenth-century aesthetics) discovered
outside Tivoli in 1774-5. Tracing the complex process through which these prized artifacts were unearthed,
acquired, identified, restored, displayed, contextualized, published, reproduced, confiscated, and ultimately
repatriated illuminates both the history of museums and the diverse and sometimes conflicting
understandings of antiquity at the dawn of the modern era. Just as important, it suggests the broad range of
stakeholders involved in making Europe’s early museums, a topic eighteenth-century scholars are only
beginning to explore.

Jeffrey Collins is Professor and Chair of Academic Programs at the Bard Graduate
Center, New York, where he specializes in the visual and material culture of
seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe and the Americas. He is the author of
Papacy and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Rome: Pius VI and the Arts (Cambridge,
2004) and a principal contributor to Pedro Friedeberg (Mexico City: Trilce, 2009) and
The History of Design: Decorative Arts and Material Culture 1400-2000 (Yale, 2013).
Educated at Yale and at Clare College, Cambridge, Collins is a Fellow of the American
Academy in Rome, a past Getty Scholar, and the recipient of grants and fellowships
from the Andrew W. Mellon, Fulbright, and Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundations and
the American Philosophical Society. He has published widely on early modern
through contemporary painting, sculpture, architecture, urbanism, book illustration, furniture, and film; his
new project explores the intersecting cultures of archaeology and museology by tracing the changing form
and fortunes rediscovered near Rome in the 1770s and enshrined at the new Vatican Museum.

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Sophia Rosenfeld (University of Virginia)
The History of Choice: An 18th-Century Subject

Today, across the developed world, we are


inundated with “choices”. This pattern holds
whether we are talking about political
representatives or breakfast cereals; choice has
become a critical value for capitalism and
human rights promotion alike, a proxy for
freedom. How did this happen? Certainly some
of the antecedents can be found in
Enlightenment thought. But the story of the
adoption of personal choice as a form of
liberation stems as much from the rise of new
social practices as from advances in philosophy.
It also occurred over several centuries and in
different ways in different domains. In this talk,
I will consider the varied impulses behind the rise of an ideology of choice in politics, beliefs, and consumer
culture across the long eighteenth century. I will then draw some general conclusions about both the history
of choice-making and way we think about the connection between the ideas of the past and our own
present.

Sophia Rosenfeld is Professor of History at University of Virginia and, for the


2014-15 academic year, a member of the School of Social Science at the
Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. She is the author of A Revolution
in Language: The Problem of Signs in Late Eighteenth-Century France
(Stanford, 2001) and Common Sense: A Political History (Harvard, 2011).
The latter book won the 2012 Mark Lynton Prize from the Columbia School
of Journalism and the Nieman Foundation and the 2011 book prize from
Society for Historians of the Early American Republic; has been translated
into Korean and French; and has been widely reviewed in periodicals from
the Times Literary Supplement to the Wall Street Journal. Her own writing
on politics and ideas from the Enlightenment to the present has also
appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, and The Nation, as
well as many leading scholarly journals, and she is a co-editor of the journal Modern Intellectual History. At
present, she is a writing a book on the history of choice, to be published by Princeton University Press.
Rosenfeld did her B.A. at Princeton University and her Ph.D. at Harvard University, and her work has
previously been supported by a Mellon Fellowship in the Humanities, a Mellon New Directions Fellowship,
an ACLS Burkhardt Fellowship, visiting appointments at NYU, the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences
Sociales, and the University of Virginia School of Law, and, most recently, a Guggenheim Foundation
Fellowship.

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Stephen Bending (University of Southampton)
Pleasure Gardens and the Problems of Pleasure
'Global Sensibilities Group' Keynote

Byron quite rightly argued that, ‘Pleasure’s a sin, and


sometimes sin’s a pleasure’. Focusing on eighteenth-
century writers’ confrontation with the experience,
the imagining, and the representation of pleasure in
the garden (where ‘pleasure’ might be understood
as a shorthand for the immediacy of an emotional
response), this paper will explore the disruptive
nature of pleasure, the conflicts and elisions of
public statement and private experience in the
pleasure gardens of the eighteenth century. Gardens
are not, of course, the only space in which the
problems of pleasure might be confronted, but they
offer their eighteenth-century visitors a powerful set
of conflicting cultural expectations—at once imposed and inhabited (or even self-inflicted)—and confront
the individual with their sense of themself in the world: gardens seem to invite such shifting responses
because in the garden one is always aware of, one is pushed to be aware of, inhabiting more than one space,
of experiencing location through multiple and disparate frames of reference.

Drawing on theoretical, practical, and historical works from the period, but also on guidebooks, popular
fiction, poetry, and in particular on letters and diaries, the paper explores an experience of pleasure which
might sway at any moment from easily moralized or politicized narratives of significance and use to
something far less neatly subsumed within, or contained by, such agenda. Focusing on the problem of
pleasure—too much, not enough, the wrong kind, the wrong place—the paper asks what access we might
have to the eighteenth-century individual imagining themself in the world. How might that individual draw
on, resist, or re-interpret the powerful assumptions of public expectation; how might individual experience
help us to understand the larger operations and experiences of ideology?

Dr Stephen Bending is a Senior Lecturer in English at the University of


Southampton. He has written numerous articles on eighteenth-century gardens
and landscapes (most recently on the English mythology of Revolutionary Lyons);
he is the editor of the Enlightenment volume of the Bloomsbury Cultural History of
Gardens (2013), and a co-editor of The English Novel 1770-1829: A Bibliographical
Survey (2000), The Writing of Rural England, 1500-1800 (2003) and Tracing
Architecture: the aesthetics of antiquarianism (2003), as well as of novels by
Thomas Day and Henry MacKenzie, and travel writings by Anne Plumptre and Helen
Maria Williams; he is also co-editor of the on-going Pickering and Chatto Chawton
House Library Series of women’s novels, travels and memoirs. His book, Green
Retreats: Women, Gardens and Eighteenth-Century Culture, was published by Cambridge in 2013, and he is
currently working on the problems of pleasure in English, French and American gardens of the eighteenth
century, and on the manuscripts of William Gilpin, the garden-hating champion of the picturesque.

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Enlightenment Senses: Light, Sound and Virtuality

Peter Denney (Griffith University)


Clamouring for Liberty: Alehouse Noise and the Political Shoemaker
Throughout the eighteenth century, the shoemaker was often imagined as the prototypical ‘free-born’
artisan, a convivial if sometimes clownish figure addicted to political activity. Drawing on a rich archive of
popular cultural sources, from ballads to chapbooks, this paper examines the process by which the
shoemaker came to be depicted as the champion of a distinctively plebeian republic, forged in the alehouse
through noisy rituals of masculine sociability. This was in stark contrast to the growing tendency in polite
culture, especially from around 1780, to propagate an ideal of quiet artisan domesticity. Opposing such an
image, popular radicals resurrected an old tradition of shoemaker lore to show how the ethos of noisy
alehouse sociability could further artisan claims to public citizenship, representing irreverence as an
indispensable component of civic virtue.

Darrin McMahon (Florida State University)


"A la lanterne!" Public Illumination and the Dialectic of Enlightenment in 18th-century Paris
In this paper, I will draw on material from a book in progress that deals with the intellectual history and
material culture of light in 18th-century France, focusing specifically on efforts to illuminate the city of Paris
in the second half of the 18th century. This was a process initially and fittingly undertaken by the Sun-King,
Louis XIV, with the close collaboration of the Paris police, which long claimed public lighting (éclairage) as a
special prerogative. In 1763, Antoine Louis de Sartine, the commissioner of the Paris Police, sponsored an
essay contest on the question, ““What are the best means of lighting (or enlightening—éclairer) the streets
of a great city?” The contest attracted the attention of leading Enlightenment luminaries, including Antoine
Lavoisier, the so-called “father of modern chemistry,” who was also deeply interested in lighting
technologies, and was judged by the Academy of Sciences in 1766. Several of the winning submissions
involved prototypes for a new type of reflecting lantern (the revérbère) that was subsequently installed in
the Paris streets in the 1780s, drawing both praise at the increased prospects for sociability, safety, and
commerce, and protest in the form of lantern-smashing and denunciation that explicitly rejected the
lanterns as facilitating state surveillance. By following the debates around the lanterns and the new light
they cast, I will reflect on the place of light in the siècles des lumières, showing how the lantern serves as an
ideal object and site through which to observe both the Enlightenment’s bright lights, and its dark shadows.

Andrew Bricker (McGill University)


The Virtual Functions of Print in Enlightenment Thought
One of the defining features of eighteenth-century thought, for all of its stress on firsthand sensory
perception, was its often casual reliance on virtuality—that is, simulations of phenomena that nonetheless,
according to eighteenth-century thinkers, revealed something about the material and social worlds in which
they lived. The medium of virtuality was often print: a reproducible technology for the dissemination of
virtual experiences. Virtual thinking had the effect of allegorizing one’s entire experience of the world,
though virtuality, of course, had its critics during this period. We could point, for instance, to Hume’s or
Berkeley’s staggering subversions of empiricism—we know not the thing we observe (the tree, say) but only
our impression of the thing (how our eyes see the tree)—or Smith’s assertion in Theory of Moral Sentiments
that, for all of our models of cognition, we lack direct access to the minds of others.

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Nonetheless, everywhere during this period one finds a perhaps troubling overreliance on simulation. Man
in a state of nature to explain the emergence of government and social hierarchies, Royal Society
publications that recounted pristinely exemplary experiments that in fact never happened or failed to turn
out, novels that purported to give direct access to the minds of others—enlightenment thought, for all its
rationality, was simply willing to accept forms of virtuality as evidence for real-world phenomena. This
disconnect between the technologies of enlightenment thought and the world that they purported to
describe and explain is the focus of my presentation. I will discuss the role of print in creating the illusion of
epistemological access, and in particular the ways in which print was used to simulate experiences of
phenomena thought to exist in the world but of which no individual had actual experience.

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Representation and the Female Body

Kelsey Brosnan (Rutgers University)


Anne Vallayer-Coster and the Enlightened Nature Morte
Anne Vallayer-Coster (1744-1818) was one of four female artists admitted to the Académie Royale de
Peinture et Sculpture in the latter half of the eighteenth century. Vallayer-Coster exhibited a number of still
life paintings at the French Salon and earned the patronage of Queen Marie Antoinette, yet her work has
received little scholarly attention - particularly in comparison with her fellow académiciennes, the royal
portraitists Adélaïde Labille Guiard and Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun. This neglect may be attributed to the dix-
huitième ‘hierarchy of genres’ within the Academy, which considered the still life to be a lesser (and
therefore feminine) mode of painting.

Yet Vallayer-Coster’s complex and sensual still lifes, or natures mortes, are characterized by unusually bold
brushwork, complex allegorical structures, and an apparent interest in floral and faunal taxonomies - all of
which warrant further study. In this paper, I will discuss Vallayer-Coster’s Marine Still Life with Coral and Sea
Shells (1769, Musée du Louvre) within the context of an emerging conchological discourse, as well the
established tradition of collecting and displaying shells in curiosity cabinets. Furthermore, I will argue that
Vallayer-Coster’s natures mortes are paradoxically enlivened by a throbbing, embodied femininity
(exemplified by the fleshy-pink conch shells and tufts of coral in Vallayer-Coster’s Marine Still Life, which
manifestly evoke the female body).

Patricia Simons (University of Michigan)


The Rococo Erotics of Disguise and Innocence: Revisiting the issue of viewing pleasure in the
ancien regime
In the 1980s and ‘90s, from very different viewpoints, scholars like Posner and Rand insisted that ancien
régime artists such as Boucher and Fragonard catered to “the libidinous instincts of a male audience.” Using
psychoanalysis, in 1990 Lipton attempted to recoup female viewing pleasure; more recently Hyde and Sheriff
explored alternative approaches, though the effect tends to disembody desire and dissolve into ambiguity
and fluidity. This paper revisits gender and sexuality in rococo art, taking into account not only contemporary
art criticism but also memoirs, poetry and pornography. Rather than essentially collapse the pastoral with
the pre-Oedipal and the feminine, I characterize an historically specific mode that overlapped with
pornographic fantasies of female initiation and plenitude, yet distinguished itself by means of mythological
delight, idyllic innocence, conventional sentiment, pictorial skill and playful sensuality. Thus, male viewing
entailed numerous modes, from the pornographic or libertine to the foppish or disinterested, and so too
women varied in their commissions and responses.

The “preliminary,” safe mood and facile manner of rococo images accorded with what French authors
characterized, in memoirs and pornographic tales, as inconsequential, unthreatening female-female
intimacies that bore no stigma of cuckoldry. With this in mind, the paper then focuses on images of Diana,
goddess of chaste corporeality, adopted often as a persona for the portraits of noblewomen (including royal
mistresses), and popular as a subject when coupled with beguiled Callisto. The masquerade of insignificance
enabled the true mask, the nonchalant disguise of innocence, which nevertheless luxuriated in sensuality.

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Jessica Fripp (Parsons The New School for Design)
Femmes au-delà des règles: growing old in public in eighteenth-century France
As recent scholarship has shown, longer life expectancy during the eighteenth century led to a growth of
interest in aging and an increase in representations of the elderly in art and literature. But while the figure of
the old man shifted from someone to be mocked to someone to be respected, aging women were not
treated as kindly. This was, in part, because the life cycle of a woman did not match that of a man,
traditionally broken down into infancy, childhood, adulthood, and old age. Menopause, as a liminal phase
between child-bearing years and full-on old age, posed a problem for understanding how women aged and
their changing roles in society as they grew older. As Louis-Sébastien Mercier noted: “a woman in Paris is
never forty years old, she is always either thirty or sixty; and since no one says otherwise, the forty-year-old
woman does not exist.” This paper examines visual representations of women in the eighteenth century as
they reached middle age, focusing specifically on women who had what might be called a “public life,” such
as salonnières (Madame Geoffrin), queens (Marie Leszczyńska) and mistresses (Madame de Pompadour).
During a time in which menopausal women were perceived at best as without purpose and at worst as
deviant and deceptive, how did women in the public sphere negotiate this transitional period? How
wereideas about the passage of time enacted through the representation of the aging woman’s body?

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The Philippines in the Long Eighteenth Century

Karl Poblador (University of the Philippines Diliman)


The Immediate Impact of the Bourbon Reforms on the Philippine Colonial Economy
Ever since the Spanish conquered the Philippines in 1565, the Manila-Acapulco Galleons Trade had served as
the economic lifeline its colony in the Far East. However, while the trade in Chinese silk for silver from New
Spain enriched the Spanish merchant class in Manila (as well as their financiers from the various religious
orders), the rest of the archipelago remained an economic backwater from which the colonial regime
extracted tributes from a populace that was still engaged in subsistence agriculture. When the British
captured Manila in 1762 during the Seven Years War, it became apparent that the failure of early Bourbon
Reforms which aimed to improve the economic and political institutions of Spain had failed, as did the need
to of taking greater account of their colonies. It wouldn’t be until 1778 that Bourbon monarch, King Charles
III, would send a reformist administrator who would bring “enlightenment” to the Philippines. Over the next
nine years, Governor General Jose de Basco y Vargas would make attempts of reforming the colonial
economy by establishing monopolies on the development of plantation agriculture, opening the colony to
direct trade with Spanish ports, and establishing the Sociedad Económica de Amigos del Pais. His programs
elicited various reactions and results, and although he left the Philippines with the belief that peninsulares in
the Philippines had a repugnant attitude towards hard work and preferred to lay back and rely on the
dwindling galleon trade, the enlightened thinking which he brought into the Philippines would persist, and
re-emerge in an even more dramatic fashion during the next century.

Kerby Alvarez (University of the Philippines Diliman)


From Flora Expeditions to Meteorological Science: Transitions and Transformations in Philippine
Colonial Science, 18th to 19th century
As historian Warwick Anderson describes, colonial science in the Philippines evolved from the era of
naturalistic investigations during the early decades of colonial rule to the institutionalization of scientific
knowledge in the 19th century. From this point of view, this paper will present a history of the development
of colonial science in the Philippines from the 18th to the 19th century. It will argue that science was used by
the colonial state, to improve the economic situation of the Philippines, as a colony in the Philippines.

The development of colonial science in the 18th century was brought up by the need to improve the
agricultural situation in the Philippines, as part of the Bourbon monarch’s plan of economic industrialization.
The scientific enlightenment in Spain influenced by the French and English thinkers hastened the transfer of
ideas from the Iberian metropole to its periphery across the Atlantic, up to the colonies in the Pacific. In the
Philippines, this was concretely manifested by different flora expeditions sponsored by the government and
scientific enterprises initiated by private individuals.

On the other hand, in the 19th century, given the cash-crop trade of the colony pushed by British and
American investors, merchant vessels and sea trade became an essential facet of the colonial economic
system. With this, typhoons that cause shipwrecks and land inundations must be kept in the watch of the
state. During this era, a new form of science, initiated by the Jesuits, offered a new mode of service by
lessening the effects of typhoons and its epiphenomenal hazards.

11
Aaron Mallari (University of the Philippines Diliman)
The Spanish Enlightenment and its ripples to penology: Notes on the History of the Prison in the
Spanish Philippines
The Enlightenment brought revolutionary ideas that changed the ways we view society and make sense of
the world. For the history of punishment, this period also signaled the rise of the prison as the primary
institution of punishment eclipsing the harsher methods that are done in public as a spectacle. Michel
Foucault had argued that the period of the Enlightenment shifted the focus of punishment from harming the
body to rehabilitating the soul. In a sense, that turn was not necessarily to punish less, but to punish better.
From the 18th century on, the world saw the prison at the forefront penal practices.

This piece reflects on the rise of the prison in the Philippines in the context of the Spanish Enlightenment. It
will attempt to present the flow ideas on penology from Europe to the Americas and eventually to the
Pacific, the Philippines in particular, culminating in the rise of the prison in the 19th century attested by the
completion of the Bilibid Prison in Manila in 1865. Furthermore, the paper follows the idea of David Garland
in treating punishment as a social institution; seeing prisons and modes of punishment as “cultural artifacts”
that house a web of cultural meanings. With this view, a history of punishment in the Philippines will be
presented albeit in broad strokes to show how the history of punishment can be a lens to view the changing
landscape of Philippine society under the colonial context from the 16th to 19th centuries.

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Remapping the Enlightenment

Nilanjana Mukherjee (University of Delhi)


Colonial Gaze/Ocular Space: Making Geographies
My paper shall attempt to examine worldviews, philosophies and viewpoints which constructed Europe and
the world in the age of Enlightenment. The practice of cartography in this period was representative of those
ideologies which envisioned the globe and all extra-European space as open to conquest and occupancy.
Maps, both in the west and in British South Asia served as an effective instrument in playing out the imperial
ideology in subordinating spaces. What emerged as 'India' was in effect, the name of a steadfastly expanding
colonial territory. The presentation will deal with the practice of cartography as a methodology to
materialise and naturalise an expansive vision of the home territory and the colony. The method concerned
an admixture of aesthetic principles with scientific accuracy. With the long eighteenth century moving
towards an end, the aesthetic principles dwindled and cartography veered towards scientific reasoning and
computation. Spatial representations of the metropolis and the empire via the map gradually became
accommodated and agglutinated in the methods and language of science. The fashioning of both the
geographies happened to be acts born out of an identical cartographic impulse that shaped both the nation
state of Great Britain and the British empire. In this context I shall discuss systematic cartographic
transactions like 'Triangulation' and the 'Trigonometric Surveys' in both Great Britain and India to
understand the processes of construction of material space.

Kristie Flannery (University of Texas at Austin)


Iberian Crusades and Spiritual Conquests: Rethinking the Enlightenment in the Pacific World,
1750-1762
What does the Enlightenment in the Pacific look like from the vantage point of Manila, the capital of the
Spanish Empire in the Philippines? This paper argues that in the mid eighteenth century, the ideology of holy
crusade defined the ways in which the Spanish Empire was conceptualised and organised by the Bourbon
King of Spain and his imperial advisors in the Iberian Peninsula, as well as and colonial officials and the
regular clergy in the Philippines.

Drawing on a range of sources from Philippines and Spanish archives, this paper explores the idea of the
crusade and the specific ways in which it shaped the Spanish colonial regime in the Asia from 1750 to 1762. I
demonstrate that in this period, Manila became the staging point for multiple military and spiritual wars of
conquest in the Pacific world. The Spanish colonial government and its indigenous allies waged a long and
bloody war against Islamic communities in the southern Philippines that aimed to subdue the “infidels” and
convert them to Catholicism. At the same time, the colonial government experimented with various
initiatives that attempted to make Catholics out of Chinese people in the Philippines as well as Mainland
China. The desire to evangelise was the driving force behind Spanish imperialism in Asia.

Recovering Iberian crusades in the eighteenth century Pacific world challenges the popular theory that
Manila was primarily a commercial colony sustained by Spanish imperial policy to facilitate trade with China.
This project also disrupts perceptions of European imperial expansion in the Pacific as a scientific enterprise,
and broader narratives of the Enlightenment in the Pacific.

13
Louis Kirk McAuley (Washington State University)
"the whisker’d vermine-race" - or, Ideas about Biological Invasion in Eighteenth-Century
Caribbean Literature
In the “Preface” to his West Indian georgic, The Sugar-Cane (1764), Scottish poet and physician, James
Grainger predictably emphasizes the novelty of his Caribbean environs, the artless re-presentation of which
he humbly suggests “could not fail to enrich” British poetry. Ironically, however, the lengthy annotations
that accompany Grainger’s imperial landscaping (poetry) frequently focus on not merely indigenous (or New
World) organisms, but invasive species: Old World people, animals, and plants, including the rats – or
“whisker’d vermine-race” – that Samuel Johnson insisted were unpoetical by nature.1 That is, the New World
discourse that Grainger marshals in his “Preface” effectively serves to preserve an antiquated idea of the
Atlantic Ocean as a boundary separating Old and New Worlds, while his annotations register the
considerable extent to which, by 1764, the formerly “virgin soil” of the Caribbean had become irreversibly
transformed through a series of global biological transfers.2 Accordingly, my presentation will focus on the
psycho-geographical confusion of Old and New World ecologies in Caribbean ‘empire writing’ – including the
local newspapers and magazines, such as Robert Baldwin’s Weekly Jamaica Courrant (1718), that made it
possible for the sugar islands to cohere and flourish. I argue that such confusion serves to measure the
environmental impacts of the sugar trade. Essays that appeared in The Jamaica Magazine – works such as
“An Account of Some Trees of Prodigious Dimensions in Scotland” – beg to be read in light of widespread
deforestation (the “yearning for lost landscapes” that figures in much postcolonial Caribbean literature).3 I
read this early Caribbean literature as not merely “environmentally oriented” (Buell), but preoccupied with
what ecologists today commonly refer to as invasion biology.4

1. See James Boswell, The Life of Johnson (1791) (New York: Everyman’s Library, 1992), 614-615.
2. Stuart McCook, “The Neo-Columbian Exchange: The Second Conquest of the Greater Caribbean, 1720-1930,” Latin American
Research Review, Volume 46, Special Issue (2011), 13.
3. Lizabeth Paravisini-Gerbert, “Deforestation and the Yearning for Lost Landscapes in Caribbean Literatures,” Postcolonial Ecologies:
Literatures of the Environment, edited by Elizabeth DeLoughrey and George B. Handley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 99.
4. The publication of Charles Elton’s The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants in 1958 marks the formal beginnings of invasion
biology. See Alan Burdick, Out of Eden: An Odyssey of Ecological Invasion (New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 2006), 19-21.

14
Satire and Enlightenment

William Hamilton (Neumann University)


"But when for Love your women dare, /How greatly is he then outdone?": Eliza Haywood and the
Satiric Tradition
As critical recovery of Haywood’s work continues to extend and evolve, her growth in eighteenth-century
studies will organically increase opportunities to reconsider artistic and critical discourses of the period in
which she engaged. The most promising site of inquiry critiques her status within the genre of Augustan
satire, a field still frequently focused upon the exchanges between male authors even with awareness of
pivotal figures such as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Close perusal of the range of Haywood’s literary career
reveals a consistent engagement with satiric effects in her fiction and drama that worked to both hold
aforementioned male authors such as Pope and Fielding responsible for misogynist elements in their work,
even as her talents also sharpened the satiric attack upon their original targets.

Haywood’s dialogic engagement with Henry Fielding in the short-lived but vibrant London theater
community of the 1730s has already received some foundational work to illustrate the range of her gender-
focused satiric talents, but a larger evaluation of satire’s influence across her career will be the focus of my
research here, from her earliest efforts in the amatory fictions such as Love in Excess to her capstone novels
at the end of her career such as The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless. Haywood’s engagement with cultural
and intellectual discourse of the period, including her use of classical modes of satire prevalent at the time,
will inform my analysis.

Robert Phiddian (Flinders University)


Spectacular opposition: Suppression, deflection and the performance of contempt in John Gay’s
Beggar’s Opera and Polly
The success on stage of John Gay’s Beggar’s Opera (1728) followed by the partial suppression of his Polly
(1729) provides one of the classic tales of early Eighteenth-Century public culture. Like Gulliver’s Travels only
two years earlier, the Beggar’s Opera was a spectacular act of satirical dissent against the Walpole regime. It
was not suppressed despite its nearly open critique of the government, but Sir Robert Walpole saw to it that
its successor for the next season, Polly, was not staged. This suppression was only partly successful,
however, as Polly was then published by subscription and actually earning Gay more than he gleaned from
the staging of the Beggar’s Opera.

This is not a new story. The novelty I hope to bring to the debate is part of an argument about the emotional
effects of satire. Taking some cues from cognitive analyses of the emotions, I want to study how Gay’s
operas function as containers for the spectacular dissent of Scriblerian satire, focusing particularly on the
way they deploy laughter to channel anger, contempt, and disgust. These emotions situate subjects in
different ways towards the material satirized, and Gay’s opera’s will be analysed particularly for the ways
they express and mobilise contempt.

The larger argument is that Scriblerian satire has political consequences of a more paradoxical nature than
has often been recognized. One of the things that happened during the long Eighteenth Century in Britain
was the development of robust and more-or-less tolerated public dissent against the current regime. The
attacks on the Walpole government in the 1720s and 1730s provide a crucial stage in this process. Satires
like Gay’s seem to have had little direct impact on policy, but it is the emotional effects of catharsis – of

15
venting and containing potentially rebellious emotions – that needs further analysis for a literary history of
political emotions.

Christopher Larcombe (University of Sydney)


‘Too Gentle for Truth’? The Spectre of Tragedy in Book IV of Gulliver’s Travels
Taking Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels (1726) as its textual focus, and in a discussion extending from 1678 (the date
of publication of The Tragedies of the Last Age Consider’d by the Historiographer Royal, Thomas Rymer) to
1783 (the date of the last edition of his “Life of Swift” revised by Samuel Johnson himself), this paper seeks
to identify and describe how Enlightenment rationalities deriving from Descartes, Hobbes and Locke
influenced and were inflected in critical and literary discourse on “tragedy” during the early to mid stages of
the “long eighteenth century” in England. It develops in four parts: first, it argues that, by virtue of this
influence, tragedy was reconceived as an exercise in the excitation, concentrated over a succession of
moments, of distressing emotion, in reaction to the traditional Aristotelian emphasis on the ramified totality
of agent-involving action, recognition and finality; secondly, it examines evidence both for Swift’s tragic
sensibility (in his correspondence and poetry) and for his acquaintance with the novel rationalities and their
rival Aristotle; thirdly, it postulates that, owing to inimical literary (the exhaustion of generic tragedy and its
contemporaneous lampooning by mock-heroic productions such as Carey’s burlesque
Chrononhotonthologos: The Most Tragical Tragedy, That ever was Tragediz'd by any Company of Tragedians)
and historico-political (the anxious legacy of the Civil War and Swift’s ambivalent attitude toward the
Revolution of 1688 and Jacobitism) conditions, Swift creatively sublimated this sensibility in a narrative
mode in which the function of irony is (more or less) to govern satire and thereby potentiate the range of
meanings elicited by the text; and finally, it advances a reading of Gulliver’s fourth voyage (with its
culminating and unapologetic declaration of misanthropy) as a satire on the implications of the
Enlightenment reconceptualisation of tragedy in Swift’s time, with Gulliver as a man who has suffered
tragedy but who is bereft of the (Aristotelian) means of understanding it. The reading engages with the
scholarship and literary-critical insights of (among others) Rawson, Said, Nuttal, Probyn, and Donoghue.

16
Biography and the Visual

David Maskill (Victoria University of Wellington)


A good address: living at the Louvre in the 18th‐century
In February 1772, the royal academician and society portraitist, Louis Tocqué died in his lodging in the
Louvre where he had lived for over a decade. Together with his wife, he occupied a series of rooms spread
over four floors in the galleries of the Louvre. Tocqué was granted his lodging in 1759 in recognition of his
service at the courts of Russia and Denmark by which time he was effectively at the end of his career as a
practitioner. Using the unpublished inventory of his lodging at time of his death, this paper examines the
material and cultural world which Tocqué and his wife created for themselves in the Louvre. By interrogating
and interpreting the prosaic factuality of the inventory, it is possible to observe the ways in which the
Tocqué and his wife used the spaces in their lodging and objects they placed in them to affirm personal and
professional alliances and to display status – in effect – to construct their identities. This paper engages with
the broader issue of the active role that objects can play in the construction of the self.

Vivien Gaston (University of Melbourne)


Staying Alive: Johann Zoffany’s Portrait of Elizabeth Farren as Hermione in Shakespeare’s ‘A
Winter’s Tale’, c. 1780, National Gallery of Victoria
Johan Zoffany’s portrait of Elizabeth Farren as Hermione in Shakespeare’s A Winter’s Tale exemplifies the
expansion of a number of key cultural fields in the later 18th century: the burgeoning illustration of theatre,
the rise of female actresses, the reassessment of Shakespeare, the proliferation of new classical forms, the
escalating demand for prints in the popular market, the invention of celebrity and the flourishing of portrait
commissions to enhance the estates of private individuals.

The work portrays an actress whose private and public lives were equally intriguing, one of a few highly
successful women whose celebrity status enabled their radical upward mobility. Her life provides its own
commentary on one of the most controversial and memorable scenes in Shakespeare’s plays, the moment
when Hermione ‘comes to life.’ Creating the illusion that its subject, Elizabeth Farren, is before us, this life-
size depiction provides a further gloss on the theme. Through a range of visual and textual examples, the
paper will explore how portraits transformed and augmented theatrical personae in the late eighteenth
century. It will review depictions of Hermione in the visual arts and the context for Zoffany’s remarkable
reinterpretation, including its unusual and significant classical references. Lastly, new evidence about the
provenance of the work will reveal the dramatic, perilous and sometimes poignant contexts for such
portraits, as revealed in the lives of its owners and the estate that housed it until the early 20th century.

Mark Shepheard (University of Melbourne)


Mengs & Don Luis de Borbón: A Tale of Two Portraits
Mengs’ portrait of the Infante Don Luis de Borbón, recently acquired by the National Gallery of Victoria, was
painted during his second period in Spain (1774-78), where he was Primer Pintor to the royal court.
Employed principally to decorate the new Palacio Real in Madrid, Mengs attempted to avoid portrait
commissions but those portraits that he did paint in Spain are among his most successful. The portrait of
Don Luis stands apart from his main series of Spanish royal portraits both chronologically and in terms of its

17
style and composition. Although depicted in rich court dress, Don Luis is shown against a neutral background
unusual for Mengs’ portraits of royalty and more characteristic of his Grand Tour portraits. In 1778, Mengs
took the painting with him back to Rome. When he died the following year, it was listed in his probate
inventory as incomplete. An almost literal copy, also cited in the inventory, is now in Cleveland and it was
this version that was sent to Don Luis in Spain, despite also being deemed unfinished. This paper explores
the relationship between the two versions and their place within Mengs’ oeuvre as portrait painter. It also
looks at Don Luis as patron—he employed the cellist and composer Luigi Boccherini and was an early
supporter of the young Goya—and as a contentious figure at the court of Carlos III, ultimately exiled for his
licentious behavior at the exact time that Mengs was painting his portrait.

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Performance and Pleasures

Hedy Law (University of British Columbia)


The Triumph of Tumultuous Pleasures: Social Dance, Pantomime, and Louis XV’s Politics of
Spectacle in the 1740s
The noble style of social dance has been believed to be an effective means to discipline the body from its
inception through the end of the Old Regime. Recently scholars have questioned this view by investigating
the action ballet called “ballet-pantomime” in the two decades leading up to the French Revolution. Yet one
question has not been answered: Did the rise of pantomime challenge Louis XIV’s politics of dance?

This paper answers this question by examining pantomime in the 1740s. This decade witnessed an increasing
number of pantomimes performed at the fairground theaters and the Comédie-Italienne. However, the
pantomimes performed at the Opéra and at Versailles have been underestimated. In the prologue of
Mondonville’s pastorale‐héroïque Isbé performed at the Opéra in 1742, the personification Amour is
threatened by a newcomer Fashion, who captivated Paris with the “tumultuous pleasures” through
pantomime. Amour, represented by social dances, feels defeated and leaves Paris. The opposition between
pantomime and social dance played out again during the wedding festivities of the Dauphin’s marriage in
1745. In the middle of the War of Austrian Succession, Louis XV wanted to distinguish France by creating an
unprecedented type of spectacle that includes comedy. The emboldened composer Rameau thus designed a
pantomime in his Platée (1745, 1749) that mocked social dance and experimented with this dance pairing
again in Pygmalion (1748). This paper shows how Louis XV’s politics of spectacle complicated Louis XIV’s
politics of dance and provided favorable political conditions for pantomime as the ballet of the
Enlightenment.

Angelina Del Balzo (University of California, Los Angeles)


The Sultan’s Tears: Metatheatricality and Affect in Oriental Tragedy
Until relatively recently, the standard narrative about the eighteenth-century theater was that it witnessed
the demise of tragedy. Despite the modern repertory’s almost exclusive focus on eighteenth-century
comedy, tragedies were among the most popular new plays of the century and the most commonly revived.
Specifically, Oriental tragedies, largely adaptations of Voltaire, were especially popular. Featuring despotic
sultans and Amazonian queens, they depict the foreign rather than the domestic and evoke pathos over
satire. Hume and Smith both argue that sympathy is most easily accomplished between two persons of
similar circumstances, so how does a genre that is predicated on the unfamiliar create the affect that would
allow an audience to sympathize with the tragic heroes and heroines? While tragedy was understood to rely
on identification with the tragic character, it was also theorized that in theater there are two presences with
whom the audience could sympathize: the character and the actor. Theater’s ability to create the “ideal
presence” for sympathetic exchange is then predicated on an awareness of its artificiality, even more
obvious in an oriental tragedy. Oriental settings and characters paradoxically increase the potential for
sympathetic identification with tragic subjects. This paper focuses on Aaron Hill’s The Tragedy of Zara
(1735), one of the most frequently performed plays of the century, and argues that its metatheatrical
metaphors of spectatorship increases the potential for sympathetic exchange in order to, as Hill writes in his
prologue, “teach a languid people how to feel”.

19
Josephine Touma (Art Gallery New South Wales)
Of Momus and Monkeys: Watteau's theatrical arabesques at the Hotel de Nointel
Amongst the vast volume of scholarship on Antoine Watteau, the artist’s painted decoration of a small room
in the Parisian Hôtel de Nointel (c. 1708) has received scant interpretation. Although few of the arabesque
wall panels survive, and only the ceiling remains in situ , these surviving fragments can be reconstituted with
engravings after lost panels to reveal a sophisticated iconographic assembly, dominated by Momus (god of
satire) and Bacchus (god of wine), crowned with a ceiling of anthropomorphic monkeys. This paper examines
the Nointel scheme in light of established and emerging theatrical tropes of the opening decade of the
eighteenth century. Rich in symbols of satire and parody, these playful vignettes indicate Watteau’s specific
interest in the physical and mimetic functions of theatre. I consider the work as a microcosm of the artist’s
broader engagement with contemporary theories and practices of performance and spectatorship.

20
Women Crossing Boundaries

David Garrioch (Monash University)


Negotiating gender boundaries in business: letters of a Parisienne
Marie-Catherine-Renée Darcel was a Parisian businesswoman. From 1769 to 1789 she kept the books of the
Jouy printed cloth manufactory, founded by Christophe-Philippe Oberkampf, and in which her husband was
a partner. In this capacity, she not only tracked income and expenditure but also pursued debtors, lobbied
government ministers, and offered sometimes forceful financial advice to Oberkampf. By the 1780s, partly
thanks to her, the manufactory had grown to be the second-largest enterprise in France.

This was an unusual role for a woman. While it was common for women to play an important role in shop-
keeping families, including in keeping the books, and although some single women and widows managed
significant businesses, Darcel’s role was exceptional. Yet in other respects she was a typical Paris bourgeoise,
with fairly conventional religious and social attitudes. She bore eight children and managed the household.
This paper uses her letters to Oberkampf to ask how, as a woman crossing boundaries, she presented and
negociated her double identity. She systematically portrays herself, even while reporting on financial
matters, as a dutiful wife and mother. This was itself, I shall suggest, one of a number of rhetorical devices
that she used both to strengthen the partnership between her husband and Oberkampf and to influence
business decisions without appearing to overstep the limits imposed by her gender.

Michaela Hill (Monash University)


La Rodigina, Cristina Roccati. An Eighteenth-Century Woman’s Life of Science
Cristina Roccati (1732-1798) was a scientist who lived in the town of Rovigo in the Veneto. As a female
scholar, Roccati was an anomaly by gender in terms of the general history we have of the transmission of
scientific knowledge, but was one of a number of educated women in Italy who were accomplished in the
sciences. The visibility of educated women in Italy in intellectual life was remarked upon by the Grand
Tourists and may now be considered as one of the distinctive features of the Italian Enlightenment.

Still, it was a long way from established customary norms for a young woman of from the provinces to be
educated by a tutor, travel to another region to study, to receive a university degree at the age of 18, to be
civically feted on returning and to spend her life engaged in public teaching and the activities of her home
town Academy and other learned academies. That her subject matter was the new Newtonian physics
makes this all the more unusual.

This paper contributes to our understanding of the participation of women in the development of
Enlightenment knowledge by examining how this woman, who was one of the first to receive a university
degree, was able to pursue the new knowledge within the socially codified roles prescribed for women and
how she negotiated her place.

Emma Gleadhill (Monash University)


Poetical Amusements at a Villa near Bath: Lady Anna Miller’s Poetry Salon
In 1776 Lady Anna Miller (1741-81) of Bath became one of the first English women to publish a travel
account. Lady Miller used her commercial success following the second edition of her Letters from Italy to

21
form a celebrated poetry salon at her villa in Batheaston. At the heart of the salon was an Italian marble urn
bought during Lady Miller’s travels and styled as ‘Tully’s vase’ because it allegedly once belonged to Cicero.
Poems on selected themes were placed in the vase and the winners were given myrtle wreaths in the
tradition of the Academy of Arcadia in Rome. Through her salon Lady Miller offered ‘middling’ women such
as Anna Seward, Jane Bowdler, and Mary Alcock an entry point into the commercial marketplace and she
published seven annual collections of verse under the title Poetical Amusements at a Villa near Bath.
However, Lady Miller’s efforts to prove herself as a public authority on taste also led to derision from the
literary elite and the vase itself became a regular target of satire in London’s newspapers. My paper will
examine how Lady Miller used her Grand Tour souvenirs as performative self-fashioning devices to
transgress boundaries and negotiate a public role for herself unachievable prior to her trip. Nonetheless,
much of Lady Miller’s fame came from her contemporaries utilising the unsuitability of her material show to
question her presumption of a literary reputation. Therefore, as a middling women, the very items that
allowed Lady Miller to achieve commercial success compromised her professional achievement.

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Secularization
It is becoming increasingly clear that, during the enlightenment, the secular and the religious were much
more tightly and complexly entwined than scholars have previously recognised. That is clear from major
surveys like those by Charles Taylor and Marcel Gauchet but also from a number of more local studies.
Indeed, in this recent body of research, the account of the enlightenment, which joins it to a triumphalist
account of secularization, is increasingly under contestation. This panel aims to contribute to this discussion
by thinking about the secular/religion entanglement specifically in relation to English literature. It does so by
offering four papers: Alison Scott considers the textual hybridity of Bacon’s “Of Atheism” in order to argue
that the Essays effect what David Martin has spoken of as a process of driving faith back into the secular
from a new perspective, thereby reconceiving the conditions of belief; Brandon Chua examines the
pressures placed on conventional poetic idioms by the institutionalisation of religious toleration in the wake
of the repeal movements of the late 1680s; Lisa O’Connell examines the relations between sentimentalism
and the Christian virtues in order to argue that sentimentalism can be understood as a vehicle for
the revitalisation of the cardinal virtues; Simon During offers a conspectus which suggests
that “secularisation" itself is perhaps not a useful concept/paradigm for literary history in the period.

Simon During (University of Queensland)


The long eighteenth-century: a period of de-secularisation?
This paper offers a brief account of recent work on secularization, focussing in particular on Hans
Blumenberg, Charles Taylor and Marcel Gauchet’s various contributions. On this basis, it mounts an
argument that the secularization thesis (here thought of broadly as the argument that religion was in retreat
over the enlightenment era) is not useful for thinking about British literature over the long eighteenth
century. It focuses fleetingly on two very different writers to make its case—Swift and Wordsworth—and
indicates why the latter (who writes of course at the period’s end) is indeed a more “religious” or less secular
writer than the former (who writes of course closer to its beginning) despite Swift’s position in the Anglican
Church and contributions as a polemicist on the Church's behalf.

Brandon Chua (University of Queensland)


Roman Restoration and Carthaginian Hospitality: The Poetics of Toleration in Dryden's The Hind
and the Panther
Published in 1687 on the heels of James II’s Declaration for Liberty of Conscience, Dryden’s longest poem,
The Hind and the Panther, has troubled and scandalized readers with its incongruous marriage between
devotional conviction and an irreverent survey of literary history. For readers sensitive to this incongruity,
the conflict between religious argument and poetic allusion has often been understood in terms of Dryden’s
attempts to subordinate doctrinal polemic to an alternative, reunifying authority provided by literary history.
In this domestic embedding of religious argument in the ambiguities of poetic discourse, the poem can then
be understood as part of a larger cultural process of resacralising faith at the level of belief and the elevation
of the individual over the elected nation. In this paper, I propose a reconsideration of the function of literary
“wit” in Dryden’s “sacred writ”. Reading the poem and its preface both alongside and against James’s repeal
movement, this paper suggests that Dryden’s poem offers a critical meditation on the new forms of religious
expression that are both produced and constrained by the court’s attempts to institutionalize religious

23
freedom. Reexamining Dryden’s dialogues with Virgil, Chaucer, Spenser, and Milton, as well as the structural
importance these postures of conversation occupy, this paper will argue for the poem’s investments in
theorising and critiquing the contours of a religious and discursive landscape secured by diversity rather than
conformity.

Alison Scott (University of Queensland)


Meditating on Unbelief: “Of Atheism” and Bacon’s (Post) Secular Thought
There is a long tradition of understanding Francis Bacon as a champion of empiricism and, as if the one leads
inevitably to the other, a father of secularism and thus a key figure in the English enlightenment. At the same
time of course, a counter-tradition exists stressing the “strong religious foundation” of Bacon’s works and his
significant use of Christian imagery. While there is nothing new in refuting the mutual exclusivity of these
approaches and arguing instead that Bacon negotiated a more complex relation between the secular and the
divine, the destabilization of the secularization narrative in which Bacon has traditionally been valorized
following Charles Taylor’s landmark A Secular Age (2007) suggests the need to reconsider Bacon’s
“enlightened” thought once more. Engaging with the literary works and questions of form that are often
overlooked by historians of philosophy, this paper will be concerned with Bacon’s essays and meditations,
and specifically with the relation between the two and across the secular-religious divide. Taking “Of
Atheism” – developed through multiple editions of the Essays and originating in an early religious meditation
– as my primary focus, I will argue that the work’s unusual textual evolution, specifically its transformation
from “religious meditation” into the more consciously secular reflective form of the “essay,” illuminates how
literary form becomes a tool with which to reconceive the conditions of belief in what we might now call
post-secular terms.

Lisa O’Connell (University of Queensland)


Sentimentalism: The Secularization of Virtue?
Recent work by scholars like Judith Butler and Simon Critchley posits a new cultural domain that is
simultaneously religious and secular. Drawing on the fiction of Samuel Richardson and Laurence Sterne, this
paper examines sentimentalism in this light, which we can call “post-secular,” or better (given the
ambiguities of the concept of post-secularity) “a-secular.” By focusing on sentimentalism as an ethical
movement that valorized two specific practices of life—charity and chastity—it aims to show
that sentimentalism retained Christian qualities and structures that it, however, radically transmuted and
displaced. In particular, it argues that sentimental fiction imaginatively negotiated the difficulties of
practicing Christian virtue in a rapidly changing, commercial society heading into what Charles Taylor has
recently called the “immanent frame.” Its heroes and heroines are best understood as virtuous Christians
beset by new temptations, misunderstandings, seductions, which generally, in the end, overcome them. In
this light, sentimentalism might therefore also be defined as a practice of Christian virtue without
teleological ends or rewards. The rewards of virtue indeed, would appear to become virtual and immanent:
available in the act of reading itself. And this is to merge religion with literature so that together they enter
the logic of a-secularity.

24
Mobilizing Ideas
This panel investigates images and objects as a means for inscribing and mobilizing ideas across societies and
cultures during the long eighteenth century. Whether visual, textual or architectural, the arts serve as a
medium through which ideas may be constructed and conveyed. Thanks to dramatic developments in
scientific knowledge, technologies of production, economic systems, and global movement and
communication, the ways in which people interacted with, imagined and recorded themselves and others
expanded and evolved markedly during the long eighteenth century. Visual and material culture was central
to this process, as modes of engagement with the physical and represented world evolved as well. Prints,
books, textiles and decorative objects, in turn, figured prominently in the movement of information and
ideas within and across cultures, as visual or written material often served as metonymic substitutes or
performative contexts for a foreign other.

This panel includes papers that explore the movement of ideas within and across societies and cultures as
expressed through visual and material culture, broadly conceived. Possible themes include (but are by no
means limited to):

 Sociability and/or politics of material culture or the built environment


 Dissemination of ideas across social strata/changing of viewing publics through printing
 Intersections of scientific techniques and artistic method, such as the visualization of the landscape
through cartography/chorography
 Changing physical, conceptual or intellectual interactions with the arts, architecture or landscape.
 Transcultural aesthetics, such as in palace/garden design or representation
 The role of objects and images in diplomatic exchange

Robert Wellington (Australian National University)/Stephen Whiteman (University of Sydney)


Mobile landscapes: The transcultural aesthetics of palace views in France and Qing China
When Louis XIV sent Jesuit missionaries to the Kangxi Emperor in China in 1687 he provided them with
multiple copies of prints to present as ambassadorial gifts. One of these missionaries, Joachim Bouvet, who
found particular success at the Imperial court, later returned to France with a number of Chinese books as
presents from Kangxi to Louis XIV. This gesture was then reciprocated by the French King who supplied
Bouvet with fourteen richly-bound volumes of the prints to give to the Emperor on his return to China. The
prints presented to Kangxi included views of French towns, royal palaces and gardens. A study of these
prints is essential for providing a more nuanced and problematized account of the reception of this imagery
in China, away from the typical impact and response model often suggested when evidence of ‘Western’
style is found in Eastern designs.

Our investigation will focus on the Thirty-six Views of Bishu Shangzhuang (c.1714) engraved by the Italian
Jesuit Matteo Ripa with the assistance of local artists, in response to the Kangxi Emperor’s request to have
his new palace documented with Western-style prints. This volume is the first to document a Chinese royal
palace and its gardens from multiple sites and perspectives with a combination of text and image, and the
striking similarity between this album and the views of French palaces gifted to Kangxi strongly suggests
iconographic and conceptual borrowings from the French precedent. This paper will facilitate a more

25
nuanced understanding of cross-cultural artistic exchange developing out of diplomatic gifts between Louis
XIV and the Kangxi Emperor.

Jennifer Ferng (University of Sydney)


Les machines infernales: Naval architecture in the age of mobility
From Algiers (1683) to Saint-Malo (1758), continental powers waged war over coastlines that helped to
define national boundaries. At the heart of these skirmishes lay the galiote à bombe, a maritime vessel that
embodied a premodern strategy of terror on the oceans. Used for shelling coastal towns, the careful
construction of this vessel focused on the potential of design to dismantle bulwarks and walled cities.
Eighteenth-century naval architecture functioned as a system of itinerant combat, allowing for the agile
maneuvering of artillery across the Atlantic and Mediterranean. With mortars mounted near the bow, the
bomb ketch with double masts was depicted in early engravings by Captain Henri Sbonski de Passebon.
Americans later borrowed two vessels from the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in the fighting against Tripoli
(1804).

Combining the history of architecture with the history of technology, this paper examines the invention and
use of the galiote à bombe in the context of what I call “mobile fortifications.” In light of Pierre Bouguer’s
1746 treatise on ship design, the transmission of technological advancements and precise positioning of
architectural elements redefined how mobility became embodied within naval geometry. French, British,
and American administrators and builders appropriated and altered the original Dutch design of the galjoot
to suit their own purposes. More importantly, with the demise of static edifices such as fortresses, such
naval vessels articulated a type of architecture designed for portable modes of engagement that came to
define prevailing military strategies.

Adrian Jones (La Trobe University)


Subversive representations of Ottoman-Moldavian Sovereignty in the era preceding Prince
Dimitrie Cantemir’s assumption to power in 1710-11
Too many studies of the Enlightenment overlook eastern Europe. This paper focusses on Moldavia: the
eastern region of what is now Romania. The last decades of the seventeenth century and the first decades of
the eighteenth-century witnessed an extraordinary cultural revival among elites in the Romanian Orthodox
principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia (known to the Ottomans as Eflak and Buğdan respectively). Dimitrie
Cantemir (1673-1723) was one of the most extraordinary figures of the Enlightenment. Cantemir was a
Moldavian Ottomanist, musicologist, theorist and satirist of politics and religion, as well as once-and future
Moldavian prince (1693, 1710-11) and a Russian Senator (1721), a future planning fellow of the Academies
of Sciences in St Petersburg (1725) and an established member of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin (1718).
His geography of Moldavia (written in Latin) and his Ottoman history (written in Latin and Russian, using
sources in Greek, Osmanlıca, Farsi and Arabic) were soon published and lauded in London, Paris and Berlin.
This paper considers his “hieroglyphic history (Istoria ieroglifică)” written in Romanian in Ottoman
Constantinople in 1703-05, two-thirds of the way through his two decades there as a well connected music-
notating and -jamming hostage cadet-prince. The Istoria ieroglifică is a satire of Ottoman and Moldavian-
Wallachian court intrigue written by the young Prince while he was studying at the Great School of the
Ecumenical Patriarchate in the Fener in Constantinople when he was a hostage for his dimmer brother,

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Antioh, then sovereign (hospodar) of Moldavia (1705-07) and for his wily and illiterate father, Konstantin,
himself a former hospodar of Moldavia (1685-93).

Bianca Maria Rinaldi (University of Camerino)


Transplanting Gardens. The Parks of Maximilian of Habsburg in Trieste and Mexico City
During the long 18th century, garden design played a major role in the ideological construction of the
Habsburgs’ multinational empire. The park of Schönbrunn in Vienna, founded in the 1690s, for example,
expressed both strategies of political representation and of legitimization. While the park’s general layout
followed the convention of the French style, the statuary that decorated the parterre, which dates to the
1770s, exemplified the Habsburgs’ dynastic concept rooted in the idea of a perpetual Roman empire.

The proposed paper will discuss a late chapter in that history garden design, one that extends across the
“late Early Modern” of the long 18th century. It will consider two landscapes designed by Maximilian of
Habsburg (1832–67): the park of Miramare, his residence in Trieste, on the Adriatic coast, begun in 1856,
and the park of Chapultepec, in Mexico City, developed from 1864, when Maximilian became First Emperor
of Mexico.

Highlighting the crucial semantic function of both parks in supporting Maximilian’s ideological agenda, the
paper will examine Miramare and Chapultepec as transcultural gardens.

In Maximilian’s attempt of representing the Habsburgs’ imperial power on the Adriatic coast, the complex of
Miramare evoked a connection between the Germanic and the ancient Mediterranean culture: it was built
on the site of a Roman villa and its design was inspired by Karl Friedrick Schinkel’ projects. The great
parterre, the main feature of the garden, however, anticipated Maximilian’s political role as future emperor
of Mexico. It was designed in the Gardenesque style and displayed a collection of plants from Central and
South America, thus combining the dominating European models with an admiration for the American
landscape.

When Maximilian reached Mexico City, in 1864, he resided in the Chapultepec Castle at the top of
Chapultepec Hill, a site where the first Aztecs arriving in the Valley of Mexico settled. He designed there a
park in the European fashion, with regular parterres, and connected the palace to the city with a boulevard
in the Parisian style. To legitimize his role as emperor, Maximilian used a range of cultural references that
mixed the history of the site with European culture and garden aesthetics.

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Women, Biography and History
Mary Casey (Casey & Lowe, Archaeology & Heritage/University of Sydney)
Elizabeth Macquarie (née) Campbell - A Governor’s wife and a Designing Woman
The biography of Elizabeth Macquarie is hampered if we only concentrate on her words, as so few of them
survive, or the words of others, as they could be deceptive. To understand Mrs Macquarie we need to place
her within the context of the cultural landscapes of Scotland and how these were expressed in colonial New
South Wales (1810-1820). By interrogating some of the surviving documents, her abilities and interests can
be acknowledged and explored to locate her as a key figure in the remaking of the landscapes of Sydney and
Parramatta. Elizabeth, as patron, was a central figure, with her husband the governor, and they were
assisted by others. The remaking of these landscapes and the choice of building styles were for many
reasons, but importantly as a testimony of national identity, a means of making New South Wales ‘British’,
an expression of a older past, a ‘patina’ of age to British settlement which it was barely beginning at the
edge of wilderness. By exploring Elizabeth’s biography, through documents, paintings, maps and plans,
archaeological places, architectural styles, the sublime and the picturesque, new layers of her life are
revealed which challenge received interpretations of her as the governor’s ‘amanuensis’. Elizabeth, in
partnership with her husband the governor, remade the landscapes of colonial Sydney and Parramatta, and
they survive as some of our most significant cultural places.

Karen Green (University of Melbourne)


Catharine Macaulay’s French Connections
While in prison Jeanne-Marie Roland expressed the wish that she might have written a history that would
have made her the Tacitus, or more modestly, the Catharine Macaulay of her country. It is clear that she had
earlier read and admired a borrowed copy of Macaulay’s republican history. Hints such as this suggest that
Macaulay’s work was known in France before the revolution, although a French translation of her History
was not published until 1791-1792. Although claims have been made concerning Macaulay’s influence in
France, so far evidence for the nature and extent of that influence has remained scant. In this paper I both
discuss the way in which Macaulay’s history was presented, during the crucial period of the Revolution when
the translation appeared, and explore the fragmentary evidence that exists for Macaulay’s relationships with
French radicals and others before the Revolution. In particular, that relating to her friendship with Jacques-
Pierre Brissot, and the letters she received from French correspondents, such as Joseph Saige and Mme de
Chaumont, Benjamin Franklin’s hostess.

Jacqui Grainger (University of Sydney)


A comparative look at Matilda Betham’s Biographical Dictionary of the Celebrated Women
(1804) and Mary Hays’ Female Biography (1803)
During the period 2012-2013 I was one of the army of editors recruited by Dr Gina Luria Walker, The New
School, New York, for the Pickering and Chatto Chawton House Library edition of Female Biography. This
experience has made me wonder about curating an exhibition using the collections in Rare Books and Special
Collections at the University of Sydney that would illustrate Female Biography – how many of these women
are in the collection? In looking for the first woman mentioned, Abassa, my search bought up Matilda
Betham’s book published so soon after Hay’s. In my paper I propose to compare Betham’s ‘digested
compilation’ (from her preface) with Hays’ and see if they present similar roll calls of remarkable women, or

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whether, in fact there are some differences between the choices they make and how significant these may
be.

Betham was the well-read, poorly educated, artistic daughter of a Church of England clergyman. Anna
Gilchrist (2004) states that: ‘Family circumstances and poverty affected Betham’s mental health’. She was
admitted to an insane asylum in 1819 and on her release hid from her family because she feared they would
return her to an asylum. Hays came from a family of rational dissenters and was a member of radical circles.
She was especially close to Mary Wollstonecraft and shared her views on education for women. She did not
attend her funeral because William Godwin has arranged an Anglican service. Both Betham and Hays were
unconventional women and in each of these books set about the improve the status of women in society.

Shane Greentree
Writing Against Sophie: Mary Hays’ Female Biography as Enlightenment Feminist Critique of Jean
Jacques Rousseau’s Emile
Mary Hays’ Female Biography (1803) is now regarded as a highly significant example of collective biography,
and a landmark text in women’s history writing. Scholarly debate continues on whether this epic text is a
continuation of Enlightenment feminism or a retreat from 1790s radicalism into early nineteenth century
domesticity. In this paper I wish to re-examine this question and argue for Female Biography as continuous
with 1790s feminist thought by reading it as a response to Jean Jacques Rousseau’s Emile (1763). Rousseau’s
restrictive ideal of female education was widely repudiated by 1790s feminist writers, and it is possible to
read Hays’ work in this light as also written in opposition to Rousseau, and to see her biographies as
presenting an almost entirely opposed view of the proper education of women. To this end, I examine Hays’
innovative depiction of childhood education, and the frequent use she makes of carefully cataloguing her
subjects’ reading and intellectual development. In contrast to Rousseau she argues for the importance of
rational education for women to highlight their true potential and overcome sexual prejudice. To further
examine this contrast I make special reference to ‘Catherine Macaulay Graham’, an original biography that is
among the most important statements of Hays’ rationalist feminism. Through reading the upbringing of the
republican historian as represented by Hays, Macaulay emerges as an example of a female subject who
prospered by consciously refusing a Rousseauian childhood, an apt symbol of Hays’ broader vision.

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Political Economy & Science

Fabio D’Angelo (University of Pisa)


Travel training and scientific sociability in the Ville Lumière (1799-1806)
In the eighteenth century the European intellectual community was a cosmopolitan republic that knew no
boundaries and hierarchies, in which men and the ideas flowed freely. Paris in the eighteenth century was
the center of the “République des Lettres” and the prestige of the French capital also derived from the
activity of great minds, scientific institutes and academies. This explains the large presence of European
“savants” who came to Paris in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.

Starting from some unpublished stories and experiences of scientists, the paper will propose a consideration
on the importance of travel and visit in Paris, the cradle of the Enlightenment, as opportunity necessary to
the development of human and professional experience, that is essential for the creation of a network of
relationships between nations.

Germano Maifreda (University of Milan)


Scientific Knowledge and Political Economy in the Lombard Enlightenment
The analysis of relations established between the evolution of the western economic knowledge and the
advent of modern scientific method is today one of the main areas of interest for the studies by historians of
economic culture and scolarship. In this context, poorly – depth – unlike what happened with reference to
the Neapolitan Enlightenment movement – are the research concerning scientific and methodological
aspects of economic ideas produced in the late eighteenth century Lombardy, as well as their teaching and
their practical applications within the framework of the Teresian and Josephan reforms.

It is well-­­known that the intellectual Lombard environment of the eighteenth century had a major role in
the maturation of the Political Economy as we know it today. It has also been rightly pointed out that the
relationship between economic knowledge and mathematical method within the «Milanese School» were
characterized by great originality.

The paper I propose will show that the analysis and projects of the leading exponents of the Lombard
Enlightenment were thoroughly permeated by the reception and admiration towards the scientific method
which had been consolidated in the ongoing dialogue between different areas of Europe in the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries. The reading of some places of the learned periodical Il Caffé, in particular, allows
us to capture with immediate evidence the admiration of the Lombard illuministi for the tradition of
mathematics, physics, astronomy and, more broadly, philosophical and scientific ideas of Galileo, Bacon,
Newton, Harvey, Petty and many other protagonists of the «Scientific Revolution».

As, however, I shall try to demonstrate, the admiration of the leading exponents of the Lombard
Enlightenment for the main methodological and scientific innovations of the previous decades did not
become sterile acceptance of easy quantitative schematizations, nor trivial establishment of mechanistic
readings and interpretations of the economic and social systems. In my opinion, it was, indeed, the very
mature epistemological distinction between theories and objects of study of the natural sciences on the one
hand, and the social and ecomomic science on the other, to mark the intellectual originality of the Lombard
Enlightenment. Here, in fact, the natural-­­scientific method was not applied to the social sciences with the

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same uncritical enthusiasm that, in same era, characterized the fledgling science of political economy in
other areas of the European continent.

Jessica Hamel-Akré (University of Montreal)


Demonic Dietetics: Exploring Hysterical Appetites Through Eighteenth-Century Religious and
Medical Discourses of Corporeal Impurity
During the rise of eighteenth century medicine, practitioners often claimed to use empirical thinking as a
discourse that confronted religious explanations of health and illness. Despite this, many critics have argued
that moral judgments continued to underline the practices of Enlightenment physicians, specifically
concerning hysterical women. While explanations may have differed between a clergy man and a medical
man, both would have framed the female body in a window of libidinous disorder and animal savageness,
hence as a site to be cleansed and controlled. This paper thus aims to explore the use of food restriction as a
tool of purification in order to cure hysteria. Through a comparison of George Cheyne's dietetic medicine
(1733) and Hannah Allen's personal treatise of religious melancholy (1638), I will consider food restriction as
a “cure” formed by dualistic conflicts that persist in Enlightenment medicine, carried over from previous
Christian ideals of feminine impurity. Feminine desire seen through conversations of hunger and appetite is,
I argue, precisely that which food restriction covertly seeks to extinguish. As eating is the barrier through
which outer becomes inner, it testifies to the body's desires. But without limits, and because eighteenth
century notions posited the female body as intrinsically defective and desirous, the woman who eats risks
consuming the outer world-an idea I aim to highlight as a masculine fear that conducts the reflex to subdue
women's appetites. Hunger will therefore be explored as an expression of unruly feminine desire, the
menacing unpredictability born from wandering “animal” wombs.

Alexandra Ortolja-Baird (European University Institute)


Of Man and Beast: Cesare Beccaria and the Milanese Veterinary School – Illustrating the
Expediency of Science for Public Utility
2014 marks the 250th anniversary of Cesare Beccaria’s On Crimes and Punishments: an Enlightenment
treatise in vitriolic condemnation of torture and the death penalty. Beccaria’s provocative statements were
to stimulate both vehement criticism and mass adulation throughout Europe; his enlightened wisdom
reaching far into the periphery to Catherine the Great’s Russia and Thomas Jefferson’s United States.

Yet, though the impact of On Crimes and Punishments both in 1764 and throughout the centuries as it
became a becon of humanitarian thinking, is undeniable, this success has blinded the historical discipline to
the greater subtleties of Beccaria’s writings. Too often treated retrospectively by intellectual historians, keen
to illustrate the intellectual legacy traceable back to Beccaria’s seminal treatise, this case is symptomatic of
wider problems of intellectual history and its methodologies. Such sclerosis has left Beccaria’s contribution
to alternative Enlightenment discourses significantly undervalued, prompting this paper to shift focus from
reception histories to contextual readings.

Drawing attention to the pervasive scientific climate in eighteenth century Italy and the popularisation of
scientific methodologies within a broader intellectual milieu, it will be argued that Beccaria in his role as
state administrator, recognised the value of “science” for the advancement of public utility. Using state
documents from his time in office, as well as personal correspondence pertaining to the creation of Milan’s

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Veterinary School, this paper will illustrate that Beccaria, “father of modern criminology”, engaged with
discourses much-detached from the law; discourses of Newtonianism, utility, public happiness and
sensationalist epistemology. Overall, this paper will claim that Beccaria’s adoption of vocabulary,
understandings, and methods, derived from the practical sciences and the cultural transfers of scientific
methodologies into Italy, was part of a wider trend by those advocating social and institutional reform.

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History of Emotions

David Burchell (University of Western Sydney)


Enthusiasm: The Emergence and Transformation of a Religio-Politico-Emotional Concept in the
Eighteenth Century
From the latter 17th century the notion of ‘enthusiasm’ denoted the self-conviction that the believer is
occupied or inspired by the holy spirit – a spirit which brings the person closer to God, and which may in
extreme cases involve the believer in becoming God’s chosen instrument of speech. In the mid-18th century
‘enthusiasm’ came particularly to be associated with the Methodist movement – and particularly with its
public assemblies, which sometimes involved divine manifestations, believers falling down and speaking in
tongues. Wesley’s movement ushered in a vigorous debate over the veracity of inward religious experience,
understood as a source of religious truth (on the one hand) or as a kind of psychological malady, on the
other.

David Hume’s 1742 essay ‘Of Superstition and Enthusiasm’ transformed this debate by introducing a
deliberate comparison between enthusiasm’s religious character (almost wholly negative) and its political
effects (paradoxically positive, since enthusiasm encouraged a fierce attachment to liberty). From Hume
onwards there emerges a new current in the debate on enthusiasm, which increasingly links the traits
associated with religious enthusiasts with the characters, dispositions and convictions of political ‘zealots’
and extremists of different kinds. This current arguably reaches its zenith around the years of the French
Revolution, and particularly involves the association of French Revolutionary leaders (and their British
supporters) with a new species of specifically political enthusiasm – which, while being political, still retain
key emotional features of the older religious variety: the conviction that Providence has been made manifest
through one’s own person. This paper traces the emergence of this new combined religio-politico-emotional
concept of enthusiasm over the middle-latter eighteenth century.

Bronwyn Reddan (University of Melbourne)


Salon culture, modernity and the aesthetic of pleasure in French fairy tales, 1690-1709
At the end of the seventeenth century, a new literary genre emerged from the context of what Allison
Stedman has described as the “textually mediated social sphere” of Parisian salon culture. Simultaneously a
modern model of conversational eloquence and a nostalgic reworking of medieval codes of chivalry and
courtly love, the literary fairy tale of the 1690s was framed by its female authors as a pleasurable
divertissement written for their own amusement and that of their salonnière contemporaries. This framing,
which appears in the letters, prefaces and dedications which accompanied the publication of tales by Marie-
Jeanne Lhéritier de Villandon, Henriette-Julie de Castelnau, Comtesse de Murat and Catherine Durand, has
been interpreted as a defence of the fairy tale genre from attacks by contemporary critics and an aesthetic
strategy emphasising the artistic innovation of its modern authors. This paper argues that the aesthetic of
frivolity identified by Christine Jones also functions to disguise the subversive politics of love and marriage
encoded in the tales written by Lhéritier, Murat and Durand. This argument interprets their prefatory texts
and dedicatory epistles as a series of socio-literary interactions by a literary community engaged in an
ambitious project: the articulation of the relationship between love and reason and the development of a
set of emotion scripts for the performance of a reasonable, virtuous love.

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Aleksondra Hultquist (University of Melbourne)
From Pleasure to Power: The Passion of Love in Delarivier Manley’s The Fair Hypocrite
Although Delarivier Manley’s work has begun to garner much-deserved attention in the last two decades,
The Power of Love in Seven Novels (1720) remains surprisingly underexplored. Because it is an adaptation,
tales extracted predominantly from William Painter’s 1566 The Palace of Pleasure, the collection is often
dismissed. Ros Ballaster, for example, has pointed out that Manley used the trope of the rediscovered,
translated, adapted text in her political fictions, such as The New Atalantis, in order to both “conceal and
signify political intent” (Seductive Forms, 153). For Ballaster and many other critics such as Toni Bowers and
Rachel Carnell, The Power of Love lacks textual complexities and therefore integrity because the source
material is borrowed rather than Manley’s own. Recent adaptation critics like Linda Hutcheon, however,
have shown that adaptations should be taken seriously as individual works. In The Power of Love, Manley
adapts an actual translated, rediscovered, and reconstructed source to capitalize on its textual ambiguity.
Adaptation allows her to convert Painter’s narrative into a sophisticated statement about the importance of
the passion of love to individual self-discovery as well as to political stability. While the passion of love is
something to avoid in Painter’s version, Manley’s adaptation converts it into something to correctly embrace
and understand.

Classical through Early Modern conceptions of the passions understood emotions to be internal movements
of the soul that should be harnessed and controlled for the benefit of public and social structures: thus for
Aristotle, anger should be exploited for political and military gain; for Hobbes, fear was the impetus for
organized government. The passion of love was discussed—in a nearly compulsive manner—in the female-
authored, early novels of the late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth centuries. Ballaster and Bowers have
usefully argued that the politics of seduction in such works acts as a metaphor for political disaffection, but
adaptation theory allows a different view of Manley’s technique and ideological purpose. As I argue,
Manley’s late work emphasizes the importance of romantic love in and of itself, not as metaphor for political
conflict, but as a significant passion for the individual. Amatory authors, including Manley, are tolerant of
protagonists who follow their passions, especially when they pursue romantic love. In fact, the evidence
suggests that for the protagonists of early eighteenth-century fiction, pursuing passionate love is necessary
to achieve maturity.

In this paper, I examine the use of the passion of love in The Fair Hypocrite against its construction in
Painter’s “The Forty-Fifth Novell. The Duchesse of Savoie.” In Painter’s version the Duchess’s inability to
control her desire for a lover causes political disruption for the Dukedom, but Manley’s version is
sympathetic to her protagonist. Manley suggests that successful pursuit and achievement of the right
romantic love pairing is necessary for individual self-actualization as well as political stability. The lack of
understanding of love causes disruption, where the full understanding and acceptance of passionate love
creates political stability. When Manley adapts the pleasures of love in to the power of love, she
demonstrates this passion is not something to avoid, but something to correctly embrace and understand.

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Cultural Meaning of Plants and Vegetation

Ekaterina Heath (University of Sydney)


Seeds and plants as diplomatic gifts for the Russian empress Maria Fedorovna
This paper will argue that seeds and plants played an important role in diplomatic relationships between
Russia and various European countries in the latter portion of the long 18th century. The paper will argue
that this was due to Russian empress Maria Fedorovna’s interest in botany and her perceived power and
influence in Russian politics. The rarity and economic potential of the plants that Russia received through
diplomatic gifts during this period was unprecedented. For example, in 1795 King George III planned to send
the breadfruit tree to Russia, a plant that was crucially important for its colonial economy. This was a
significant gesture because during this time there were only four specimens of this plant in England, two of
which died and one sent to Sierra Leone. The preciousness of this plant for the British economy and the
desire to prevent other countries from getting access to it highlights the importance with which George III
treated friendly relationships with Russia.

The paper will analyse diplomatic gifts of plants from the Netherlands, Turkey, and England. It will argue that
these gifts went beyond the ideas of rarity and preciousness to be used as vessels for promotion of the
sender’s country, flattering Maria Fedorovna and improving Russian life. The paper will decipher the hidden
messages behind the inclusion of certain plants into the consignments so as to convey different meanings for
Maria Fedorovna, a person who knew botany and geography very well.

The paper will also explore some of the botanical innovations developed during this time including the ways
to preserve the plants during their long transit to Russia as well as insights into how the plants were used in
Russia. This will give important information about the significance of those gifts for the Russian economy and
for botany in general.

Alexandra Hankinson (University of Sydney)


"Intricate Divarications": The Tangled World of Eighteenth-Century Vegetation
In his 1800 treatise Phytologia; or the Philosophy of Agriculture and Gardening, Erasmus Darwin observed
that “every bud of a tree is an individual being” and “a tree therefore is a family or swarm of individual
plants, like the polypus, with its young growing out of its sides, or like the branching cells of the coral-insect.”
Part of an active, transnational scientific debate on the laws of vegetable life, this curious remark on the
compound physiology of trees expresses a number of ideas central to the eighteenth-century understanding
of generation and growth. By the 1790s, figurations and theories of plant development were being shaped in
important ways by emergent studies in embryology. Similarly, new discoveries regarding the clustered
arrangement of ‘animal-flowers’, or anemones and corals, and their mode of reproducing by budding and
dividing, were complicating the status of individuals and collectives in nature, once again blurring the line
where one living thing ended and another began.

Taking into account representations of mosses, vines, buds, and creepers, this paper will explore some of the
ways in which the tangled state of plant morphology at the end of the eighteenth century was being
imagined – particularly in two remarkably influential and verdant texts of 1791, William Bartram’s Travels
and Erasmus Darwin’s The Botanic Garden. Through diverse rhetorical means, most boldly in Darwin’s case
through tropes of love, leaning, and binding, these texts make the idea of vegetable networks and

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assemblages visible, and in doing so suggest how vitality might overflow its boundaries, or repose in hybrid
forms.

Jennifer Jones-O'Neill (Federation University)


Flowers as an agent of universal Enlightenment
During the long eighteenth century the pursuit of scientific discovery in the cause of the ‘enlightenment’ was
able to traverse borders and ignore nationalistic interests even at times of war and international tensions.
The interest in the wonderfully exotic flora of Australia during the early years of discovery and white
settlement is a case in point. This paper addresses the role of the botanical illustrations of the period, their
publication, translation and distribution as evidence of the sharing and dissemination of knowledge that
would persist under the aegis of the enlightenment in spite of the tensions in international affairs.

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Afterlives of the Eighteenth Century

AnnMarie Brennan (University of Melbourne)


From 'Line of Beauty' to B-Spline: Applying Hogarth’s Analysis of Beauty to Contemporary
Architecture.
While the discipline of architecture historically possessed means to determine beauty in form, such as the
application of classical proportions and the Golden Section, Modern Architecture disposed of beauty as a
worthy objective along with these barometers of good form. This suited the architectural discipline at the
time, however today’s digitally-derived architecture is increasingly referred to as being “sculptural.” This
shift from the square, sleek boxes of Modernism, to the historical pastiche of Post-Modern architecture, to
the shards of Deconstructive Architecture has left a lacunae in the way in which contemporary architectural
form can be evaluated and critiqued. Simply put, how can we begin to assess the success or failure of
complex curved surfaces and forms in contemporary architecture?

In response to this question, this paper proposes that the canonical text of early art historians should be
revisited for this task of appraising the beauty of digital, sculptural form in architecture. Specifically, this
paper revisits the 1753 text, The Analysis of Beauty. Written with a view of fixing the fluctuating Ideas of
Taste, by the English painter and printmaker William Hogarth. Like most digital architecture today, his
approach emphasized the geometry of topological, shell-like surfaces which formed volumetric bodies. In
this book, Hogarth attempted to define beauty in nature, and distill this concept into what he termed as the
‘line of beauty.’ This method of defining beauty will be explored as a means to re-frame and analyze the
curved digital surfaces in contemporary architecture.

Anthony Cordingley (Université Paris VIII - Vincennes-Saint-Denis)


From Enlightenment to Modernist Transnationalisms: The case of Samuel Beckett
This paper will compare transnational dimensions in Enlightenment and Modernist authors, centring upon
the post-Enlightenment trajectory in Samuel Beckett’s writing. As one of the most intensively studied literary
authors on the planet, Beckett’s uniqueness derives from his profound but subversive dialogue with the
literary traditions of the two languages in which he composed, English and French. Although scholars have
previously explored his affinity with virtually every major author in English, Beckett’s knowledge of the
French canon remains under-appreciated and his engagement with authors of the French Enlightenment
virtually unknown. Some critics have sensed his intimacy with Voltaire (Ludlow 1978), Rousseau (Loevlie
2003), Diderot (Hayward 1975, Neumann 1983, Klein 1987-88) and Sade (Weller 2008, 2009, 2010). However
in late 2013, with the publication of Samuel Beckett’s Library (Nixon and Van Hulle, 2013), a catalogue of the
contents of Beckett’s library at the time of his death, the depth of his reading in the French Enlightenment
may be reassessed. Building on my work on Beckett’s creative transformation of French seventeenth-century
philosophy, I will explore how Beckett instigated a dialogue with eighteenth-century French philosophical
and literary authors when composing in French. I will demonstrate how self-translating such material from
French into English offered him, furthermore, the ability to reposition himself with respect to the English
canon. Beckett will be shown to use intertextuality to situate his late-Modernist aesthetic with respect to
those Enlightenment authors whose transnational dimensions attract his attention – from canonical to more
idiosyncratic figures, such as Antoine Hamilton, who was like Beckett an exiled Irishman who composed in
French. The heritage of this aspect of the Enlightenment is, I argue, felt in Beckett’s development of a

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bilingual method of composition which counteracts the building of national literatures that intensified during
the nineteenth century.

Jo Russell-Clarke (University of Adelaide)


Valuing the Teaching of Art: Rediscoveries of 18th century Provocations in Making the Visible an
Idea
Richard Payne Knight’s The Landscape, A Didactic Poem (2nd ed. 1795) is a heavily annotated composition of
rhyming couplets with introductory ‘advertisement’ and postscript. It was published at the height of contests
surrounding the merits, definition and agendas of Beautiful, Picturesque and Sublime landscape design and
appreciation.

Noting that of the ‘traditional formulations of the uses of the work of art’ – to teach, to move, to delight –
the first has been ‘eclipsed from contemporary criticism and theory’, Fredric Jameson (1990) has argued a
revival of its pedagogical function.

The Age of Enlightenment was also the Age of Revolution and of Taste. Intellectual enquiry was
contextualised in volatile ongoing and overlapping political and artistic milieus that generated popular and
public debates. Knight’s work offers lost insights into the role and responsibility of the art of landscape
design in particular to provide illuminating provocations. Far from appealing to an apolitical or
anti­intellectual art, Knight begs a higher plane for debate, deriding easy party­political, nationalist and other
factional labelling of motives. Similarly, Jameson’s ‘cognitive art need not raise any of the old fears about the
contamination of the aesthetic by propaganda or the instrumentalization of cultural play’. Knight and
Jameson are argued to share similar urgent regard for art’s capacity to teach. They discuss the sorts of
lessons that may be learnt and critique the complex contests of their contemporaries. Exposing fashions of
commercialised correct practice and equally saleable escapist immersions, they value the creative rigor of
finding ideas in the visible.

Knight, Richard Payne (2nd ed. 1795) The Landscape, A Didactic Poem in Three Books addressed to Uvedale Price Esq. Printed by W.
Bulmer & Co. : sold by G. Nicol

Jameson, Fredric (1990) ‘Cognitive Mapping’ in Nelson, C. and Grossberg, L. (ed.s) Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture,
University of Illinois Press

38
Political Economy

Constantine Vassiliou (University of Toronto)


Commonwealth Merchants and Bourbon Aristocrats: The Balance between Commerce and Virtue in
Harrington and Montesquieu's Political Thought
In Book 29.19 of The Spirit of the Laws Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu situates James
Harrington among the utopian thinkers in the history of political thought. According to Montesquieu,
Harrington attempts to establish the best regime beyond human realization rather than the most practical
regime in The Commonwealth of Oceana. More specifically, Montesquieu doubted the possibility of
modeling a modern commonwealth after ancient republican principles. I argue that despite Montesquieu's
sympathies for the republican ethos advanced by Harrington and his republican counterparts, new social
historical circumstances meant he had to reject the English Commonwealth project. Harrington too
ambitiously held that the new nobility, which slowly emerged following Henry VII's assault on the feudal
peerage over 150 years earlier, could participate in financial capitalism while sustaining the martial virtues,
and providing sufficient leadership in the Commonwealth's senate. For Montesquieu, this vision was too
ambitious and dangerous in an 18th century postcommercial revolution context and had to be dismissed.
Whereas Harrington believed in a reconciliation of commerce and what he calls 'ancient prudence',
Montesquieu held that prevailing commercial circumstances commanded an alternative basis for moral
action. This paper compares Harrington and Montesquieu on commerce and religion to further illuminate
Montesquieu's own stance on questions concerning republican virtue in the 18th century.

Paul Oslington (Alphacrucis College, Australian Catholic University/University of Divinity,


Melbourne)
Anglican Social Thought and the Formation of Political Economy in Britain: Joseph Butler, Josiah
Tucker, William Paley and Edmund Burke
The story of political economy is often told as beginning with Adam Smith and his Scottish Enlightenment
friends, then migrating to England where it took shape as a discipline in the early 19th century. This story
neglects the important role of 18th century Anglican thinking about the evolving market economy. Butler’s
moral philosophy provided a crucial piece of the puzzle for political economy about the relationship between
self-interest and social order, a piece which Adam Smith is lauded for among contemporary economists.
Josiah Tucker developed Butler’s philosophy into a comprehensive and influential vision of the role of
markets and government. We know his work was admired by Hume and Smith. Paley’s theological
utilitarianism and economic thought (including a sophisticated model of growth and income distribution)
remained an important in Britain well into the 18th century. Burke, though his economics analytically light,
was important in securing the influence of the new way of thinking about markets of government. What
were the connections between Anglican theology and 18th century thinking about economics? Would
political economy have emerged in late 18th century England if Adam Smith (a sickly child) had not survived
childhood, and if so how would its theoretical structure and political influence been different?

39
Christine Zabel (University of Duisburg-Essen)
Dealing with Uncertainty: Speculating on the Future in the Age of Enlightenment
Whereas the term “speculation” is most often used nowadays to describe the attempt to make profit out of
price-fluctuations, speculation in the Age of Enlightenment had a much broader sense. According to
Immanuel Kant’s Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Spekulation was a mode of thinking that went beyond empirical
knowledge, in order to enquire about the nature and conditions of existence (Dasein). In this sense,
speculation entailed a metaphysical component. Similarly, the first edition of the Dictionnaire de l’Académie
française (1694) defined speculation as a means to predict and to know more about an already planned and
foreseen, yet ultimately unknown and unknowable, future. By emphasizing the “speculation des astre. belle,
profonde, continuelle speculation,”1 the Dictionary made clear that there was uncertainty about the future,
even ignorance of future events, but that there was also a supreme being determining fate. The fifth edition
of the Dictionnaire of 1798, however, adds a new component to the metaphysical definition of speculation
by referring for the first time to economic speculation, defined as clear reasoning and calculation of chances
and risk, a “raisonnemens, des calculs […] en matière de banque, de finance, de commerce“.2 At least in
economic matters, the future now seemed to be calculable. Fate in this sense became a factor of risk-taking
that could be calculated as well.

By following a series of debates about the term speculation conducted in 18th-century Germany and France,
the paper will not only historicize the use and definition of the notion and show how the philosophical-
ontological term received its economical-calculating component in the Enlightenment, but will also raise the
question of how contemporaries faced uncertainty of future events. The paper will therefore further explore
the concepts of the future that lay behind these different uses of the term speculation.

1. Académie Française, Dictionnaire de l’Académie française, Paris 1694, see art. speculation.
2. Académie Française, Dictionnaire de l’Académie française, Paris 1798, 5th edition, see art. speculation.

40
American Landscapes

Sarah Moore (University of Arizona, Tucson)


Narrating a New Nation: Nature, Science, and the Discourse of the Enlightenment
In 1799, the American artist, entrepreneur, archaeologist, taxidermist, bridge builder, and patriot Charles
Willson Peale, bought the rights to excavate a plot of land in present-day upstate New York where fossils of
“uncommon magnitude” had been unearthed. Over a period of two years, Peale orchestrated the excavation
of two nearly complete mastodon skeletons and, in the process, inserted himself within current debates
about the great chain of being, catastrophism, deism, and the role of nature in the articulation of the new
nation of the United States of America. A polymath of the American Enlightenment, Peale looked to science
and technology as the rationale basis within which to narrate the new nation he fought to bring forth, as a
young officer in the continental army, and as the foundation stones on which to build the first museum of
the nation. Adapting Linnaean taxonomy, Peale’s museum featured three primary “texts:” portraits of
revolutionary figures, natural history displays, and a recreated mastodon skeleton. Based on a grid system
that visually expressed Enlightenment notions of the inherent order in the natural world, the museum
recreated nature in a gigantic miniature and proposed natural history as the foundational text of the new
nation. This paper considers the career of Charles Willson Peale, in general, and the museum he founded in
Philadelphia at the end of the eighteenth century, in particular, within the context of the American
Enlightenment and his enlistment of discourses of science, technology, spectacle, and entertainment in the
articulation of America as nature’s nation.

Doreen Alvarez Saar (Drexel University)


One Woman’s Life: Social Networks and Domestic Medicine in Colonial Philadelphia
In Biography and History, Barbara Caine suggests that the practice of biography has been innovated by
works focusing on “lives of less exalted and ordinary people” (1): this practice has been particularly useful for
those persons whose lives were not previously deemed significant because they were members of groups
treated as othered such as minorities and women. She also posits that the tradition of biography even of
exalted persons tends to picture their lives in isolation not as “enmeshed in close-knit familial and social
networks” (3). My essay follows the life of a Quaker woman in colonial Philadelphia and uses her written
work (in the form primarily of a receipt book) to look at the complexities of social and intellectual life.

My subject, Elizabeth Coates Paschall(born in 1702) was married to Joseph Paschall, a merchant who was
active in the Quaker community: he was a member of the Common Council, a justice of the peace, and with,
Benjamin Franklin, one of the founders of the Union Fire Company in 1736. Widowed at 40, and despite the
fact that her husband’s estate was valued at over L 3900, she continued to run her husband’s shop . Paschall
died a relatively wealthy woman in 1767 leaving an increased estate of L 5,000. Paschall is a fascinating and
understudied figure.

My examination of her receipt book (and of business records left in archives in Delaware) will examine how
these works show the complex world and network of a woman in Quaker Philadelphia. As I will show,
Paschall’s life and archival records shed new light on the conditions of women’s work in the colonies,
thereby accessing what Caine calls important “subjective understanding and experience”(3) of this colonial
world. Through these pieces, I will also examine the network of intellectual sources (international such as
Herman Boerhaave , famed physician, local such as Philadelphia botanist John Bartram, and Indian lore local)

41
on which she drew to carry on her practice of domestic medicine. This examination will illuminate the
intellectual biography of an ordinary person.

Emily Cooperman (ARCH Preservation Consulting)


Charles Brockden Brown and the limits of the Enlightenment landscape
Charles Brockden Brown (1771­1810), the first professional American novelist, has been the subject of
increasing scholarly attention in recent decades, and his fiction has moved from a position at the margins to
one firmly in the canon of Atlantic world literature of the long eighteenth century. Scholars have increasingly
recognized Brown’s important role in the articulation of American early national culture, not just through his
works of fiction, but also in his writings and literary curating activities pursued as the editor of several
periodicals.

Despite this recent growth in scholarship, and the identification of such important themes in Brown’s work
as knowledge production, relatively little attention has been paid to Brown’s role in registering the
complexities of understanding and experiencing the American landscape, particularly outside of his works of
fiction. This paper will explore this topic, focusing particularly on Brown’s editing and writing in periodicals as
a relatively “objective,” public, and didactic forum in contrast to his fiction, since this period was rife with
what Karen Ann Peard Lawson has termed “self­directed propaganda” with respect to images of the
American landscape. In developing a context for Brown’s work, this paper will address not only relevant
writing in other periodicals, but also contemporary writings on the Picturesque found and created in the
fledgling nation, and the work of American landscape artists.

42
Enlightenment European Architecture

Emma Jones (University of Zurich)


The Art of Siting: The picturesque and the picture in the work of Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Harnessing visual tricks and effects developed in his years designing for both the theatre and for commercial
‘raree-shows’, the Prussian architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel used the architectural project as a medium for
displaying the natural or urban environment as a picture, and in turn, the many pictures he made to
illustrate these projects furnished him with a scopic methodology that allowed him to explore such concerns
at both the smallest and largest of scales. But moving beyond the purely pictorial, the current doctoral
research investigates questions of why and how Schinkel in fact began to use architecture as a means of
engineering early leaps in perception from the fixed to the contingent, by treating architecture not simply as
still frame but as facilitator of free movement.

Crucial to this trajectory is Schinkel’s engagement with theories of the Picturesque that had been
increasingly thrown into question by certain English aesthetic debates of the late eighteenth century. By
examining a series of projects he executed in Potsdam in the 1820s in collaboration with court landscape
designer Lenné, in particular his modification of a small Casino at Schloss Glienicke in 1824, the talk will
explore how he made use of established ‘tricks’ of the picturesque (such as framing, reflection, concealment
and surprise) in ways that allowed him to exact a tension between a classical formalism in architecture and
the free movement of the observer within and around it. Most importantly, Schinkel’s Glienicke Casino can
be seen as an early example of the potential of the picturesque to transcend the picture in ways that
prefigured Modern architecture.

Viktor Lőrincz (Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris/Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem)
llumination and Enlightenment - the case of Isidore Canevale
In October 1749, en route from Paris to Vincennes, Rousseau found an advertisement in the Mercury of
France from the Academy of Dijon. The sudden flow of ideas which lead him to write his First Discourse
(1750) is now known as the “Illumination de Vincennes”. Rousseau visited his friend, Diderot imprisoned
then in the Château de Vincennes. The architectural ensemble which influenced Vanbrugh (also
incarcerated) too, served also as depot of the Bâtiments du Roi. Isidore Ganneval (Canevale), spent his youth
here. Son of an employee of The King's Buildings, brother of a worker of the Vincennes-Sèvres porcelain
manufactory, studied at the Royal Academy of Architecture. In this school, he became familiar with the ideas
of Marc Antoine Laughier. Laughier wrote on the direction of architectural history, after a sudden
illumination too. As a pupil of Servandoni, architect of the St Sulpice and stage designer (of the Royal
Fireworks of Handel) Ganneval travelled to Vienna, and became court architect. He built a cathedral, several
castles, the name-giving fountain of Schönbrunn, and iconic buildings of Josephinist Enlightenment: the
Narrenturm (psychiatry), the Josephinum (medical university) and the utopist city in of Neugebaude in
Budapest. One of Ganneval’s interior designs is now at the Metropolitan Museum. Using the biography of
Ganneval, a cross-road of art and science, on the basis of network theory and Eric R. Kandel’s psychology of
creativity, we wish to present the phenomenon of illumination, surprise and unpredicted rupture in the
Enlightenment, from Dezallier d'Argenville’s ha-ha to Kandel’s (2012) Aha!.

43
Christina Gray (University of California, Los Angeles)
Dégagement, Making Risk Visible
When Claude Perrault introduced the word ‘dégagement’ in his description of the modern usage of columns
in his 1683 treatise on architecture, "Ordonnance des cinq espèces des colonnes selon la méthode des
anciens," he seemingly suggested a spatial concept in evoking more generous intervals between structural
elements. But the usage of the word dégagement had only recently been codified as a derivation from the
far more Germanic Old French. This preceding usage of the word suggested less a spatial conception and
more a transactional sense of risking a wager. It had developed out of a militaristic understanding of the
risks of battle which by Perrault’s time had coalesced around the more courtly practices of fencing in which
all real bodily danger of the battlefield had been transposed into highly stylized courtly manners. Close to a
century later Jacques-François Blondel notated on a plan drawing “garde robe ou dégagement” in reference
to the space in which valuable royal clothing would be secured to offset any risks to either property or
propriety. Between both instances, the question of courtly manners is implicated directly in architectural
choices designed to mitigate various forms of liability. Situated within the rise of the Enlightenment, this
paper traces between Perrault and Blondel the ways in which the notion of dégagement negotiated between
a spatialized and transactional understanding in order to subsume risk within a growing regime of
rationalism.

44
Reading and the Body

Sara Crouch (University of Sydney)


Prevention, better than the cure?
It is often understood, within the field of eighteenth century studies, that John Cleland’s 1748 novel
Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure serves as the first intentionally pornographic novel by an English author. In
his essay ‘The Discourse on Sex- Or Sex as discourse: eighteenth-century medical and paramedical erotica’
Peter Wagner considers the erotic potential of medical treatises. He contends that through the cloak of the
overtly medical readers could access latent erotica, or, in his words, science became a “pretext for the
discussion of issue[s] that were otherwise considered obscene or taboo.”1 Medical writing supplied the
reader with a provision of images and descriptions of the naked form, effectively serving as a masturbatory
aid. With this in mind, I propose that it is plausible to resituate the late Libertine novel The London Jilt; Or,
the Politick Whore within the domain of the pornographic. Unlike Cleland’s Fanny Hill, the Jilt’s narrator
resists recounting her sexual acts categorically. However, in the uncompromising foregrounding of her body
she is able to indulge the reader’s fantasy. Critically too, The London Jilt, in yielding the body of a young
prostitute, provided the amorous readership with a prostitute’s body divorced from the risk of venereal
disease.

1. Peter Wagner, ‘The Discourse on Sex- Or Sex as discourse: eighteenth-century medical and paramedical erotica’, in Sexual
Underworlds in the English Enlightenment, edited by Roy Porter and G.S. Rousseau, University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill,
1988, p.46.

Amelia Dale (University of Sydney)


Reading Arabella’s blushes in Charlotte Lennox’s The Female Quixote (1752)
In the penultimate chapter of Charlotte Lennox’s important, influential novel, The Female Quixote (1752), a
clergyman forces Arabella to acknowledge that the focus of the romances she so enjoys is “love”. Arabella
responds by blushing and nothing more is said on the subject. Arabella’s blushes, it seems, are legible
enough, her quixotic consumption of romances is impressed on her body. Despite the long acknowledged
centrality of the imprinted page to the eighteenth-century formulation of subjectivity, it remains productive
point of departure. Belief in the power of the imagination to make “impressions” upon the body was
manifest in literature throughout the century, and crucially affected the ways imaginative literature was
understood to mould character. In her representation of quixotic reading, Lennox’s novel draws on David
Hume’s use of impressions, in particular his description of impressions from the senses being potentially
confused with impressions from the imagination. However present is also the bawdier connotations of
impressions: impressions as sexual penetration. Arabella’s blushes are an imprint on her body, a discursive
mark which signals that her reading has impressed her with transgressive knowledge, marking the white
surface of her mind and body with touches of pink and red. By reading Arabella’s blushes through the lens of
impressions it will be also be shown how other eighteenth-century depictions of mimetic reading involve a
close engagement with contemporaneous ideas about impressions and the imagination.

45
James Reeves (University of California, Los Angeles)
Untimely Old Age and Deformity in Sarah Scott's Millenium Hall
This paper focuses on one of the most striking figures in Sarah Scott's utopian Millenium Hall (1762): a "grey-
headed toothless old man of sixteen years of age" who apparently suffers from progeria. This man is
mentioned only briefly, yet his particular deformity—the incongruity between his "old" body and his
chronological age—is of considerable import in Scott's novel. In fact, the novel is filled with bodies that defy
standard eighteenth-century notions of the aging process. Millenium Hall is a place where untimeliness is
morally regenerative, as it alerts Scott's heroines to the particular temporality at work in her utopia. The Hall
operates on a completely different timeline from the world outside its borders, and it is the sick, disabled,
deformed body that makes this difference palpable and visible. In effect, the deformed body acts as a
memento mori of sorts, reminding Scott's heroines of the importance of living for eternity in the here and
now. Thus, Millenium Hall recalibrates time and revalues the human body by valorizing embodied, temporal
deformity. In her recent Feminist, Queer, Crip (2013), Alison Kafer insists that "disabled people are
continually being written out of the future, rendered as the sign of the future no one wants … We must
begin to anticipate presents and to imagine futures that include all of us. We must explore disability in time"
(p. 46). To that end, this paper proposes that we take seriously the way that fictional deformed bodies in
Scott’s Millenium Hall challenge normative understandings of temporality.

46
Communities in Print

Eun Kyung Min (Seoul National University)


Seriality in the City: Low Cosmopolitanism in Oliver Goldsmith’s Citizen of the World
From this motive I am often found in the centre of a crowd....
- Goldsmith, The Citizen of the World
In this paper, I wish to draw on two important theorizations of seriality in the city—Sartre’s essay “Seriality:
The Bus Queue and the Radio Broadcast” and Benedict Anderson’s “Nationalism, Identity, and the Logic of
Seriality”—to think about the significance of the serial Chinaman in Goldsmith’s Citizen of the World. By
referring to Goldsmith’s Lien Chi Altangi as a “serial Chinaman,” I wish, on the one hand, to recuperate the
original publishing context of Goldsmith’s work—its serialization in the Public Ledger, Ledger, or Daily
Register of Commerce and Intelligence in 1760-1762—and thereby point to a central divide in Goldsmith
criticism. Scholars who attend to Goldsmith’s oriental or orientalist content have little or nothing to say
about the journalistic form of his work; meanwhile, those who emphasize the journalistic context of
Goldsmith’s work cannot successfully account for the Chinese or pseudo-Chinese content. At the same time,
I wish to suggest that Goldsmith’s fiction of a Chinaman walking simultaneously through the geographical
spaces of London and the serialized space of the newspaper is an ambitious rewriting of the oriental tale in
the form of a complex, self-reflexive commentary on the urban cosmopolitanism of his time. The paper will
attend especially to what I will call the “low” cosmopolitanism of this work that preserves the paradoxes of
what Sartre theorizes as the modern, urban forms of “communication through alterity” and indifferent
absence. How does Benedict’s theory of the “unbound seriality” of the newspaper help us understand the
way in which the “anonymous series” of Chinamen is constructed in Goldsmith’s text? How does Goldsmith
critique this “anonymous series” and mobilize it for a Sartrean vision of London as a reciprocal “plurality of
solitudes”? The paper will end with some brief reflections on the uses of enlightenment cosmopolitan
discourse in contemporary cosmopolitan theory.

Jean McBain (University of Melbourne)


Letters, liberty and libel: Evading government control in British periodical writing, 1695-1740
Newspapers and debates about the liberty of the press were inextricably connected in the early eighteenth
century. In 1695 the English Licencing Act had lapsed, and prepublication censorship of the press ceased. In
the following decades, successive governments developed alternate means of controlling the press, through
sponsorship, taxes and reinvigorated seditious libel laws. In complement, writers for the periodical press
worked through a range of techniques to evade and resist these controls. This paper is situated at this
interface between the government and those who wrote, printed and distributed periodicals. Focusing on
the composition of periodicals, this paper examines the implications of the work of writers within and
around government control for the developing ideas of the liberty of the press. A primary technique used by
periodical writers to present barely legal, or even prohibited, writing without explicit endorsement by either
the journalist or periodical was the use of letters. In this ‘epistolary journalism’, editors positioned
themselves as conduits rather than sources of information, shifting responsibility for news items, comments
and critiques either towards correspondents or readers. Analysis of epistolarity as a journalistic convention
shows how writers were able to work within the liminal space that existed on the boundary of acceptable
and libellous writing. Thus, an exploration of journalistic technique becomes a means of approaching the
intersection between ideas of press liberty and the competing governmental and commercial demands that
shaped the early eighteenth century periodical.

47
Paul Tankard (University of Otago)
Anonymous Celebrity: Newspapers and the Invention of the Public Figure
British newspapers and magazines of the eighteenth century represent a new public space, one in which it
became possible for private identity and public image to be separable and the latter subject to manipulation
and management. In the absence of professional journalists, the newspapers were in some ways a very
democratic medium, open to those who had the talent, insight, time and leisure to contribute, and in
practice open in particular to exploitation by those with an “interest”. Reading the “paragraphs” we see the
dynamics of celebrity played out in public, but with the shadow of anonymity both of writer and subject
constantly teasing the reader.

48
New perspectives on Jane Austen

Olivia Murphy (Murdoch University)


‘a future to look forward to’?: Evolution, Extinction and Exile in Jane Austen’s Persuasion
Charles Darwin’s profound interest in Austen’s novels—Persuasion (1818) in particular—is well known. Peter
Graham recently argued that both Austen and Darwin draw their ideas from the observation of, in Raymond
Williams’s phrase, ‘knowable communities’: respectively, the ‘3 or 4 families in a country village’ of Austen’s
novels, and Darwin’s groups of Galapagos finches.1 Such communities serve, for both authors, as
synecdoches for entire ecosystems. This paper offers a new interpretation of Persuasion as a pre-Darwinian
novel, concerned with the processes of natural selection and evolution in human societies.

In Persuasion, Austen offers examples of successful evolution, and also of the failure of some individuals to
survive in their environments. Sir Walter Elliot, Austen writes, ‘had not had principle or sense enough to
maintain himself in the situation in which Providence had placed him’.2 The Romantics’ newly-formed
understanding of the process of extinction, led by a growth in the study of fossils, forms the background to
this novel in which Austen radically questions the desirability of the very existence of the British landowning
classes, concluding: ‘they were gone who deserved not to stay’.3 Austen’s ultimate ambivalence about the
survival of her culture’s values and even its members sets a powerful precedent for twenty-first-century
science fiction. The romanticised final exile of Persuasion takes on new significance when read in light of
novels which import Romantic tropes of exile in the face of ecological cataclysm.

1. See Raymond Williams, The Country and the City (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973), 165; Peter W. Graham,
Jane Austen & Charles Darwin: Naturalists and Novelists (Burlington, VT and Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), 9. Letter to Anna Austen, 9-
18 September 1814, in Jane Austen’s Letters, 4th edition, ed. Deirdre Le Faye (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 287.
2. Austen, Persuasion, Chapter 23.
3. Ibid., Chapter 13.

Jocelyn Harris (University of Otago)


Fanny Burney meets Fanny Price
The possibility that Jane Austen's relations the Cooke family of Great Bookham supplied her with
information about Fanny Burney's personal life has been largely overlooked, except by Pat Rogers. I shall
explore what Austen might have made of their insider information in Mansfield Park, where Mrs Norris
bullies a lonely, uprooted Fanny Price rather as Mrs Schwellenberg bullied a miserable Fanny Burney at
Court. The anxiety and anger that Fanny Price can never utter resemble the thoughts and opinions recorded
by Fanny Burney in private journals and letters. Fanny Price's sister Susan eventually becomes Fanny's
solace, as Susan Burney was to Fanny Burney. Jokey allusions in Emma to Mickelham and Dorking, near
where the Cookes and the Burneys were neighbours and friends, also suggest knowledge of Burney's
married life, while Burney's continuing close contact with the royal family could have provided Austen with
up-to-date bulletins about the various Regency crises on which Mansfield Park is based.

49
Annette Upfal (University of New South Wales)
A Taste for Cruel Humour: Jane Austen’s The History of England and James Gillray’s Bawdy
Caricature of Charles James Fox
One of the wittiest and most appealing items in Jane Austen’s juvenilia is The History of England, completed
in November 1791, shortly before her sixteenth birthday. This work was transcribed several months later
into the notebook Volume the Second, with her sister Cassandra, aged nineteen, adding portraits of the
various monarchs. Whilst some images can be identified as Austen family members, the portrait of Henry VIII
reveals a surprising link between the Austen sisters and the famous caricature artist James Gillray. It is
evident that Cassandra Austen has closely modelled her portrait of Henry VIII on a particularly crude and
scurrilous political caricature of the Whig parliamentary leader Charles James Fox by Gillray.

The fact that Cassandra chose Gillray’s image of Fox as the model for Jane Austen’s villainous monarch
requires any interpretation of The History of England to take into careful consideration the response of the
Austen family at Steventon Rectory to two of the major political scandals of the day – the trial of Warren
Hastings, and the secret and invalid marriage of the Prince of Wales. It incidentally provides evidence of the
Austen sisters’ forthright appreciation of extremely coarse, even ribald humour, and their deep engagement
and partisan approach to major political issues. More importantly, this image of Fox as Henry VIII, and the
interpretation it authorizes, reflects Jane Austen’s response to these events and reveals her early mastery of
a distinctive style of overtly mocking humour combined with more subtle, allusive satire. It also highlights a
similar early and outraged commitment to proto-feminist issues, and offers new insights on Austen’s
championship in her History of famously oppressed, beautiful and innocent Royal women.

50
Responses to Garden Spaces and Nature

Jennifer Milam (University of Sydney)


Planting Cosmopolitan Ideals: Thomas Jefferson’s Poplar Forest
Thomas Jefferson described his building projects as a favourite amusement, understood in Enlightenment
terms not as a trivial pursuit, but as a use of time in which knowledge and ideas were developed and
conveyed as a form of pleasurable diversion. Incorporated into his two most significant private building
projects were landscape gardens that included ornamental plantings and planned views out into the
American landscape. His properties at Monticello and Poplar Forest were experimental grounds on which he
sought to give physical form to his ambitious philosophical, political and aesthetic ideals. Jefferson drew
lessons from classical antiquity and early modern Europe, but expanded on these lessons by incorporating
the natural world of the American landscape into his design concepts. As he would write to John Adams in
1816, the same year in which Poplar Forest was completed and ready to accommodate family visitors, “I like
the dreams of the future better than the history of the past.” For Jefferson, “dreams of the future” were
based in the richness of the American landscape. While he did receive visitors at the plantation, Poplar
Forest was not a place of public display. Instead it was conceived as a private retreat, providing Jefferson
with the opportunity to incorporate highly innovative elements into his landscape design. Using a
combination of pure geometric forms and local plantings, Jefferson developed a unique response to the
American landscape, which I argue expands upon the visual cosmopolitanism of the jardins anglo-chinois of
eighteenth-century Europe, gardens that were once defined by Carmontelle as of “all times and places”. This
chapter considers the relationship between a sense of timelessness and the local experience of place at
Poplar Forest to explore the relationship between cosmopolitan ideals and national identity that together
inform Jefferson’s approach to garden design.

Janet White (University of Nevada - Las Vegas)


The Spectacle of Self: The Garden as Self-Portrait
At first glance, the jardin-anglais of 18th century France appears to be composed of a standard set of pieces.
A closer examination of the details of specific gardens, however, reveals that elements were often chosen in
order to “fit” the garden to the patron. This paper argues that these choices were intended to make each
garden into a kind of portrait of its owner, so that the spectacle of the garden becomes an important means
of projection of self to others.

Three gardens outside Paris are examined in detail: Marie Antoinette’s garden at the Petit Trianon at
Versailles; Mon. De Monville’s Desert du Retz; and the Desert d’Ermenonville, the garden of the Marquise de
Girardin. A “close reading” of the follies and features of each garden reveals that each plays on the standard
repertoire to turn the garden into public self-portrait of its creator as he or she wished to be seen.

The new innate self of the second half of the eighteenth century was to be “cultivated by a spontaneous
relation to nature” (John O. Lyons, The Invention of the Self, 198). It is perhaps not surprising then to find the
spectacle of nature as expressed in the garden being in turn made into the means of projecting the self to
others. It might even be argued that the popularity of the jardin anglais among patrons before the
Revolution was in part due to the opportunities it offered for creating a public image of the self.

51
Jessica Priebe (University of Sydney)
Inventing Artifice and the Game of Nature: François Boucher’s Collection at the Louvre
More than any other artist of his generation, François Boucher (1703-1770) is associated with the visual and
material culture of luxury in mid eighteenth-century France. His works are filled with desirable items that
informed the tastes of modern collectors. What is less known is that Boucher was himself an enthusiastic
collector, acquiring more than 13,000 different objects of art and nature over the course of his lifetime.
Ranging from highly prized works of fine and decorative art to natural objects and other material items
selected from the street, Boucher’s collection was celebrated by his peers for both the choice of objects and
for its unique arrangement. According to the dealer Pierre Rémy (1715-1797), it was generally agreed by
‘everyone’ that the artist’s collection was ‘one of the richest and most pleasant ever seen in Paris’ (1771).

This paper examines the display of Boucher collection in his studio at the Louvre, where the artist lived and
worked for close to two decades. Using architectural drawings and other supporting archival material, I show
how Boucher redeveloped the studio to accommodate both a working atelier and a cabinet of curiosity. This
paper also reveals the extent to which Boucher enhanced his collection through artifice, in particular the
natural objects for which he especially well known. In reconstructing aspects of this display, I show how
Boucher encouraged visitors to the studio to think aesthetically about nature and to explore the creativity of
artistic invention. The enhancement of his collection through ornamentation and innovative arrangements
promises to offer new insight into areas of Boucher’s artistic practice, especially those works that highlight
the role of imagination in his creative processes.

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Borders, State, Sovereignty

Luke Glanville (Australian National University)


Vattel on Duties of Assistance and Protection beyond Sovereign Borders
This paper examines the contribution of Emer de Vattel (1714-67) to the historical development of thinking
about the duties that states owe to vulnerable populations beyond their borders. In his influential Law of
Nations (1758), the Swiss diplomat and legal theorist built on the work of Thomist theologians and
Protestant natural law theorists to develop a theory that held the cosmopolitan duty of nations to work for
each other‟s “perfection” in uneasy tension with the primary duty of nations to care for their own interests
in an international statement of nature. Whereas earlier theorists‟ treatment of the protection of the
vulnerable beyond borders had focused on questions about the nature and scope of the duty of military
intervention to punish tyranny and rescue the oppressed, Vattel considered also the weight of the duty of
states to take non-coercive measures to aid and assist neighboring populations at risk of mass starvation and
other calamities. While he praised Russia for assisting Sweden when threatened with famine and England for
coming to the aid of Portugal in the aftermath of the Lisbon earthquake, he also cautioned that a nation‟s
chief duty was always to care for its own safety and that it at all times remained the sole judge of what
moral and legal obligations were owed to its neighbors.

Vrasidas Karalis (University of Sydney)


Adamantios Korais Passage Cosmopolitanism to Nationalism
During the second part of the 18th century, Ad. Korais was considered as one of the most representative
intellectuals, who, with his editions of the Greek political texts, contributed the neoclassicism of the period.
After escaping from the Ottoman Empire in a period of crisis, Korais found refuge in Amsterdam and Paris
where he was formed by the ideas of cosmopolitanism and universalism as expressed by radical forms of
Enlightenment. He was also an eyewitness to the French Revolution and his writings of the period articulated
a radical critique of religion, state authority and sovereign power. However in 1803 he circulated his famous
lectures on The Present State of Civilisation in Greece which imported the nascent nationalism to Eastern
Europe and defined the template of nationalist ideology in the Balkans. The paper wants to address the
personal, intellectual and political aspects of the transition from his early critical cosmopolitanism to the
later stage of his defensive ethnocracy which defined political developments in the East until today.

Ida Nursoo (University of Sydney)


Remembering "Man": Enlightenment Cosmopolitanism, World Citizenship & the Anthropology of
Kant’s Ethics
This paper will argue that Kant’s anthropological theories are central to his cosmopolitan thought. It aims to
restore to the history of cosmopolitan ethics a body of Kant’s thought, including his course on Pragmatic
Anthropology, which, despite spanning a large part of his career, has been largely neglected by the standard
interpretation of Kantian cosmopolitanism. By approaching Kant’s ethics through his anthropological
thought in the first instance, rather than through his transcendental philosophy or moral law, I show that it is
possible to access the hidden violence of Kantian cosmopolitanism through its connection to the question
“what is man (human being)?” (Was ist der Mensch?). Additionally, this paper makes a methodological
argument for “remembering Man” in Kant’s cosmopolitan thought – where “Man” (standing in for “human

53
being”) derives from Kant’s anthropology in which a certain kind of subject, constituted by the empirical /
transcendental duality, is the protagonist. The implication for interpreting Kantian cosmopolitanism is that,
charged with the cultivation of world citizenship, it is primarily concerned with subject formation. Attention
to this agenda, I contend, needs to be restored in our reading of Kantian cosmopolitanism in order to avoid
celebrating Kant’s cosmopolitanism as anti-imperial, non-racist or anachronistically promoting human rights.

54
Scurvy and the Irish
The fact that the early colony of Australia suffered seriously both from periodic shortages of food and from a
lack of fresh meat and vegetables, even when salt meat and flour were plentiful, are facts well known; but
the scorbutic effects of such a situation have (while being noted) not fully entered into the account of the
tribulations of the inhabitants, especially the convicts. For some years, scurvy operated like a pump, being
imported with the transports, exacerbated by the famine in Port Jackson, and then exported among the
crews of the transports returning home. Owing to the harsh climate and the infertile soil it was difficult to
grow food in anything like the quantities necessary for general health, and even what was produced was
often stolen by people who, even if they were not technically famished, were in urgent and incontinent need
of fresh produce. This introduced another circle of misery in the settlement as the combination of actual
hunger and scorbutic cravings led to theft, and theft to further punishment in conditions that almost always
increased susceptibility to more scurvy. For at least four decades it was endemic in penal settlements such
as Port Arthur and Moreton Bay. In the 1837 Parliamentary Select Committee Report on transportation it
was the opinion of some of its members that the only viable future for the colony was as a pirate
commonwealth, along the lines of Tunis. In this paper I want to suggest that for all convicts, but particularly
the Irish, the problems stemming specifically from the intertwined miseries of excessive punishment and
scorbutic symptoms were so severe they shaped the culture and the aesthetics of the colony, not to mention
its politics, long after its nutritional problems were solved.

Jonathan Lamb (Vanderbilt University)


The Vicious Circles of Australian Scurvy
While the prevalence of scurvy in the early years of the British colony in Australia is recognized it is not much
discussed other than as one of the legion impediments to a successful translation of civil society to the
Antipodes. I aim to show that it was of all the diseases afflicting the settlers the worst—almost certainly the
worst in terms of overall mortality, and certainly the worst in respect of its capacity to renew itself under the
regimens of diet and discipline that were in favour there. There was no stage in the sequence leading from
crime, sentencing, imprisonment, transport of convicts and their management where this was not apparent.
Almost all the spikes in the Irish immigration were caused by famine, particularly the Great Famine of 1845-
47, during which thefts of food were predominantly the offences for which convicts-to-be were arrested and
imprisoned. Already scorbutic their condition was not improved either by the prisons and hulks in which
they were held before transportation, or on the transports themselves. Once in Australia famine conditions
were often renewed, and even if they weren’t the standard diet contained no vitamin C. The desire for
greens was everywhere exorbitant and not to be satisfied by the small amounts available in the bush. Almost
immediately attempts to grow fresh vegetables were thwarted by theft, and as David Collins admitted the
bulk of punishments administered were for this crime. Apart from hanging these consisted of flogging,
reduction of rations and heavy labour in chains. The nervous susceptibility of scorbutic bodies made flogging
an even more unbearable torment than it was to healthy bodies, while a bread and water diet combined
with overwork completed the cycle, with men often falling down dead on their road-gangs. Since Irish men
were carrying a mutated gene that left them unusually vulnerable to scurvy, they were at risk during every
turn of this wheel of crime and punishment. A member of the Parliamentary Select Committee of
Transportation in 1837 wondered at the torturous digressions in this scheme of torture: `Would it not be
better to burn them alive at once?' he asked.

55
Killian Quigley (Vanderbilt University)
Scorbutic Constitutions: Irishness and Scurvy as Convergent Pathologies in the Transportation
Era
As the number of Irish convict transportees to the Australian colony ballooned, accounts of some link
between Irishness and illness proliferated. For the naval surgeon Andrew Henderson, the Irish convicts’
unique predilection for indolence and melancholy “predisposed” them to scurvy. Some connection between
scurvy and the Irish – if not Henderson’s interpretation of thereof – was confirmed in other contexts, such as
mid-nineteenth century Scotland, where Irish railroad workers presented scorbutic symptoms at an
alarmingly disproportionate rate. Likewise midcentury Dublin, where J.O. Curran observed an astonishing
uptick of scurvy amongst Ireland’s famine-stricken population, and most particularly in male patients.
Curran’s analysis, while not so critical or moralizing as some others, is nonetheless underwritten by a sense
that some predisposing factor, or “epidemic constitution,” was working, in tandem with “dietetic error,” in
order to incline the Irish to the malady.

Impressions of the Irish as diseased – and the diseased impressions of the Irish – have not been adequately
considered in studies of convict transportation. This presentation begins to unpack a complicated tradition
of observing and interpreting a link between Irishness and scurvy. It also draws upon a recent paper by Joris
Delanghe et al., published in Nutrients late last year, which suggests that we understand the
disproportionate impact of scurvy on the Irish in terms of a genetic predisposition among Irish males. I urge
us, first, to understand this fresh research as taking its place in a lengthy and often fraught history of
diagnosing scorbutic Irishness. But I argue, further, that by taking seriously the genetic uniqueness of Irish
convict transportees, we might complicate our understanding of the lives and experiences of the 45,000 Irish
persons sent against their will to the new colony.

Fiona Harrison (Vanderbilt University)


A modern Neuroscience perspective on the ancient problems of scurvy
The physical symptoms of extreme vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, have been described in numerous ships’
logs, diaries and medical texts, stretching back for hundreds of years. Using modern techniques in
neuroscience research, we are now beginning to unravel the highly complex roles of vitamin C in the brain,
which may have changed the behaviors of those experiencing long periods of nutritional deficiencies. The
most important roles for vitamin C are in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers of the
brain, and for protection of neurons against constant damage by free radicals. Using a mouse model of
vitamin C deficiency we can study how altered brain vitamin C levels affect neurotransmitter levels, and
more importantly, how they affect behavior. The most notable changes in the mice mirror those observed in
humans, extreme changes in activity level that recover quickly following reintroduction of the vitamin to the
diet. The brains of scorbutic animals show changes in neurotransmitter levels, and damage to cells. New
research is also beginning to reveal the role of vitamin C deficiency in disease states and other conditions,
such as seizures, that may have contributed to the sudden deaths of many who may otherwise have
recovered.

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Universalism, Classicism and Antiquiarianism

Timothy Rees Jones (University of Cambridge)


The pursuit of Universal History in the early English Enlightenment, 1695-1728
Universal History, also called simply Chronology, was a mode of historical writing in the early English
Enlightenment that sought to resolve the competing timelines found in ancient sources from across the
world to produce a single, authoritative timeline of event in all places. “It’s use is very great;” says
Chamber’s Cyclopedia “’tis called one of the Eyes of History”. The last work Newton prepared for publication
– A Chronology of the Ancient Kingdoms Amended – was a contribution to the genre. And yet those authors
and texts to which Newton was responding have almost entirely slipped from view. This paper seeks to draw
attention to this forgotten field of study. In both method and purpose, Universal History was markedly
distinct from contemporary, classically-inspired works of national history. Practitioners sought to gather
information from a global range of sources, and disputed the priority accorded to canonical Greek and
Roman histories. Disparate data was brought together in modern forms of graphical representation, more
common in commercial writings and the political arithmetic of the Royal Society than in prose history, and
contradictions were resolved through appeal to the dual arbitrators of scripture and astronomical truth.
Study of these works enlarges our understanding of the diversity of historical writing in the period, and
provides context for Newton’s later work. Perhaps more importantly still, it contributes to the explanation of
one of the central themes of Enlightenment. Universal Historians not only rejected neoclassical historians
admiration for classical authorities, they also broke with their Machiavellian conception of history as
continuous and cyclical. They endowed human affairs with a sense of teleological development, and the
future with the possibility of being radically different from the past.

Floris Verhaart (Oxford University)


Between Aesthetics, Philology and Antiquarianism: The Separation of Form and Content in
Seventeenth-Century Dutch Philology and Eighteenth-Century French Aesthetic Thought
Je vous ai appris à bien faire & à bien dire, disoit Phoenix à Achille son éléve.
Charles Batteux, Cours des Belles-Lettres, I, p. 8.
Recent decades have witnessed a Renaissance in interest in Jean-Baptiste Dubos as a key figure in the early
Enlightenment and the Quarrel of Ancients and Moderns (see e.g. Dan Edelstein, The Enlightenment: A
Genealogy (2010)). In Dubos’ best-known work, his Réflexions Critiques (1719), he radically separates form
and contents in the appreciation of arts and argues that pleasure not moral edification should be the
primary goal of art. Although it has often been claimed that John Locke was the main influence on Dubos’
sensualist approach to beauty (see e.g. Robert Norton, Herder’s Aesthetics and the European Enlightenment
(1991)), I will look at his work from the perspective of his philological and antiquarian interests. After all,
Dubos contributed to the publication of the Menagiana (1693), a collection of tabletalk from the French
grammarian and classical scholar Gilles Ménage (1613­1692) and his first independent publication was the
Histoire des quatre Gordiens (1695) in which he combined antiquarianism with textual criticism. In the 1690s
Dubos travelled through the Dutch Republic and Britain and was introduced to among others the philologists
Richard Bentley (1662-­­1742) and Johann Graevius (1632­1703) with whom he maintained an intensive
correspondence. Interestingly, contemporary classical scholarship was dominated by a number of polemics
about the right approach to text. One group, sometimes referred to as the Dutch School of Criticism
advocated a strict focus on textual criticism and the stylistic and rhetorical qualities. Their opponents
believed classical texts should primarily be read with an eye to moral education. In my paper, I will show that

57
both Dubos and other theorists of aesthetics like Charles Batteux (1713-­­1780) sympathised with the Dutch
critics – his Réflexions critiques are full of references to the works of Gerard (1577­1649) and Isaac Vossius
(1618­1689) and Marcus Meibomius (1630­1711) among others. I will therefore argue that the sensualist
turn of eighteenth century aesthetic theory should therefore not just be considered against the background
of Locke’s philosophy but also within the context of contemporary developments in classical scholarship.
Regarding the broader context of the long eighteenth century, this paper will emphasize how far
Enlightenment thinkers connect with the seventeenth century pace Ernst Cassirer and Peter Gay.
Meibomius’ work, for example, did not just inspire thinkers like Dubos and Batteux, but was also a major
source for Rousseau’s Dictionnaire de musique. The Enlightenment therefore needs to be placed back in the
Ancien Regime and not equated with modernity.

Erman Kaplama (Fiji National University)


Heraclitean Critique of Kantian and Enlightenment Ethics
Kant makes a much-unexpected confession in a much­unexpected place. In the Criticism of the third
paralogism of transcendental psychology of the first Critique Kant accepts the irrefutability of the
Heraclitean notion of universal becoming or the transitory nature of all things, admitting the impossibility of
positing a totally persistent and self-conscious subject. The major Heraclitean doctrine of panta rhei makes it
impossible to conduct philosophical inquiry by assuming a self-­­conscious subject or “I,” which would
potentially be in constant motion like other thoughts, as it rules out the possibility of completely detached
reasoning for which is required an unchanging state of mind. In this paper, Kaplama uses panta rhei along
with the Heraclitean fragment “it is in changing that things find their purpose” to critically examine the
philosophical shortcomings and contradictions of Kantian and Enlightenment ethics. In his examination, he
specifically focuses on the teleological nature of Kant’s principle of freedom and ideal of moral autonomy
which have dominated the Enlightenment thought. By doing so, he argues that it is essentially inaccurate to
posit Überlegenheit (the state of being superior to nature) as the foundation of philosophical inquiry mainly
because this would contradict the Enlightenment’s claim to constitute a rupture from classic and medieval
metaphysics and would render Enlightenment a mere extension of Christian metaphysics. As in Christianity,
Überlegenheit presupposes two separate realms, the actual (contingent) and ideal (pure) realms of thought
and assumes that the transcendence commences from the level of the late metaphysical/teleological
construction of the ‘subject’ who is completely persistent, self-conscious and immune to change.

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Enlightenment Images

Anita Hosseini (Leuphana University)


Germany Experimental culture in a soap bubble: The case of Jean-Siméon Chardin’s painting of
1733/34
The subject of my proposal is the modern relationship between knowledge, science and art in the 18th
Century that results in a popularization of knowledge and the strong presence of an experimental culture.
Public discussions and demonstrations of scientific discoveries enable their circulations and attracted artists
as well. In the zenith of this popularization movement, Chardin realizes his painting Soap Bubbles in the year
1733/34.

In a close reading I would like to discuss how this painting can visualize the idea of the presence of spectral
colours according to Sir Isaac Newton and how it also enhances a representation of experiments in the
manner these took place in the households.

The painting, at first characterized as an “amusement frivole d’un jeune homme, faisant des bouteilles de
savon”, refers to the baroque tradition of vanitas. By contextualizing this motive in the time of its origin and
by interpreting it from a discourse analytical perspective, the soap bubble appears as a traditional
visualisation of the finiteness of the human life and turn out to be a scientific instrument as well. By
combining the traditional representation of homo bulla, the inset of colours (red and blue colour line next to
the soap liquid) and the scientific knowledge of the colours of light as a result of experiments with soap
bubbles, Chardin uses the visual language, created by the medium itself, to gain an artistic visualization of
the scientific discussions about Newton’s Opticks. Hence the symbol of vanitas becomes an instrument of
veritas as well.

Lauren Ryan (La Trobe University)


Spectacles in Roman Piazzas: Images of Quack Dentists and Charlatans by the Bamboccianti
Paintings of quack dentists performing in the piazzas of Rome was a popular theme for the Bamboccianti.
The Bamboccianti were a group of mainly Dutch artists who painted scenes of everyday life in seventeenth
century Rome. Although scholars have studied some individual paintings of charlatans by the Bamboccianti,
these paintings have not been examined as a whole, and the contents of their paintings have not been used
to provide evidence into the lives of charlatans. In this paper I examine the paintings of charlatans by the
Bamboccianti and reveal how these paintings detail the practices of quack dentists in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries. Remaining on the margins of society and living an itinerant lifestyle meant that
archival evidence of charlatans is scarce. By examining these paintings as documentary evidence, along with
the archival material that is available, a clear picture of the practises of charlatans, and quack dentists
specifically, is revealed. Quack dentists operated like performers, creating a social spectacle for the public’s
entertainment and were a prominent feature in Italian piazzas. This paper also answers one of the key
questions of why the artists painted quack dentists and reveals the connection between the artists and their
subjects. Charlatans, much like these Dutch artists, were exhibitionists. The charlatans’ living was
determined by their ability to draw a crowd, much like the artists’ success in Rome was a result of their
capacity to sell their art. Thus the role of the charlatans and the Dutch artists, specifically the artists
belonging to the Schildersbent, the Dutch society in Rome, were very similar. This paper shows that the

59
paintings by the Bamboccianti can provide vital information on the everyday life of the socially marginal in
the long eighteenth century.

Marthe Schmidt (University of Bonn)


Heroes of the Enlightenment? The Idealisation of Explorers, Naturalists and Artists in the Arts in
the long 18th Century
This paper seeks to point out that how the idealisation of explorers, naturalists and artists in the arts got
changed during the long 18th century and how this visualisations shaped them as 'iconic' figures or heroes of
the transnational enlightenment project. In this regard visual documentations made in context of South
Pacific exploration and the early stage of colonisation reflect a new understanding of the intellectual's role.

Usually during the 18th century portraits used to refer to scholar's theoretical achievements e.g. by showing
them in their studio with their treatises. But the work done by Parkinson, Hodges, Webber, Planes and later
by Arago and Choris can be observed as a new idealised and euphemistic protagonist approach. The
mediator role of scholars can also be detected in Wright of Derbys paintings “Philosopher Lecturing on the
Orrery” or “An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump” but in the expedition-illustrations they are often
depicted as peaceful observers communicating and interacting with indigenous. They did research and also
establish contacts or friendships with these 'exotic' and 'uncivilised' people.

Recent cross-disciplinary research is focused on this aspects of intercultural connections between indigenous
and European conquerors, like Smith demonstrates in her study “Intimate Strangers. Friendship, Exchange
and Pacific Encounters” (2010) or O'Malley investigates in “The Meeting Place. Māori and Pākehā
Encounters, 1642-1840” (2012). In this regard this paper will also question that how influential these
illustration were for the depiction of later travelling researchers or painters like Humboldt and Earle.

60
Mind/Body Metaphysics

Thomas Lalevée (Australian National University)


Pierre Cabanis, the 'science of man' and German Anthropologie: recasting the intellectual project
of the French Ideologues
In late eighteenth-century France, Pierre Cabanis advocated uniting physiology, epistemology and moral
philosophy under the single banner of the ‘science of man’. A prominent intellectual figure in the
Thermidorian republic, Cabanis gave an account of this programmatic science in lectures at the French
Institute in 1796-97. There, he argued that vitalist medical doctrine was the proper foundation for thinking
about human nature. He also suggested his approach coincided with what the Germans called
‘Anthropologie’, a science similarly concerned with exposing the links between the physical, the intellectual
and the moral.

Although historians are now well aware of the influence of medical knowledge on conceptions of the science
of man in this period, the debt they owe to earlier Enlightenment debates of the mind-body problem, of the
nature of the soul and more broadly of the material and spiritual expressions of living matter, remains
unclear. This paper will offer one way of illuminating this genealogy by exploring the meaning of this
reference to German anthropology.

Having visited the country in 1773-75, Cabanis was most likely alluding to works by Ernst Platner, Johann
Gottfried Herder and the pre-critical Immanuel Kant which discussed science, philosophy and the
anthropological study of man. Recasting his intellectual project as a response to these works will shed light
on relatively unexplored connections between French and German thinkers in the second half of the
eighteenth century. In this way this paper will contribute to ongoing efforts to understand the
Enlightenment, and its legacy, in the actual terms of its contemporaries.

Benjamin Graf (University of North Texas)


Beethoven’s transcendent voice-leading: musical evocation of Kantian ideals
While Beethoven scholars have remarked on his extensive familiarity with the writings of Immanuel Kant by
scrutinizing Beethoven’s letters, the cornerstones of Beethoven’s philosophy are actually woven directly into
the fabric of his music.1 One of Beethoven’s associates wrote, “great thoughts drift through Beethoven’s
mind, he cannot express them in any form but music; he has no command over words.” 2. The technique that
I call “transcendent voice-leading” epitomizes Beethoven’s representation of Kant’s Enlightenment ideals.
My paper shows how transcendent voice-leading empowers one note with the freedom to rise above its
destiny by revisiting one of Beethoven’s well-known pieces, the Pathetique sonata.

The first three measures of the Pathetique establish the downward trajectory of the pitch E-flat. In
traditional counterpoint, chordal sevenths resolve downward, and in the first three measures, the sevenths

1. Wilfrid Mellers, Beethoven and the voice of God (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), p. 4. See also Beethoven, Ludwig van,
Alfred Christlieb Kalischer, and J. S. Shedlock. Beethoven's letters; a critical edition with explanatory notes. Freeport, NY: Books for
Libraries Press, 1969.
2. Mellers, 4.

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resolve properly.3

Example 1: Beethoven, Pathetique Sonata, mm. 1R4

In the fourth measure, however, the E-flat transcends the D and continues higher, up to E-natural, and then
F. The significance of this transcendence cannot be understated because it serves as the basis for structural
imperatives throughout the entire piece. Therefore, my paper will show how “transcendent voice-leading” in
the Pathetique sonata represents a musical portrayal of Kantian ideals and intellectual liberation of the
Enlightenment.

Example 2: Large-scale significance of the “transcendent” E-flat to E motion in all movements of the
Pathetique sonata

3 Allen Cadwallader and David Gagne, Analysis of Tonal Music: A Schenkerian perspective, 3rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2011), p. 53.

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Bibliography

Beethoven, Ludwig van, Alfred Christlieb Kalischer, and J. S. Shedlock. Beethoven's letters; a critical edition
with explanatory notes. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1969.

Cadwallader, Allen and Gagne, David. Analysis of Tonal Music: s Schenkerian perspective. 3rd ed. Oxford, UK:
Oxford University Press, 2011.

Hatten, Robert. Musical meaning in Beethoven. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Mellers, Wilfrid. Beethoven and the voice of God. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Réti, Rudolph. Thematic Patterns in the Sonatas of Beethoven, ed. Deryck Cooke, Chapters 1-6, 17-59.
Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 1992.

Schmalfeldt, Janet. In the process of Becoming: Analytic and Philosophical Perspectives on Form in Early
Nineteenth-Century Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Sisman, Elaine. “Pathos and the Pathétique: Rhetorical Stance in Beethoven’s C minor Sonata, Op. 13.”
Beethoven Forum (1994): 81-105.

Anne Thell (National University of Singapore)


Mind in Motion: Cavendish, Organic Materialism, and the Mobility of Thought
Published as the companion piece to Observations upon Natural Philosophy (1666), Margaret Cavendish’s
Blazing World (1666) dramatizes and interrogates many of the ideas that Cavendish forth in her
philosophical writing. Cavendish might have chosen the travel genre as the companion piece to her treatise
on natural philosophy for a whole variety of reasons. One primary motivation, I argue here, is that travel has
intriguing thematic links to her material theory of the universe. Indeed, travel is built into Cavendish’s
ontology: motion is a precondition for being and knowing. With this in mind, Blazing World’s engagement
with the voyage genre becomes particularly important. Taking motion is its most basic criterion, the travel
genre thematizes movement and for Cavendish allows the representability of a universe in constant, self-
directed flux. More specifically, travel for Cavendish aptly represents the mechanism of rational thought. At
the same time, Blazing World is more resolutely experimental than Observations in that it investigates the
possible loopholes and ambiguities of her materialist theory of nature: Cavendish is fascinated by the
question of how ideas take material form, and how material bodies compose ideas, and it is some of her
recurring questions about the limits and possibilities of materialism that she explores in Blazing World. Here,
I will briefly outline Cavendish’s material theory of motion as put forth in her later work—primarily
Observations, but also Philosophical Letters (1664) and Grounds of Natural Philosophy (1668). I will then
discuss how Blazing World takes up and plays with the same ideas, while it also investigates what might
occur if minds were freed of bodies.

63
Romanticism Reconsidered

Elias Greig (University of Sydney)


Ruining Romanticism: Poetry and Periodisation in Wordsworth's The Ruined Cottage 1797
Identifying Wordsworth with Romanticism and Romanticism with Wordsworth is less contentious than it
should be. The utopian poetic outlined in the Preface to the Lyrical Ballads means that Wordsworth’s work is
often taken (consciously or unconsciously) as the benchmark for Romantic poetry – a poetry, in Jerome
McGann’s formulation, of “extreme forms of displacement and poetic conceptualization whereby the actual
human issues with which the poetry is concerned are resituated in a variety of idealized localities” – in short,
a denial or suppression of history. But this formulation often has less to do with Wordsworth’s poetry than it
does with older, more conservative studies that valued the apparent ‘timelessness’ of Romantic texts.
Jonathan Wordsworth’s magisterial Music of Humanity is just such a study, working to repair an otherwise
incomplete or ‘ruined’ poem to house more comfortably the version of Wordsworth, and, by extension, the
version of Romanticism he subscribes to. Separated from the work that comes before and after it, The
Ruined Cottage is detached from history to become (in Jonathan Wordsworth’s words) “Wordsworth’s first
great poem.” Alan Liu singles out The Ruined Cottage as “one of the strongest cases of the denial […] that is
the poet’s sense of history.” What Jonathan Wordsworth celebrates, Liu decries; the fundamental reading of
the poem remains the same. To retrieve a less finished version of the poem, then, is to undermine the
edifice Jonathan Wordsworth produces in The Music of Humanity, an edifice shored up by Liu’s taking such
exception to it. This paper will attempt, through re-dating, re-examining, and re-ruining The Ruined Cottage,
to reopen the poem and Wordsworth to their radical history, both political and poetic – and question the
term ‘Romantic’, whether pejorative or complimentary, along the way.

Mark Ledbury (University of Sydney)


Northcote, Hazlitt, and Misunderstandings
This paper focuses on the remarkable and fractious relationship between the painter James Northcote and
the writer William Hazlitt. Drawing on archival research as well as recent scholarship, it explores the rather
unlikely but nevertheless real friendship between the two men, and how some of the most elegant and
perceptive of Hazlitt’s essays were inspired by Northcote. It discusses how the two men came to be
embroiled both in complex collaborations and disastrous misunderstandings and spats in the course of what
turned out to be the last years of both mens’ lives, disputes which I argue dramatize some key tensions of
English Romantic culture.

Meegan Hasted (University of Queensland)


Aristotle, Newton or Herschel? The Cosmological Allegiance of Keats's 'Bright Star'
The ‘stedfast’ nature of John Keats’s ‘Bright Star’ appears beyond question – a supreme poetic example of
Romanticism’s resistance to the ideas of the Enlightenment. Newton’s discoveries about the work of gravity
in the solar system, when applied to the stellar heavens by the eighteenth-century astronomer William
Herschel, proved that the ‘fixed’ stars were like all other matter: ‘changeable’ and in motion. Keats’s poem
appears to cling, desperately, to a classical, Aristotelian worldview, a cosmology where stars stood apart
from the physical laws that governed the mortal world, ‘watching, with eternal lids apart,/ Like nature’s
patient sleepless eremite[s].’ Yet by the time Keats composed his famous sonnet, stars were widely

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understood to be corruptible. Not only that, but measuring the brightness of the stars was an important part
of establishing this stellar irregularity. In scientific papers published between 1775 and 1820, unusually
bright stars or stars that fluctuated in their brightness, were identified as comets, meteors, double stars and
variables – stellar objects that directly refuted the existence of a ‘pure’ universe, free from change.

This paper examines Romantic-era scientific treatises on variable or periodical stars and shows that by the
time Keats had composed his tribute to Fanny Brawne, the term ‘bright star’ had become strongly associated
with stellar objects that were remarkably changeable in appearance. It asks two questions: what does Keats
mean when he longs to be ‘as’ steadfast as the bright star? And how might the compelling disjuncture
between imagery and meaning in the octet and the sestet trouble the poem’s status as a ‘love’ poem’?

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Rethinking Friendship

Nicola Parsons (University of Sydney)


Platonic Friendship in the Periodical Press: Elizabeth Rowe, John Dunton and the Athenian
Mercury
When Elizabeth Singer (later Rowe) began sending her poems anonymously to The Athenian Mercury in the
1690s, the paper’s proprietor, John Dunton, was sure he’d met his match. He responded to the woman he
named Philomela with ardour, requesting that she send more of her poetry, and the two commenced a
public exchange of poetry and a private exchange of letters. Rowe’s importance to the paper was later
confirmed by Dunton, when he described her as central to Athenianism as he conceived it, and, rather
proprietorially, as his ‘leading project’. Indeed their poetic exchanges shaped the concept of platonic love
that was at the heart of the Mercury’s ideas about literary relations between men and women.

Dunton and Rowe revived the trope of platonic love, popularised in England earlier in the century, and
radically refigured it, extending its scope in a number of ways. In a subsequent account of his friendship with
Rowe, Dunton revealed the proprietorial and coercive elements of platonic love as he conceived it. “The
arms of friendship “, he declared, “are long enough to reach you from the one end of the world to the other,
and fruition and possession principally appertain to the imagination”. In his account, the lascivious reach of
platonic love – a romance of spirits, he insists, not bodies – exceeds that of a corporeal union. This paper
investigates what happens when the tropes of platonic love are transposed to the public world of periodical
literature. Specifically, I read Rowe’s poetry and Dunton’s letters to demonstrate how platonic love was
transformed in the early eighteenth century to imagine new kinds of literary relationships.

Huw Griffiths (University of Sydney)


Revising Male Friendship in Eighteenth-Century Adaptations of Early Modern Drama
The adaptation of Elizabethan and Jacobean plays in the Restoration and eighteenth century reveals a lot
about the way in which the parameters for love between men changed across the long early modern period.
What the later adaptations reject, and what they retain, from the original texts is significant. This paper
presents a small, but varied set of evidence – the adapted texts themselves, promptbooks used in the
eighteenth century, paratextual material – in the service of a nuanced history of male-male relationships
across the early modern period.

Kate Lilley (University of Sydney)


Friends, Acquaintances, Strangers: Katherine Philips' Letters
Philips’ posthumously published letters to her well-connected friend and mentor, Charles Cotterell, Charles
II’s Master of Ceremonies, ‘Poliarchus’ to her ‘Orinda’, provide a detailed picture of a life occupied, and
preoccupied, with reading and writing as the engine of a literarily inflected sociability. Letters are Philips’
modus operandi: her means of negotiating on behalf of herself, her writing, her husband and friends, in
changing and difficult times. The 48 letters spanning 1661-4, published as Letters from Orinda to Poliarchus
in 1705 (Philips died in 1664, Cotterell in 1701), clearly represent a selection from a more substantial
correspondence. They record the daily production and circulation of letters, together with manuscripts and
sometimes printed books, by post or through trusted intermediaries. Texts are exchanged, commented

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upon, and variously thematized, as is the unreliability and untrustworthiness of all possible means of
dissemination, including the susceptibility of originals to (more or less accurate) reproduction. The pastoral
pseudonyms Philips bestowed, as a gift, on those she invited into her ‘Society of Friendship’ signal the
intrinsically literary pleasures of the coterie as well as the potential risks of association. The letters record
and enact the movement of texts, all the while offering an anxious commentary on the occasions for, and
contexts of, reading, writing and performance; on protocols of genre; and on the porousness of manuscript
and print. Poems are folded inside letters, take the form of verse epistles, and reply to other poems or
letters. Letters and other literary texts, in manuscript, print and performance, cross and refer to each other,
offering a finely grained sense of a discursively and generically complex network and the textual imbrication
of everyday life for Philips and her ‘Society of Friendship’.

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Church Architecture and Funeral Monuments

John Weretka (University of Melbourne)


Architecture Parlante Avant La Lettre?
Architecture parlante is one of the quintessentially eighteenth-century developments in architecture.
Synonymous with the work of Ledoux, Boullée and Lequeu, is it best exemplified by Ledoux's plans for the
buildings of Chaux, in which the architectural designer intended form to ‘speak’ directly to the beholder. Is it
possible to speak of an architecture parlante of the early eighteenth century? This paper will consider the
type of the church façade as constructed in Rome in the first half of the eighteenth century. Common
opinion holds that the church façade is a functional expression of the ground plan of the church behind it.
However, as the funding available to construct churches became more straitened after the period of Bernini
and Borromini, commissioners of ecclesiastical buildings often turned rather to the renewal of façades as a
means of modernising buildings than to the commissioning of entirely new buildings. Church façades may
thus be considered as independent design entities the linkage of which to the ground plans of the churches
behind them is open to question. Through an examination of the historiographical evidence and through
close analysis of several church façades erected in the early 18th century in Rome, this paper will suggest
that the façade of this period may be considered to have ‘meaning’ and may constitute an early form of
architecture parlante.

Wiebke Windorf (Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf)


Making ideas visible: French funeral monuments of the Ancien Régime as individual products of
artistic solutions
In my presentation I want to show that the major French funeral monuments of the Ancien Régime are firstly
highly individual products of artistic solutions and skills and neither visualisations of collective attitudes
towards death (as a standard argument of the histoire des mentalités) nor are they solely visualisations of
enlightened concepts of the philosophes. Since Erwin Panofsky’s rigorous judgment about the “funeral
monuments without invention in the period after Bernini“ only a few scholars investigated French tomb
sculpture compared to the wide range of analyses concerning French painting of the Ancien Régime. It is only
in the last few years that important publications have focused on the role of sculpture in pre-revolutionary
French society and on the intersection between the ideas of enlightenment and commemorative
monuments. The involvement of the philosophers in the development of funeral monuments might seem to
be irritating at first impressions since not only the commissioners, the commemorated effigies but also the
catholic fundamental ideas of this type of monument are criticized by the philosophes.

My paper concentrates on two very important commissions, “Le mausolée de Maréchal de Saxe” of Jean-
Baptiste Pigalle and the “Dauphin-Monument” of Guillaume II Coustou in Sens. I will demonstrate how these
works deal with discussed ideas of gloire, immortalité, grands hommes and afterlife but are syntheses of a
great number of conditions at whose very end stand artistic solutions about the iconographical theme and
its narrative and formal realisations.

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Secularisation and Biography

Genice Ngg (SIM University, Singapore)


A history of the rake’s individual life: Rochester in Eighteenth-Century Biographical Materials
In Restoration history of individual lives, John Wilmot, the Earl of Rochester, was a distinctly colorful
personality: a notorious rake, licentious in act and in writing, and a dramatic penitent in his deathbed. This
paper looks at the accounts of Rochester’s life after his death in the context of the period’s biographies and
memoirs. As a scandalous public figure, a ‘noble mountebank’, the appeal of memoirs about Rochester could
be akin to that of popular sensational biographies of criminals, prostitutes and stage personalities. Thomas
Alcock’s account of Rochester’s masquerade as a mountebank served to titillate the Restoration readers; it
provided no moral frame for its detailed account of Rochester’s scam and trickery. Unlike the typical
individual life history, Rochester’s life could be reframed to create the model penitent rake in a redemption
narrative. In the Life and Death of … Rochester, the theologian and writer, Gilbert Burnet, was the hero in
the spectacular conversion of the depraved sinner in his final hour. The purpose of exemplarity would be
clear to Burnet’s readers, and unlike the history of ordinary individuals, Rochester’s life would always be
presented as that of “eminent” persons, even in Samuel Johnson’s negative account of Rochester. The
biographical materials point to the need for an authoritative bid to the subject’s private life and inner
thoughts, even as they include fictive and inaccurate details that were not always believed by readers. The
malleability of the biographical subject underlines the issue of authenticity, a quality that could be
dispensable in these biographical forms that prefigure the literary biography.

Melanie Cooper-Dobbin (University of Adelaide)


Mythic masculinity, folklore, book plates, visual culture
Having flourished throughout the middle ages, mythological episodes were relegated to the realm of
imagination and fantasy during the early modern period. Yet despite their waning credibility, certain
mythological narratives enjoyed a prolonged existence in European art and visual culture. Indeed,
representations of mythical figures and folklore can be shown to have embodied a rich complexity of sub-
textual meanings for the eighteenth-century viewer alongside proofs of natural history and discovery. While
many works have enabled an alternative view of an artistic period long considered overtly feminine and
playfully sensuous, an early book plate confirms that images of mythic masculinity cemented ideals of
European progress and achievement, whilst simultaneously helping to regulate accepted behavioural norms
and expectations within a range of masculinities.

Jeanette Hoorn (University of Melbourne)


Teaching the Gendering of Sensibility on-line: Thomas Gainsborough's pictures at the Huntington
and the National Gallery of Victoria
In this paper I discuss the design of my Coursera MOOC, Sexing the Canvas, an international collaboration
between the University of Melbourne, the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, The Huntington, San
Marino California and the Museum of Modern Art, New York. I will focus upon one unit in the MOOC
devoted to Thomas Gainsbough’s portraits at the NGV and at the Huntington. In this MOOC I demonstrate
the ways in which we can read the portraits here selected, as a gendered discourse on the eighteenth
century culture of sensibility. I consider the concepts central to the culture of sensibility and how these are

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represented in Gainsborough’s pictures such as sensation, the man of feeling and sensibility, effeminacy, the
abolition of cruelty to animals and the welfare of the poor.

Coursera MOOCs (massive on-line open courses) are designed to give web-users access to tuition in over 80
universities including Stanford, Caltec, Yale, and the University of Melbourne. The units can be taken by
anyone and although there are assessment components and certificates awarded for completion, they are
not at the moment, for credit. This will change with the recent announcement by Barak Obama that
Coursera programs will in the future be available for credit towards qualifications relating to digital
education in the United States. I will show how paintings, and in this particular case, British portraits, are an
ideal subject for effective interactive and collaborative digital teaching on-line, a form of instruction set to
become central to Higher Education.

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Cosmopolitanism Trade, Material Culture

Matthew Martin (National Gallery of Victoria)


English Porcelain, Catholic Collectors
A small group of porcelain sculptures employing Counter-reformation devotional imagery produced by the
London Chelsea factory in the middle decades of the eighteenth century has the potential to cast light on the
relationship between the forces of cosmopolitanism and nationalism in the world of eighteenth-century
British art. The context of production of these sculptures provides us with a glimpse of the highly
international character of the eighteenth-century European porcelain industry. The majority of artists
associated with the Chelsea factory are of non-British origin. Yet this factory sought to position itself in the
British market as an English competitor to the Meissen and Sèvres factories which dominated mid-century
European luxury porcelain production, as well as to porcelains being imported from Asia. As well as general
insight into the international character of English porcelain production, these porcelain sculptures also
provide us with an opportunity to examine a very specific scenario of luxury consumption. The sculptures
most likely functioned as devotional images and were probably private commissions by English Roman
Catholic patrons, providing a glimpse of the often-overlooked phenomenon of Recusant art patronage and
collecting in eighteenth-century England. Members of the Roman Catholic elite, like their Protestant peers,
sought to accumulate status through patronage and collection, but pursued these activities in a manner that
reflected their Catholic identity. Consumption of devotional images in English porcelain signalled both
participation in a European aristocratic Catholic culture and, through the objects’ status as English luxury
commodities, membership of the English elite. Such objects thus expressed a uniquely English Catholic
identity, at once nationalist and cosmopolitan.

Jack Moloney (University of Melbourne)


Trans-Atlantic Mercantile Advocacy and the Beginnings of the English Augustan Age
The links between the beginnings of a market economy and the formation of a strong fiscal-military state
have long been the subject of historical inquiry. It is generally agreed that in the aftermath of the Glorious
Revolution, economic thought was fundamentally transformed and began its process of institutionalisation
as a modern science of society. This change in the nature of the discourses concerning the science of wealth
and labour occurred within a broader emergence of new forms of administrative power (institutionalised in
both absolutist and parliamentary forms), a new set of intellectual abstractions underpinning the operations
of that power (the management of population, novel discourses of sovereignty), and a new form of
subjectivity (the modern subject possessed of a unitary relationship with the state and endowed with new
acquisitive commercial and sexual drives). This new discourse of political economy was concerned with the
formation of the proper interests of the state and the regulation of individual interests within an optimum
framework in the service of economic growth.

What is perhaps less known, and certainly less incorporated into the historiographical literature, is the role
played by prominent merchants, military governors and senior bureaucrats in a trans-Atlantic advocacy of
this new form of commercial and military power. This paper will argue that ideas often associated with the
economic domain were first framed as moral statements within arguments over the nature of trans-Atlantic
networks, or occurred within contests over control of the administrative framework of the Atlantic colonies.
The attack on absolutism and its strategy of monopoly was thus first formulated in the Atlantic colonies, as a
particular fusion of forms of military and commercial power, exemplified in the plantation economies of the

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Caribbean, and put to use as a weapon in the contest over the management of the slave trade. The stability
of the long eighteenth century, and the economic conception of free trade, had their origins in the turmoil
and violence of the Atlantic arena.

Garritt Van Dyk (University of Sydney)


Franco-Ottoman diplomacy and cultural exchange: Creating coffee culture in seventeenth-century
Paris?
In 1669 Sultan Mehmet IV sent a diplomatic representative, Soliman Aga, to France. His mission was to
deliver a letter from the Sultan to Louis XIV – and no one else. Prolonged contact with exoticism during the
Turkish diplomat’s eight month stay has been cited by historians from Legrand d’Aussy to E.C. Spary as the
cultural influence responsible for acceptance of coffee by Parisian nobles.

The underlying context of this exchange has not been fully explored in the framework of cultural history and
the study of early modern consumption. At most, the trade negotiations between the Ottoman Empire and
France are identified as a point of contention, but Soliman Aga’s visit was complicated by a number of
factors, including: his concealed diplomatic status; competing claims for diplomatic savoir-faire; and the
inability of Louis XIV’s Oriental experts to translate Turkish. The first official diplomatic audience granted to
Aga is given by the French Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Hugue de Lionne – dressed as a Turk, in the regalia
of the Grand Vizir of the Sublime Port. To signal the end of the reception, the Sultan’s representative is
served coffee, sherbet and incense, as would be customary in Turkey – in Paris.

Coffee was a known commodity when he arrived, but a widespread habit had not been established. Despite
the agency ascribed by historians to Soliman Aga, evidence of his influential contact with Parisians is scarce.
Here, I explore the literal and metaphoric impact of this diplomatic masquerade to question: the currency of
the historic myth; the role of ‘armchair Orientalists’ and aspiring merchants in developing related discourse;
and how exoticism was both embraced and rejected in the development of the Parisian coffee habit.

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China and Europe

Jen-yen Chen (National Taiwan University)


Maria Theresia and the “Chinese” Voicing of Austrian Imperial Selfhood: The Contexts of
Metastasio’s China Operas
Best known in its setting by Christoph Willibald Gluck, Metastasio’s Le cinesi (The Chinese Ladies) received its
first performance in 1735 in a private imperial context featuring Austrian archduchesses in the vocal roles,
among them the future Empress Maria Theresia. On this occasion, the music was provided by the Vice-
Kapellmeister Antonio Caldara, whose setting, less familiar than Gluck’s, nevertheless belongs at the center
of a paradigmatic milieu of Baroque court opera, that of Emperor Charles VI which appointed Metastasio as
court poet. Nearly two decades later, the librettist returned to the theme of China with L’eroe cinese (The
Chinese Hero), which premiered in 1752 at Maria Theresia’s new summer residence of Schönbrunn Palace in
a setting by the court composer Giuseppe Bonno, and with his reworking of Le cinesi, which in its setting of
1754 by Gluck formed part of the elaborate public festivities for Maria Theresia and the imperial family
offered by the Prince Sachsen-Hildburghausen at Schloßhof Palace. This paper investigates the function of
Austrian imaginings of China in articulating imperial legitimacy and strength, during an era of severe
challenges to Habsburg pre-eminence which included resistance to Maria Theresia’s accession to the throne
and military conflict with Frederick the Great of Prussia. It argues that “China” provided a dialectical space
which allowed reflexive self-exploration within hegemonic contexts, private and public alike, by channeling
critique through the perspective of fantasized virtuous outsiders. The contrasting nature of Metastasio’s two
libretti, one parodistic and the other celebratory, particularly embodies this dialectical self-engagement.

Samara Cahill (Nanyang Technological University)


Sir Charles Grandison’s Chinese Garden
Ciaran Murray has argued that Jonathan Swift’s mentor Sir William Temple laid a foundation for the
Romantic movement with his praise of the aesthetics of Chinese gardens. Temple’s praise influenced
Addison and, through him, Samuel Richardson. Further, Richardson’s Sir Charles Grandison (1753-4) is a
“cosmopolitan” novel, as Patrick Mello has recently argued. Drawing on these works of scholarship I will
read Grandison through an ecocosmopolitan lens to argue that, not only was the Britishness of Richardson’s
quintessentially Anglican hero informed by the reception of Chinese aesthetics (or what were taken to be
Chinese aesthetics), but also that the “Enlightenment” view of nature is far more complex, and less
mechanistic, than much ecocritical scholarship has acknowledged. Indeed, both Chinese aesthetics and the
preservation of the natural world are central to the construction of British masculinity in Sir Charles
Grandison.

Yin Ning Kwok (University of Hong Kong)


The Role of Physicality and Materiality in Europeans’ Global Sensibilities when Responding to
Chinese Painting and Calligraphy after 1600 and before 1860
The proposed paper traces the global sensibilities of the European reception of Chinese painting and
calligraphy as expressed in English language texts published from 1613 to 1859 during which the physicality
and materiality of art forms played a critical role. As a result, painting and calligraphy were little valued and
understood, while certain other art forms like architecture, gardening, porcelain, silk, and mechanical arts

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(paper making and printing methods) were more highly valued as they had a more physical or material
appeal. Even when writers did discuss these Chinese visual arts, they focused almost solely on the physical
and material aspects of things related to these art forms – such as ‘the four treasures’ (paper, brush, ink, and
ink stone) and writing manner. They also did not see the cultural importance of these physical and material
features or their relationship to artistic practice; thus, no European writers in the those investigated writings
were able to see beyond these physical characteristics and realize that these four objects were a big part of
the elite culture among Chinese literati, known as ‘the four treasures of the literati’s study room’ since the
5th century. Examined texts are representatives and examples that were important, influential, or typical in
the period. They include descriptions, interpretations, and analyses of these Chinese arts and material
culture in books on China, in travel writings about China, and in encyclopedia entries about China and/or
Chinese culture. This paper does not include unpublished letters or manuscripts, or writings in newspaper
and magazines.

Will Christie (University of Sydney)


Cultural Cross-Dressing in the House of Pankeequa
The Memoirs of William Hickey record a visit to Canton in the late summer of 1769 in which the Hong
merchant, Pankeequa (Poankeequa), offered dinner and entertainment to Chinese and British guests on
different occasions in which the domestic and cultural customs of the British and the Chinese were to be
alternately adopted. This enlightened invitation to inhabit another culture, sartorially and gastronomically,
suggests a very different attitude to cultural nationalism than the mutual misunderstanding that will deepen
and intensify over the early years of the next century, when relations between the two nations would
deteriorate. This paper offers a reading of this imaginative enactment of another's nationhood in the context
of literary nationalism and stereotyping in contemporary British literature and sinology.

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Enlightenment Periodisation
The idea for this panel arose from a conference shortly to be convened at All Souls College, Oxford, on
questions of literary periodisation (‘Periodisation: Pleasures and Pitfalls’). The conference has raised a
number of questions that would be usefully discussed in an interdisciplinary manner, and in the context of
eighteenth-century studies. This panel seeks to address a few of them. Our papers will consider the
construction of long eighteenth-century periodicity in print culture, the modern heritage industry and
neoclassical poetic genre. We are especially interested in the impact of trends of privatisation or
specialisation on narratives of period-formation (for instance, the effect of the Tonsons’ publishing
monopoly on perceptions of Renaissance literature; the distance between non-specialist conceptions of
country house history and those of the academies; the encounter between traditional poetic genres and
Enlightenment categories of professional information). Our panel will point out some of the contemporary
and modern ideologies operative in narratives of Enlightenment periodisation, and suggest ways in which
the particular emphases and interests of Enlightenment intellectual activity often prove resistant to broad
periodising assumptions.

Oliver Cox (Oxford University)


Gloomy Georgians: Some Problems for Eighteenth-Century Country Houses
The so-called ‘Downton Boom’ has led to a surge in visitors to country houses across the UK. According to an
October 2013 report from VisitBritain almost one in three tourists who visit the UK go to see an historic
house or castle, thanks to TV and film productions. This paper explores whether eighteenth-century country
houses have benefited from this surge of interest, and interrogates the extent to which programmes like
Downton Abbey have made it easier to engage visitors in a site-specific narrative.

I will explore the challenges in making Georgian country houses intellectually accessible to visitors with little
knowledge of the eighteenth century through the case study of a collaborative project I am directing at
Stowe House and gardens. I will outline why certain kinds of interior and exterior styles flourished under
eighteenth-century historical and intellectual conditions, and suggest some ways in which these conceptual
frameworks and ideas can be made visible to modern audiences. What forms of Enlightenment narratives
prove to be problematic when engaging with non-specialist audiences?

This paper will use my experiences as the creator of the Thames Valley Country House Partnership
(www.tvchp.org) to argue that specialisation within higher education and lack of public knowledge has
conspired to limit informed access to the eighteenth-century country house. In the UK National Curriculum,
the Georgian Period is an awkward no man’s land between the English Civil War and the Industrial
Revolution, or Henry VIII and Hitler. In popular culture the Georgians fare little better, tailing in behind the
Nazis, Queen Victoria, Henry VIII and the Civil War.

Clare Bucknell (Oxford University)


Specialisation and Knowledge: Some Problems for Poetic Genre
The relationship between historical period and poetic genre is of particular importance for scholars of the
mid-eighteenth century, an age of enthusiastic vernacular revivalism and gradual decline in the neoclassical
kinds. Why did some traditional genres flourish under mid-century historical and intellectual conditions, and

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why did others fail to survive? What forms of Enlightenment thinking proved to be problematic for the kind
of work that the established poetic genres performed?

I want to consider the case of the English georgic at mid-century, and in particular four georgics which focus
on domestic agriculture: Smart’s The Hop-Garden (1752), Dodsley’s Agriculture (1753), Dyer’s The Fleece
(1757) and Jago’s Edge-Hill (1767). These poems represent a serious attempt to adapt the tropes and images
of the Virgilian didactic tradition to the new information, techniques and objectives of British agricultural
improvement. They celebrate the efficiency and maximisation of yield that modernised forms of production
enable, and present a finely detailed macroeconomic overview of interlinking professional occupations. I
argue in this paper, though, that there are problems with using an inherited Virgilian framework to
communicate the kind of technical information that obtains in a period of rapid agricultural progress. The
mid-century georgic articulates a crisis of confidence about the role and purpose of didactic poetry, and
about the poet’s conflicted position as both disinterested observer of, and knowledgeable specialist in, the
agricultural work he describes. I suggest that this fraught engagement with the information of
Enlightenment political economy is one reason for the decline of the English georgic during the later
eighteenth century.

Ruth Scobie (Oxford University)


The Pacific craze and the 'Age of Enlightenment': London 1770-1790
Between 1770 and 1790, a short-lived but intense craze for Pacific people, themes and images emerged out
of and satirised a new urban commercial culture in London. One of numerous metropolitan fashions, the
Pacific craze produced texts and performances which challenged conventional progressive versions of British
cultural history, by offering satirical or celebratory visions of urban modernity as the exotic and irrational
elevation of trivia and waste. In other words, the exotic Pacific was not only seen as evidence of the global
reach of European Enlightenment’s (avowedly benevolent and sentimental) emerging tentacles, but also
offered a set of tropes with which bewildered or amused metropolitans could explore an urban landscape as
curious, and perhaps as dangerous, as any newly-discovered island. While members of Samuel Johnson’s
circle dressed up in Hawaiian costumes and paraded in public as the killer of Captain Cook, satirists recast
the Tahitian ‘queen’ Oberea as the Ovidian Oenone and the scandalous Lady Grosvenor, and Pacific
featherwork invaded the British Museum and the Covent Garden stage alike.

Viewed from this perspective, the apparently staid and insular world of Georgian intellectual culture belies
its own self-fashionings as a steady period of intellectual amelioration, and appears instead as a barrage of
repetitive waves of mass obsession and excess; of manias and urban spectacles which seemed wildly to
overflow the people, places and incidents which inspired them. This paper will examine a handful of
manifestations of the Pacific craze as a means of reconstructing this contemporary idea of the metropolis,
then in the process of being displaced onto the exotic outsider.

Alan Maddox (University of Sydney)


Fame, reputation and identity in the formation of eighteenth-century singers
The fame of the most successful eighteenth-century singers of Italian opera is often compared with that of
popular music stars today, but early modern singers’ fame was of a different kind, for a different audience in
a different social context, mediated by different modes of transmission and distribution. One way of

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understanding the special status of these singers is through considering the ways in which they uniquely
embodied the constructions of identity and social, economic and political power which were played out for
aristocratic audiences in the production and reception of opera seria–constructions which the singers
simultaneously reinforced and subverted. Singers’ ambiguous public and private status, and the potent ritual
enactment which opera represented, meant that they occupied a liminal space which required them to
perform multiple and overlapping identities on and off stage. A reading of the ways in which they
constructed their own identities in relation to the social parameters which they embodied can also provide
insight into the meanings which they and other participants in this special mode of performance understood
it to instantiate.

77
Enlightened Transformations

Ramón Bárcena (University of Oviedo)


Spinoza´s ideas on human rights and democracy and Radical Enlightenment
Jonathan Israel has claimed the principal raison for the partial successes of radical thought in the late
eighteenth century was the almost total failure of the moderate Enlightenment to deliver reforms that much
of the enlightened society had for decades been pressing for. Many religious minorities longed for a
comprehensive toleration but European countries did not deliver it fully except for France in 1789. In Britain
the position of Catholics and Unitarians remained particularly unsatisfactory. In Spain the Tribunal of the
Holy Office of the Inquisition would not be definitively abolished until 1824, during the reign of Isabella II.
Although many publicists agitated for no European country delivered formally full freedom of press and
thought until Denmark did so, fleetingly, in 1770-2. Before 1789 serfdom oppressed large numbers in Central
and Eastern Europe and black slavery prospered in the Americas, the emancipation of slaves emerging only
slowly and marginally. In spite of the ceaseless and justified complaints against the archaic and little
egalitarian European legal system, full equality before the law was only delivered by revolution in America
first and then, in France, in 1789. This proposal aims at studying the power of ideas that could be proclaimed
as a clearly formulated package of basic human rights as the basis for social theory and political
constitutions. Spinoza´s contribution was probably the most crucial in the one-substance metaphysics
Enlightenment because his thought goes further in undermining belief in revelation, divine providence and
miracles, and hence ecclesiastical authority. He was the first major advocate of freedom of thought and the
press as distinct from freedom of conscience and the first great democratic philosopher.

Tine Ravnsted-Larsen Reeh (University of Copenhagen)


Concepts of the past intended for the future. Church historiography as means to secularization in
Nordic countries
In 1732 the King of Denmark-Norway introduced a new letter of foundation for the University of
Copenhagen. A novelty of this reform was the introduction of Church history as an independent discipline. In
1738, Professor Ludvig Holberg published Almindelig Kirke-Historie – the first of many historical studies of
Christianity to appear in Scandinavia. These works are conducted by theological as well as lay intellectuals
and they share an interest in applying enlightenment and reason to the Christianity of the region. Although
the authors are from the intellectual and academic elite, most of the texts are in Danish and express an
unambiguous distributive or democratic intention as they try to educate the individual commoners to a
modern critical Christianity.

These studies deliver a description of the Christianity of the laity and of non-cultic religious praxis. Dogmatic
methods and a history of salvation with metaphysical actors lose to a pragmatic method focusing on
“innerweltliche” factors and causality. And periodic division of ancient, medieval and modern history was
victorious, as well as the consequent use of historical-critical method.

The work of Church historians from the 18th century not only constitutes a milestone in Church
historiography. The new historical narrations of Christianity created a hyper individualised concept of Church
and a particular kind of secular chiliasm later to reappear in the social democratic movements of this region.

This paper investigates how ideas of enlightenment transformed historiography, Church and Christianity,
and how concepts of the past became an intellectual battleground of consequence for culture and society.

78
Rowland Weston (University of Waikato)
Chivalry, Commerce and the 'coarse clay' of humanity: William Godwin and the ‘end of history’
In Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), Edmund Burke famously pronounced the end of the age of
chivalry and its replacement with an era presided over by ‘sophisters, oeconomists and calculators’. At the
time the most extensive and celebrated response to Burke’s defence of tradition, instinct, and the
aristocratic status quo was the English Dissenter William Godwin’s notorious Enquiry Concerning Political
Justice (1793). Godwin proposed an anarchist polity comprising radically independent, ratiocinative
individuals governed by calculations of public utility. Isaac Kramnick rightly draws attention to the
importance of Dissenters and Dissenting thought in Britain’s commercial successes of the long eighteenth
century. Central to the ‘bourgeois civilization’ and ‘ideology’ espoused and pursued by these thinkers were
classic liberal notions of low taxation, minimal state intervention, and equality of opportunity – though not
equality understood as social leveling. While Godwin can certainly be enlisted in this cause, there is enough
in Enquiry Concerning Political Justice to suggest that his was an imperfect fit.

This paper explores Godwin’s critique of extant discourses associating the rise of modern civility with that of
commercial society. Thinkers Godwin engaged included William Robertson, David Hume and, especially,
Adam Smith. Along with Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, Godwin texts analysed in this paper include his
historical novel of the sixteenth century St Leon (1799) and his social and intellectual history of the late
middle ages Life of Geoffrey Chaucer (1803).

Christine Owen (Murdoch University)


Questions of value: the female castaway and the gendering of Robinson Crusoe
The earliest influential critic to read the role of gender and sexual morality in relation to economics and
Robinson Crusoe is Ian Watt in The Rise of the Novel (1957). Again in Myths of Modern Individualism (1996),
Watt points out that in Defoe’s three volumes, women are mentioned only once in relation to economic
exchange and that Defoe always uses the language of commerce in his descriptions of women. Watt
suggests that Defoe, generally, scorns “romantic love”, “even sexual satisfaction” and marriage, and Watt
concludes that the ethos of economic individualism prevents Crusoe “from paying much heed to the ties of
family, whether as a son or as a husband” (37, 66-67). For Watt, the absence of women on Crusoe’s island is
“an extreme inhibition of … normal human feelings.” In my paper, I address what Martha Rattenberg
(unknown author), the first female castaway narrative to appear after Robinson Crusoe, might contribute to
our knowledge of the role of gender and economics in Defoe’s text. While Crusoe later returns to sea
repeatedly as a colonizing, ambitious, rich merchant, the childless Martha refuses to travel again by sea and
eventually becomes the co-owner of a tavern on the coast of France servicing English ships. I discuss the
similarities and differences in the texts and argue that, in contrast to the moral constraints on Martha,
Crusoe’s transformation is based on a new and different configuration of values conventionally described as
masculine and feminine in the economics of the period.

79
Women, Print, Public Sphere

Katie Charles (University of California, Los Angeles)


Interrupting Women: Interpolated Tales in Joseph Andrews and Peregrine Pickle
In The Anthology and the Rise of the Novel, Leah Price argues that literary criticism takes as its operating
premise “a gentleman's agreement to take the parts of a work for the whole.” This paper attends to
interpolated tales that flout this gentleman’s contract and frame their transgression in gendered terms: “The
Memoirs of a Lady of Quality” that constitutes Chapter 88 of Tobias Smollett’s Adventures of Peregrine Pickle
(1751) and “The History of Leonora, or, the Unfortunate Jilt” that appears in Henry Fielding’s Joseph Andrews
(1742). In both cases, the interpolated tale's assertion of a genderbending new tone, style, and brand of
content is so extreme that many critics discern the feminine hand of a distinct author, with Sarah Fielding
put forward as collaborator with her brother and Lady Frances Vane put forward as her own autobiographer
rather than Smollett’s biographical object. In these disputes, the interpolated tale becomes a contracted
ground upon which readers test their notions of gender and its hermeneutic role in narrative. What is at
stake when a male-focalized picaresque novel cedes its point of view to a female narrator? What is the effect
of embedding Lady Vane’s tale of "uniquely female" distress within a novel brimming with the male
prerogative of sexual libertinism, pranks, and rape? What formal features make these interpolations sit so
uneasily in the novels that contain them, and what philosophical or cultural stakes impel so many critics to
call for the interpolations to be expunged?

Shawn Cailey Hall (University of California, Los Angeles)


Disclaiming 'all Title to a legal Father:' Common Law, Community, and Paratexts in Charlotte
Lennox’s The Female Quixote
In eighteenth-century Britain, a time and place of literary innovation and legal transformation, how did
women writers use the burgeoning literary marketplace as a site for expressing their fraught relationship to
a fickle legal system theorized and established by men? My paper will address one literary response to the
evolving nature of common law in eighteenth-century Britain: The Female Quixote, Charlotte Lennox’s 1752
novel. Drawing upon eighteenth-century British literary studies, Enlightenment philosophy, and legal history,
I will examine how Arabella, the novel’s protagonist, conceptualizes her connection to a changing legal
system from which she is wholly disenfranchised. I argue that, by invoking “precedent,” as it does at several
key moments, the novel alerts the reader to Arabella’s legal dispossession and exposes the failure of
common law to provide a community for women. I further propose that the often-overlooked narrative
voice of the novel’s chapter titles introduces a potential alternative community, one that challenges
scholarly assumptions about conceptions of selfhood in the eighteenth century. This paper will also address
how The Female Quixote responds to David Hume’s theories of self, desire and reason proposed in A Treatise
of Human Nature (1739), and his arguments about women’s connection to history and politics in Essays,
Moral and Political (1741). Ultimately, I argue that Lennox constructs an implied female community of
readers adjudicating against a juridical male community whose textual precedents are both insular and
oppressive.

80
Stephanie Russo (Macquarie University)
Saving Marie Antoinette: Mary Robinson and Helen Craik Resuscitate a Queen
It has often been noted that many women writers of the eighteenth century on both sides of the radical-
conservative divide felt a particular affinity for Marie Antoinette. Both the radical novelist Mary Robinson
and the anti-Jacobin Helen Craik wrote novels in which they attempt to effectively ‘save’ Marie Antoinette
through their representations of Marie Antoinette surrogates. In Robinson’s émigré novel, Hubert de Sevrac,
the trials and tribulations of the de Sevrac family reflect the struggles of the French royal family in
revolutionary France. In imagining a happy resolution for the de Sevrac family, Robinson transforms the
dead King and Queen into a family of ideal French republicans who will uphold the original ideals of the
French Revolution. Helen Craik’s Adelaide Narbonne gives us two Marie Antoinette surrogates in Victorine,
the fictional look-alike niece of Marie Antoinette, and the eponymous heroine of the novel, who, like the
French Queen, is despised by both royalist and revolutionary alike. At the end of the novel, Craik removes
Victorine and Adelaide to an apolitical utopia in England, suggesting that the only safe option for women
with any kind of public profile is removal from the political sphere. Both Craik and Robinson fictionalize the
French Revolution in order to “save” the French Queen, reflecting both the extraordinary hold Marie
Antoinette had over the imaginations of British woman from both sides of the political divide, and her ability
to function as a symbol for thinking through ideas about the role of women within the public sphere.

Katrina Clifford (University of Sydney)


From subject to object: authority and authorship in Charlotte Lennox’s Henrietta
The mid-eighteenth century was a period of significant experimentation with both the form and the subject
matter of the domestic novel. Far from all novels promoting the same ideas and ideology, a wide variety of
plots, characters and narrative forms are to be found in these texts, revealing a cohort of novelists who were
interested in exploring what the genre could be and do, and using it to debate a wide range of personal,
social and political questions.

Charlotte Lennox’s 1758 novel, Henrietta, is one of a number of mid-century novels to both support and
question the emergent domestic ideology and to do so in part through the form of the narrative. Henrietta is
an unusual heroine – lively, enthusiastic, intelligent and bold, easily overcoming the obstacles set against
her, resisting marriage and domesticity in order to maintain her control over her life and her narrative. In the
final book of the novel, however, she loses control of both to her brother, to whom she voluntarily submits
herself and her story. She moves quickly from being the subject of her narrative to being the object of her
brother’s tale.

This paper will explore how Lennox uses both the content and the form of Henrietta to question and
challenge ideas of domesticity and female submission in eighteenth-century society, and thus how this novel
reveals the types of experimentation occurring at this point of the novel’s development.

81
Author Index

Gray, Christina, 44
A Green, Karen, 28
Alvarez, Kerby, 11 Greentree, Shane, 29
Greig, Elias, 64

B Griffiths, Huw, 66

Bárcena, Ramón, 78 H
Bending, Stephen, 6
Brennan, AnnMarie, 37 Hall, Shawn Cailey, 80
Bricker, Andrew, 7 Hamel-Akré, Jessica, 31
Brosnan, Kelsey, 9 Hamilton, William, 15
Bucknell, Clare, 75 Hankinson, Alexandra, 35
Burchell, David, 33 Harris, Jocelyn, 49
Harrison, Fiona, 56
Hasted, Meegan, 64
C Heath, Ekaterina, 35
Cahill, Samara, 73 Hill, Michaela, 21
Casey, Mary, 28 Hoorn, Jeanette, 69
Charles, Katie, 80 Hosseini, Anita, 59
Chen, Jen-yen, 73 Hultquist, Aleksondra, 34
Christie, Will, 74 Hunt, John Dixon, 2
Chua, Brandon, 23
Clifford, Katrina, 81 J
Collins, Jeffrey, 4
Cooper-Dobbin, Melanie, 69 Jones, Adrian, 26
Cooperman, Emily, 42 Jones, Emma, 43
Cordingley, Anthony, 37 Jones, Timothy Rees, 57
Cox, Oliver, 75 Jones-O'Neill, Jennifer, 36
Crouch, Sara, 45
K
D Kaplama, Erman, 58
D’Angelo, Fabio, 30 Karalis, Vrasidas, 53
Dale, Amelia, 45 Kwok, Yin Ning, 73
Del Balzo, Angelina, 19
Denney, Peter, 7 L
During, Simon, 23
Lalevée, Thomas, 61
Lamb, Jonathan, 55
F Larcombe, Christopher, 16
Ferng, Jennifer, 26 Law, Hedy, 19
Flannery, Kristie, 13 Ledbury, Mark, 64
Fripp, Jessica, 10 Lilley, Kate, 66
Lőrincz, Viktor, 43

G
M
Garrioch, David, 21
Gaston, Vivien, 17 Maddox, Alan, 76
Glanville, Luke, 53 Maifreda, Germano, 30
Gleadhill, Emma, 21 Mallari, Aaron, 12
Graf, Benjamin, 61 Martin, Matthew, 71
Grainger, Jacqui, 28 Maskil, David l, 17

82
McAuley, Louis Kirk, 14 Russell-Clarke, Jo, 38
McBain, Jean, 47 Russo, Stephanie, 81
McKeon, Michael, 1 Ryan, Lauren, 59
McMahon, Darrin, 7
Milam, Jennifer, 51 S
Min, Eun Kyung, 47
Moloney, Jack, 71 Saar, Doreen Alvarez, 41
Moore, Sarah, 41 Schmidt, Marthe, 60
Mukherjee, Nilanjana, 13 Scobie, Ruth, 76
Murphy, Olivia, 49 Scott, Alison, 24
Shepheard, Mark, 17
N Simons, Patricia, 9

Naginski, Erika, 3 T
Ngg, Genice, 69
Nursoo, Ida, 53 Tankard, Paul, 48
Thell, Anne, 63
O Touma, Josephine, 20

O’Connell, Lisa, 24 U
Ortolja-Baird, Alexandra, 31
Oslington, Paul, 39 Upfal, Annette, 50
Owen, Christine, 79
V
P Van Dyk, Garritt, 72
Parsons, Nicola, 66 Vassiliou, Constantine, 39
Phiddian, Robert, 15 Verhaart, Floris, 57
Poblador, Karl, 11
Priebe, Jessica, 52 W
Q Wellington, Robert, 25
Weretka, John, 68
Quigley, Killian, 56 Weston, Rowland, 79
White, Janet, 51
R Whiteman, Stephen, 25
Windorf, Wiebke, 68
Reddan, Bronwyn, 33
Reeh, Tine Ravnsted-Larsen, 78 Z
Reeves, James, 46
Rinaldi, Bianca Maria, 27 Zabel, Christine, 40
Rosenfeld, Sophia, 5

83
For more information go to the Sydney Intellectual History Network
(SIHN) website:
sydney.edu.au/intellectual-history/

SYDNEY
INTELLECTUAL
HISTORY NETWORK

Image: François Boucher, French, 1748, Oil on canvas, 116 x 133 in. 71.PA.37

ABN 15 211 513 464


CRICOS 00026A