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Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Vol. 27, No. 4, December 2002 ( C 2002)

Abstracts of Papers Presented at the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

The 33rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeed- back (AAPB) was held at the Riveria Hotel and Casino, Las Vegas, Nevada, March 22– 24, 2002. The theme of the meeting was “Circle of the Soul: The Psychophysiology of Mind/Body/Spirit.” The meeting included diverse program offerings, consisting of plat- form and poster presentations, symposia and panel discussions, invited keynote addresses,

a distinguished scientist address, clinical forums, roundtable discussions, institutes, work- shops, short courses, and section and division programs. Abstracts for the platform and poster presentations follow. The first 6 papers were judged by the Program Committee

to merit the special distinction of “Citation Paper or Poster.” The remaining papers ap-

pears in their order of presentation, beginning with the oral presentations. More extended abstracts, as well as summaries for other offerings, are available for a limited time on the AAPB website ( The Program Committee members were Eric K. Willmarth (Chair), Jeffery R. Cram, Kati Twinem-Jones, Lynda Kirk, Stuart C. Donaldson, Vincent J. Monastra, Nancy M. Schwartz, Paul M. Lehrer, Steven M. Baskin, and Donald P. Moss

(President). The 34th Annual Meeting will be held at the Adam’s Mark Hotel, Jacksonville, Florida, March 27–30, 2003.


LORETA and QEEG Analysis of an Alzheimer’s Patient Treated With AVS (Audio-Visual Stimulation)

Tom Budzynski, 1 University of Washington Hsin-Yi (Jean) Tang, University of Washington Leslie Sherlin, University of Tennessee

Sequential QEEG (quantified EEG) and LORETA analyses were performed on an

Alzheimer’s patient as a baseline before treatment and then during and after AVS treatment.

A QEEG was performed on S before any treatment had begun. At the end of this session

another QEEG was taken as S experienced 20 min of AVS. Further QEEGs were taken at

1 Communications should be addressed to Tom Budzynski, PhD, 5148 NE 54th Street, Seattle, Washington 98105.



C 2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting

the end of the AVS and 15 min later. The patient then entered a program of 30 sessions of 20 min AVS. At the end of the training and then at several month intervals 3 more QEEGs were performed. The AVS treatment produced decreases in both delta and beta band levels in certain areas of the brain as delineated by the QEEG and LORETA analyses. This pilot study would suggest that AVS may be of help in reducing the slowing of the EEG that accompanies the progression of Alzheimer’s symptoms.

KEY WORDS: QEEG; LORETA; AVS; Alzheimer’s disorder.


QEEG Studies of Advanced Buddhist Meditation

John W. DeLuca, 2 Mind Stuff sm and Wayne State University School of Medicine

Ray Daly, Neurobiofeedback Wellness Centre and University of Windsor

Indo-Tibetan Buddhist practice employs structured meditations aimed at awakening emo- tional and spiritual qualities whose seed already resides within us. The process involves the recollection and development of these energies to engender emotional and spiritual growth. The quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) characteristics of a Buddhist ex-monk during various stages of a self-healing meditation practice were analyzed using a Lexicor Neurosearch 24 and both Neurorep and LORETA software. The findings, consistent with previous studies, suggest a shift to lower brain frequencies and increased interregional co- herence. Midline delta was prominent in single-band topographies and LORETA analysis implicated frontal regions, cingulate gyrus, and temporal lobes.

KEY WORDS: QEEG; meditation; LORETA.


Short and Long-Term AVS (Audio-Visual Stimulation) Effects in an Alzheimer’s Patient as Documented by QEEG

Thomas Budzynski 3

Audiovisual Stimulation can induce a frequency-following response in the EEG as measured on the scalp [Budzynski et al. (1999)], but can AVS produce changes in the subcortical areas of the brain of an Alzheimer’s patient? The new technique, known as LORETA, was used to determine deeper structure involvement and to compare that with QEEG results from the surface following completion of a training program of 30 AVS sessions plus intermittent home use. The AVS appears to produce improvement in the current density of various brain regions that are involved in Alzheimer’s Disease progression. The results appear as early as the first AVS stimulation period and last through the continuation of the 30 session training period with no or minimal decrease in results. The QEEG results generally agree with

2 Communications should be addressed to John W. DeLuca, PhD, Mind Stuff sm, P.O. Box 510867, Livonia, Michigan 48151; e-mail: 3 Communications should be addressed to Tom Budzynski, PhD, 5148 NE 54th Street, Seattle, Washington 98105; e-mail:

Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting


the LORETA but, of course, do not delineate the deeper structure condition. The results of the follow-ups will help determine if the AVS effects hold up even as the Alzheimer’s progression occurs.



Work Related Musculoskeletal Pain and the Work/Rest Cycle:

Microbreaks, Gap Analysis, Cinderella Hypothesis, and More

Susan J. Middaugh, 4 Medical University of South Carolina

Work related musculoskeletal pain (WRMSP) is a substantial and persistent problem in light duty jobs such as computer operation and light manufacturing where muscle load is low but static postures and repetitive motions are common. Recent Ergonomic research has developed new theories and EMG measures to investigate this problem, and the findings point to the importance of the work/rest cycle and the need for frequent, brief periods of muscle rest. This research is highly relevant to EMG biofeedback interventions for WRMSP but can be difficult to interpret and apply clinically because of the unfamiliar terminology and EMG quantification methods that are used. This work is reviewed and related to the clinical EMG biofeedback procedures in use today.

KEY WORDS: EMG; musculoskeletal pain; ergonomics.


Total Remission of Spasmodic Torticollis Caused After Intensive Use of Cordless Telephone: Psychosomatic or Neurological?

Ou Oikawa, 5 Kazunori Ito, Kohji Shima, and Kunio Tashiro, Kushiro Rosai Hospital

EMG-BF, Autogenic Training, brief psychotherapy, medication (clonazepam), and various alternative methods (Chinese herbs, Toki-shakuyaku-san) were applied to treat a 44-year- old woman with a 2-month history of headache, palpitations and rotatory spasm of the neck which seemingly began soon after her father died of cancer just before her mother’s second deathday anniversary. Portions of treatment were executed with the patient using a mock cordless telephone, as she had frequently engaged in intensive telephone calls to relatives using a cordless phone on her left shoulder during which she completed housework (and which resulted in impingement of the left subclavian artery). After 12 months the treatment had dramatically reduced the patient’s symptoms to mild neck-strain. Two-year follow-up (when medication free) showed no recurrence of the torticollis. We speculate the torticollis was caused mostly from ischemia of the left neck and shoulder muscles, but psychological contributions cannot be ruled out.

KEY WORDS: spasmodic torticollis; psychosomatic; EMG biofeedback.

4 Communications should be addressed to Susan J. Middaugh, PhD, Department of Anesthesia, P.O. Box 250912, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, South Carolina. 5 Communications should be addressed to Ou Oikawa, MD, PhD, Kushiro Rosai Hospital, Department of Neu- rology, 13–23 Nakazono-cho Kushiro 085-8533, Japan; e-mail:


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting


A Case Study of Three Interventions in the Rehabilitation of Brain Injury Emphasizing EMG Biofeedback

Karen Stevens Cochrane, 6 Fielding Institute

This inspiring study describes the rehabilitation experience of a 24-year-old woman, severely brain injured at birth, as she has worked to overcome her disabilities and become increas- ingly independent. The three interventions are described with results. The current, and by far the most successful, has been EMG Biofeedback targeting the increase of motor neural signal strength to the muscles. A work in progress, spasticity is nearly eliminated. She has gained ability to sit unsupported. She is gaining bimanual function, and the strength and ability to stand and walk. Discussion also includes associated mental health, resiliency, and motivational considerations.

KEY WORDS: EMG biofeedback; rehabilitation; brain injury.

Neurofeedback Combined With Biofeedback: Why it Works for Optimizing Performances

Michael Thompson, 7 and Lynda Thompson, ADD Centre

EEG and autonomic nervous system profiles reflect individual differences. This is just as true when the client wishes to optimize academic or athletic performance as it is when there is a specific disorder. Three case studies are presented: for the university student, recall is linked to mental state; for the professional athlete, reflexes and timing are linked to relaxation and readiness; and for severe Parkinsons’s and dystonia, quality RSA has both indirect and direct feedback links to muscle spindle activity and works in concert with increasing SMR to establish conscious control over dystonic symptoms.

KEY WORDS: neurofeedback; dystonia; biofeedback.

Neurofeedback Training in Conservatoir Music Students

John H. Gruzelier, 8 and Tobias Egner, Imperial College

In our laboratory we have previously shown that neurofeedback protocols can benefit mu- sical performance in conservatoir students. Rate of improvement could be predicted on the basis of how well the students had learned an “alpha/theta” deep relaxation protocol (Egner & Gruzelier, submitted). In order to substantiate these findings, an investigation was devised that compared musical performance quality, as rated by “blind” expert judges, between 4 experimental groups before and after different training interventions of alpha/theta (n = 8),

6 Communications should be addressed to Karen Stevens Cochrane, MEd, The Fielding Institute, Santa Barbara, California 93105. 7 Communications should be addressed to Michael Thompson, BSC, MD, ADD Centre, 50 Village Centre Place, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4Z 1V9. 8 Communications should be addressed to John H. Gruzelier, PhD, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Behavior Neurofeedback, Faculty of medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St. Dunstans Road, London W6 8RF, United Kingdom.

Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting


SMR (n = 9), beta1 (n = 9) neurofeedback, or “Alexander Technique” (control, n = 10) training. Results will be presented at the meeting.

KEY WORDS: Music performance; neurofeedback; Alexander technique.

Behavioral Treatment of Physical Stress Induced Urinary Incontinence Among Female Soldiers

Richard A. Sherman, 9 Garry D. Davis, Melissa F. Wong, and Kathleen Clary, Departments of Orthopedics, Ob-Gyn, and Nursing Research Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington

Nearly 1/3 of 450 female soldiers reported experiencing significant physical stress induced urinary incontinence during physical training and field exercises. Thirty-nine female soldiers having this problem received standard cystometric examinations and then 23 were treated with sEMG feedback from the pelvic floor and home practice of Kegel exercises while 16 received home practice of Kegel exercises after being shown correct patterns of pelvic floor tension. All but 8 improved sufficiently (5 and 3) so that they did not require further treatment. Fifty incontinent soldiers and 10 continent controls had ambulatory and in- laboratory cystometric evaluations. Those soldiers evaluated before and after behavioral interventions showed normalized cystometric recordings with improvement.

KEY WORDS: behavioral; interventions; urinary incontinence; environmental recording.

Case Study of the Value of Direct Occipital sEMG Biofeedback in the Treatment of Occipital Headaches

Mark S. Schwartz, 10 and James H. Craggs, Mayo Clinic Jacksonville

Direct sEMG measurements and biofeedback of the occipital area was found very useful and probably necessary in the treatment of a case of posttraumatic headache that included occipital tension and pain. Recurrent post head trauma headaches with slight but insufficient response to frontal and posterior neck sEMG biofeedback and relaxation therapies were assessed for involvement of occipital muscles. The use of direct occipital monitoring and biofeedback was studied and supported.

KEY WORDS: sEMG; headache; occipital.

Reducing Computer Mousing Symptoms: A Controlled Biofeedback Outcome Study

Marion Huber, Erik Peper, 11 and Katherine H. Gibney, San Francisco State University

Data entry and mousing at the computer is associated with discomfort. Twenty-seven vol- unteer subjects (mean age 27.6 years) were assigned to experimental or control groups.

9 Communications should be addressed to Dr. Richard Sherman, Orthopedic Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington 98431; e-mail: 10 Communications should be addressed to Mark Schwartz, PhD, Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, Florida 32224. 11 Communications should be addressed to Erik Peper, Institute for Holistic Healing Studies, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132.


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting

All Ss performed preassessment mousing tasks. Experimental subjects received 3 weekly respiration and sEMG biofeedback training sessions. The experimental group showed a significant decrease in respiration rate from 19.4 to 13.5 breaths per min as compared to the controls ( p < .01); a significant decrease in trapezius sEMG activity, 18.0–2.6 µV, as compared to the controls ( p < .001); and a significant decrease in mean symptom rating as compared to the controls ( p < .01).

KEY WORDS: RSI; biofeedback; EMG; respiration.

Preference for Meditation Style by Novice Practitioners

Adam Burke, 12 San Francisco State University

Today meditation is increasingly common in the United States. Although research has been carried out showing its efficacy, little has been done to differentiate the benefit of various types of meditation. This study was done to compare user preference for each of four different approaches. Twenty-one undergraduate students participated, practicing one new meditation per week for 4 weeks. At the fifth session the student practiced each method, recorded experiences, and ranked preferences. The 2 closed-focus methods were the most preferred. Novice meditators seem to prefer closed-focus concentration methods compared to open-focus approaches.

KEY WORDS: meditation; mindfulness; concentration.

Effort Threatens Relaxation Training Success

Fred Shaffer, 13 Adam Lipps, Logan Banks, and Blake Schneider, Truman State University

The present study examined whether relaxation effort influences the physiological effects of brief autogenic and progressive relaxation exercises. We studied 20 undergraduate vol- unteers (8 men and 12 women) using a within-subjects design, and measured the effects of four 3-min relaxation effort conditions (low-effort autogenic, high-effort autogenic, low- effort progressive relaxation, and high-effort progressive relaxation) on accessory sEMG, blood volume pulse, heart rate, skin conductance level, and skin temperature. This study provides preliminary evidence that excessive effort during a brief progressive relaxation ex- ercise increases accessory sEMG activity and skin conductance level, and supports Luthe’s emphasis on a relaxed attitude during relaxation training.

KEY WORDS: autogenic training; progressive relaxation; sEMG.

Comparison of Stress Reactivity and Recovery in Spousal and Children Caregivers Following Relaxation Therapy

Sharon L. Lewis, 14 Peter N. Bonner, and Jennifer M. Hale, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas

Dorothy H. Clough, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico

12 Communications should be addressed to Adam Burke, Department of Health Education, San Francisco State

University, San Francisco, California 94132.

13 Communications should be addressed to Fred Shaffer, PhD, McClain Hall 214, Truman State University, Kirksville, Missouri 63501; e-mail: 14 Communications should be addressed to Sharon Lewis, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center (182), South Texas Veterans Health Care System, 7400 Merton Minter Blvd., San Antonio, Texas 78229.

Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting


The study purpose was to determine the effects of relaxation therapy (RT) on stress reactiv- ity and recovery using bioinstrumentation and emotional distress questionnaires. Spousal caregivers (SC) and children caregivers (CC) of Alzheimer’s patients were taught relaxation strategies. Psychophysiological stress testing was done 4 times over 16 weeks. Muscle ten- sion (EMG), electrodermal response (EDG), skin temperature, and heart rate were measured. Although SC had improvements in stress reactivity and stress recovery over the course of the study, CC had little change. Although emotional distress decreased for both caregiver groups, CC had more emotional distress than SC at both the beginning and end of the study.

KEY WORDS: Relaxation therapy; stress reactivity; caregivers; Alzheimer’s.

The use of an Integrative Approach and Systematic Desensitization in Treating Public Speaking Anxiety: A Preliminary Investigation

Ana Maria Rossi, 15 Cl´ınica de Stress and Biofeedback

Previous research on PSA has indicated that while individuals do benefit somewhat from any treatment, results can be significantly increased by using the therapeutic treatment most effective in dealing with the particular needs of each person. This study compares the effectiveness of Systematic Desensitization and Integrative Approach on the reduction of PSA. Twelve subjects who scored high on a self-report trait anxiety were randomly assigned to either SD or IA training. There was no significant difference in the overall self-report trait anxiety scores betwen the 2 groups. In testing physiological measurement changes, the EMG biofeedback showed significant difference.

KEY WORDS: public speaking anxiety; systematic desensitization; integrative approach.

Changes in Prefrontal Alpha Asymmetry During the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle: Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder—A Single Case Study

Elsa Baehr, 16 NeuroQuest, Inc. and Northwestern University

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is characterized by symptoms of irritability, anger, internal tension, dysphoria and mood lability, and in some women, suicidal ideation. It is often found in persons who have a major psychiatric disorder or medical condition. It is distinguished from Premenstrual Syndrom (PMS), a condition which affects many women with similar but less severe symptoms. Low plasma levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been found in women with PMDD but not in comparison women, during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. A relationship between the onset of menses and brainwave changes in frontal alpha asymmetry has been observed in women diagnosed as having PMDD. A single case study is presented to demonstrate how changes in asymmetry have occurred over time, and how a multifaceted treatment approach is related to stabilizing the patient and normalizing brainwave activity.

KEY WORDS: premenstrual dysphoric dsisorder; EEG neurofeedback; gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

15 Communications should be addressed to Ana Maria Rossi, PhD, Cl´ınica de Stress and Biofeedback, Rua Padre Chagas 185/1104, 90570–080 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; e-mail: 16 Communications should be addressed to Elsa Baehr, PhD, NeuroQuest, Inc., Suite 1005, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201.


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting

QEEG and MMPI-2 Patterns of Adults Reporting Childhood Sexual Abuse

Eugenia M. Bodenhamer-Davis, 17 Alicia L. Townsend, and Lisa M. Black, University of North Texas

A group of outpatient adults in a university EEG biofeedback treatment center who reported

a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were compared on measures of quantitative

electroencephalographs (QEEG) and the MMPI-2 with a matched group of outpatients with no history of abuse. MMPI-2 patterns of the CSA group showed significant elevations

similar to prior research. The CSA group exhibited significantly lower alpha relative power

at most sites in comparison to the non-CSA group. Models to predict group membership

and other differences between the groups will be reported.

KEY WORDS: childhood sexual abuse; MMPI-2; QEEG.

Biofeedback Assisted Relaxation in Migraine Headache: Relationship With Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity in the Middle Cerebral Artery

A. V. McGrady, 18 A. Claggett, S. Vasudeva, and G. E. Tietjen, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, Ohio

Efficacy of biofeedback-assisted-relaxation (BFRT) in migraine has been supported, but little is known about the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and improvement. Migraineurs with and without aura (MA, MO) demonstrate different CBF patterns. This study compared BFRT to self-relax control and MA with MO. Results showed superiority of BFRT over self-relax. There was no difference in outcome between MA and MO, but CBF velocity in the middle cerebral artery varied. The MA showed higher velocities in the interictal period. Psychophysiological indicators of arousal were correlated with blood flow velocity.

KEY WORDS: migraine; cerebral blood flow; aura; biofeedback.

Comparison of Blood Pressure Measurement Consistency Using Tonometric and Automated Oscillometric Instruments

Carolyn B. Yucha, 19 Kristine S. Calderon, Pei-Shan Tsai, and Mark C. K. Yang, University of Florida

Blood pressure (BP) was measured via 3 different techniques: beat-to-beat radial BP tonom- etry, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), and in the clinic using the ABPM in the manual mode. Data were collected in 25 hypertensive adult volunteers weekly for 3 weeks. Intrain- strumental and interinstrumental discrepancies were calculated. Radial tonometry resulted

in lower BPs than the other techniques. The clinic BP and daytime ABPM produced gener-

ally compatible measures, but the standard deviation of these measures was relatively large. This inherent BP variability necessitates larger samples sizes to detect treatment effects.

KEY WORDS: blood pressure; measurement; hypertension.

17 Communications should be addressed to Eugenia M. Bodenhamer-Davis, PhD, UNT DRSWA Neurotherapy


Lab, P.O. Box 311456, Denton, Texas 76203-1456.

Communications should be addressed to Angele McGrady, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Ohio, 3120 Glendale Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43614.

19 Communications should be addressed to Carolyn Yucha, RN, PhD, P.O. Box 100197, College of Nursing, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610.

Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting


MIDAS Questionnaire in Children and Young Adolescents With Headache:

A Pilot Study

L. Grazzi, 20 D. D’Amico, S. Usai, M. Leone, C. Nespolo, and G. Bussone, C. Besta National Neurological Institute,

Milano, Italy

F. Andrasik, Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, University of West Florida, Pensacola, Florida

The Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS) is one of the more specific instruments to investigate the global impact of illness in primary headaches disorders in adults. This study concerns 59 headache patients aged 9–16 years to assess disability, using the MIDAS questionnaire. Patients completed the MIDAS questionnaire at baseline and after 1 month, for test-retest reliability. No intervention occurred during this period. Mean MIDAS scores at baseline and Spearman coefficients were: overall score, 13.9(0.7); item 1, 2.9(0.6); item 2, 4.7(0.5); item 3, 2.2(0.4); item 4, 1.6(0.2); item 5, 2.3(0.6). Some form of disability was reported in all rated activities. A satisfactory test-retest reliability was found for the overall MIDAS score. Although some changes might be required, MIDAS can be used in the assessment of disability in young headache patients.

KEY WORDS: MIDAS questionnaire; young headache patients; disability.

Efficacy of Groups Relaxation Training for Tension-Type Headache in Children and Adolescents: Preliminary Results

L. Grazzi, 21 D. D’Amico, S. Usai, M. Leone, A. Rigamonti, and G. Bussone, C. Besta National

Neurological Institute, Milano, Italy

F. Andrasik, Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, University of West Florida, Pensacola, Florida

In this report relaxation therapy was applied to small groups of young headache patients for determining the usefulness and the feasibility of this approach. Thirty-seven patients were studied. Eight-weekly-30-min-relaxation sessions were organized. A headache diary and a tape with the relaxation exercises (for practicing relaxation at least once a day at home) were given to patients. Follow-up sessions were fixed 1 month after the end of the program and 3, 6, and 12 months after. The results showed significant clinical improvement at 1-month and at 3-months follow-up (pre-VS 1-month p < .00003; pre-VS 3-months p < .0002). These data are encouraging. It will be interesting to look at the longer follow-up for confirming these preliminary findings.

KEY WORDS: relaxation therapy; young headache patients; clinical improvement; follow-up.

Spirituality and Cardiovascular Risk

Michelle Harvey, 22 Celeste Riley, Joseph A. Doster, and Arthur Goven, University of North Texas, Renee Moorefield, Wisdom Works

20 Communications should be addressed to Licia Grazzi, MD, Neurological Institute C. Besta, Via Celoria 11,

20133 Milan, Italy.

21 Communications should be addressed to Licia Grazzi, MD, Neurological Institute C. Besta, Via Celoria 11,

20133 Milan, Italy.

22 Communications should be addressed to Michelle Harvey, MSA, Department of Psychology, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203.


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting

This study extended current research linking spirituality to health by investigating the rela- tionship between extrinsic and intrinsic spirituality and cardiovascular factors. Participants included 111 healthy males and females, ages 28–63. Measurements consisted of the Lifestyle Assessment Questionaire (LAQ), the Community of Selves Repertory Grid, hema- tological analyses, and blood pressure measurements. A greater sense of spirituality was associated with lower triglyceride levels. In addition, the structural or organizational charac- teristics of intrinsic spirituality were associated with improved hematological functioning. Further research may help clarify the association between mechanisms underlying spiritu- ality and cardiovascular health.

KEY WORDS: spirituality; cardiovascular risk.

Resonant Frequency HR Variability Biofeedback and Age

Paul Lehrer 23 and Evgeny Vaschillo, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

We investigated age changes in cardiovascular homeostatic properties linked with HR biofeedback. Thirty-seven participants ages 18–65, received resonant frequency HR vari- ability biofeedback training over 10 sessions. Cardiac R-R interval and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Baseline data indicated that both HR and BP variability decrease as age increases. However, biofeedback induced increases in both HR and BP variability across all age groups. The greatest increases in HR occurred between ages 18–40, while the greatest increases in BP occurred between ages 30–40. Thus, resonant frequency biofeedback may be effectively used in all age groups to increase HR and BP variability.

KEY WORDS: heart rate; blood pressure; HR biofeedback; age.

Lucid Dream Healing Experiences: Firsthand Accounts

E. W. Kellogg III, 24 The Phenomenological Laboratory, Ashland, Oregon

From the beginning of human history dreams have played a central role in the healing prac- tices in many cultures. With the advent of lucid dreaming in modern times, where dreamers know that they dream while they dream, individuals can take a more active role in seeking healing in dreams. For over a decade lucid dreamers have reported on the improvement of a variety of physical conditions through lucid dream healing. Although anecdotal evidence has only limited value within a scientific paradigm, it can point the way towards more rigorous psychophysiological investigations by bringing to light factors of potential importance.

KEY WORDS: dreaming; healing; psychophysiology.

The Effects of AVS Dominant Frequency Disentrainment on QEEG in an Individual With Global Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

Brent P. Mruz, William J. Burns, and Doil D. Montgomery, 25 NOVA Southeastern University

23 Communications should be addressed to Paul Lehrer, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854. 24 Communications should be addressed to E. W. Kellogg III, PhD, The Phenomenological Laboratory, P.O. Box 1019, Ashland, Oregon 97520; e-mail: 25 Communications should be addressed to Doil D. Montgomery, PhD, BCIAC, NOVA Southeastern University, 3301 College Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314.

Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting


The effects of dominant frequency disentrainment on a severely brain damaged individ- ual were investigated. Audiovisual stimulation at varying degrees of driving (+50%, no stimulation, 0%, and 50%) were administered. Within sessions, the participant’s mean dominant frequency increased during +50%, no stimulation, and 0% driving, and decreased in response to 50%. Across sessions, the participant’s mean dominant frequency appeared unchanged in response to +50% and no stimulation, but increased in response to the 0% and 50% driving protocols. These findings are inconsistent with both AVS theory and previous research conducted with less severely brain injured individuals. Implications for future investigation are discussed.

KEY WORDS: AVS; QEEG; brain damage.

Psychological and Physiological Responses to a National Tragedy

Doil D. Montgomery 26 and Joseph A. Ciavarella, Jr., Nova Southeastern University

Thirteen graduate students (11 female, 2 male) were recruited to participate in a 2-week study designed to ascertain the relationship between a self-report Subjective Units of Dis- tress Scale (SUDS) and finger temperature (FT). Each of the participants agreed to take 4 daily measurements of the 2 variables at predetermined times for a total of 10 days. The results suggest that after the September 11 national tragedy the SUDS doubled in level and was slow to decrease, taking until the end of the week to recover. The re- sults also indicate that the individual correlations between SUDS and FT was highly variable.

KEY WORDS: September 11th; effects of distress; individual differences.

Physiological and Psychological Differences Between a Relaxation and Control Video: Significance of Data Reducing Technique

Doil D. Montgomery 27 and Joseph A. Ciavarella, Jr., Nova Southeastern University

Twenty adults, 5 men and 15 women between the ages of 22 and 51 (M = 31.4), (SD = 8.96) were recruited for a 1-hr session designed to compare a relaxation video with a control video. The experiment compared the 2 videos in an effort to determine the effectiveness of the relaxation video. The relaxation video was more effective than the control video in induc- ing a relaxation state based on self-report of the participants; some physiological measures supported an induced state of relaxation when the slope rather than the mean were used to reduce the data. The physiological data measured were electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate (HR), and finger temperature(FT).

KEY WORDS: physiological responses; relaxation; data reduction.

26 Communications should be addressed to Doil D. Montgomery, PhD, BCIAC, Nova Southeastern University,

3301 College Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314.

27 Communications should be addressed to Doil D. Montgomery, PhD, BCIAC, Nova Southeastern University,

3301 College Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314.


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting

Effects of a Physical Activity Program on Heart Rate Variability in Obese Children

Carmen V. Russoniello, Matthew T. Mahar, Jennifer M. DiNallo, Michael R. McCammon, Thomas K. Skalko, and

David A. Rowe, 28 East Carolina University

This ongoing study evaluates the effects of a physical activity program on heart rate vari- ability in children. Results indicate an overall increase in heart rate variability as well as a small to moderate shift of autonomic balance towards increased vagal tonus as a result of the intervention. There was a corresponding 4% reduction in body fat. These findings suggest that physical activity can help facilitate autonomic balance thereby positively impacting the metabolism process and decreasing body fat.

KEY WORDS: heart rate variability; obesity; physical activity.

Physiological Stress Profile in the Fasting Therapy for a Patient With Chronic Headache: A Case Report

Hiromi Mutsuura, 29 Shinji Nishida, Naoki Takebayashi, Kenji Kanbara, and Yoshihide Nakai, Kansai Medical


A 28-year-old male with chronic headache showed significant reduction of his symptoms by the fasting therapy. This case report examined the physiological profiles EMG, SC, TEMP, HR, BVP, and RESP, with stress imagery and mental arithmetic through the therapy. The result was that SC and HR changed sensitively by stresses during the fasting therapy and then became low changes. This is the first trial of recording the physiological stress profile during the fasting therapy. It is useful for estimating the effect of therapy with psychological change.

KEY WORDS: physiological profile; stress profile; fasting therapy.

Application of Physiological Stress Profile to Psychosomatic Internal Medicine in Japan and Some Data Analysis

Kenji Kanbara, 30 Naoki Takebayashi, Hiromi Mutsuura, and Yoshihide Nakai, Kansai Medical University

We started biofeedback (BF) session in medical treatment of our section; “Psychosomatic Internal Medicine.” “Psychosomatic Internal Medicine” in Japan treats mainly functional disease in internal medicine. Physiological stress profile including EMG, TEMP, SC, BVP (-HR), RR was examined to assess physiological state and to determine the index of BF

28 Communications should be addressed to Carmen V. Russoniello, PhD, TRS/CTRS, LPC, Department of Recre- ation and Leisure Studies, East Carolina University, 161 Minges Coliseum, Greenville, North Carolina 27858; 29 Communications should be addressed to Hiromi Mutsuura, MD, Department of Mind-Body Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, 10-15 Fumizono-chou, Moriguchi-city, Osaka, Japan. 30 Communications should be addressed to Kenji Kanbara, MD, Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, 10-15 Fumizono-chou, Moriguchi-city, Osaka, Japan.

Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting


session. On the other hand, to examine the stress profile and feedback the results facilitate the sense of mind-body interaction. This plays an important role of induction to consequent psychological treatment.

KEY WORDS: physiological stress profile; biofeedback; Psychosomatic Internal Medicine.

Case Study of Trigeminal Neuralgia Using Neurofeedback and Peripheral Biofeedback

Andrea Sime, 31 First Step Wellness Center

Trigeminal neuralgia produces bouts of severe, lancinating pain lasting seconds to min- utes that can be incapacitating. A 46-year-old nurse with a 15-month history of trigeminal neuralgia received peripheral biofeedback training (in conjunction with a comprehensive program of stress management and cognitive/behavioral therapy) followed by neurofeed- back over a period of 9 months. Results included a substantial reduction in pain, elimination of bruxism and improvement in sleep quality. Symptom reduction fluctuated with life stress issues and with adjustment in both peripheral and neurofeedback protocols. The success of this treatment allowed the client to avoid radical surgery (servering of the trigeminal nerve) and to discontinue use of Darvocet. The client maintains an active lifestyle with minimal pain on low dose Ultram.

KEY WORDS: trigeminal neuralgia; neurofeedback; peripheral biofeedback.

The Effect of Resonant Frequency Cardiac Biofeedback Training on Heart Rate Variability in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Population

Jessica Del Pozo and Richard Gevirtz, 32 CSPP at Alliant International University, San Diego, California.

In this study we attempted to determine if a course of cardiorespiratory biofeedback could increase cardiac variability in a population of recovering coronary artery disease patients. Participants were recruited from clinics in La Jolla, CA. The participant population included cardiac patients ages 20–85 years who had documented coronary artery disease (CAD). HRV data was gathered at pre, post, and follow-up (Week 1, 6, and 18). It was considered the primary dependent variable. The biofeedback group showed a significant increase in variability (SDNN) over time, while the controls did not improve. The results suggest that a combination of HRV biofeedback and breathing retraining can increase HRV in patients with CAD and that the improvement in HRV is independent of traditional cardiac risk factors.

KEY WORDS: coronary artery disease; HRV biofeedback.

31 Communications should be addressed to Andrea Sime, LCSW, BCIAC, First Step Wellness Center, 1919 South 40th Street, Suite #212, Lincoln, Nebraska 68506. 32 Communications should be addressed to Richard Gevirtz, PhD, AIU, 10455 Pomerado Road, San Diego, Califonia 92131; e-mail:


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting

Exploration of Trigger Point and Heart Rate Variability Excitation and Recovery Patterns in Actors Performing Anger Inhibition and Anger Expression

Toni Ann Cafaro 33 and Richard Gevirtz, Alliant International University

David Hubbard, MyoPoint Clinic, San Diego, Califronia

Michael Harvey, San Diego State University

The effects of expressed and inhibited anger on both the heart and skeletal muscles were explored through simultaneous monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV) frequencies and needle EMG muscle activity while actors performed an anger scene. Although expressed anger generated significantly higher cardiac sympathetic activity [low frequency (LF) and very low frequency (VLF)] than inhibited anger, significant inhibited sympathetic increases in trigger point activity (TrP) over baseline reading rivaled expressed. Unobservable anger correlated highest with TrP activity. Lag-correlations between TrP and VLF activity were found to be primarily due to adjacent muscle bracing. Results suggest unique sympathetic activation to TrPs and support the role of unexpressed anger in muscle pain.

KEY WORDS: heart rate variability; trigger point; physiology of emotion; anger.

EEG Theta Enhancement and Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback and Interactional Stress in a Clinical Population

Thomas G. Browne 34

Theta neurofeedback and pre–post changes in perceived stress with physiological measures is described, based on a review of the literature that supports findings and measured changes by the presenter over a decade of professional observation. A presentation of physiological and self-reported changes in perceived stress in response to theta enhancement and heart rate variability biofeedback training including theory, methodology, and techniques utilized in a controlled study. Topics outlined will be interactional stress, relevant principles of electroencephalography, physiology, science, spirituality, immune system, and between group differences.

KEY WORDS: EEG theta; heart rate variability; stress.

Neurofeedback Enhanced by Light-Closed Loop-EEG in Depression, and Addictions

Victoria L. Ibric, 35 Therapy and Prevention Center, Pasadena, California

Neurofeedback has been reported successful in various chronic pain syndromes and sleep disorders. Patients with chronic pain also manifest depression and anxiety. The changes in pain perception have been accompanied by emotional improvements, too. Different

33 Communications should be addressed to Toni Ann Cafaro, MA, c/o Richard Gevirtz, Alliant International University, Daley Hall 104B, 10455 Pomerado Road, San Diego, California 92131-1799. 34 Communications should be addressed to Thomas G. Browne, PhD, 80 Ora Way G304, San Francisco, California 94131-1714; e-mail: 35 Communications should be addressed to Victoria L. Ibric, MD, PhD, BCIAC, Therapy and Prevention Center, Pasadena, California 91101.

Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting


instruments and different brain waves modalities have been useful in alleviating pain, and correcting emotional dysfunctions. Herein I report the results obtained in my clinic treating three patients with depression and addictions using NF enhanced by light-closed loop-EEG. The progress has been monitored by daily feedback, pre/post training, repeated stress tests, Beck inventory, TOVA tests, and by the continuous improvement/stabilization in their neural efficiency.

KEY WORDS: neurofeedback; addictions; sleep disorders; depression.

Helping the Heart with Audio-Visual Entrainment

Dave Siever, 36 Comptronic Devices Limited/Mind Alive Kathy Berg, University of Alberta

Hypertension is a life-threatening condition affecting many American adults. Lifestyle changes and drug therapy are recommended for treating hypertension. An 8-week study of 28 hypertensives (under drug therapy) was conducted to test the effectiveness of audiovisual entrainment (AVE) in the subdelta frequency (0.5–1 Hz) and alpha frequency ranges. Blood pressure, depression, and anxiety were measured throughout the study. Alpha frequency AVE has shown strong effectiveness in reducing depression and anxiety. However, the group was neither depressed nor anxious so the benefits of alpha AVE were uncertain. Surprisingly, subdelta AVE had marked effects on blood pressure, reducing the systolic 20 points and diastolic 15 points. It is possible that subdelta AVE directly impacts physiological functions rather than psychological ones. Clinical observations were also conducted with an anxious group using the “Freeze Framer.” High sympathetic and parasympathetic activity using spectral analysis of heart variability was observed. AVE in the low alpha range produced a strong normalizing affect autonomic activity and rate variability.

KEY WORDS: audio-visual entrainment (AVE); hypertension; anxiety.

Neurofeedback and Nutrition and ADHD

Dmitry Burshteyn, 37 Siena College, Roseanne Schnoll and Juan Cea, Brooklyn College

Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) affects both the psychological and physio- logical systems of the body, affecting a significant percentage of the population. Pharma- ceutical therapy is currently the treatment of choice, but the widespread use of stimulant medication has significant deleterious consequences for millions of children. Research shows that both EEG Biofeedback and nutritional management are promising approaches for treating ADHD. EEG Biofeedback has been demonstrated to be effective when used by itself and even more effective when combined with other therapies. Nutritional factors such as food additives, refined sugars, food sensitivities/allergies, and fatty acid deficiencies have all been linked to ADHD. A case study will be presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of neurofeedback–nutrition module in treatment of ADHD.

KEY WORDS: EEG; nutrition; ADHD.

36 Communications should be addressed to Dave Siever, CET, Comptronic Devices, 9008–51 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6E 5X4. 37 Communications should be addressed to Dmitry Burshteyn, PhD, Department of Psychology, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, New York 12211.


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting

Ergonomic Skin-Electrode Impedance Testing

Fred Shaffer, 38 Logan Banks, Adam Lipps, Frederick Franken, and Stephanie Steinman, Truman State University

The present study compared the accuracy, speed, and subjective difficulty of impedance testing using test probes and 10-mm cup electrodes. We studied 10 undergraduate re- search technicians (6 men and 4 women) using a within-subjects design. They measured the skin-electrode impedance of 10-mm silver/silver-chloride surface electrodes placed over the frontales muscles. Although both methods were highly accurate, the cup elec- trode method was ergonomically superior to the test probe method. It was 27% faster and participants rated it as 35% easier. Therefore, we recommend that professionals who man- ually test skin-electrode impedance for surface EMG electrodes consider the cup electrode method.

KEY WORDS: impedance testing; ergonomics; sEMG.

Comparison of Three Surface EMG Placements During A Psychophysiological Profile

Fred Shaffer, 39 Adam Lipps, Logan Banks, Frederick Franken, and Curtis Stokes, Truman State University

The present study examined whether the FpN and corrugator placements discriminate as well as the frontalis placement among three typical psychophysiological assessment activities (sitting quietly, performing mental arithmetic, and reviewing recent upsetting experiences). We studied 39 undergraduates (14 men and 25 women) using a within- subjects design. Both the frontalis and corrugator placements discriminated between sitting quietly and two stressors: performing mental arithmetic and reviewing recent upsetting experiences. However, the frontalis placement accounted for more sEMG variability due to assessment condition than did the corrugator placement. These findings are limited to our relatively healthy sample and specific assessment procedures.

KEY WORDS: psychophysiological assessment; frontalis placement; sEMG.

Treatment of Nonrepetitive, Chronic Nightmares With Lucid Dreaming, Relaxation, Dream Rehearsal and Other Cognitive–Behavioral Techniques

Barry A. Tanner, 40 Detroit Receiving Hospital and University Health Center

A young woman presented with chronic, nonrepetitive nightmares that did not lend them- selves to several commonly used treatment techniques. Training in lucid dreaming,

38 Communications should be addressed to Fred Shaffer, PhD, McClain Hall 214, Truman State University, Kirksville, Missouri 63501; e-mail: 39 Communications should be addressed to Fred Shaffer, PhD, McClain Hall 214, Truman State University, Kirksville, Missouri 63501; e-mail: 40 Communications should be addressed to Barry A. Tanner, PhD, Life Stress Center 3S-14, Detroit Receiving Hospital and University Health Center, 4201 St. Antoine, Detroit, Michigan 48201; e-mail: btanner@med.

Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting


relaxation, and dream rehearsal resulted in a sharp decrease in four sessions. Further improvement was reported as additional techniques were introduced. Improvement was maintained for follow-up.

KEY WORDS: nightmares; lucid dreaming; relaxation.

Locus of Control and Biofeedback

Kristine S. Calderon, 41 Pei-Shan Tsai, and Carolyn Yucha, University of Florida

This study examined changes in locus of control (LOC) and the Multidimensional Health LOC (MHLC) over a biofeedback (BF) program and the relationship between these mea- sures and change in blood pressure (BP) among 16 hypertensives. A significant difference in MHLC-P (powerful others) between post-BF program (Week 13) and baseline (t = −2.45, p = .03) was found. Also, the Week-13 LOC correlated with BP difference from baseline to Week 13 (r = .54, p = .03). These findings suggest that LOC can increase over a BF program and that LOC may play a role in the prediction of BF success with hypertension.

KEY WORDS: locus of control; hypertension; biofeedback.

Hemodynamics and Arterial Properties Underlying Pressure Responses to Cognitive Stress in Borderline Hypertensives

Pei-Shan Tsai 42 and Carolyn Yucha, University of Florida

Hemodynamic and arterial responses to the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) were studied in 23 borderline hypertensives and 19 normotensives, aged 20–63 and 24–64 respectively. Total peripheral resistance was higher and arterial compliance was lower in borderline hypertensives than in normotensives. The SCWT induced significant increases in blood pressure (BP), which were of similar magnitude for borderline hypertensives and nor- motensives. Overall, hemodynamic and arterial responses to the SCWT were similar in both groups. The BP reactivity to cognitive stress likely resulted from tachycardia rather than a vasoconstriction response, and was not associated with a change in wave reflection or compliance.

KEY WORDS: arterial properties; borderline hypertension; stress reactivity; Stroop Color Word Test; blood pressure.

Biofeedback and Inflammation in Adult Asthma

Susan D. Schaffer, 43 University of Florida College of Nursing

This pilot study will demonstrate the effect of sinus arrhythmia biofeedback on pulmonary function in adult asthmatics as measured by exhaled nitric oxide levels, asthma control,

41 Communications should be addressed to Kristine S. Calderon, PhD, College of Nursing, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610. 42 Communications should be addressed to Pei-Shan Tsai, PhD, College of Nursing, University of Florida, Box 100187, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0187. 43 Communications should be addressed to Susan D. Schaffer, PhD, FNP, CS, University of Florida, College of Nursing, P.O. Box 100187, Gainesville, Florida 32610–0187.


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting

and asthma quality of life. A randomized block design will be used with 10 adult asth- matic subjects. The independent variable is Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) biofeed- back training. Dependent variables include exhaled Nitric Oxide (a noninvasive measure of lung inflammation), spirometry, and validated measures of asthma control and asthma quality of life. Hypotheses will be tested using summary statistics for de- mographic data and with analysis of variance for questionnaire and objective measure scores.

KEY WORDS: asthma; RSA biofeedback; nitric oxide.

Hatha Yoga: An Exercise in Biofeedback for youthful Health

Tushar K. Ray, 44 Arizona State University

The human body is a self-regulating network of billions of cells within a holistic network having numerous feedback loops for precise control. The aim of any excellent wellness program must be to maintain this network in a way such that energy and information can effortlessly flow through the system, which is what an ideal health is. It is within the power of a person to maintain such health if the person has necessary knowledge of his body, and the needed will and skill to keep the network at its best. Such knowledge and skill can be acquired by practicing hatha yoga under expert guidance, and youthful health is assured in the end. Such knowledge eventually enables one to develop conscious control over unconscious bodily acts and the consequent flow of energy. Thus hatha yoga empowers individuals by teaching them how to profitably use innate feedback systems for a healthier and happier life.

KEY WORDS: Hatha yoga; mindful stretching; youthful vigor.

Progressive Muscle Relaxation in the Treatment of Chronic Tinnitus

Brian M. Freidenberg, 45 Edward B. Blanchard, Jennifer Block, and Loretta S. Malta, Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, University at Albany, State University of New York

Tinnitus is the perception of sounds (e.g., ringing) that are not accounted for externally. For some, tinnitus can be chronic, thus facilitating psychological distress and daily life impair- ment. We treated 9 chronic tinnitus sufferers with progressive muscle relaxation (PMR). Analyses revealed a significant decrease in psychological distress from tinnitus and marked decreases in emotional distress, auditory-perceptual difficulties, and functional impairment. There were also decreases in tinnitus awareness, loudness, associated anxiety, annoyance, sleep problems, and helplessness. Furthermore, improvements in coping ability and per- ceived control were found. Results will be discussed in the context of their implications for this population.

KEY WORDS: tinnitus; PMR; coping.

44 Communications should be addressed to Tushar K. Ray, PhD, Neuroimmunology Laboratory, Department of

Microbiology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287.

Communications should be addressed to Brian M. Freidenberg, CSW, MA, Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, University at Albany, State University of New York, 1535 Western Avenue, Albany, New York



Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting


Changes in Physiological Arousal to Gambling Cues Among Participants in Motivationally Enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Pathological Gambling

Brian M. Freidenberg, 46 Edward B. Blanchard, Edelgard Wulfert, and Loretta S. Malta Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, University at Albany, State University of New York

Despite attrition and relapse rates associated with cognitive behavior interventions for patho- logical gambling (PG), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) seems promising. In this pilot study, gambling-specific CBT and motivational enhancement techniques were used to treat 9 pathological gamblers. Data on psychophysiological arousal upon exposure of imagined gambling vignettes were collected at pre- and posttreatment. Participants showed decreases in degree of arousal (as measured by heart rate) during the vignettes from pre- to posttreat- ment. There was also a strong dose-response relationship between reduction in gambling symptoms and reduction in arousal. Findings are discussed, as are their implications for further study of PG.

KEY WORDS: pathological gambling; physiological arousal; cognitive behavior therapy.

The Use of HEG in the Treatment of Autism, Parkinson’s Disease, Attention Hyperactive Disorder, Epilepsy, Stroke and Depression

Hershel Toomim, 47 Biocomp Research Institute

An extensive program in treatment of autism and other brain disorders has been in progress for 2 years in Thailand. The work has been centered in the Yuwaprasart Waithayopathum Child Psychiatric Hospital in Bangkok directed by Professor Penkhae Limsila, MD, a Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist. The hospital is supported by H.R.H. Princess Galyana Vadhana of the Royal Family of Thailand. The nearest equivalent to this hospital in the United States is the UCLA Autism Service with places for 12 autistic children. Limsila has pioneered the application of Hemoencephalograph (HEG) to treatment of autism, Parkinson’s disease, attention hyperactive disorder, stroke, and depression.

KEY WORDS: autism; Parkinson’s; ADD/ADHD; HEG.

Physiological Correlates of Very Slow Yogic Breathing

Erik Peper, 48 San Francisco State University

Mitsumasa Kawakami and Misa Sata, Institute for Research of Subconscious Psychology, Tokyo, Japan

Yuko Franklin, Franklin Consulting, San Francisco, California

Katherine Hughes Gibney, San Francisco State University

Vietta Sue Wilson, York University, North York, Canada

This study explored the physiological correlates of a highly practiced Yoga master while he voluntarily breathed approximately 2 breaths per min. Thoracic and abdominal breathing

46 Communications should be addressed to Brian M. Freidenberg, CSW, MA, Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, University at Albany, State University of New York, 1535 Western Avenue, Albany, New York


47 Communications should be addressed to Hershel Toomim, ScD, Biocomp Research Institute, 6542 Hayes Drive, Los Angeles, California 90048. 48 Communications should be addressed to Erik Peper, Institute for Holistic Healing Studies, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132.


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting

patterns, heart rate, occipital parietal electroencephalograph (EEG), skin conductance level, blood volume pulse, transcutaneous SpO 2 , and end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO 2 ) were monitored during the following conditions: 3 min eyes open prebaseline, 18 min eyes closed self-paced slow breathing, 3 min eyes open postbaseline, and 3 min eyes closed postbaseline. The prebaseline mean breathing rate of 18 breaths per min (brpm) decreased significantly to 1.9 brpm during the slow breathing condition. SpO 2 showed no significant change across conditions, ETCO 2 increased significantly from 37.8 mmHG during prebaseline to 43.7 mm HG during slow breathing, heart rate showed no significant change across conditions, and mean alpha EEG activity increased during the slow breathing condition. Implications for meditation and clinical applications are discussed.

KEY WORDS: respiration; EEG; Yoga; SpO 2 ; ETCO 2 .

Voluntary Pain and Bleeding Control

Erik Peper, 49 San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California Mitsumasa Kawakami, Institute for Research of Subconscious Psychology, Fukuoka, Japan

The psychophysiological correlates of piercing the forearm of a male subject with a non- sterile metal skewer was investigated with sEMG from the trapezius, respiration, EEG from O 2 –P 4 , SCL, and BVP. After guided relaxation, a skewer was pierced through the subject’s right forearm. There was no bleeding and the subject reported no pain. Breathing rate de- creased from 16 breaths per min (brpm) from prebaseline to 6 brpm during guided breathing relaxation, skewer insertion and removal, and postbaseline. Alpha EEG predominated and heart rate showed a significant in-phase respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) throughout the guided breathing baseline, skewer insertion and removal, and postbaseline.

KEY WORDS: pain control; respiration; EEG alpha.

The Effectiveness of Diaphragmatic Breathing and Biofeedback in the Treatment of Chronic Pain. A Retrospective Study

Mikel J. Wheeler, 50 Jeffrey R. Basford, and Jeffrey M. Thompson, Mayo Medical Center, Rochester, Minnesota

This study assessed the subjective response of subjects to biofeedback augmented instruction of diaphragmatic breathing when given as an adjunct to a comprehensive chronic pain rehabilitation program. A retrospective 10 question survey was mailed to all 369 subjects who attended the Mayo Comprehensive Pain Rehabilitation Program and received training in diaphragmatic breathing with biofeedback between June 1, 1998 and December 30, 2000. Eighty percent of the participants who responded to the survey indicated they benefited from the approach. This approach is effective when used as an adjunct to a comprehensive pain rehabilitation program.

KEY WORDS: biofeedback; diaphragmatic breathing; chronic pain.

49 Communications should be addressed to Erik Peper, Institute for Holistic Healing Studies, San Francisco State

University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132.

Communications should be addressed to Mikel J. Wheeler, COTA, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Medical Center, Rochester, Minnesota 55905; e-mail:


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting


Headache Symptomology and Frontalis Area EMG

Christine A. Hovanitz, 51 Miranda Filippides, Dawn Lindsay, and Jackie Scheff, University of Cincinnati

Most studies evaluating headache and EMG have sought to clarify the physiological sub- strate of clinically significant headache. Few, if any, have considered specific headache symptomology in relation to EMG. In addition, while occasional head pain is normative, little is known about the physiological correlates of “ordinary” headache. To address these questions, 72 participants with varying levels of headache were assessed for headache symptomology and frontal area EMG during a laboratory stressor. Severity and duration of headache were associated with EMG, while both headache diagnosis and headache frequency were not. These data argue for the importance of evaluating specific headache symptomology.

KEY WORDS: headache; frontalis area EMG; stress.

A Pilot Study: Evaluating Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) With LORETA and Counting Stroop

Kerry Towler 52 and Joel Lubar, University of Tennessee

This pilot study utilizes Low Resolution Electrical Tomographic Analysis (LORETA) to evaluate early stage AD patients and age-matched controls during cognitive tasks requiring selective attention. AD patients present with neural damage in the entorhinal cortex, the superior temporal gyrus and the anterior cingulate in the early stages of the disease. Using the Counting Stroop as a cognitive task requiring selective attention, AD patients (n = 5) and age-matched controls (n = 5) were recorded with EEG and evaluated with the LORETA method. Subtracting the neutral task from the incongruent task, significant differences in Delta (2–3.5 Hz) activity at the level of the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit and the superior and middle temporal gyrus were seen in 4 of 5 AD patients. Other results discussed involve Beta 1 (13–21.5 Hz) activity in the anterior cingulate differentially presented between the 2 groups.

KEY WORDS: EEG; Alzheimer’s disease; LORETA; counting stroop.

Leading on the Edge: The Type-E Personality and the Spirit of Success

Alexander M. Giorgio, 53 Canyon Ranch Health Resort

Leaders in business, the arts and science have a way of seeing and living their lives that is so completely different from the norm they seem to have a highly specialized physiology with a personality characteristic all its own—a TYPE-E personality. After compiling more than 10,000 life stories from these TYPE-E individuals at a world-class health and fitness resort, a three stage physiological and lifestyle pattern of success, depression, balance and spirituality became evident. Surprisingly, the individuals in the third, spiritually focused stage were the most balanced and financially successful of all those with a TYPE-E personality.

KEY WORDS: EEG; Creativity; Type-E personality.

51 Communications should be addressed to Christine A. Hovanitz, PhD, Department of Psychology, M. L. #376,


University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221.

Communications should be addressed to Kerry Towler, MA, Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.

53 Communications should be addressed to Alexander M. Giorgio, MA, Health and Healing Department, Canyon Ranch Health Resort, Lenox, Massachusetts 01266.


Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting

Advanced Teaching

Regina Shmelkina 54 and Mark Krinker, Interlab L.L.C.

Advanced teaching is the first Program of teaching school subjects with the usage of elec- troencephalography, biofeedback, and special methods of suggestion that can improve the productivity of learning through its control. The method was built on the following: alpha- rhythm of the background EEG is an indicator of the psychophisiological condition and varies with the age and tiredness, and is under influence of real and imagery stimulus, and alpha-rhythm reactivity varies also with age and depends quantitavely upon different structural disorders (brain tumor, epilepsy, vascular disease, and others). Our results with this program are summarized and future directions are discussed.

KEY WORDS: EEG; teaching.

RSA Biofeedback Provides Information About Cardiovascular System Resonance

Linda Kranitz, 55 Rutgers University

Dwain Eckberg, Medical College of Virginia

Evgeny Vaschillo, Paul Lehrer, and Shou-En Lu, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

Tom Kuusela, University of Turku, Finland

Heart rate and blood pressure variability are adaptive features of the baroreflex system in healthy individuals. Fifty-four healthy adults were assigned to either a biofeedback training group for 10 sessions, where they learned to voluntarily increase heart rate variability, or were assigned to a control group. Physiological data were recorded during the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth sessions. Maximum heart rate variability was obtained at subjects’ individual resonant frequencies. Resonant frequencies ranged from 4.5–6.5 breaths/min, and they changed slightly and inconsistently across sessions. Compared with controls, cardiovascular variability was significantly increased in the experimental group.

KEY WORDS: biofeedback; resonance; cardiovascular.

54 Communications should be addressed to Regina Shmelkina, P.O. Box 190773, Brooklyn, New York 11219. 55 Communications should be addressed to Linda Kranitz, Rutgers University, Department of Psychology, 152 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854.