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KENR8392-01

April 2010

Systems Operation
793F Off-Highway Truck Power Train
SSP1-Up (Machine)

SAFETY.CAT.COM
i03684547

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe
basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous
situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also
have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings
are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictorially
presented.
A non-exhaustive list of operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels
on the product and in this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard.
The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. You must
not use this product in any manner different from that considered by this manual without first
satisfying yourself that you have considered all safety rules and precautions applicable to the
operation of the product in the location of use, including site-specific rules and precautions
applicable to the worksite. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating technique that is not
specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you
and for others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or become unsafe by
the operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair procedures that you intend to use.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before you
start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpil-
lar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, phys-
ical dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-


ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.

In the United States, the maintenance, replacement, or repair of the emission control devices and
systems may be performed by any repair establishment or individual of the owner's choosing.
KENR8392-01 3
Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Systems Operation Section
General Information .............................................. 4
Electronic Control Module (Power Train) .............. 6
Transmission Control ........................................... 10
Speedometer/Tachometer Module (Transmission
Gear Indicator) .................................................... 11
Position Sensor (Hoist Control) ............................ 11
Position Sensor (Dump Body) .............................. 12
Speed Sensor (Transmission) .............................. 12
Modulating Valve (Transmission Hydraulic
Control) ............................................................... 14
Modulating Valve (Torque Converter Lockup
Clutch) ................................................................. 15
Torque Converter Sump ........................................ 16
Gear Pump (Torque Converter and
Transmission) ...................................................... 16
Magnetic Screen (Transmission) .......................... 18
Oil Filter (Torque Converter) ................................. 18
Oil Filter (Transmission Charging) ........................ 19
Screen (Torque Converter) ................................... 19
Oil Cooler (Torque Converter and Transmission) .. 20
Torque Converter Inlet and Outlet Relief Valves .. 20
Torque Converter ................................................. 21
Transfer Gears ..................................................... 25
Transmission Hydraulic Control ........................... 26
Lubrication Relief Valve (Transmission) ................ 27
Transmission Planetary ........................................ 28
Pump Drive .......................................................... 35
Rear Axle and Final Drive System ........................ 37
Gear Pump (Rear Axle Oil) ................................... 38
Oil Filter (Rear Axle Lubrication) ........................... 39
Temperature Sensor (Rear Axle Oil) ..................... 40
Flow Control and Relief Valve (Rear Axle Oil) ...... 40
Differential and Bevel Gear .................................. 42
Final Drive ............................................................ 44

Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 45
4 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

Systems Operation Section


i03605641

General Information
SMCS Code: 3000; 3100; 4000

g01930555
Illustration 1
Basic diagram for the power train systems

The power train is made up of four basic systems. The four basic systems have a hydraulic connection,
The following systems are the four systems: an electrical connection, a magnetic connection, or a
mechanical connection.
• Power Train Electronic Control Module
• Torque Converter
• Transfer Gears and Transmission
• Differential and Final Drives
KENR8392-01 5
Systems Operation Section

The chassis electronic control module (chassis ECM)


matches the transmission speed to the selected
speed of the transmission shift lever. The chassis
ECM gets information of the selected speed of
operation through the electrical system. The chassis
ECM activates the transmission hydraulic system
and the torque converter hydraulic systems through
the modulating valve solenoids for the transmission,
and the modulating valve solenoid for the torque
converter lockup clutch.

The torque converter has a lockup clutch for direct


drive and a one-way clutch for torque converter
drive. The torque converter is fastened directly to the
flywheel of the engine.

The torque converter drives the transmission


hydraulically, unless the lockup clutch is activated.
When the lockup solenoid is activated, the lockup
clutch is hydraulically engaged. The torque converter
rotating housing is now mechanically connected to
the output shaft of the torque converter. The drive
shaft mechanically connects the torque converter to
the transfer gears. The transfer gears are fastened
directly to the transmission.

The modulating valve solenoids for the transmission


hydraulically activate the transmission hydraulic
control valves. The control valves activate the
transmission clutches which cause the mechanical
connection to the transmission output shaft. The
clutches in the transmission will not drive the
transmission output shaft unless the torque converter
is activated hydraulically or the torque converter is
activated mechanically.

The transmission has seven forward speeds and


one reverse speed. The selection of speed is done
manually in REVERSE, in NEUTRAL and in FIRST.
The selection of SECOND through SIXTH speeds is
done automatically.

Power is sent through the REVERSE gear in torque


converter drive only. FIRST has both a torque
converter drive and a direct drive. SECOND through
SIXTH speeds are direct drive only with a very short
time of converter drive during transmission clutch
engagement in order to enable smoother shifts. The
transmission is fastened directly to the differential
and bevel gear. The differential and bevel gear are
fastened directly to the rear axle housing.

After the transmission is connected to the torque


converter, power flows from the engine through
the torque converter and the transmission to the
differential. The rear axles mechanically connect the
differential to the final drives. The final drives are
connected to the rear wheels. Power is then sent to
the tires.
6 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

i03604701

Electronic Control Module


(Power Train)
SMCS Code: 3168; 4020; 4800

g00527172
Illustration 2

The Power Train Electronic Control Module (Power


Train ECM) is the main component in the power train
electrical system. The Power Train ECM is located
at the front of the cab. The Power Train ECM has
several input signals and output signals. Refer to
Illustration 2 for the input signals and the output
signals.

The Power Train ECM receives current through a


fuse on the fuse block. This current is used to activate
the modulating valve (torque converter lockup clutch),
and the modulating valve (transmission hydraulic
control). These modulating valves control the option
of torque converter drive or the option of direct drive.
g01929798
These modulating valves also control the direction
Illustration 3 and the speed. The Power Train ECM also controls
Location of the Power Train Electronic Control Module the electrical system for the hoist.
KENR8392-01 7
Systems Operation Section

The Cat Data Link is used to share information with System Operation
other systems such as the Brake Electronic Control
Module (Brake ECM), the Engine Electronic Control Table 1
Module (Engine ECM), and the Advisor panel. Operation of the Torque Converter For
Signals that are sent to the Engine ECM result in Transmission Speed
reduced engine speed during upshifts and increased
engine speed during downshifts. Transmission Torque Direct Drive
Speed Converter Drive with an
Engaged
The Brake ECM controls the following items: Lockup Clutch

• Traction Control System (TCS) Reverse X


Neutral X
• Auto Retarder Control
First X X
• Rear axle cooling Second X
The Power train ECM controls the following items: Third X
Fourth X
• Top gear limit
Fifth X
• Reverse Sixth X

• Load counter
Neutral (Torque Converter Drive)
• Neutral coast
With the shift lever switch in the NEUTRAL position,
• Body up gear limit current flows from the Chassis ECM through the
shift lever switch to machine ground. The Chassis
• Protection for starter ECM then sends a signal to the Transmission
ECM. The Transmission ECM uses this signal in
• Body hoist control order to deactivate the supply solenoids for the
transmission clutches. This keeps the transmission in
• Speed limiter the NEUTRAL position.

• Shift control Note: The second transmission clutch remains


engaged while the transmission is in the NEUTRAL
• Neutral start position.

• Backup alarm First (Torque Converter Drive or Direct


• Overspeed protection Drive)

• Controlled Throttle Shift (CTS) When the transmission control is moved to the FIRST
position, the shift lever switch moves to the FIRST
• Engine prelube position. Current then flows from the Chassis ECM
through the shift lever switch to machine ground.
• Directional shift management The Chassis ECM analyzes this signal in order to
understand that the shift lever switch is in FIRST
• Autolube position. The Chassis ECM sends a command for the
position of the shift lever to the Transmission ECM.
The Transmission ECM then sends a calibrated
current to the correct supply solenoids for the
transmission clutches. The transmission clutches for
FIRST gear are now engaged. The machine is now
in FIRST gear and the machine is in torque converter
drive.
8 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

FIRST gear is torque converter drive at lower ground The Power Train ECM determines that FOURTH gear
speeds. First gear is direct drive at higher ground is needed. When the transmission gear switch is in
speed. There are two transmission speed sensors the FOURTH position, current flows from the Power
that transmit a signal to the Transmission ECM. Train ECM through the transmission gear switch to
There is also a torque converter output speed machine ground. The Power Train ECM determines
sensor that transmits a signal to the Transmission that the shift is complete. The machine is now in
ECM. When the Transmission ECM is receiving a FOURTH gear and the machine is in direct drive.
valid signal from two of these three sensors, the
Transmission ECM will allow the transmission to Shifting Procedures
shift. These signals tell the Transmission ECM the
ground speed of the machine. When the ground The following sections will explain the operations
speed reaches approximately 6 km/h (4 mph), the of automatic upshifts and downshifts. Except for
Transmission ECM sends a calibrated current to different electrical wires that must be grounded or
the lockup clutch solenoid. When the lockup clutch activated, the shifting sequence is basically identical
solenoid is activated, hydraulic oil pressure goes to for all speeds.
the lockup clutch. The machine is in FIRST gear and
the machine is in direct drive. Typical Automatic Upshift (SECOND to THIRD)
The lockup clutch will stay activated until there is an When the transmission control is put in THIRD speed
upshift, a downshift, or a decrease in ground speed. position, the shift lever switch is turned to the THIRD
If there is a sufficient decrease in ground speed and speed position. Current goes from the Chassis ECM
the machine is still in FIRST, the Transmission ECM through the shift lever switch to machine ground.
will stop current to the lockup solenoid. The lockup The Chassis ECM analyzes this signal in order
solenoid will deactivate. Hydraulic oil pressure to the to understand that the shift lever switch is in the
lockup clutch will stop and the machine will return THIRD speed position. The Chassis ECM sends a
to torque converter drive. command for the position of the shift lever to the
Transmission ECM. The command for the shift lever
Second through Sixth (Direct Drive) switch and a signal from the speed sensors for the
torque converter and for the transmission will inform
Note: FOURTH position will be used as an example. the Transmission ECM that an upshift is needed.
The upshift to THIRD speed position from SECOND
When the transmission control is moved to the speed position is automatic when the correct ground
FOURTH position, the shift lever switch is moved to speed signal from the speed sensors for the torque
the FOURTH position. With the shift lever switch in converter and for the transmission is sent to the
this position, current flows from the Chassis ECM Transmission ECM. Also, the transmission control
through the shift lever switch to machine ground. must be in THIRD speed position or above THIRD
The Chassis ECM analyzes this signal in order speed position.
to understand that the shift lever switch is in the
FOURTH position. The Chassis ECM sends a The Transmission ECM stops current flow to the
command for the position of the shift lever to the lockup clutch solenoid when a shift is necessary. The
Transmission ECM. lockup clutch solenoid deactivates. Hydraulic oil to
the lockup clutch stops and the machine is in torque
The Transmission ECM receives the command for converter drive for a moment. Also, the Transmission
the position of the shift lever, and the Transmission ECM stops current flow to the two supply solenoids
ECM determines that FOURTH gear is needed. for the transmission clutches that are engaged.
When the speed sensors on the transmission and Hydraulic oil to the transmission clutches stops and
on the torque converter indicate the correct ground the clutches are now disengaged. At the same time,
speed, the Transmission ECM sends a calibrated the Transmission ECM sends a signal to the Engine
current to the correct supply solenoids in order to ECM. The Engine ECM will decrease the engine
engage the correct clutches. The machine is now in speed during the upshift.
FOURTH gear and the machine is in direct drive.
The Transmission ECM sends a calibrated current to
Fourth (Direct Drive) the first transmission clutch. Then, the Transmission
ECM sends a calibrated current to the sixth
When the transmission control is moved to the transmission clutch. The sixth clutch is a larger clutch
FOURTH position, the shift lever switch is moved to than the first clutch. During an upshift, the larger
the FOURTH position. With the shift lever switch in clutch is always engaged after the smaller clutch. The
this position, current flows from the Power Train ECM calibrated current that is sent to the supply solenoids
through the shift lever switch to machine ground. allows oil pressure to move the clutch piston quickly
until the clutch piston touches the clutch. Then, the oil
pressure slowly engages the clutch. This procedure
allows smooth shifts to be made. The transmission is
now in THIRD gear.
KENR8392-01 9
Systems Operation Section

The Transmission ECM sends a calibrated current The Transmission ECM sends a calibrated current
to the lockup clutch solenoid when the transmission to the lockup clutch solenoid when the transmission
gear switch and the ground speed is in the operating gear switch and the ground speed is in the operating
range for THIRD speed. The machine is now in direct range for THIRD speed. The machine is now in direct
drive THIRD speed. drive THIRD speed.

Special Upshifts Special Downshifts

During an upshift from NEUTRAL to REVERSE During a downshift from REVERSE to NEUTRAL
or from NEUTRAL to FIRST, no signal is sent to or from FIRST to NEUTRAL, no signal is sent to
the lockup clutch solenoid. Both speeds are torque the lockup clutch solenoid. Both speeds are torque
converter drive and the lockup clutch is not used. converter drive and the lockup clutch is not used.

An upshift from FIRST to SECOND is a typical A downshift from SECOND to FIRST is a typical
automatic upshift. automatic downshift.

Typical Automatic Downshift (FOURTH to THIRD)

When the transmission control is put in the THIRD


speed position, the shift lever switch is turned to
the THIRD speed position. Current goes from the
Chassis ECM through the shift lever switch to
machine ground. The Chassis ECM analyzes this
signal in order to understand that the shift lever
switch is in the THIRD speed position. The Chassis
ECM sends a command for the position of the shift
lever to the Transmission ECM. The command for
the shift lever and a signal from the speed sensors
for the torque converter and for the transmission
will inform the Transmission ECM that a downshift
is needed. The downshift to THIRD speed position
from FOURTH speed position is automatic when the
correct ground speed signal from the speed sensors
for the torque converter and the transmission is sent
to the Transmission ECM. Also, the transmission
control must be in the THIRD speed position or below
the THIRD speed position.

The transmission ECM stops the current flow to the


lockup clutch solenoid when a shift is necessary.
The lockup clutch solenoid deactivates. Hydraulic
oil to the lockup clutch stops and the machine is
in torque converter drive for a moment. Also, the
Transmission ECM stops the current flow to the
two supply solenoids for the transmission clutches
that are engaged. Hydraulic oil to the transmission
clutches stops and the clutches are now disengaged.
At the same time, the Transmission ECM sends a
signal to the Engine ECM. The Engine ECM will
decrease the engine speed during the downshift.

The Transmission ECM sends a calibrated current to


the first transmission clutch. Then, the Transmission
ECM sends a calibrated current to the sixth
transmission clutch. The sixth clutch is a larger clutch
than the first clutch. During a downshift, the larger
clutch is engaged last in order to absorb the inertia
of the shift. The calibrated current that is sent to the
supply solenoids allows the oil pressure to move the
clutch piston quickly until the clutch piston touches
the clutch. Then, the oil pressure slowly engages the
clutch. This procedure allows smooth shifts to be
made. The transmission is now in THIRD gear.
10 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

i03605970

Transmission Control
SMCS Code: 3065

g01242392
Illustration 5
Transmission control lever
(1) Transmission control lever
(6) Position sensor for the transmission shift lever

Transmission control lever (1) and hoist control lever


(2) are located on a console. The console is located
to the right of the operator's seat.

The transmission has seven forward speeds and one


reverse speed.

Lock (3) must be pressed before transmission control


lever (1) can be moved from “P” PARK position, “R”
REVERSE position, “N” NEUTRAL position, and from
“D” DRIVE position to “N” NEUTRAL position.

The parking brakes are engaged when transmission


control lever (1) is in the “P” Park position.

Placement of transmission control lever (1) in the


“1” First gear position or “2” Second gear position
will engage only the indicated gear. Placing the
transmission control lever in the “1” First gear
Illustration 4
g01931193 position or “2” Second gear position will not allow
an automatic upshift or an automatic downshift of
Transmission control
the transmission. This feature will allow the operator
(1) Transmission control lever to hold the transmission in the lower gears when
(2) Hoist control lever
(3) Lock for the transmission control lever operating in poor under foot conditions.
(4) Transmission upshift switch
(5) Transmission downshift switch
KENR8392-01 11
Systems Operation Section

Placement of transmission shift lever (1) in the i03603828


“D” Drive position will enable automatic upshift
and downshift of the transmission. The top gear Position Sensor (Hoist Control)
is selected by the use of upshift switch (4) and
downshift switch (5) in the transmission shift lever. SMCS Code: 1408-NS
Pressing the top gear upshift switch will shift the
maximum top gear selected to the next higher gear
through sixth gear. Pressing the top gear downshift
button will lower the maximum top gear selection to
the next lower gear through first gear. The selected
top gear and the actual gear will be displayed on the
transmission gear display.

Position sensor (6) provides the Chassis Electronic


Control Module (ECM) with information about the
position of transmission shift lever (1). The shift lever
switch is mechanically connected to the position
sensor inside the shift console.

Position sensor (6) is a Pulse Width Modulated g01928655


Illustration 7
(PWM) sensor. The position sensor sends a (PWM)
signal to the Chassis (ECM). The Chassis (ECM) Location of the hoist control position sensor
determines the desired transmission gear and
energizes the solenoids for the transmission clutch The position sensor for the hoist control is located
modulation valves in order to shift the transmission in the center operator's console. The hoist control
speed up or down. position sensor is a Pulse Width Modulation position
sensor. The hoist control postion sensor sends duty
cycle signals to the Power Train Electronic Control
i03604082 Module (Power Train ECM).
Speedometer/Tachometer The Power Train ECM uses these signals to energize
Module (Transmission Gear the appropriate hoist proportioning solenoid on
the hoist control valve. These hoist propertioning
Indicator) solenoids will move the spool in the hoist control
valve. This will cause oil to be sent to the hoist
SMCS Code: 7459 cylinders in order to move the dump body.

The signal from the hoist control position sensor is


also used to neutralize the transmission. The Power
Train ECM will allow only a forward speed position
or the NEUTRAL position when the hoist control
position sensor is in the RAISE position. The Power
Train ECM will not allow a shift to the REVERSE
position until the hoist control position sensor has
been moved from the RAISE position and the
transmission shift lever is in the NEUTRAL position.

Note: If the machine is in REVERSE and the hoist


position sensor is in the RAISE position the Power
Train ECM will shift the transmission to NEUTRAL.
g01929146 The machine will remain in NEUTRAL until the
Illustration 6
hoist control is moved into the HOLD or the FLOAT
Location of the transmission gear indicator position and the transmission control has been cycled
through NEUTRAL.
Regardless of the position of the transmission
control, the transmission gear indicator will display
the current operating gear of the transmission. The
indicator is located in the front instrument panel
under the tachometer.
12 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

i01026277 The signal from dump body position sensor (2) is also
used to control the SNUB position of the hoist control
Position Sensor (Dump Body) valve. The Power Train ECM will signal the hoist
proportioning solenoids to move the hoist control
SMCS Code: 1408-NS valve to the SNUB position when the dump body
that is being lowered nears the frame. The speed in
FLOAT is reduced in the SNUB position in order to
prevent the dump body from contacting the frame
too hard.

The signal from the dump body position sensor (2) is


used to provide warnings to the operator when the
truck is moving with the dump body UP.

i02400702

Speed Sensor (Transmission)


SMCS Code: 3175
g00498361
Illustration 8
(1) Rod
(2) Dump body position sensor

Dump body position sensor (2) is located on the left


rear frame near the pivot pin for the dump body.
The rod (1) is connected between the dump body
position sensor (2) and the dump body. When the
dump body is raised, the rod (1) rotates the dump
body position sensor (2), which changes the Pulse
Width Modulated signal that is sent to the Power
Train Electronic Control Module (Power Train ECM).
The adjustment of the rod between the sensor and
the dump body is very important. The length of the
rod should be 360.0 ± 3.0 mm (14.17 ± 0.12 inch) g01199151
from the center of both rod ends. Illustration 9
(1) Location of the transmission speed sensors
After rod (1) has been adjusted, the Power Train
ECM will perform a calibration. The dump body
position sensor (2) is calibrated by the Power Train
ECM when all of the following conditions exist:

• The engine is running for one minute with no


ground speed.

• The hoist control is in the FLOAT position.


• The signal from the dump body position sensor is 6
degrees different from the previous calibration.

• The duty cycle output must be less than 20 percent.


g01199160
Dump body position sensor (2) is used to limit the top Illustration 10
gear while the dump body is up. The Power Train (1) Transmission speed sensors
ECM comes from the factory with the top gear value (2) Gear
that is set to FIRST gear. The transmission will not
shift past FIRST gear until the dump body is down.
The top gear value is programmable by utilizing the
Electronic Control Analyzer Programmer (ECAP) or
the Electronic Technician (ET). The top gear value
can be changed to SECOND gear, THIRD gear, or
FOURTH gear.
KENR8392-01 13
Systems Operation Section

There are two speed sensors (1) for the transmission.


Each transmission speed sensor (1) receives power
from the Power Train Electronic Control Module
(Power Train ECM). Transmission speed sensor
(1) uses this current and power in order to send
a signal to the Power Train ECM. Gear (2) for
transmission speed sensors (1) has 30 teeth. Gear
(2) for transmission speed sensors (1) is connected
to the transmission output shaft.

The speed of the gear teeth will determine the signals


that are sent by transmission speed sensors (1)
to the Power Train ECM. This informs the Power
Train ECM of the ground speed of the machine. This
information and the information from the shift lever
switch allow the transmission to automatically shift
while the ground speed changes. The transmission
will automatically shift until the information from the
transmission gear switch signals the Power Train
ECM to stop automatic shifts.

Usually, the transmission will not shift into a higher


speed than the speed that is selected on the
transmission control. During overspeed conditions,
the transmission will upshift by one gear or the
transmission will unlock the torque converter.

When the signals from transmission speed sensors


(1) indicate a downshift, the Power Train ECM will
automatically downshift.
14 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

i03606920

Modulating Valve
(Transmission Hydraulic
Control)
SMCS Code: 3073; 3139

g01931954
Illustration 11
Location of the Modulating Valves (Transmission Clutch)
(1) Number 1 clutch modulating valve (3) Number 3 clutch modulating valve (5) Number 5 clutch modulating valve
(2) Number 2 clutch modulating valve (4) Number 4 clutch modulating valve (6) Number 6 clutch modulating valve

The transmission clutch solenoid modulating valves


are mounted on the top of the transmission. There
is one modulating valve for each of the seven
transmission clutches.
KENR8392-01 15
Systems Operation Section

The modulating valves are outputs of the Chassis i03606705


Electronic Control Module (ECM). The transmission
clutch solenoid modulating valves are proportional Modulating Valve (Torque
solenoid valves. The modulating valves are used Converter Lockup Clutch)
by the Chassis (ECM) to directly modulate the
oil pressure that is sent to each individual clutch. SMCS Code: 3139-VC
When the operator selects a direction or when the
operator selects a speed the power train ECM sends
a pulse width modulated (PWM) signal in order to
vary the current to the clutch solenoid. The distance
that is travelled by the solenoid plunger (valve) is
proportional to the electrical current of the solenoid.
The position of the solenoid plunger (valve) controls
the oil pressure of the selected clutch. The amount of
current that is sent to the modulating valve regulates
the amount of oil pressure that is supplied to the
selected clutch. When the Chassis (ECM) sends
the maximum current to the modulating valve, the
oil pressure in the clutch is at the maximum. When
no current is sent to the modulating valve, the oil
pressure in the clutch is at the minimum.
g01931556
Illustration 12
The Chassis (ECM) will activate the modulating (1) Modulating valve (torque converter lockup clutch)
valves that are selected by the operator. Modulating
valves supply oil to the clutches. In order for the The modulating valve for the torque converter lockup
machine to move, two clutch solenoids must be clutch (1) is mounted to the rear of the torque
energized. When the transmission is in neutral, only converter housing.
one modulating valve is energized.
The modulating valve is an output of the chassis
Note: The solenoid coils are not designed to be electronic control module (ECM). The modulating
operated at 24 DCV directly. The power train ECM valve for the torque converter lockup clutch is a
sends a 24 volt PWM signal at a duty cycle which proportional solenoid valve. The modulating valve
provides an average voltage of about 12 volts to the is used by the chassis ECM to directly modulate
solenoid coils. Do not energize the solenoid coils the oil pressure that is sent to the torque converter
with 24 DCV (+battery). The life of the solenoid coils lockup clutch. When the operator selects a direction
will be drastically reduced if the solenoid coils are or when the operator selects a speed the chassis
energized with 24 DCV (+battery). If the solenoid ECM sends a pulse width modulated (PWM) signal
coils must be energized by a source that is different in order to vary the current to the clutch solenoid.
from the power train ECM, use 12 DCV to energize The distance that is travelled by the solenoid plunger
the solenoid coils. (valve) is proportional to the electrical current of the
solenoid. The position of the solenoid plunger (valve)
controls the oil pressure of the selected clutch. The
amount of current that is sent to the modulating valve
regulates the amount of oil pressure that is supplied
to the selected clutch. When the chassis ECM sends
the maximum current to the modulating valve, the
oil pressure in the clutch is at the maximum. When
no current is sent to the modulating valve, the oil
pressure in the clutch is at the minimum.

Note: The solenoid coil is not designed to be


operated at 24 DCV directly. The chassis ECM sends
a 24 volt PWM signal at a duty cycle which provides
an average voltage of about 12 volts to the solenoid
coil. Do not energize the solenoid coil with 24
DCV (+battery). The life of the solenoid coil will be
drastically reduced if the solenoid coil is energized
with 24 DCV (+battery). If the solenoid coil must
be energized by a source that is different from the
chassis ECM, use 12 DCV to energize the solenoid
coil.
16 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

i02399827 i02403917

Torque Converter Sump Gear Pump (Torque Converter


SMCS Code: 3101; 3105
and Transmission)
SMCS Code: 3115; 5073

g01198659
Illustration 13
Torque converter sump Illustration 14
g01200476

Location of the torque converter and transmission gear pump


The torque converter sump is located behind the
engine. Oil for the torque converter system and for (1) Transmission lubrication section
(2) Transmission charge pump section
the transmission hydraulic system is supplied by the (3) Torque converter charge pump section
torque converter sump. (4) Transmission scavenge pump section

The torque converter sump has two sight gauges.


When the oil is cold, use the bottom sight gauge
to check the oil level. When the oil is at operating
temperature, use the top sight gauge to check the oil
level. See the Operation and Maintenance Manual
for lubricant viscosities and for refill capacities.

The torque converter sump, the transmission case


reservoir, and the pump drive are vented to an air
breather. The air breather is located on the vertical
frame member on the right side of the truck.
KENR8392-01 17
Systems Operation Section

Note: Each section of the gear pump receives oil that


is shown in Illustration 15. All of the oil flows from
torque converter sump (10) to the sections of the
gear pump. The passages in the torque converter
sump allow the sections to receive oil in the order that
is shown. The purpose for this order does not allow
air that is trapped in the torque converter at engine
start-up to be purged through transmission charge
pump section (3). The air will be purged through
torque converter charge pump section (3).

Oil from oil cooler (11) flows through torque converter


sump (10) to transmission lubrication section (1). Oil
from oil cooler (11) for the torque converter and for the
transmission is the only oil that supplies transmission
lubrication section (1). Transmission lubrication
section (1) sends oil for the lubrication of the transfer
gears and of the transmission. The excess oil leaks
to the bottom of the transmission case.

Oil from torque converter sump (10) through


scavenge screen (8) supplies all of the oil for
transmission charge pump section (2). Transmission
charge pump section (2) sends oil to the hydraulic
filter for the transmission charging. Some of the oil
from the transmission charging hydraulic filter flows
to the lockup clutch and synchronizing valve. The
rest of the oil flows to the transmission hydraulic
control. The oil is used to activate the transmission
clutches. Pump prime orifice (5) allows any air in the
oil to escape to the circuit for transmission lubrication.

Supply oil for torque converter charge pump section


(3) comes from two places. The supply oil from
Illustration 15
g01200500 oil cooler (11) is more than the requirement for
transmission lubrication section (1). The oil that is not
(1) Transmission lubrication section
(2) Transmission charge pump section
used by transmission lubrication section (1) supplies
(3) Torque converter charge pump section torque converter charge pump section (3). The rest
(4) Transmission scavenge pump section of the oil that is required for torque converter charge
(5) Pump prime orifice pump section (3) comes through scavenge screen
(6) Transmission charging hydraulic filter (8). Torque converter charge pump section (3) sends
(7) Oil filter for Torque converter charge pump
(8) Scavenge screen the oil to torque converter oil filter (7). The oil then
(9) Baffle flows to the torque converter inlet relief valve. The oil
(10) Torque converter sump then flows to the torque converter. A small amount of
(11) Oil cooler for the torque converter and for the transmission this oil lubricates the pump drive.
The gear pump for the torque converter and for Transmission scavenge pump section (4) is located
the transmission has four sections. The following on the drive end. This pump section removes oil from
sections are the four sections of the oil pump: the bottom of the transmission case. The oil flows
through a magnetic screen to transmission scavenge
• Transmission lubrication section (1) pump section (4). The oil that is pulled in by the
transmission scavenge pump section returns to the
• Transmission charge pump section (2) torque converter sump (10).

• Torque converter charge pump section (3)


• Transmission scavenge pump section (4)
The gear pump is driven by a gear on the torque
converter.
18 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

i03582365 The magnetic screen is fastened to the transmission


case reservoir. Oil from the bottom of the transmission
Magnetic Screen case goes through the inlet at the bottom. As the oil
(Transmission) is drawn up through tube assembly (8), the oil flows
through the openings that are between magnets (6).
SMCS Code: 3067; 5068 The magnets are installed on the tube assembly so
that the same magnetic ends are next to each other.

As the oil flows over the magnets, metal particles


are stopped by the magnets. The oil then flows
through screen (7) to outlet (5). Other foreign
particles are stopped as the oil flows through the
screen. The particles are not allowed to go into the
hydraulic system. The oil flows from outlet (5) to the
transmission scavenge pump section.

i03582164

Oil Filter (Torque Converter)


SMCS Code: 5068

g01911314
Illustration 16
Construction of the magnetic screen
(1) Cover
(2) O-ring seal
(3) Wave washer
(4) Housing
(5) Outlet
(6) Magnets
(7) Screen
(8) Tube assembly Illustration 18
g01910836
(9) O-ring seal
Location of torque converter hydraulic filter (1)

Torque converter hydraulic filter (1) is fastened to the


inside part of the main frame. Oil from the torque
converter sump goes to the gear pump for the torque
converter and the transmission. The torque converter
charge pump section sends oil to torque converter
hydraulic filter (1).

If the filter elements become full of debris, the


restriction to the flow of oil causes a pressure
increase inside the filter. The pressure oil causes the
bypass valve to open. The oil then flows past the
open bypass valve to the remainder of the hydraulic
system. When the oil does not go through the filter
Illustration 17
g01911016 elements, the debris in the oil will cause damage to
Location of the magnetic screen
other components in the hydraulic system.
(5) Outlet
Correct maintenance must be used to be certain that
the elements do not become full of debris. Debris
in the elements will stop the flow of clean oil to the
hydraulic system.
KENR8392-01 19
Systems Operation Section

i03581541 i03580382

Oil Filter (Transmission Screen (Torque Converter)


Charging) SMCS Code: 3101; 5068
SMCS Code: 3067

g01909033
Illustration 20
g01910255 (1) Torque converter screen
Illustration 19
Location of transmission charging hydraulic filter (1)
The torque converter screen is fastened to the right
Transmission charging hydraulic filter (1) is fastened side of the torque converter sump.
to the inside part of the main frame. Transmission
charging hydraulic filter (1) is located in front of the
transmission. Oil from the torque converter sump
goes to the gear pump for the torque converter and
for the transmission. The transmission charge pump
section sends oil through the inlet line to transmission
charging hydraulic filter (1).

If the filter element becomes full of debris, the


restriction to the flow of oil causes a pressure
increase inside the filter. The pressure increase
causes the bypass valve to open. The oil then goes
past the open bypass valve to the remainder of the
hydraulic system. When the oil does not go through
the filter element, the debris that is in the oil will cause
damage to other components in the hydraulic system.

Correct maintenance must be used in order to be


certain that the element does not become full of
debris. If the element is full of debris, the flow of clean
oil to the hydraulic system will be stopped.
g01197082
Illustration 21
Components of the torque converter screen
(2) Spring
(3) Bypass switch
(4) Outlet passage
(5) Spring
(6) Nut
(7) Filter element
(8) Housing
(9) Inlet passage

Oil from the torque converter outlet relief valve flows


to torque converter screen (1).
20 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

Oil flows through inlet passage (9). The oil fills the i03429720
space between the inside of housing (8) and element
(7). During normal operation, the oil flows through Torque Converter Inlet and
element (7). The oil then passes through outlet Outlet Relief Valves
passage (4) to the remainder of the hydraulic system.
Element (7) stops any debris that is in the oil. SMCS Code: 3133; 3182
If the filter elements become full of debris, the
restriction to the flow of oil causes a pressure
increase inside the filter. The pressure oil causes
bypass switch (3) to move against the force of spring
(2).

The oil then flows past the open bypass switch to


the remainder of the hydraulic system. When the oil
does not go through the filter element, the debris in
the oil will cause damage to other components in the
hydraulic system.

Correct maintenance must be used in order to ensure


that element (7) does not become full of debris.
This would stop the flow of clean oil to the hydraulic Illustration 23
g01781655
system. Location of torque converter relief valves
(1) Torque converter inlet relief valve
i03581300
(2) Torque converter outlet relief valve

Oil Cooler (Torque Converter


and Transmission)
SMCS Code: 1374; 1375

g01781713
Illustration 24
Torque converter inlet relief valve
(1) Torque converter inlet relief valve
(3) Spool
(4) Shims
(5) Passage to torque converter sump
g01909814
Illustration 22 (6) Inlet passage
Location of the torque converter and transmission oil cooler
(1) Passage for inlet oil
(2) Torque converter and transmission oil cooler

The oil cooler for the torque converter and for the
transmission is located on the right hand side of the
chassis. Engine coolant from the water pump goes
through oil cooler (2).

Oil from the torque converter screen comes through


passage (1) in order to be cooled. The oil is then
returned to the torque converter sump.
KENR8392-01 21
Systems Operation Section

i03429583

Torque Converter
SMCS Code: 3101; 3102; 3129; 3130; 3131; 3134;
3135; 3136

The torque converter is driven by the engine flywheel.


The torque converter consists of an impeller, a
turbine, a modulating valve (torque converter lockup
clutch), and a stator with a one-way clutch. The
lockup clutch permits the machine to operate in direct
drive in order to keep the power loss at a minimum.
The one-way clutch holds the stator when the torque
converter drive is used. The one-way clutch allows
g01781674
Illustration 25 the stator to turn freely when the torque converter
Torque converter outlet relief valve drive is not used.
(2) Torque converter outlet relief valve
(7) Shims The torque converter housing is fastened to the
(8) Inlet passage flywheel housing. The torque converter housing
(9) Outlet passage to torque converter screen provides the oil reservoir for the transmission
(10) Spool
hydraulics and the torque converter hydraulics. Also,
a pump and three valves are attached to the torque
Torque converter inlet relief valve (1) and torque converter housing. The flange of the output shaft of
converter outlet relief valve (2) are installed on the torque converter is connected to the drive shaft.
the outside of the torque converter housing. The
operation of both relief valves is identical. The transmission is driven by the torque converter in
NEUTRAL and in REVERSE. In FIRST speed, torque
Torque converter inlet relief valve (1) controls the converter drive is used at lower ground speeds. In
maximum pressure of the oil that is flowing into the FIRST speed, direct drive is used at higher ground
torque converter. Supply oil comes from the torque speeds. The lockup clutch is activated in FIRST
converter charge pump section. The oil flows through speed when the machine reaches a certain ground
the torque converter hydraulic filter. Before this oil speed. During shifts from FIRST speed through
flows into the torque converter, the oil is open to SIXTH speed, torque converter drive is momentarily
torque converter inlet relief valve (1) at inlet passage activated in order to provide smoother shifts. When
(6). Spool (3) will open when the pressure is above the transmission clutches are engaged, the lockup
the relief pressure. When spool (3) is shifted, oil will clutch engages and the transmission is in direct drive.
flow through passage (5) to the torque converter
sump. The relief pressure can be adjusted with shims Table 2
(7).
Operation of the Torque Converter For
Transmission Speed
Torque converter outlet relief valve (2) controls the
minimum pressure of the oil that is inside the torque Transmission Torque Direct Drive
converter. Oil exits the torque converter through Speed Converter Drive with an
passage (8). If the oil is above the pressure setting of Engaged
the torque converter outlet relief valve, spool (10) will Lockup Clutch
be shifted. This allows the oil to exit through passage Reverse X
(9). Then, the outlet oil goes through the torque
converter screen to the remainder of the circuit. The Neutral X
relief pressure can be adjusted with shims (7). First X X
Second X
Third X
Fourth X
Fifth X
Sixth X
22 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

Torque Converter Drive

g01781575
Illustration 26
Torque converter that is in torque converter drive
(1) Rotating housing (5) Outlet passage for torque converter oil (10) Lockup clutch
(2) Turbine (6) Output shaft (11) Hub
(3) Impeller (7) Carrier (12) Stator
(4) Drive gear for the torque converter and (8) Inlet passage for torque converter oil
transmission gear pump (9) One-way clutch

The engine flywheel turns rotating housing (1) which


turns impeller (3). The impeller directs the oil to the
blades of turbine (2). This will cause the turbine
to turn. The turbine directs the oil to stator (12).
This causes the stator to try to turn in the opposite
direction of the turbine. The movement of the stator
causes the rollers of one-way clutch (9) to move
between stator (12) and the carrier for the stator. The
action of the one-way clutch keeps the stator from
rotation. The stator now directs most of the oil back to
impeller (3). The remainder of the oil goes out of the
torque converter through outlet passage (5). The oil,
that goes back to impeller (3) from stator (12), moves
in the same direction as the rotation of the impeller.

Turbine (2) turns hub (11). Hub (11) turns output shaft
(6). Power is sent through the output yoke to the drive
shaft and the transfer gears of the transmission.
KENR8392-01 23
Systems Operation Section

One-Way Clutch

g01197368
Illustration 27
(12) Stator
(13) Race
(14) Cam for the one-way clutch
(15) Rollers
(16) Cage
(17) Springs
(18) Slot
(19) Cam surface

The one-way clutch functions in order to keep the


stator stationary up to higher torque converter output
speeds. Stator (12) is connected to the cam (14)
through splines. As a result, stator (12) rotates with
cam (14), and race (13) is stationary. Roller cage (16)
is located between cam (14) and race (13). Spring
(17) is partially inserted in a tab at the top and at the
bottom of cage (16). At lower turbine speeds, spring
(17) forces the tab of cage (16) to the right in slot
(18). This forces roller cage (16) to rotate clockwise.
Then, rollers (15) move against the surfaces (19)
of cam (14). The rollers wedge between cam (14)
and race (13). This action locks stator (12) to race
(13) which is stationary. The stator then returns oil
to the impeller which multiplies the torque output of
the torque converter.

As the speed of turbine (2) approaches the speed


of impeller (3), the force of hydraulic oil overcomes
the force of the rollers (15) that are wedged. The
hydraulic oil acts in a clockwise direction on stator
(12). The stator (12) then free wheels in the same
direction as the impeller (3) and turbine (2). The stator
(12) also free wheels when the speed of turbine (2)
exceeds the speed of impeller (3). This occurs during
downhill coasting when the transmission is engaged.
24 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

Direct Drive

g01781576
Illustration 28
Torque converter that is in direct drive
(1) Rotating housing (5) Inlet passage for lockup clutch oil (10) Plates
(2) Turbine (6) Output shaft (11) Lockup clutch
(3) Impeller (7) Distributor (12) Piston
(4) Drive gear for the torque converter and (8) One-way clutch (13) Hub
transmission gear pump (9) Discs (14) Stator

Modulating Valve (Torque Converter Operation


Lockup Clutch)
Rotating housing (1) is connected to the engine
Lockup clutch (11) is part of the torque converter. flywheel by splines. Rotating housing (1) is fastened
The lockup clutch (11) is located between the engine to impeller (3) by bolts. Piston (12) and plates (10)
flywheel and the turbine (2). The lockup clutch is are also connected to rotating housing (1) by splines.
engaged when the transmission is in SECOND Discs (9) and output shaft (6) are connected to hub
through SIXTH speeds. The lockup clutch will (13) by splines. Turbine (2) is fastened to hub (13).
engage in FIRST speed as the output speed of the
transmission increases. When the lockup clutch is
engaged, impeller (3) and turbine (2) turn at the same
speed as the engine and there is no loss of power in
the torque converter. The connection between the
engine and the transmission is now direct.

The main components of lockup clutch (11) are piston


(12), plates (10), and discs (9).
KENR8392-01 25
Systems Operation Section

When the lockup clutch solenoid is activated, The transfer gears are in the transfer gear case that
the lockup clutch and synchronizing valve sends is fastened to the front of the transmission case. The
pressure oil through inlet passage (5) in distributor drive shaft connects the torque converter to yoke (3).
(7). The oil goes through a passage in the center of
output shaft (6). The oil then goes through a passage Yoke (3) is connected to drive gear (2) by splines.
in rotating housing (1) to piston (12). The pressure The teeth on drive gear (2) are engaged with the
of the oil causes piston (12) to move toward disc teeth on driven gear (4). Driven gear (4) is connected
(9). This causes plates (10) and discs (9) to be held by splines to the input shaft of the transmission.
together. Plates (10) and discs (9) will now turn at the
same speed. The clutch becomes a direct connection Yoke (3) turns drive gear (2). Drive gear (2) turns
between rotating housing (1) through hub (13) to driven gear (4). Driven gear (4) turns the input shaft
output shaft (6). of the transmission.

This causes turbine (2) and impeller (3) to turn at the Shims (1) are used to make adjustments to the end
same speed. Stator (14) turns freely. At this time, the play of drive gear (2). Shims (6) are used to make
torque converter is not in operation and the machine adjustments to the end play of driven gear (4).
is in direct drive.
Oil for the lubrication of the transfer gears comes
The flow of power is from rotating housing (1), from the transmission lubrication circuit. The oil
through lockup clutch (11), hub (13), output shaft comes through a passage in the transmission case
(6), and the yoke . The power goes directly through to a passage in transfer gear case (5). Some of this
the torque converter to the drive shaft. The drive oil goes into a tube assembly. The tube assembly
shaft sends the power to the transfer gears of the sprays oil on drive gear (2) and on driven gear (4).
transmission. The gears throw the oil around inside transfer gear
case (5). This provides lubrication for the bearings in
When the lockup clutch is not engaged, the operation the transfer gear case. The extra oil in the bottom of
of the torque converter is normal. transfer gear case (5) goes through a drain passage
into the transmission case.
i03429495

Transfer Gears
SMCS Code: 3159

g01781453
Illustration 29
Components of the transfer gears
(1) Shims
(2) Drive gear
(3) Yoke
(4) Driven gear
(5) Case
(6) Shims
26 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

i03880362

Transmission Hydraulic
Control
SMCS Code: 3073

g01931293
Illustration 30
Transmission Control
(1) Number 1 clutch modulating valve (4) Number 4 clutch modulating valve (7) Transmission hydraulic control relief
(2) Number 2 clutch modulating valve (5) Number 5 clutch modulating valve valve
(3) Number 3 clutch modulating valve (6) Number 6 clutch modulating valve (8) Transmission lubrication relief valve
KENR8392-01 27
Systems Operation Section

i02400880

Lubrication Relief Valve


(Transmission)
SMCS Code: 3182

g01931465
Illustration 31
Torque converter
(9) Modulating valve (torque converter)
(10) Torque converter outlet relief valve
(11) Torque converter inlet relief valve

The transmission hydraulic control controls the oil Illustration 32


g01199263
pressure to the torque converter, to the transmission
(1) Transmission lubrication relief valve
clutches, and to the lubrication circuits. The (2) Spool
transmission hydraulic control also controls the flow (3) Spring
of oil to the clutches. The transmission hydraulic (4) Passage to the transmission case
control is installed on the top of the transmission (5) Passage from the transmission lubrication circuit
planetary group and on the side of the torque
converter housing. The transmission hydraulic control Transmission lubrication relief valve (1) controls
consists of the following components:relief valve for the maximum pressure of the oil that is flowing to
the transmission hydraulic control (7), six modulating the transmission lubrication circuit. The oil from the
valves (1) through modulating valve (6), torque transmission lubrication section of the gear pump
converter inlet relief valve (11), and torque converter combines with the signal oil from the lockup clutch
outlet relief valve (10). and synchronizing valve. If the pressure of the oil in
passage (5) achieves the relief pressure, spool (2)
Pressurized oil for the operation of the transmission will compress spring (3). Passage (4) will allow the oil
hydraulic control flows from the transmission oil pump to drain into the transmission case.
to the transmission oil filter. The oil flows through a
hose to the oil inlet in the torque converter housing.
The oil flows through internal passages in the torque
converter housing in order to supply transmission
hydraulic control relief valve (8) with oil. The oil also
flows through internal passages in the transmission
housing in order to supply the seven modulating
valves with oil.

The seven modulating valves are mounted on the top


of the transmission. The seven transmission clutches
have an individual modulating valve. In order to move
the machine, two clutch solenoids must be energized.
The modulating valves are used to directly modulate
the oil pressure that is sent to each individual clutch.

Transmission hydraulic control relief valve (7) controls


the pressure of the oil that is supplied to modulating
valves . The oil pressure overcomes the spring force
of the transmission hydraulic control relief valve.

Reference: For additional information on the


operation of the modulating valves, refer to the
Service Manual module for Systems Operation,
“Power Train Electronic Control System” for the
machine that is being serviced.
28 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

i03429182

Transmission Planetary
SMCS Code: 3030; 3064; 3155; 3160; 3169; 3190

g01781180
Illustration 33
Components of the transmission
(1) Input shaft (11) Ring gear (21) Planetary gears
(2) Rotating housing (12) No. 4 clutch (22) Ring gear
(3) Sun gear (13) Ring gear (23) Planetary gears
(4) Planetary gears (14) No. 5 clutch (24) Planetary gears
(5) No. 1 clutch (15) Sun gear (25) Planetary carrier
(6) No. 2 clutch (16) No. 6 clutch (26) Coupling hub
(7) Center shaft (17) Hub (27) Coupling ring gear
(8) Rotating housing of No. 3 clutch (18) Sun gear (28) Ring gear
(9) No. 3 clutch (19) Planetary carrier (29) Planetary carrier
(10) Sun gear (20) Planetary carrier and output shaft

Table 3 Power from the engine goes to the torque converter.


Engagement of Transmission Clutches
The power then goes through the drive shaft to
the transfer gears. The transfer gears are fastened
Transmission Speed Engaged Clutches in directly to the front of the transmission case. The
the Transmission power then goes through the planetary transmission
NEUTRAL-1 3 to the differential.

NEUTRAL-2 1
REVERSE 1 and 6
FIRST speed 1 and 5
SECOND speed 2 and 5
THIRD speed 1 and 4
FOURTH speed 2 and 4
FIFTH speed 1 and 3
SIXTH speed 2 and 3
KENR8392-01 29
Systems Operation Section

The transmission has six forward speeds and one


reverse speed. REVERSE and NEUTRAL use only
torque converter drive. At lower ground speeds,
FIRST speed uses torque converter drive. At higher
ground speeds, FIRST speed uses direct drive.
As the ground speed increases in FIRST speed,
the lockup clutch of the torque converter engages.
This provides FIRST speed with direct drive. The
torque converter is always in direct drive for speeds
SECOND through SIXTH, but there is a short
period of torque converter drive when the clutches
engage in the transmission. This provides smooth,
automatic upshifting from SECOND through SIXTH
and smooth, automatic downshifting from SIXTH
through SECOND.

The transmission has a combination of three rotating


clutches, three stationary clutches, and four planetary
units. This provides six forward speeds and one
reverse speed. No. 1 clutch (5), No. 2 clutch (6), and
No. 3 clutch (9) are the rotating clutches.

Input torque goes from the transfer gears to input


shaft (1). Input shaft (1) drives the rotating housing
and the transmission input clutch arrangement.
Center shaft (7) connects the input section to
the output section. Center shaft (7) also carries
the sun gears that drive the output section of the
transmission. Center shaft (7) and input shaft (1) turn
the same direction.
30 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

Power Flow in NEUTRAL-1

g01781235
Illustration 34
Power flow in NEUTRAL-1
(1) Input shaft (11) Ring gear (21) Planetary gears
(2) Rotating housing (12) No. 4 clutch (22) Ring gear
(3) Sun gear (13) Ring gear (23) Planetary gears
(4) Planetary gears (14) No. 5 clutch (24) Planetary gears
(5) No. 1 clutch (15) Sun gear (25) Planetary carrier
(6) No. 2 clutch (16) No. 6 clutch (26) Coupling hub
(7) Center shaft (17) Hub (27) Coupling ring gear
(8) Rotating housing of No. 3 clutch (18) Sun gear (28) Ring gear
(9) No. 3 clutch (19) Planetary carrier (29) Planetary carrier
(10) Sun gear (20) Planetary carrier and output shaft

Only No. 3 clutch (9) is engaged in NEUTRAL-1. No Power Flow in NEUTRAL-2


input clutches are engaged. Torque is transferred
from the transfer gears to input shaft (1). Rotating No. 1 clutch (5) is engaged in NEUTRAL-2. Torque
housing (2) is splined to input shaft (1). Rotating is transferred from the transfer gears to input shaft
housing (2) turns with input shaft (1). Rotating (1). Rotating housing (2) is splined to input shaft
housing (2) spins the plates of No. 1 clutch (5). (1). Rotating housing (2) turns with input shaft (1).
Because No. 1 clutch (5) is not engaged, ring gear Rotating housing (2) spins the plates of No. 1 clutch
(28) is not held. Rotating housing (2) spins the plates (5). Because No. 1 clutch (5) is engaged, the discs of
of No. 2 clutch (6). Because No. 2 clutch (6) is not the No. 1 clutch hold ring gear (28).
engaged, coupling ring gear (27) is not held.
Ring gear (28) turns with rotating housing (2) and
Ring gear (28) and coupling ring gear (27) are not input shaft (1). Sun gear (3) is splined to a stationary
held. Torque is not transferred to planetary carrier shaft. Sun gear (3) does not turn. Planetary gears (4)
(29) and center shaft (7) is not driven. move around the outside of sun gear (3). This drives
planetary carrier (29). Planetary carrier (29) turns in
No. 3 clutch (9) is engaged. The discs of the No. the same direction as input shaft (1), but at a different
3 clutch hold coupling hub (26). Sun gear (10) is speed. Planetary carrier (29) is splined to center shaft
splined to center shaft (7). Because no input torque (7). Center shaft (7) and planetary carrier (29) are
has been transferred to center shaft (7), there is no driven in the same direction and at the same speed.
output torque.
KENR8392-01 31
Systems Operation Section

No output clutches are engaged. The torque is lost


through spinning clutch discs and plates. Torque
does not flow to the output shaft.

Power Flow in FIRST Speed


No. 1 clutch (5) and No. 5 clutch (14) are engaged in
FIRST speed. Torque is transferred from the transfer
gears to input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) is
splined to input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) turns
with input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) spins the
plates of No. 1 clutch (5). Because No. 1 clutch (5)
is engaged, the discs of the No. 1 clutch hold ring
gear (28).

Ring gear (28) turns with rotating housing (2) and


input shaft (1). Sun gear (3) is splined to a stationary
shaft. Sun gear (3) does not turn. Planetary gears (4)
move around the outside of sun gear (3). This drives
planetary carrier (29). Planetary carrier (29) turns in
the same direction as input shaft (1), but at a different
speed. Planetary carrier (29) is splined to center shaft
(7). Center shaft (7) and planetary carrier (29) are
driven in the same direction and at the same speed.

Sun gear (15) is splined to center shaft (7). Sun


gear (15) turns planetary gears (23). No. 5 clutch
(14) is engaged. The discs of No. 5 clutch (14) hold
ring gear (13) stationary. Planetary gears (23) move
around the inside of ring gear (13). This drives the
planetary carrier and output shaft (20).

The output shaft turns in the same direction as input


shaft (1), but at a different speed.
32 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

Power Flow in FOURTH Speed

g01781254
Illustration 35
Power flow in FOURTH speed
(1) Input shaft (11) Ring gear (21) Planetary gears
(2) Rotating housing (12) No. 4 clutch (22) Ring gear
(3) Sun gear (13) Ring gear (23) Planetary gears
(4) Planetary gears (14) No. 5 clutch (24) Planetary gears
(5) No. 1 clutch (15) Sun gear (25) Planetary carrier
(6) No. 2 clutch (16) No. 6 clutch (26) Coupling hub
(7) Center shaft (17) Hub (27) Coupling ring gear
(8) Rotating housing of No. 3 clutch (18) Sun gear (28) Ring gear
(9) No. 3 clutch (19) Planetary carrier (29) Planetary carrier
(10) Sun gear (20) Planetary carrier and output shaft

No. 2 clutch (6) and No. 4 clutch (12) are engaged Sun gear (10) is splined to center shaft (7). Sun gear
in FOURTH speed. Torque is transferred from the (10) turns planetary gears (24). No. 4 clutch (12) is
transfer gears to input shaft (1). Rotating housing engaged. The discs of No. 4 clutch (12) hold ring gear
(2) is splined to input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) (11) stationary. Planetary gears (24) move around the
turns with input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) spins inside of ring gear (11). This drives planetary carrier
the plates of No. 2 clutch (6). Because No. 2 clutch (25) in the same direction as center shaft (7), but at a
(6) is engaged, the discs of the No. 2 clutch hold different speed.
coupling ring gear (27).
Planetary carrier (25) is splined to ring gear (13).
Coupling ring gear (27) turns with rotating housing (2) Because No. 5 clutch (14) is not engaged, ring gear
and input shaft (1). Coupling ring gear (27) is splined (13) turns with planetary carrier (25). Sun gear (15) is
to planetary carrier (29). Planetary carrier (29) turns splined to center shaft (7). Sun gear (15) turns with
with coupling ring gear (27). The planetary carrier center shaft (7). Sun gear (15) and ring gear (13)
is splined to center shaft (7). Center shaft (7) and turn in the same direction but at different speeds.
input shaft (1) are driven in the same direction and Planetary gears (23) move around the inside of ring
at the same speed. gear (13). This drives the planetary carrier and output
shaft (20).

The output shaft turns in the same direction as input


shaft (1), but at a different speed.
KENR8392-01 33
Systems Operation Section

Power Flow in FIFTH Speed Sun gear (10) is splined to center shaft (7). Sun
gear (10) is also splined to coupling hub (26). No. 3
No. 1 clutch (5) and No. 3 clutch (9) are engaged in clutch (9) is engaged. The discs of No. 3 clutch (9)
FIFTH speed. Torque is transferred from the transfer hold coupling hub (26). No. 3 clutch (9) is a rotating
gears to input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) is clutch. Rotating housing (8) of the No. 3 clutch and
splined to input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) turns center shaft (7) turn in the same direction and at the
with input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) spins the same speed. Rotating housing (8) of the No. 3 clutch
plates of No. 1 clutch (5). Because No. 1 clutch (5) is fastened to planetary carrier (25). Planetary carrier
is engaged, the discs of the No. 1 clutch hold ring (25) is splined to ring gear (13). Ring gear (13) and
gear (28). center shaft (7) turn in the same direction and at the
same speed.
Ring gear (28) turns with rotating housing (2) and
input shaft (1). Sun gear (3) is splined to a stationary Sun gear (15) is splined to center shaft (7). Sun gear
shaft. Sun gear (3) does not turn. Planetary gears (4) (15) and ring gear (13) turn in the same direction and
move around the outside of sun gear (3). This drives at the same speed. This holds planetary gears (23).
planetary carrier (29). Planetary carrier (29) turns in The planetary carrier and output shaft (20) are driven
the same direction as input shaft (1), but at a different in the same direction as center shaft (7) and at the
speed. Planetary carrier (29) is splined to center shaft same speed as center shaft (7).
(7). Center shaft (7) and planetary carrier (29) are
driven in the same direction and at the same speed. The output shaft turns in the same direction as input
shaft (1) and at the same speed.
Sun gear (10) is splined to center shaft (7). Sun
gear (10) is also splined to coupling hub (26). No. 3 Power Flow in REVERSE
clutch (9) is engaged. The discs of No. 3 clutch (9)
hold coupling hub (26). No. 3 clutch (9) is a rotating No. 1 clutch (5) and No. 6 clutch (16) are engaged
clutch. Rotating housing (8) of the No. 3 clutch and in REVERSE speed. Torque is transferred from the
center shaft (7) turn in the same direction and at the transfer gears to input shaft (1). Rotating housing
same speed. Rotating housing (8) of the No. 3 clutch (2) is splined to input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2)
is fastened to planetary carrier (25). Planetary carrier turns with input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) spins
(25) is splined to ring gear (13). Ring gear (13) and the plates of No. 1 clutch (5). Because No. 1 clutch
center shaft (7) turn in the same direction and at the (5) is engaged, the discs of the No. 1 clutch hold
same speed. ring gear (28).
Sun gear (15) is splined to center shaft (7). Sun gear Ring gear (28) turns with rotating housing (2) and
(15) and ring gear (13) turn in the same direction and input shaft (1). Sun gear (3) is splined to a stationary
at the same speed. This holds planetary gears (23). shaft. Sun gear (3) does not turn. Planetary gears (4)
The planetary carrier and output shaft (20) are driven move around the outside of sun gear (3). This drives
in the same direction as center shaft (7) and at the planetary carrier (29). Planetary carrier (29) turns in
same speed as center shaft (7). the same direction as input shaft (1), but at a different
speed. Planetary carrier (29) is splined to center shaft
Power Flow in SIXTH Speed (7). Center shaft (7) and planetary carrier (29) are
driven in the same direction and at the same speed.
No. 2 clutch (6) and No. 3 clutch (9) are engaged in
SIXTH speed. Torque is transferred from the transfer Sun gear (15) is splined to center shaft (7). Sun gear
gears to input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) is (15) spins planetary gears (23). No. 5 clutch (14) is
splined to input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) turns not engaged. Planetary gears (23) spin ring gear
with input shaft (1). Rotating housing (2) spins the (13). Ring gear (13) turns in the opposite direction
plates of No. 2 clutch (6). Because No. 2 clutch (6) is of sun gear (15). Hub (17) is splined to ring gear
engaged, the discs of the No. 2 clutch hold coupling (13) and to sun gear (18). Sun gear (18) turns in the
ring gear (27). same direction as ring gear (13). Sun gear (18) turns
planetary gears (21). No. 6 clutch (16) is engaged.
Coupling ring gear (27) turns with rotating housing (2) The discs of No. 6 clutch (16) hold ring gear (22).
and input shaft (1). Coupling ring gear (27) is splined Planetary gears (21) move around the inside of ring
to planetary carrier (29). Planetary carrier (29) turns gear (22). This drives planetary carrier (19). Planetary
with coupling ring gear (27). The planetary carrier carrier (19) is splined to the planetary carrier and
is splined to center shaft (7). Center shaft (7) and output shaft (20). The planetary carrier (19) is driven
input shaft (1) are driven in the same direction and at the same speed and direction as the planetary
at the same speed. carrier and output shaft (20).

The output shaft is driven in the opposite direction of


center shaft (7) and input shaft (1) and at a different
speed.
34 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

Lubrication of the Transmission

g01781333
Illustration 36
Lubrication of the transmission
(1) Balance piston of No. 1 clutch (11) Ring gear (21) Planetary carrier
(2) Planetary gears (12) No. 5 clutch (22) Passage
(3) No. 1 clutch (13) No. 6 clutch (23) Coupling hub
(4) No. 2 clutch (14) Slinger (24) Balance piston of No. 3 clutch
(5) Center shaft (15) Planetary carrier (25) Balance piston of No. 2 clutch
(6) Passage (16) Planetary carrier and output shaft (26) Coupling ring gear
(7) No. 3 clutch (17) Planetary gears (27) Ring gear
(8) Sun gear (18) Ring gear (28) Planetary carrier
(9) Ring gear (19) Planetary gears (29) Passage
(10) No. 4 clutch (20) Planetary gears (30) Passage

Oil for the lubrication of the transmission comes The oil that flows to the transmission flows through
from the torque converter sump. The transmission passage (6) to center shaft (5). Some of the oil flows
lubrication section of the oil pump pulls oil through forward and some of the oil flows toward the output
the suction screen. If the lockup clutch solenoid is end. Part of the oil that flows forward goes to the back
activated, the oil combines with the signal oil that of balance piston (25) for the No. 2 clutch. Some of
is flowing from the lockup clutch and synchronizing this oil lubricates ring gear (26) and No. 2 clutch (4).
valve. The combined oil flows to the transfer case Some of the oil that flows forward from passage (6)
and the oil divides. Some of the oil remains in flows through passages to planetary carrier (28) for
the transfer case and some of the oil flows to the the lubrication of planetary gears (2). The remainder
transmission. Pressure is controlled by a relief valve of the oil that flows forward from passage (6) flows
in the transmission case. around center shaft (5) and into the center of center
shaft (5).
Oil that remains in the transfer case lubricates the
transfer gears and the bearings. Some of this oil
flows through passage (30) to the back of balance
piston (1) for the No. 1 clutch. This oil then goes
through passage (29) and through passages in ring
gear (27). This oil lubricates No. 1 clutch (3).
KENR8392-01 35
Systems Operation Section

Part of the oil that flows toward the output end from
passage (6) goes behind balance piston (24) for the
No. 3 clutch. Some of this oil lubricates coupling hub
(23) and No. 3 clutch (7). The remainder of the oil
that flows toward the output end from passage (6)
lubricates sun gear (8). Some of the oil flows from
sun gear (8) through planetary carrier (21) for the
lubrication of planetary gears (20). Some of the oil
flows from sun gear (8) for the lubrication of ring gear
(11) and No. 5 clutch (12). Some of the oil flows from
the sun gear (8) through the planetary carrier and
output shaft (16) for the lubrication of planetary gears
(19). The remainder of the oil lubricates ring gear (9)
and No. 4 clutch (10).

The remainder of the oil that enters the transmission


through passage (6) flows into passage (22). This
oil helps lubricate No. 4 clutch (10), No. 5 clutch
(12), and No. 6 clutch (13). This oil then flows into
slinger (14). The oil is directed to passages that are
in planetary carrier (15). This oil lubricates planetary
gears (17), ring gear (18), and No. 6 clutch (13).

Operation of the Balance Pistons in the


Rotating Clutches
The oil that flows to balance piston (1) of the No.
1 clutch, to balance piston (25) of the No. 2 clutch, Illustration 38
g01781014
and to balance piston (24) of the No. 3 clutch is
(3) Yoke assembly
used to balance the centrifugal force of the oil. The (4) Housing
centrifugal force of the oil is caused by the rotation (5) Bearings
of the No. 1 clutch, the No. 2 clutch, and the No. 3 (6) Shims
clutch. The centrifugal force of the oil that is behind (7) Drive gear
(8) Cage
the clutch piston in the rotating clutches causes a (9) Idler gear
small amount of clutch engagement in the rotating (10) Shaft
clutch. The centrifugal force of the oil that is behind (11) Shims
the balance piston balances the centrifugal force of (12) Cage
(13) Shims
the oil that is on the clutch piston.
(14) Bearings
(15) Driven gear
(16) Bearings
i03429060

Pump Drive
SMCS Code: 3108

g01781015
Illustration 39
(1) Pump drive
(3) Yoke assembly
(17) Piston pump for fan drive
g01781013 (18) Gear pump for the hoist and brake retract
Illustration 37
(1) Pump drive
(2) Pump drive shaft which is located under the guard
36 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

Pump drive (1) is fastened to the inner right side of


the main frame directly behind the flywheel housing
of the engine. The accessory drive gear in the
flywheel housing drives pump drive shaft (2). Pump
drive shaft (2) is connected to yoke assembly (3).

Splines connect yoke assembly (3) to drive gear (7).


Drive gear (7) turns idler gear (9) which turns driven
gear (15).

Shims (6) are used to adjust the end play of drive


gear (7). Shims (11) are used to adjust the end play
of idler gear (9). Shims (13) are used to adjust the
end play of driven gear (15).

Two pumps are driven by the pump drive. The gear


pump for the hoist and brake retract (18) is fastened
to cage (12). The piston pump for the fan drive (17)
is fastened directly to housing (4). The piston pump
for the fan drive (17) is located across from the gear
pump for the hoist and brake retract (18). Driven gear
(15) drives both the piston pump for fan drive (17) and
the gear pump for the hoist and brake retract (18).

Lubrication of the pump drive is provided by oil from


the torque converter charge pump section. The oil
is sprayed on drive gear (6). Holes in housing (4)
will send oil to each bearing. An oil level is kept in
housing (4) so that the teeth on driven gear (15) are
in oil. The gears will throw oil in the housing. Extra oil
in housing (4) goes to the torque converter housing.
KENR8392-01 37
Systems Operation Section

i03429020

Rear Axle and Final Drive


System
SMCS Code: 3260; 3268; 4003; 4050; 4059; 4077;
4084

g01780973
Illustration 40
(1) Priority Valve (7) Outlet to differential lube (13) Rear axle oil pump
(2) Outlet to brake cooling motor (8) Bypass valve (14) Pump motor
(3) Oil filter (9) Final drive bypass manifold (15) Steering tank
(4) Pressure sensor (10) Right final drive oil (16) Steering accumulator
(5) Auxiliary cooler (11) Left final drive oil (17) Steering pump
(6) Rear axle cooling fan motor (12) Rear axle housing sump (18) Supply valve

The 793F has a continuous lubrication system for the The steering pump (17) supplies oil to the priority
rear axle. This system does not require the truck to valve (1). The brake ECM controls the supply valve
be in motion in order to provide oil flow. This hydraulic (18) that is based on a temperature sensor that is
system lubricates the bearings for the differential mounted in the rear axle housing (12). Oil flow is
and bevel gear group and the bearings for the rear directed to the pump motor (14) when the supply
wheels. This hydraulic system also cools the bearings solenoid valve (18) is OFF. Oil flow is blocked to the
for the differential and bevel gear group and the pump motor (14) when the supply solenoid valve
bearings for the rear wheels. For the correct oil that (18) is ON.
should be used in the system, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual for your machine.
38 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

The pump motor (14) drives the rear axle oil pump
(13). The rear axle oil pump (13) sends oil to the rear
axle oil filter (3) and to the final drive bypass manifold
(9). If the machine is equipped with an auxiliary
cooler (5) oil will flow through the cooler before the
bypass valve. The auxiliary cooler (5) reduces the
temperature of the oil.

The bypass solenoid valve (8) sends oil to the final


drive and to the differential gear (7) or the bypass
solenoid valve (8) will bypass the right final drive
(10) and the left final drive (11). This prevents the
final drives from receiving too much oil under certain
conditions.

Table 4
Rear Axle Lubrication Strategy
Supply solenoid valve Bypass solenoid valve
Rear Axle Oil Cold Cool Hot Cold Cool Hot
Temperature < −4 °C (< 25 °F) −4 °C to 40 °C > 40 °C < −4 °C −4 °C to 40 °C > 40 °C
(25 °F to 102 (> 102 °F) (< 25 °F) (25 °F to 102 (> 102 °F)
°F) °F)
Not Moving OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF
0 km/h (0 mph) ON after 5 min ON after 5 min
Moving ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF
0 to 35 km/h
(0 to 22 mph)
Moving Fast ON OFF OFF ON ON 5 min ON
> 35 km/h 1 min OFF
(> 22 mph)
Gear Limit 3rd 4th No

Note: When the supply solenoid is OFF, oil flow is i03427839


directed to the rear axle lubrication pump motor.
When the supply solenoid is OFF, the system is ON. Gear Pump (Rear Axle Oil)
When the supply solenoid is ON, oil flow is blocked
to the rear axle lubrication pump motor. When the SMCS Code: 4060; 5073
supply solenoid is ON the system is OFF.

The brake ECM controls the system for the rear axle
oil. The temperature sensor is located in the rear axle
housing. The temperature sensor is the main control
for the supply solenoid valve (18) and the bypass
solenoid valve (8). During start-up, the system is
turned ON in order to charge the lube system. The
system is turned OFF if the lube oil is cold. If the
machine goes faster than 35 km/h (22 mph) the lube
system is cycled. When the lube system is cycled,
the system turns ON and the system turns OFF. This
prevents the final drives from filling with excessive
oil. The gear limit is used to prevent the machine
from running at high speed until the differential oil g01779856
Illustration 41
has warmed up.
Location of the gear pump for the rear axle
(1) Gear pump
(2) Motor
(3) Suction housing
KENR8392-01 39
Systems Operation Section

i03427586

Oil Filter (Rear Axle


Lubrication)
SMCS Code: 5068

g01779857 g01779735
Illustration 42 Illustration 43

Section view of the gear pump for the rear axle Rear axle housing

(3) Suction housing (1) Inlet line


(4) Adapter (2) Pressure sensor
(5) Coupling (3) Filter bypass switch
(6) Suction screen (4) Rear axle power train filter
(5) Level switch for the rear axle
(6) Outlet line
Gear pump (1) which provides lubrication oil to the
rear axle is driven by hydraulic motor (2). The motor
and the pump are connected by coupling (5) that is
located in adapter (4). Hydraulic motor (2) is driven
by fluid from the steering pump. This means that the
rear axle can receive oil if the vehicle is at a stop or
if the vehicle is moving. Oil flow is directed to pump
motor (1) when the supply solenoid is OFF. Oil flow is
blocked to gear pump (1) when the supply solenoid
is ON.

Gear pump (1) pulls oil from the bottom of the rear
axle housing through suction screen (6). The oil flows
through the oil filter for the rear axle. Then, the oil
flows through the final drive bypass manifold. The
oil is directed to the final drives and the bevel gear. Illustration 44
g01779801
The oil is also distributed to the bearings of the rear
Section view of the rear axle power train filter
wheels.
(7) Bypass valve
(8) Spring
(9) Inlet passage
(10) Outlet passage
(11) Housing
(12) Element

Rear axle power train filter (4) is mounted to the back


of the rear axle housing. Oil from the rear axle oil
pump flows through inlet line (1) to rear axle power
train filter (4). Oil then flows through outlet line (6) to
final drive bypass manifold.

Filter bypass switch (3) and level switch (5) for


the rear axle send input signal to the panel for the
Advisor. Pressure sensor (2) also sends an input
signal to the Advisor.
40 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

Oil from inlet line (1) flows into inlet passage (9). This The machine may be equipped with a cooling fan for
oil fills the space that is between element (12) and the rear axle. If the machine has this cooling fan, the
the inside of housing (11). During normal operation, Advisor panel will activate the cooling fan according
the oil flows through element (12). The oil then flows to the information that is supplied by the input signals
through outlet passage (10). Element (12) stops any from the sensor.
debris that is in the oil.
i03423920
If the filter element becomes full of debris, the
restriction to the flow of oil causes a pressure
increase inside the filter. If the pressure of the oil
Flow Control and Relief Valve
achieves the bypass pressure, the pressure oil (Rear Axle Oil)
causes bypass valve (7) to move against the force of
spring (8). The oil then goes through open bypass SMCS Code: 4060
valve (7). This oil flows through the bypass passage
and to the final drive bypass manifold. Filter bypass
switch (3) notifies the VIMS of this occurrence. When
the oil does not go through the filter element, the
debris that is in the oil may cause damage to the
other components in the system.

Correct maintenance must be used to ensure that


element (12) does not become full of debris and that
the flow of clean oil is not stopped.

i03427541

Temperature Sensor (Rear


Axle Oil) Illustration 46
g01777114

Location of flow control and relief valve for rear axle oil
SMCS Code: 1408; 3290 (1) Flow control and relief valve
(2) Inlet line
(3) Outlet line

The control valve and relief valve (1) for the rear axle
are located on the front of the rear axle housing and
connected to the oil filter. Oil is pumped from the oil
pump through inlet line (2) and into the control valve.
Oil is sent to the final drives and oil is sent to the
differential bevel gear through outlet line (3).

g01779714
Illustration 45
(1) Rear axle oil temperature sensor

Rear axle oil temperature sensor (1) is located in the


rear axle housing near the rear axle oil pump. Rear
axle oil temperature sensor (1) sends input signals
to the Advisor panel. The Advisor panel warns the
operator of a high temperature in the rear axle. Rear
axle oil temperature sensor (1) is the main input that g01777376
Illustration 47
is used by the brake ECM in order to control the
lubrication system for the rear axle. This data allows Flow control and relief valve
the brake ECM to turn the lube system ON or OFF. (1) Flow control solenoid valve
(4) Filter outlet
(5) Cavity plug
(6) Filter inlet
(7) Inlet passage
KENR8392-01 41
Systems Operation Section

g01777374
Illustration 48
Flow control and relief valve with filter housing
(8) Bypass valve passage

g01777375
Illustration 49
Flow control and relief valve
(9) Relief valve
(10) Outlet Passage

Control valve (1) and relief valve (9) make up the


bypass manifold. The bypass manifold directs the
flow of oil to the final drive and the differential bevel
gear. Inlet passage (7) receives oil from the oil pump
for the rear axle. The oil is then sent through filter
inlet (6). If the relief valve pressure in the filter has
been exceeded the oil will bypass the filter with
bypass valve (8). The oil is then sent through the
passage for filter outlet (4).

Solenoid valve (1) controls the flow of the oil.


Solenoid valve (1) will send the oil to the final drives
and to the differential bevel gear, or solenoid valve
(1) will bypass the final drives. Solenoid valve (1)
will bypass the final drives in order to prevent the
final drives from receiving too much oil. Solenoid
valve (1) is controlled by the brake ECM. The brake
ECM receives oil temperature readings from the oil
temperature sensor that is located in the rear axle
housing. The oil is then sent through outlet passage
(10) to the final drives and differential bevel gear.
If the final drive is bypassed the oil is sent to the
differential bevel gear and to the rear axle housing.
Cavity plug (5) is used only with an optional oil cooler.
42 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

i03423426

Differential and Bevel Gear


SMCS Code: 3256; 3258; 3270

g01776881
Illustration 50
Differential and bevel gear
(1) Shims (8) Thrust pin (15) Carrier assembly
(2) Spider (9) Bevel gear (16) Bevel pinion
(3) Differential housing (10) Side gears (two) (17) Shims
(4) Differential bevel pinions (four) (11) Differential housing (18) Bearing cage
(5) Shims (12) Thrust washers (19) Bearings
(6) Retainer (13) Bearings
(7) Bearing (14) Adjusting nut

The power that is sent to the wheels is divided by the


differential. The amount of power that is sent to each
wheel is balanced by the differential. During a turn,
the differential allows the inner wheel to rotate at a
slower rate than the outer wheel. The differential still
sends the same amount of torque to each wheel.
KENR8392-01 43
Systems Operation Section

The differential and bevel gear are fastened to the Adjusting nut (17) and adjusting nut (5) are used to
rear axle housing. The differential and bevel gear make an adjustment between bevel pinion (14) and
connect the output shaft of the transmission to the bevel gear (8). The nuts are also used to make an
drive axles. The output shaft of the transmission adjustment to the bearing preload of bearing (16)
is connected to bevel pinion (16) by splines. Bevel and bearing (6).
pinion (16) turns bevel gear (9). Bevel gear (9) is
fastened to differential housing (3). There are four The differential receives lubrication from the oil in
differential bevel pinions (4). Differential bevel pinions the axle housing. The gear pump for the rear axle
(4) turn freely on spider (2). Each differential bevel provides lubrication oil through the final drive bypass
pinion (4) has a double bearing assembly in order to manifold. As the parts rotate, the oil is thrown around
carry the drive load of the differential bevel pinion. the inside of the housing. Spiral grooves in thrust
Differential housing (3) and differential housing washers (12) allow the lubricant to flow between the
(11) are bolted together in order to hold spider (2). thrust washers and side gears (10).
Differential housing (3) and differential housing (11)
rotate together with bevel gear (9). The housings are Note: Correct adjustment of all of the bearings in
driven by bevel gear (9). The housings are supported the differential is very important. For the correct
by bearings. adjustment procedures, refer to the Power Train
Testing and Adjusting, “Differential and Bevel Gear -
Differential bevel pinions (4) are engaged at a 90 Adjust” and the Power Train Testing and Adjusting,
degree angle with two straight side gears (10). “Differential Pinion Bearing - Adjust”.
The side gears are connected to the drive axles by
splines.

When the machine is moving in a straight direction


and each drive wheel has the same amount of
traction, both wheels receive the same amount of
load. The same amount of torque is felt on each axle.
This torque holds differential bevel pinions (4) so that
the differential bevel pinions do not turn on spider
(2). This will provide the same effect as if both drive
wheels are fastened to the same drive axle.

When different loads are put on the drive wheels,


differential bevel pinions (4) will turn because
the forces are different on the opposite sides of
the differential. During a turn, the rotation of the
differential bevel pinions will allow a slower rotation of
the inside wheel and a faster rotation of the outside
wheel. The machine is driven with full power in a turn.

Side gears (10) turn against thrust washers (12). The


end thrust of the differential bevel pinions (4) against
the differential case is taken by a double bearing
assembly. The bearing assemblies must be changed
in sets of two.

Thrust pin (7) in the rear housing provides support for


carrier assembly (15). Carrier assembly (15) carries
a high thrust load.

Shims (17) are located under bearing cage (18).


When bearing cage (18) is installed, the shims
determine the end play of bearings (19) for bevel
pinion (16).

Shims (1) affect the tooth contact between bevel gear


(9) and bevel pinion (16). Changing the shims would
also affect the pinion bearing preload. Shims (5) and
retainer (6) affect the backlash of the gears.
44 KENR8392-01
Systems Operation Section

i03423308

Final Drive
SMCS Code: 4003; 4050; 4059; 4084

g01776794
Illustration 51
(1) Brake (6) Planetary gears (11) Sun gear
(2) Bearing (7) Ring gear (12) Sun gear
(3) Bearing (8) Planetary carrier (13) Wheel
(4) Hub (9) Planetary gears (14) Spindle housing
(5) Ring gear (10) Planetary carrier

Each of the two final drives has the same Power from the differential turns the axle shaft. The
components. A final drive causes the last speed axle shaft turns sun gear (12). Sun gear (12) turns
reduction in the power train and the last torque planetary gear (6). Because ring gear (5) is held
increase in the power train. stationary by hub (4), the planetary gears move
around the inside of ring gear (5). The movement of
Spindle housing (14) is fastened to the axle housing. the planetary gears causes planetary carrier (8) to
Hub (4) is splined to spindle housing (14) and to ring turn. Carrier (8) is turned in the same direction as
gear (5). Ring gear (5) is splined to ring gear (7). Ring sun gear (12), but at a slower speed. Carrier (8) turns
gear (7), ring gear (5), hub (4), and spindle housing sun gear (11). Sun gear (11) turns planetary gear (9).
(14) are stationary. Because ring gear (7) is held stationary by ring gear
(5), the planetary gears move around the inside of
The axle shaft is connected to the differential by ring gear (7). The movement of the planetary gears
spindles in sun gear (12). Sun gear (12) is engaged causes planetary carrier (10) to turn. Carrier (10) is
with planetary gears (6). Planetary gears (6) are turned in the same direction as sun gear (11), but at
held in planetary carrier (8). Planetary carrier (8) is a slower speed. Carrier (10) drives wheel (13).
connected to sun gear (11) by splines. Sun gear (11)
is engaged with planetary gears (9). Planetary gears The final drives receive lubrication by the rotation
(9) are held in planetary carrier (10). Planetary carrier of the gears in the oil. The differential and the final
(10) is connected to wheel (13). drives use the same lubricant.
KENR8392-01 45
Index Section

Index
D R

Differential and Bevel Gear ................................... 42 Rear Axle and Final Drive System......................... 37

E S

Electronic Control Module (Power Train)............... 6 Screen (Torque Converter) .................................... 19


System Operation .............................................. 7 Speed Sensor (Transmission) ............................... 12
Speedometer/Tachometer Module (Transmission
Gear Indicator)..................................................... 11
F Systems Operation Section ................................... 4

Final Drive ............................................................. 44


Flow Control and Relief Valve (Rear Axle Oil)....... 40 T

Table of Contents................................................... 3
G Temperature Sensor (Rear Axle Oil) ..................... 40
Torque Converter................................................... 21
Gear Pump (Rear Axle Oil).................................... 38 Direct Drive ........................................................ 24
Gear Pump (Torque Converter and Torque Converter Drive...................................... 22
Transmission) ...................................................... 16 Torque Converter Inlet and Outlet Relief Valves.... 20
General Information............................................... 4 Torque Converter Sump ........................................ 16
Transfer Gears ...................................................... 25
Transmission Control............................................. 10
I Transmission Hydraulic Control............................. 26
Transmission Planetary ......................................... 28
Important Safety Information ................................. 2 Lubrication of the Transmission ......................... 34
Power Flow in FIFTH Speed.............................. 33
Power Flow in FIRST Speed.............................. 31
L Power Flow in FOURTH Speed ......................... 32
Power Flow in NEUTRAL-1 ............................... 30
Lubrication Relief Valve (Transmission) ................ 27 Power Flow in NEUTRAL-2 ............................... 30
Power Flow in REVERSE .................................. 33
Power Flow in SIXTH Speed ............................. 33
M

Magnetic Screen (Transmission) ........................... 18


Modulating Valve (Torque Converter Lockup
Clutch) ................................................................. 15
Modulating Valve (Transmission Hydraulic
Control) ................................................................ 14

Oil Cooler (Torque Converter and Transmission) .. 20


Oil Filter (Rear Axle Lubrication) ........................... 39
Oil Filter (Torque Converter) .................................. 18
Oil Filter (Transmission Charging) ......................... 19

Position Sensor (Dump Body) ............................... 12


Position Sensor (Hoist Control) ............................. 11
Pump Drive............................................................ 35
46 KENR8392-01
Index Section
KENR8392-01 47
Index Section
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