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ACI 305R-91

Hot Weather Concreting

Reported by ACI Committee 305

George R.U. Burg, Chairman

Habib M. Zein Al-Abidien K. Fred Gibbe Leo P. Nicholson
J. Howard Allred G. Terry Harris Patrick W. Reardon, Jr.
Robert Bouclin George W. Hollon John M. Scanlon, Jr.
Celso A. Carbonell Roy H. Keck Robert T. Stack
Robert J. Ferrell Frank Kozeliski George V. Teodoru
Robert P. Furick Donald B. McCaulley Lewis H. Tuthill
Richard D. Gaynor Martin B. Mittelacher Louis R. Valenzuela
John Gendrich William C. Moore William F. Wescott
Paul E. Mueller

When concrete is mixed, transported, and placed under conditions of 1.3-Potential problems in hot weather
high ambient temperature, low humidity, solar radiation, or wind, an 1.4-Potential problems related to other factors
understanding of the effects these environmental factors have on 1.5-Practices for hot weather concreting
concrete properties and construction operations is required. Once
these factors are understood, measures can be taken to eliminate or
minimize undesirable effects. The most serious difficulties are expe-
rienced in weather and types of construction that are unusual in the Chapter 2-Effects of hot weather on concrete
experience of those performing the work. properties
This committee report defines hot weather, lists possible potential 2.1-General
problems, and presents practices intended to minimize them. Among 2.2-Temperature of concrete
these practices are such important measures as selecting materials and 2.3-Ambient conditions
proportions; precooling ingredients; consideration of concrete tem- 2.4-Water requirement
perature as placed; length of haul; facilities for handling concrete at 2.5-Effect of cement
the site and during the early curing period; special batching, placing, 2.6-Supplementary cementitious materials
and curing techniques; and appropriate testing and inspecting proce- 2.7-Chemical admixtures
dures in hot weather conditions. A selected bibliography is included. 2.8-Aggregates

Keywords: admixtures; air entrainment; concrete construction; cooling; curing;

evaporation; finishes; heat pump systems; high temperature; hot weather con-
struction; humidity; ice; inspection; liquid nitrogen; mixing; placing; pozzo- Chapter 3-Production and deliver
lans; production methods; retardants; retempering; setting (hardening); slump 3.1-General
tests; solar radiation; strength; temperature; water content; water-reducing
agents; wind velocity.
3.2-Temperature control of concrete
3.3-Batching and mixing
3.5-Slump adjustment
CONTENTS 3.6-Retempering
Chapter 1-Introduction
1.2-Definition of hot weather

Acknowledgment: ACI Committee 305 expresses its gratitude and apprecia-

tion to the following contributors to this report. The list comprises the Associ-
ate Members who gave selflessly of their time, talents, and energy: Zwade Ber-
ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and hane, Omer Z. Cebeci, Ignacio Martin, and Dan Ravina.
Commentaries are intended for guidance in designing, plan- These revisions involve an extensive reorganization and expansion of the
document. The revisions focus in particular on the means of controlling tem-
ning, executing, or inspecting construction and in preparing perature, such as the use of ice, liquid nitrogen, and other admixtures.
specifications. Reference to these documents shall not be made ACI 305R-91 replaces ACI 305R-89 effective Nov. 1, 1991.
Copyright © 1991, American Concrete Institute.
in the Project Documents. If items found in these documents All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or
are desired to be part of the project documents, they should by any means, including the making of copies by any photographic process, or
be phrased in mandatory language and incorporated into the by any electronic or mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording
for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval sys-
project documents. tem or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright pro-

Chapter 4-Placing and curing contractor are generally responsible for determining
4.l-General concrete proportions to produce the required quality of
4.2-Preparations for placing and curing concrete unless specifically specified otherwise.
4.3-Placement and finishing
4.4-Curing and protection Concrete test specimens used for checking adequacy
of laboratory mixture proportions for strength or as a
Chapter 5-Testing and inspection basis for acceptance or quality control are cured ini-
5.1-Testing tially at 60 to 80 F (16 to 27 C), ASTM C 31. If the in-
5.2-Inspection itial 24-hr curing is at 100 F (38 C), the 28-day com-
pressive strength of the test specimens may be 10 to 15
Chapter 6-References percent lower than if cured at the required ASTM C 31
6.1-Specified references curing temperature (Gaynor, Meininger, and Khan
6.2-Recommended references 1985). If the cylinders are allowed to dry at early ages,
strengths will be reduced even further (Cebeci 1987).
Appendix A-Estimating concrete temperature The making, curing, and testing of the concrete speci-
Appendix B-Methods for cooling concrete mens using the correct procedures all play an impor-
tant part in the orderly progress of the work.
1.1-General 1.2-Definition of hot weather
Hot weather may lead to problems in mixing, plac- 1.2.1 For the purpose of this report, hot weather is
ing, and curing hydraulic cement concrete that can ad- any combination of the following conditions that tend
versely affect the properties and serviceability of the to impair the quality of freshly mixed or hardened con-
concrete. Most of these problems relate to the in- crete by accelerating the rate of moisture loss and rate
creased rate of cement hydration at higher temperature of cement hydration, or otherwise resulting in detri-
and the increased evaporation rate of moisture from the mental results:
freshly mixed concrete. The rate of cement hydration is a. High ambient temperature.
dependent upon concrete temperature, cement compo- b. High concrete temperature.
sition and fineness, and admixtures used. c. Low relative humidity.
The objectives of this report are to identify the prob- d. Wind velocity.
lems caused by hot weather concreting and to describe e. Solar radiation.
practices that will alleviate adverse effects likely to be 1.2.2 The effects of high air temperature, solar radi-
experienced in the absence of such practices. ation, and low relative humidity may be more pro-
This report suggests preparations and procedures to nounced with increases in wind velocity (see later, Fig.
reduce the undesirable effects of hot weather concret- 2.1.5). The potential problems of hot weather concret-
ing in general types of construction, such as pave- ing may occur at any time of the year in warm tropical
ments, bridges, and buildings. Temperature, volume or arid climates, and generally occur during the sum-
changes, and cracking problems associated with mass mer season in other climates. Cracking due to thermal
concretes are treated more thoroughly in ACI 207.1R shrinkage is generally more severe in the spring and
and ACI 224R. fall. This is because the temperature differential for
Often specifiers establish a maximum “as placed” each 24-hr period is greater during these times of the
concrete temperature in an attempt to control strength, year. Precautionary measures required on a calm, hu-
durability, plastic shrinkage cracking, thermal crack- mid day will be less strict than those required on a dry,
ing, and drying shrinkage. However, the placement of windy, sunny day, even if air temperatures are identi-
concrete in hot weather is too complex to be dealt with cal.
by merely setting a simple maximum temperature, “as
placed” or “as delivered.” Concrete durability is a
general term that is difficult to quantify, but it is per- 1.3-Potential problems in hot weather
ceived to mean resistance of the concrete to weathering 1.3.1 Potential problems for concrete in the freshly
(ACI 201.2R). Generally, if concrete strengths are sat- mixed state are likely to include:
isfactory and curing practices are sufficient to avoid a. Increased water demand.
undesirable drying of surfaces, durability of hot b. Increased rate of slump loss and corresponding
weather concrete should not be greatly different from tendency to add water at the jobsite.
similar concrete placed at normal temperature, assum- c. Increased rate of setting, resulting in greater diffi-
ing the presence of a desirable air-void system if it is culty with handling, compacting, finishing, and a
going to be exposed to cycles of freezing and thawing. greater risk of cold joints.
If an acceptable record of field tests is not available, d. Increased tendency for plastic shrinkage cracking.
concrete proportions may be determined by trial e. Increased difficulty in controlling entrained air
batches (ACI 301 and ACI 211.1). Trial batches should content.
be made at temperatures anticipated in the work and 1.3.2 Potential problems for concrete in the hard-
mixed following one of the procedures described in ened state may include:
Section 2.9, Proportioning. The concrete supplier and a. Decreased 28-day and later strengths resulting

from either higher water demand and/or higher con- lection and dosage rate of chemical and mineral admix-
crete temperature levels at time of placement or during tures.
the first several days. The following list of practices and measures to re-
b. Increased tendency for drying shrinkage and dif- duce or avoid the potential problems of hot weather
ferential thermal cracking from either cooling of the concreting are discussed in detail in Chapters 2, 3, and
overall structure or from temperature differentials 4:
within the cross section of the member. a. Use concrete materials and proportions with satis-
c. Decreased durability resulting from cracking. factory records in field use under hot weather condi-
d. Greater variability of surface appearance such as: tions.
cold joints, color difference, due to different rates of b. Use cool concrete.
hydration on different water-cement ratios. c. Use a concrete consistency that permits rapid
e. Increased potential for reinforcing steel corrosion. placement and effective consolidation.
This is primarily due to increased cracking, which d. Transport, place, consolidate, and finish the con-
makes possible the ingress of corrosive solutions. crete with least delay.
f. Increased permeability. e. Plan the job to avoid adverse exposure of the con-
crete to the environment; schedule placing operations
1.4-Potential problems related to other factors during times of the day or night when weather condi-
Other factors that should be considered along with tions are favorable.
climatic factors may include: f. Protect the concrete against moisture loss at all
a. The use of cements with increased rate of hydra- times during placing and during its curing period.
b. The use of high compressive strength concretes, CHAPTER 2-EFFECTS OF HOT WEATHER ON
which require higher cement contents. CONCRETE PROPERTIES
c. The design of thin concrete sections with corre- 2.1-General
spondingly greater percentages of steel, which compli- 2.1.1 Those properties of concrete that make it an
cate placing and consolidation of concrete. excellent construction material can be affected adversely
d. The economic necessity to continue work in ex- by hot weather, as defined in Chapter 1. However,
tremely hot weather. harmful effects may be minimized by control proce-
e. The use of shrinkage-compensating cement. dures outlined in this report. Strength, impermeability,
dimensional stability, and resistance of the concrete to
1.5-Practices for hot weather concreting weathering, wear, and chemical attack all depend on
It is important to recognize that any damage to con- the following factors: selection and proper control of
crete caused by hot weather can never be fully allevi- materials and mixture proportioning, initial concrete
ated. Therefore, good judgment is necessary to select temperatures, wind velocity, solar radiation, ambient
the most appropriate compromise of quality, economy, temperatures, and humidity conditions during placing
and practicability. The procedures used will depend on: and curing periods.
the type of construction; the characteristics of the ma- 2.1.2 Concretes mixed, placed, and cured at elevated
terials to be used; and the experience of the local in- temperatures normally develop higher early strengths
dustry handling high ambient temperature, high con- than concretes produced and cured at lower tempera-
crete temperatures, low relative humidity; wind veloc- tures, but strengths are generally lower at 28 days and
ity; and solar radiation. later ages. Fig. 2.1.2 shows that l-day strength in-
The most serious difficulties occur when the person- creases, and 28-day strength decreases, with increasing
nel placing the concrete lack experience in constructing curing temperature (Klieger 1958; Verbeck and Hel-
under hot weather conditions or in doing the particular muth 1968).
type of construction. Since last-minute improvisations 2.1.3 Laboratory tests have demonstrated the ad-
are rarely successful, early preventive measures should verse effects of high temperatures and lack of curing on
be applied with the emphasis on materials evaluation, concrete strength (Bloem 1954). Specimens molded and
advanced planning and purchasing, and coordination cured in air at 73 F (23 C), 60 percent relative humid-
of all phases of work. Detailed procedures of mixing, ity; and at 100 F (38 C), 25 percent relative humidity,
placing, protection, curing, temperature monitoring, produced strengths of only 73 and 62 percent, respec-
and testing of concrete during hot weather should be tively, of that obtained for standard specimens moist-
planned prior to beginning hot weather concreting. cured at 73 F (23 C) for 28 days. It was also found that
Precautions should be taken to avoid plastic shrinkage the longer the delay between casting the cylinders and
cracking. The potential for thermal cracking, either placing into standard moist storage, the greater the
from overall volume changes or from internal restraint, strength reduction. The data illustrate that inadequate
should be anticipated. Some of the items that should be curing in combination with high placement tempera-
considered to control cracking are: joint practices, use tures impairs the hydration process and reduces
of increased amounts of reinforcing steel or fibers, lim- strength. The tests were made on plain concrete with-
its on concrete temperature, cement content, heat of out admixtures or pozzolans that might have improved
hydration of the cement, form-stripping time, and se- its performance at elevated temperatures. Other re-

Table 2.1.5-Typical concrete temperatures for

various relative humidities potentially critical to
plastic shrinkage cracking
Concrete temperature, Relative humidity,
F (C) percent
105 (40.6) 90
100 (37.8) 80
95 (35.0)
85 (29.4) 50
80 (26.7) 40
75 (23.9) 30

mates based on all the major factors that contribute to

plastic-shrinkage cracking. The graphic method of the
chart also yields ready information on the effect of
changes in one or more of these factors. For example,
it shows that concrete at a temperature of 70 F (21 C),
placed at an air temperature of 70 F (21 C), with a rel-
ative humidity of 50 percent and a moderate wind of 10
mph (16 km/hr), will have six times the evaporation
rate of the same concrete placed when there is no wind.
2.1.6 When evaporation rate is expected to approach
0.2 lb/ft/hr (1.0 kg/m/hr), precautions should be
taken, as explained in detail in Chapter 4. The proba-
Fig. 2.1.2-Effects of curing temperature on compres-
sive strength of concrete (Verbeck and Helmuth 1968) bility for plastic-shrinkage cracks to occur may be in-
creased if the time of setting of the concrete is delayed
due to-the use of: slow-setting cement, an excessive
searchers determined that insufficient curing is more dosage of retarding admixture, fly ash as a cement re-
detrimental than high temperatures (Cebeci 1986), and placement, or cooled concrete. Fly ash is also likely to
also that required strength levels can be maintained reduce bleeding and may thereby contribute to a crack-
when set-retarding admixtures or other admixtures or ing tendency (ACI 226.3R). Plastic-shrinkage cracks are
pozzolans are used in the concrete (Mittelacher 1985; difficult to close once they have occurred (see Section
Gaynor, Meininger, and Khan 1985). 4.3.5).
2.1.4 Plastic-shrinkage cracking is frequently associ- 2.1.7 The following statements summarize typical ef-
ated with hot weather concreting in arid climates. It fects of weather conditions on concrete during and af-
occurs in exposed concrete, primarily in flatwork, but ter finishing:
also in beams and footings, and may develop in other a. If air temperature and humidity remain the same
climates whenever the evaporation rate is greater than and the wind speed increases from 5 to 20 mph (8 to 32
the rate at which water rises to the surface of recently km/h), evaporation rate will increase by 300 percent.
placed concrete by bleeding. A method to determine b. If humidity and wind remain the same and the air
evaporation rate is given in the section on testing. High temperature changes from 60 to 90 F (16 to 32 C),
concrete temperatures, high air temperature, high wind evaporation rate will increase by 300 percent.
velocity, and low humidity, alone or in combination, c. If air temperature and wind remain the same and
cause rapid evaporation of surface water and signifi- the humidity decreases from 90 to 70 percent, evapo-
cantly increase the probability of plastic-shrinkage ration rate will increase by 300 percent.
cracking. In laboratory research, soon after placement d. If the wind speed increases from 5 to 20 mph (8 to
(between 0 and 4 hr), and under the same ambient con- 32 km/h), if air temperature rises from 60 to 90 F (16
ditions, the highest rate of evaporation occurred in to 32 C), and humidity decreases from 90 to 70 per-
concrete prepared with the lowest water content. How- cent, the evaporation rate will increase by 900 percent.
ever, the total amount of water evaporated at the end
of the 24 hr was always highest in mixtures having the 2.2-Temperature of concrete
highest water content (Berhane 1984). 2.2.1 Unless measures are taken to control concrete
2.1.5 Plastic-shrinkage cracking is seldom a problem performance at elevated temperatures, through selec-
in hot humid climates where relative humidity is rarely tion of suitable materials and proportions as outlined in
less than 80 percent. Table 2.1.5 shows, for various rel- Sections 2.3 through 2.9, increases in concrete temper-
ative humidities, the concrete temperatures that may ature will have the following adverse effects. Others are
result in critical evaporation rate levels and, thus, cause listed in Section 1.3.
plastic-shrinkage cracking. The table is based on the a. The amount of the water required to produce a
assumption of a 10 mph (16 km/hr) wind speed and a given slump increases with the time since the cement
difference in air and concrete temperature of 10 F (5.6 was wetted. For constant mixing time, the amount of
C). The use of Fig. 2.1.5 allows evaporation rate esti- water required to produce a given slump also increases

Fig. 2.1.5-Effect of concrete and air temperatures, relative humidity, and wind
velocity on the rate of evaporation of surface moisture from concrete. This chart
provides a graphic method of estimating the loss of surface moisture for various
weather conditions. To use the chart, follow the four steps outlined above. If the
rate of evaporation approaches 0.2 lb/ft2/hr (1kg/m2 /hr), precautions against
plastic shrinkage cracking are necessary (Lerch 1957)

with the temperature, as shown in Fig. 2.2.1(a) and increase differences in temperature between the interior
2.2.1(b). and the exterior concrete. This may cause thermal
b. This increased water content will cause a propor- cracking (ACI 207.1R).
tionate decrease in strength and durability, and an in- f. Early curing will be increasingly critical and the
crease in drying shrinkage. lack of it increasingly detrimental.
c. Slump loss will be evident earlier after mixing and
at a more rapid rate, and may make handling and plac- 2.3-Ambient conditions
ing operations more difficult. 2.3.1 In the more general types of construction in hot
d. In an arid climate, there will be a greater proba- weather (as defined in Section 1.2), it is impractical to
bility of the appearance of plastic-shrinkage cracks. recommend a maximum limiting ambient or concrete
e. In sections of large dimensions, there will be an temperature because circumstances vary widely. A limit
increased rate of hydration and heat evolution that will that would serve a specific case might be unsatisfactory

Fig. 2.2.1(b)-Effect of temperature increase on the

water requirement of concrete (U.S. Bureau of Recla-
mation 1975)

Fig. 2.2.1(a)-Effect of concrete temperature on slump (25-mm) increase in slump at various temperature lev-
and on water required to change slump (average data els. For 70 F (21 C) concrete, about 21/2 percent more
for Type I and II cements) (Klieger 1958) water is required to increase slump 1 in.; for 120 F (50
C) concrete, 41/2 percent more water is needed for the 1
in others. Accordingly, the committee can only point in. slump increase. The water required to change slump
out the effects of higher temperatures in concrete as may be less if a water-reducing or high-range, water-re-
mentioned in Sections 1.3 and 2.2.1, and advise that at ducing admixture is used (Yamamoto and Kobayashi
some temperature between about 75 and 100 F (24 and 1986).
38 C), there is a limit that will be found to be most fa- 2.4.3 Increased drying shrinkage results from greater
vorable for best results in each hot weather operation, water demand of the concrete. At the higher shrinkage
and such a limit should be determined for the work. rates, concrete becomes more susceptible to cracking.
Trial batches of concrete for the job should be made at Its cracking tendency will become more severe if it un-
the limiting temperature selected, or at the expected dergoes rapid cooling from high temperatures at which
jobsite high temperature, not at the 68 to 86 F (20 to 30 it has hardened.
C) range given in ASTM C 192. Procedures involving 2.4.4 Since water has a specific heat of about four to
testing of concrete batches at higher temperatures than five times that of cement or aggregates, the tempera-
about 70 F (21 C) may be found in Section 2.9. ture of the mixing water has the greatest effect per unit
weight on the temperature of concrete. The tempera-
2.4-Water requirement ture of water is easier to control than that of the other
2.4.1 Water, as an ingredient of concrete, greatly in- components. Even though water is used in smaller
fluences many of its significant properties, both in the quantities than the other ingredients, cooled water will
freshly mixed and hardened state. High water temper- reduce the concrete placing temperature, but usually by
atures cause higher concrete temperatures, and as the not more than about 8 F (4.5 C) (see Fig. 2.4.4). The
concrete temperature increases, more water is needed to quantity of cooled water should not exceed the batch
obtain the same slump. Fig. 2.2.1(b) illustrates the pos- water requirement, which will depend on the mixture
sible effect of concrete temperature on water require- proportions and the moisture content of aggregates. In
ments. The extra water increases the water-cement or general, lowering the temperature of the batch water by
water-cementitious material ratio and accordingly will 3.5 to 4 F (2.0 to 2.2 C) will reduce the concrete tem-
decrease the strength, durability, watertightness, and perature approximately 1 F (0.5 C). Efforts should
other related properties of the concrete. While perti- therefore be made to obtain cold water. To keep it
nent to concrete placed under all conditions, this points cold, tanks, pipes, or trucks used for storing or trans-
to the special need to control the use of additional wa- porting water should be insulated or painted white or
ter in concrete placed under hot weather conditions; see both. Water can be cooled to as low as 33 F (1 C) using
Section 2.7. water chillers, ice, heat pump technology, or liquid ni-
2.4.2 Fig. 2.2.1(a) illustrates the general effects of trogen. These methods and their effectiveness are ex-
increasing concrete temperature on slump of concrete plained in Appendix B.
when the amount of mixing water is held constant. It 2.4.5 Using ice as part of the mixing water has re-
indicates that an increase of 20 F (11 C) in temperature mained a major means of reducing concrete tempera-
may be expected to decrease the slump by about 1 in. ture. On melting alone it will absorb heat at the rate of
(25 mm). Fig. 2.2.1(a) also illustrates changes in water 144 Btu/lb (335 J/g). To be most effective, the crushed,
requirement that may be necessary to produce a l-in. shaved, or chipped ice should be placed directly into the

Applicable to "average” mixes made with typical natural aggregates. Applicable to “average” mixes made with typical natural aggregates.
Quantity of cooled water cannot exceed mixing water requirement, Quantity of cooled water cannot exceed mixing water requirement,
which will depend upon moisture content of aggregate and mix proportions which will depend upon moisture content of aggregate and mix proportions

mixer as part of the added-mixing water. For maxi- slump. Unless offset by measures described in Sections
mum effectiveness, the ice should not be allowed to 2.6.1 and 2.7, the higher water content will cause
melt before it is placed in the mixer in contact with the strength loss and increase the cracking tendency of the
other ingredients, but it must melt completely prior to concrete.
the completion of mixing of the concrete. For a more 2.5.2 Selection of a particular cement may have a de-
rapid blending of materials at the beginning of mixing, cided effect on the hot weather performance of con-
not all of the available batch water should be added in crete, as illustrated in Fig. 2.5.2. Although the curves
the form of ice. Its quantity may have to be limited to are based on limited data from mixtures using different
about 75 percent of the batch water requirement, which cements in combination with a set-retarding admixture,
depends on mixture proportions and moisture content they show, for example, that when tested at 100 F (38
of the aggregates. Where maximum amounts of ice or C), the concrete with the slowest setting cement reaches
cold mixing water are required, aggregates should be time of final setting 21/2 hr later than the concrete with
well drained to minimize free moisture. Fig. 2.4.5 illus- the fastest setting cement. The concrete which sets
trates possible reductions in concrete temperature by slowest at 100 F (38 C) was the fastest-setting cement
substituting varying amounts of ice at 32 F (0 C) for when tested at 50 F (10 C). The figure is a good exam-
mixing water at the temperatures shown. Mixing should ple of the difficulty of predicting performance of con-
be continued until the ice is completely melted. Crushed crete at different temperatures. In general, use of a
ice should be stored at a temperature that will prevent normally slower setting Type II portland cement
lumps from forming by refreezing of particles. (ASTM C 150) or Type IP or IS blended cement
2.4.6 The rate of temperature reduction can also be (ASTM C 595) may improve the handling characteris-
estimated by using Eq. (4) or (5) in Appendix A. For tics of concrete in hot weather (ACI 225R). Concrete
most concrete, the maximum temperature reduction containing the slower setting cements may be more
with ice is about 20 F (11 C). When greater tempera- likely to exhibit plastic-shrinkage cracking.
ture reductions are required, cooling by injection of 2.5.3 When using slower hydrating cements, the
liquid nitrogen (LIN) into the mixer holding mixed slower rate of heat development and the simultaneous
concrete may be found to be the most expedient means. dissipation of heat from the concrete result in lower
See Appendix B, Methods of Cooling Concrete, for peak temperatures. There will be less thermal expan-
more information. LIN does not affect the mixing wa- sion, and the risk of thermal cracking upon cooling of
ter requirement, except by reducing concrete tempera- the concrete will be reduced. This is an important con-
ture. sideration for slabs, walls, and mass concretes, as dis-
cussed in ACI 207.1R and ACI 207.2R. The tempera-
2.5-Effect of cement ture increase from hydration of cement in a given con-
2.5.1 High concrete temperature increases the rate at crete mixture is proportional to its cement content.
which cement hydrates (see later Fig. 3.2.2; ACI Therefore, only enough cement should be used to pro-
207.2R). As a result, concrete stiffens more rapidly and vide the required strength and durability, and not more.
requires more water to produce or maintain the desired Concretes which obtain high strength at an early age

Fig. 2.5.2-Effect of temperature and brand of cement on hardening characteris-

tics of concrete mortars (Tuthill and Cordon 1955)

will develop high concrete temperature during initial 212.3R). The benefits may include lower mixing water
curing. These concretes should be given thermal pro- demand, extended periods of use, and strengths com-
tection so that it will cool gradually at a rate which will parable to, or higher than, those of plain concrete
not cause them to crack. placed at lower temperatures. Their effectiveness de-
2.5.4 Cement may be delivered at relatively high pends upon the chemical reactions of the cement with
temperatures. This is not unusual for newly manufac- which they are used in the concrete. Admixtures with-
tured cement which has not had an opportunity to cool out a history of satisfactory performance at the ex-
after burning or grinding of the component materials. pected hot weather conditions should be evaluated be-
Although only 10 to 15 percent of the weight of a con- fore their use, as explained in Section 2.7.5. Chemical
crete mixture is cement, this is sufficient to increase admixtures affect the properties of concrete as de-
concrete temperature about 1 F (0.5 C) for each 8 F (4 scribed in the following.
C) increase in cement temperature. Therefore, it is pru- 2.7.2 Retarding admixtures meeting ASTM C 494,
dent to place a maximum limit of about 170 F (77 C) Type D, requirements have both water-reducing and
on the temperature of cement as it enters the concrete. set-retarding properties and are widely used under hot
The particular limit will depend on the use of the con- weather conditions. They can be included in concrete in
crete. If the cement has a false set tendency, slump loss varying proportions and in combination with other ad-
is likely to be aggravated, particularly in hot weather. mixtures so that, as temperature increases, higher dos-
ages of the admixture may be used to obtain a uniform
2.6-Supplementary cementitious materials time of setting. Their water-reducing properties largely
2.6.1 Materials in this category include primarily fly offset the higher water demand resulting from in-
ash and other pozzolans (ASTM C 618), and ground creases in concrete temperature. Since water-reducing
granulated blast-furnace slag (ASTM C 989). They are retarders generally increase concrete strength, they can
widely used as partial replacements for portland ce- be used, with proper mixture adjustments, to avoid
ment; they may impart a slower rate of setting and of strength losses that would otherwise result from high
early strength gain to the concrete, both of which are concrete temperatures (Gaynor, Meininger, and Khan
desirable in hot weather concreting, as explained in 1985; Mittelacher 1985). Compared to concrete without
Section 2.5.2. Faster setting cements or cements caus- admixture, a concrete mixture that uses a water-reduc-
ing a rapid slump loss in hot weather may perform sat- ing and retarding admixture may have a higher rate of
isfactorily in combination with these materials (Gay- slump loss. Nevertheless, it will generally be found that,
nor, Meininger, and Khan 1985). The use of fly ash after the initial slump is increased to compensate for
may reduce the rate of slump loss of concrete under hot slump loss, the net water reduction and other benefits
weather conditions (Ravina 1984; Gaynor, Meininger, are still substantial.
and Khan 1985). 2.7.3 Admixtures of the hydroxylated carboxylic acid
type (ACI 212.3R, Class 3) and some types meeting
2.7-Chemical admixtures ASTM C 494, Type D requirements may increase the
2.7.1 Various types of chemical admixtures (ASTM early bleeding and rate of bleeding of concrete. This
C 494) have been found beneficial in offsetting some of admixture-induced early bleeding may be helpful in
the undesirable characteristics of concrete placed dur- preventing drying of the surface of concrete placed at
ing periods of high ambient temperatures (see also ACI high ambient temperature and low humidity. However,

if the admixture reduces the tensile strength and tensile demonstrate their potential benefits when used in small
strain capacity, plastic-shrinkage tendencies may be in- laboratory batches. Further testing may then be re-
creased (Ravina and Shalon 1968b). Other admixtures quired in production-size concrete batches. During pre-
(ACI 212.3R, Classes 1 and 2) may reduce bleeding liminary field use, concrete containing admixture
rate; if drying conditions are such that crusting of the should be evaluated for consistency of performance in
surface blocks bleed water from reaching the surface, regard to the desired characteristics in hot weather con-
continued bleeding may cause scaling. Under such con- struction. When evaluating admixtures, properties such
ditions, fog sprays, evaporation retardants (a material as workability, pumpability, early strength develop-
that retards the evaporation of bleeding water of con- ment, placing and finishing characteristics, appear-
crete), or both should be used to prevent crusting. ance, and effect on reuse of molds and forms should be
Concrete that is prone to bleeding generally should be considered in addition to the basic properties of slump
reconsolidated after most of the bleeding has taken retention, setting time, and strength. These character-
place. Otherwise, differential settling may occur that istics may influence selection of an admixture and its
can lead to cracks over reinforcing steel and other in- dosage more than properties usually covered by most
serts in near-surface locations. This cracking is more specifications.
likely in cool weather with slower setting concretes than
hot weather. 2.8-Aggregates
2.7.4 Some high-range, water-reducing and retarding 2.8.1 Aggregates are the major constituent of con-
admixtures (ASTM C 494, Type G) and plasticizing and crete, since they account for 60 to 80 percent of the
retarding admixtures (ASTM C 1017, Type 2), often volume of normal weight concrete used in most struc-
referred to as superplasticizers, can provide significant tures. Therefore, the properties of the aggregate signif-
benefits under hot weather conditions when used to icantly affect the quality of concrete. The size, shape,
produce flowing concrete. At higher slumps, heat gain and grading of the aggregate are three of the principal
from internal friction during mixing of the concrete will factors that affect the amount of water required to
be less (see ASTM STP 169A and ACI 207.4R). The produce concrete at a given slump. Aggregate proper-
improved handling characteristics of flowing concrete ties desirable in hot weather concreting include the fol-
permit more rapid placement and consolidation, and lowing:
the period between mixing and placing can thus be re- a. Gradation, particle shape, and the absence of un-
duced. The rate of slump loss of flowing concrete may dersized material are very important in minimizing wa-
also be less at higher temperatures than in concrete us- ter demand (ACI 221R). Crushed coarse aggregate also
ing conventional retarders (Yamamoto and Kobayashi contributes to higher water demand, but is reported to
1986). Concrete strengths are generally found to be provide better resistance to cracking than rounded
substantially higher than those of comparable concrete gravels (ACI 224R).
without admixture and with the same cement content. b. Favorable thermal properties. A low coefficient of
Certain products may cause significant bleeding, which thermal expansion of an aggregate causes less expan-
may be beneficial in many instances but may require sion of concrete in a hot environment, less shrinkage
some precautions in others (see Section 2.7.3). Air-con- upon subsequent cooling, and thus a lower risk of ther-
tent tests will be needed before placement to assure mal cracking. Materials having a high rate of thermal
maintenance of proper air content. Assurance may also diffusivity dissipate internal heat of hydration of the
be needed that the air-void system is not impaired, if concrete more rapidly and help minimize peak temper-
required for freeze-thaw resistance of the concrete. atures and thermal expansion. Thermal characteristics
Some high-range water-reducing retarders can maintain of different aggregate minerals are discussed in ACI
the necessary slump for extended periods at elevated 207.1R, 207.2R, 207.4R, and Ravina and Shalon
concrete temperatures (Collepardi, Corradi, and Val- (1968a).
ente 1979; Hampton 1981; Guennewig 1988). These will 2.8.2 Since in most concrete mixtures the coarse ag-
be of particular benefit in the event of delayed place- gregate represents the ingredient of largest mass,
ments or deliveries over greater distances. Other high- changes in its temperature have a considerable effect on
range water-reducing admixtures may greatly accelerate concrete temperatures. For example, a moderate 1.5 to
slump loss, particularly when initial slumps are less 2 F (0.8 to 1.1 C) temperature reduction will lower the
than 3 to 4 in. Some water-reducing admixtures can concrete temperature 1 F (0.5 C). Under given condi-
cause the concrete to extend its working time by a cou- tions and temperature requirements, cooling the coarse
ple of hours, followed by acceleration of strength gain. aggregate may be an effective supplementary means to
2.7.5 The qualifying requirements of ASTM C 494 achieve desired lower temperature levels of the concrete
afford a valuable screening procedure for the selection (see Appendix B).
of admixture products. Admixtures without a perform-
ance history pertaining to the concrete material selected
for the work should be first evaluated in laboratory 2.9-Proportioning
trial batches at the expected high job temperature, us- 2.9.1 Mix proportions may be established or ad-
ing one of the procedures described in Section 2.9. justed on the basis of field-performance records in ac-
Some high-range, water-reducing retarders may not cordance with ACI 318, provided the records indicate

the effect of expected seasonal temperatures and deliv- 6. Determine other properties of fresh concrete (tem-
ery times. perature, air content, unit weight), and mold strength
2.9.2 Selection of ingredients and their proportions test specimens.
should be guided by their contribution to satisfactory
performance of the concrete under hot weather condi- Procedure B
tions (ACI 211.1 and 211.2). Cement content should be 1. Prepare the batch using ASTM C 192 procedures
kept as low as possible but sufficient to meet strength for the specified slump.
and durability requirements. Inclusion of supplemen- 2. Mix in accordance with ASTM C 192 (3-min mix,
tary cementitious materials, such as fly ash or slag, 3-min rest, and 2-min remix) and confirm the slump.
should be considered to delay setting and to mitigate 3. Stop the mixer and cover the batch with wet bur-
the temperature rise from heat of hydration. Use of lap.
water-reducing and retarding admixtures or high-range, 4. After 20 min, remix 2 min, adding water to pro-
water-reducing and retarding admixtures can offset in- duce the specified slump. The total water (initial water
creased water demand and strength loss which might plus the remix water) can be expected to equal that re-
otherwise be caused by higher concrete temperatures. quired at the batch plant to give the required jobsite
High-range, water-reducing retarders formulated for slump.
extended slump retention should be considered if longer 5. Determine other properties of fresh concrete (tem-
delivery periods are anticipated. From economically perature, air content, unit weight), and mold strength
available aggregates, those selected should result in test specimens.
lower water demand during mixing, and impart favor- 2.9.5 As an alternative method, use of full-size pro-
able thermal properties to the concrete. Unless required duction batches may be considered for verification of
otherwise, concrete should be proportioned for a slump mixture proportions, provided the expected high tem-
of not less than 3 in. (75 mm) to permit prompt place- perature levels of the concrete can be attained. This
ment and effective consolidation in the form. may be the preferred method when using admixtures
2.9.3 The performance of the concrete mixtures pro- selected for extended slump retention. It requires care-
posed for the work should be verified under conditions ful recording of batch quantities at the plant and of
approximating the delivery time and hot weather envi- water added for slump adjustment before sampling.
ronment expected at the project. Trial batches used to Sampling procedures of ASTM C 172 should be strictly
select proportions are normally prepared in accordance observed.
with ASTM C 192. The method requires concrete ma-
terials to be at room temperature [in the range of 68 to
86 F (20 to 30 C)]. However, trial batches should also CHAPTER 3-PRODUCTION AND DELIVERY
be performed at the expected maximum placing tem- 3.1-General
perature with consideration of using a mixing and agi- It is important that production facilities and proce-
tating period longer than that required in ASTM C 192 dures are capable of providing the required quality of
to help define the performance to be expected. concrete under hot weather conditions at production
2.9.4 In determining mix proportions using labora- rates required by the project. Satisfactory control of
tory trial batches, a procedure for estimating the slump production and delivery operations should be assured.
loss during the period between first mixing of the con- Concrete plant and delivery units should be in good
crete and its placement in the form is suggested in Pro- operating condition. Intermittent stoppage of deliveries
cedures A and B, following, adopted from ACI 223 on due to equipment breakdown can be much more seri-
shrinkage-compensating concrete. These methods were ous under hot weather conditions than in moderate
found to produce a rate of slump loss similar to that weather. In hot weather concreting operations, con-
expected for a 30 to 40 min delivery time. crete placements may be scheduled at times other than
during daylight hours. Night-time production requires
Procedure A extra vigilance from plant personnel for quality control
1. Prepare the batch using ASTM C 192 procedures, and safe operations.
but add 10 percent additional water over that normally
required. 3.2-Temperature control of concrete
2. Mix initially in accordance with ASTM C 192 (3- 3.2.1 Concrete can be produced in hot weather with-
min mix followed by a 3-min rest and 2-min remix). out maximum limits on placing temperature and will
3. Determine the slump and record as initial slump. perform satisfactorily if proper precautions are ob-
4. Continue mixing for 15 min. served in proportioning, production, delivery, placing,
5. Determine the slump and record as estimated and curing. As part of these precautions, an effort
placement slump. Experience has shown this slump should be made to keep the concrete temperature as low
correlates with that expected for 30 to 40 min delivery as practical. Using the relationships given in Appendix
time. If this slump does not meet the specification lim- A, it can be shown, for example, that the temperature
its, either discard and repeat the procedure with an ap- of concrete of usual proportions can be reduced by 1 F
propriate water adjustment or add water to give the re- (0.5 C) if any of the following reductions are made in
quired slump and then test the concrete. material temperatures:

Fig. 3.2.2-Influence of temperature of concrete ingredients on concrete tempera-

ture. Calculated from equations in Appendix A

a. 8 F (4 C) reduction in cement temperature. the heat stored in the metal drum would produce con-
b. 4 F (2 C) reduction in water temperature. crete temperatures 0.5 to 1 F (0.3 to 0.5 C) lower for a
c. 2 F (1 C) reduction in the temperature of the ag- white drum than a yellow or red drum. Spraying the
gregates. drum with water before batching or during delivery has
3.2.2 Fig. 3.2.2 shows the influence of concrete in- been suggested as a means of minimizing concrete tem-
gredients on concrete temperature. Since the greatest perature, but it can be expected to be of only marginal
portion of concrete is aggregate, reduction of aggregate benefit.
temperature brings about the greatest reduction in con- 3.2.3 Setting up the means for cooling sizeable
crete temperature. Thus, all practical means should be amounts of concrete production requires planning well
employed to keep the aggregates as cool as possible. in advance of placement and installation of specialized
Shaded storage of fine and coarse aggregates, and equipment. This can include chilling of batch water by
sprinkling and fog spraying of coarse aggregates stock- water chillers or heat pump technology as well as other
piles under arid conditions will help. Sprinkling of methods, such as substituting crushed or flaked ice for
coarse aggregates can reduce aggregate temperature by part of the mixing water, or cooling by liquid nitrogen.
evaporation and direct cooling (Lee 1987). However, Delivery of the required volume of cooling materials
wetting of aggregates tends to cause variations in sur- should be assured for each placement. Details of esti-
face moisture and thereby complicates slump control. mating concrete temperatures are provided in Appen-
Above-ground storage tanks for mixing water should be dix A. Various cooling methods are described in Ap-
provided with shade and thermal insulation. Silos and pendix B. The general influence of the temperature of
bins will absorb less heat if coated with heat-reflective concrete ingredients on concrete temperature is calcu-
paints. Painting mixer surfaces white to minimize solar lated from the equations in Appendix A, and shown in
heat gain will be of some help. Based on 1 hr delivery Fig. 3.2.2.
time on a hot, sunny day, concrete in a clean white
drum should be 2 to 3 F (1 to 1.5 C) cooler than in a 3.3-Batching and mixing
black or red drum and 0.5 F (0.3 C) cooler than in a 3.3.1 Batching and mixing is described in Chapters 4
cream-colored drum. If an empty drum stands in the and 5 of ACI 304R. Procedures under hot weather
sun for an extended period before concrete is batched, conditions are no different from good practices under

normal weather conditions. However, particular atten- 3.3.5 Specifications governing the total number of
tion should be given to producing concrete for correct revolutions of the drum usually set a limit of 300 revo-
slump and other specified properties to avoid its rejec- lutions for truck mixers. This limit may be waived un-
tion for noncompliance with applicable specifications. der the following conditions requiring further thorough
The interruption in the placement caused by rejection mixing of the concrete: separate addition of high-range,
may cause the formation of a cold joint or serious water-reducing admixtures, or direct injection of liquid
problems in finishing. Testing of concrete must be dili- nitrogen into the mixer as a means of lowering the con-
gent and accurate so that results represent the true con- crete temperature, or if the concrete retains its worka-
dition of the concrete. bility without the addition of water.
3.3.2 For truck-mixed concrete, initial mixing at the
batch plant will allow a general verification of the con- 3.4-Delivery
dition of the concrete, primarily its slump, before it Cement hydration, temperature rise, slump loss, ag-
leaves the plant. Generally, centrally mixed concrete gregate grinding, and either loss or, occasionally, gain
can be visually inspected as it is being discharged into of air content all occur with the passage of time; thus
the transportation unit. Slump can easily change due to the period between mixing and placement of the con-
minor changes in materials and concrete characteris- crete should be minimized. The dispatching of trucks
tics. For example, an undetected change of only 0.5 should be coordinated with the rate of placement to
percent moisture content of the aggregates could avoid delays in arrival or waiting periods until dis-
change slump by 1 to 2 in. Control is also complicated charge. On major concrete placements, provisions
by the limited accuracy even of advanced systems of should be made to have good communications between
aggregate moisture determination due to an error range the jobsite and concrete-production facility. Major
of about 0.5 percent. For this reason, operators often placements should be scheduled during periods of lower
batch concrete in a drier condition to avoid producing urban traffic loads. When placement is slow, consider-
a slump higher than specified; a small water addition ation should be given to reducing load size, using set-
may be needed at the jobsite. retarding admixture, or using cooled concrete.
3.3.3 Hot weather conditions and extended hauling
time may indicate a need to split the batching process 3.5-Slump adjustment
by batching the cement at the jobsite, or layering the Fresh concrete is subject to slump loss with time,
materials in the mixer drum at the plant to keep some whether it is used in moderate or hot weather. With
of the cement dry and then mixing the concrete after given materials and mix proportions, the slump change
arrival at the jobsite. These methods may, on occasion, characteristics between plant and jobsite should be es-
offer the best solution under existing conditions. How- tablished. With the limitations on accurately predicting
ever, a better controlled concrete can usually be pro- slump, as explained in Section 3.3.2, uncertainty in
vided when materials are batched at the regular plant traffic, and the timing of placing operations, operators
facility. By using some effective retarding admixtures at need to batch concrete in a drier condition to avoid a
appropriate dosages, preferably in combination with slump higher than specified. If on arrival at the jobsite
cementitious material of slow-setting characteristics, the slump is less than the specified maximum, addi-
concrete can be maintained in a placeable condition for tional water may be added if the maximum allowable
extended periods even in hot weather (see Section 2.7). water content is not exceeded. When water is added to
Field experience indicates that concrete set retardation bring the slump within required limits, the drum or
can be extended further by separately batching the re- blades must be turned an additional 30 revolutions or
tarding admixture with a small portion of mixing wa- more, if necessary, at mixing speed. For expeditious
ter, 1 to 2 gal/yd (5 to 10 l/m ), after the concrete has placement and effective consolidation, structural con-
been mixed for several minutes. These admixtures, to- crete should have a slump of 3 or 4 in. Slump increases
gether with the cementitious materials and other ingre- should be allowed when chemical admixtures are used,
dients proposed for the project, should be evaluated in providing the admixture-treated concrete has the same
the field for desired properties. or lower water-cement or water-cementitious material
3.3.4 Under hot weather conditions, the amount of ratio and does not exhibit segregation potential.
mixing at mixing speed of the mixer should be held to
a minimum to avoid any unnecessary heat gain of the 3.6-Retempering
concrete (ACI 207.4R). For efficient mixing, mixers Retempering is defined as “additions of water and
should be free of buildup of hardened concrete and ex- remixing of concrete, or mortar which has lost enough
cessive wear of mixer blades. As soon as the concrete workability to become unplaceable or unsaleable” (ACI
has been mixed to a homogeneous condition, all fur- 116). Laboratory research, as well as field experience,
ther drum rotation should be at the lowest agitating shows that strength reduction and other detrimental ef-
speed of the unit, or a speed recommended by the fects are proportional to the amount of retempering
mixer, or by the admixture manufacturer if an admix- water added. Therefore, water additions in excess of
ture is used. Usually the drum should not be stopped the proportioned maximum water content or water-ce-
for extended periods because of the possible problems mentitious material ratio to compensate for loss of
if the concrete stiffens rapidly or sets in the drum. workability should be prohibited. Adding chemical ad-

mixtures, particularly high-range, water-reducing ad- quired protective measures. Equipment should also be
mixtures, may be very effective to maintain workabil- available at the site for measuring the evaporation rate
ity. in accordance with Section 5.1.2.
4.2.3 Properties of concrete mixtures - The proposed
CHAPTER 4-PLACING AND CURING mixtures should be suitable for expected job condi-
4.1-General tions. This is particularly important when there are no
4.1.1 In many respects the requirements for good re- limits on placing temperatures, as is the case in most
sults in hot weather concrete placing and curing are no general construction in the warmer regions. Use of ce-
different than in other seasons. The same necessities ments or cementitious materials that perform well un-
exist: der hot weather conditions, in combination with water-
a. That concrete be handled and transported with a reducing and retarding admixtures, can provide con-
minimum of segregation and slump loss. crete of required properties (Mittelacher 1985). When
b. That concrete be placed where it is to remain. using high-range, water-reducing and retarding admix-
c. That the concrete be placed in layers shallow tures, products should be selected which provided ex-
enough to assure vibration well into the layer below and tended slump retention in hot weather (Collepardi,
that the elapsed time between layers be minimized to Corradi, and Valente 1979; Guennewig 1988). In dry
avoid cold joints. and windy conditions, the setting rate of concrete used
d. That joints be made on sound, clean concrete. in flatwork should be adjusted to minimize plastic-
e. That finishing operations and their timing be shrinkage cracking or crusting of the surface, with the
guided only by the readiness of the concrete for them, lower layer still in a plastic condition. The type of ad-
and nothing else. justment depends on local climatic conditions, timing
f. That curing be conducted in such a manner that at of placements, and concrete temperatures. A change in
no time during the prescribed period will the concrete admixture dosage or formulation can often provide the
lack ample moisture and temperature control to permit desired rate of set.
full development of its potential strength and durabil- 4.2.4 Temperature control of concrete - If limiting
ity. temperatures govern the delivery of the concrete, avail-
4.1.2 Details of placing and curing procedures are ability of temperature-controlled concrete should be
described in ACI 304, 308, and 309R. It is the purpose ascertained in advance. Cooling of the concrete will re-
of this chapter to point out the factors peculiar to hot quire installation of special equipment and assurance of
weather that can affect these operations and the result- a ready and ample supply of cooling materials such as
ing concrete and to recommend what should be done to ice or liquid nitrogen (LIN) for the anticipated concrete
prevent or offset their influence. volume and placement rate. The specification of a
maximum temperature limit should provide for a tol-
4.2-Preparations for placing and curing erance that will allow continuation of a placement in
4.2.1 Planning hot weather placements - At an early progress if placing temperatures above the limit are ob-
stage of the project, plans should be made for mini- served in individual batches. Maintaining a continuous
mizing the exposure of the concrete to adverse condi- flow of concrete to the jobsite is important to avoid the
tions. Whenever possible, placing of slabs should be possible development of a cold joint. Thermometers
scheduled after roof structure and walls are in place to used to determine acceptance of temperature-con-
minimize problems associated with drying winds and trolled concrete should be calibrated in accordance with
direct sunlight. This will also reduce thermal shock ASTM C 1064.
from rapid temperature drops caused by wide day and 4.2.5 Expediting placements - Preparations must be
night temperature differences or cold rain on concrete made to transport, place, consolidate, and finish the
heated by the sun earlier in the day. Under extreme hot concrete at the fastest possible rate. Delivery of con-
weather conditions, scheduling concrete placements at crete to the job should be scheduled so it will be placed
other than normal hours may be advisable. Pertinent promptly on arrival, particularly the first batch. Many
considerations include ease of handling and placing, concrete placements get off to a bad start because the
and avoiding the risk of plastic shrinkage and thermal concrete was ordered before the job was ready and
cracking. slump control was lost at this most critical time. Traf-
4.2.2 Preparing for ambient conditions - Personnel fic arrangements at the site should insure easy access of
in charge of construction should be aware of the dam- delivery units to the unloading points over stable road-
aging combinations of high air temperature, direct sun- ways. Site traffic should be coordinated for a quick
light, drying winds, and high concrete temperature in turnaround of concrete trucks. If possible, large or
advance of concrete placements. Monitoring of local critical placements should be scheduled during periods
weather reports and routine recording conditions at the of low urban traffic loads.
site, including air temperature, sun exposure, relative 4.2.6 Placing equipment - Equipment for placing the
humidity, and prevailing winds, are available. These concrete should be of a suitable design and have ample
data, together with projected or actual concrete tem- capacity to perform its functions efficiently. All equip-
peratures, enable supervisory personnel through refer- ment should have adequate power for the work and be
ence to Fig. 2.1.5 to determine and prepare the re- in first-class operating condition. Breakdowns or de-

lays that stop or slow the placement can seriously af- timing of various final operations as saw-cutting joints
fect the quality and appearance of the work. Arrange- and applying surface retarders becomes more critical;
ments should be made for the ready availability of therefore, these operations must be planned in ad-
backup equipment. Concrete pumps, if used, must be vance. Provisions should be made for the timely saw-
capable of pumping the specified class of concrete ing of the contraction joints in flatwork. This is to pre-
through the length of line and elevation at required vent the building of shrinkage stresses before the cut-
rates per hour. If placement is by crane and buckets, ting of the joints.
wide-mouth buckets with steep-angled walls should be
used to permit rapid and complete discharge of bucket 4.3-Placement and finishing
contents. Adequate means of communication between 4.3.1 General - Speed-up of placement and finishing
bucket handlers and placing crew should be provided to materially reduces hot weather difficulties. Delays in-
assure that concrete is charged into buckets only if the crease slump loss and invite the addition of water to
placing crew is ready to use the concrete without delay. offset it. Each operation in finishing should be carried
Concrete should not be allowed to rest exposed to the out promptly when the concrete is ready for it. The
sun and high temperature before placing it into the concrete should not be placed faster than it can be
form. To minimize the heat gain of the concrete during properly consolidated and finished. If the placing rate
placement, delivery units, conveyors, pumps, and pump is not coordinated with the available work force and
lines should be kept in the shade if possible. In addi- equipment, the quality of the work will be marred by
tion, pump lines should be provided with a coat of cold joints, poor consolidation, and uneven surface
white paint. Lines can also be cooled by covering with finishes.
damp burlap, kept wet with a soaker hose, or similar 4.3.2 Concrete consistency - A precondition for suc-
means. cessful hot weather concreting is the use of concrete of
4.2.7 Consolidation equipment - There should be a consistency that allows prompt placement and rapid
ample vibration equipment and manpower to consoli- and effective consolidation in the form. Unless other
date the concrete immediately as it is received in the considerations govern, the concrete should have a
form. Procedures and equipment are described in ACI slump of 3 or 4 in. At lower slumps, the rate of con-
309R. Provision should be made for an ample number crete placement is reduced, and the concrete absorbs
of standby vibrators-at least one standby for each more heat from the environment. Cement hydration
three vibrators in use. On sites subject to occasional and stiffening rate of the concrete are thereby acceler-
power outages, portable generators should be available ated, thus compounding slump loss problems and the
for uninterrupted vibrator operation. Apart from the difficulties in placing the concrete.
unsightliness of poorly consolidated concrete, insuffi- 4.3.3 Placing formed concrete - In hot weather, it is
cient compaction in the form may seriously impair the usually necessary to place concrete in shallower layers
durability and structural performance of reinforced than those used in moderate weather to assure coverage
concrete. of the lower layer while it will still respond readily to
4.2.8 Preparations for protecting and curing the con- vibration. The interval between monolithic wall and
crete - Arrangements should be made for ample water deck placements (to let the wall concrete develop its
supply at the site for wetting subgrades, fogging forms, settlement shrinkage) becomes very short in hot
reinforcement work in progress under arid conditions, weather. This interval may be extended by the judi-
and for moist-curing if applicable. The fog nozzles used cious use of set-retarding admixtures.
should produce a fog blanket. They should not be con- 4.3.4 Placement of flatwork - Before depositing con-
fused with common garden-hose nozzles, which gener- crete for flatwork on grade, the subgrade should be
ate an excessive washing spray. Pressure washers with a moist, yet free of standing water and soft spots at the
suitable nozzle attachment may be a practical means for time of concreting. In placing concrete slabs of any
fogging on smaller jobs. Materials and means should be kind, it may be necessary in hot weather to keep the
on hand for erecting temporary windbreaks and shades operation confined to a small area and to proceed on a
as needed to protect against drying winds and direct front having a minimum amount of exposed surface to
sunlight. Plastic sheeting or sprayable compounds for which concrete is to be added. A fog nozzle should be
applying temporary moisture-retaining films should be used to cool the air, to cool any forms and steel imme-
available to reduce moisture evaporation from flat- diately ahead, and to lessen rapid evaporation from the
work between finishing passes. Means should also be concrete surface before and after each finishing opera-
provided to protect the concrete against thermal tion. Excessive fog application (which would wash the
shrinkage cracking if it is likely to become exposed to fresh concrete surface or cause surplus water to cling to
rapid temperature drops. Finally, the materials and reinforcement or stand on the concrete surface during
means for the curing methods selected should be read- floating and troweling) must be avoided. Other means
ily available at the site to permit prompt protection of of preventing moisture loss include spreading and re-
all exposed surfaces from drying upon completion of moving impervious sheeting or application of sprayable
the placement. moisture-retaining films between finishing passes. These
4.2.9 Preparing incidental work - Due to faster set- procedures may cause a slight increase of the concrete
ting and hardening of the concrete in hot weather, the temperature in place due to restricting evaporative

cooling. Generally, the benefit from reducing moisture supply and disposal of the runoff. When sprinkling is
evaporation is more important than the increase of used, care must be taken that erosion of the surface
concrete temperature (Berhane 1984). does not occur. A more practical method of moist-cur-
4.3.5 Plastic-shrinkage cracks - Without protection ing is that of covering the prewetted concrete with im-
against moisture loss, plastic-shrinkage cracks may oc- pervious sheeting or application of absorptive mats or
cur, as described in Section 2.1.5. In relatively massive fabric kept continuously wet with a soaker hose or sim-
placements, revibration before floating can sometimes ilar means. Suitable coverings are described in ACI 308.
close this type of cracking. Before the concrete reaches These materials should be kept in contact with the con-
final set, the cracks can frequently be closed by striking crete surface at all times. Alternate cycles of wetting
the surface on each side of the crack with a float. The and drying must be avoided because this may result in
affected area is then retroweled to level finish. It serves pattern cracking. The temperature of water used for
no lasting purpose to merely trowel a slurry over the curing must be as close as possible to that of the con-
cracks, since these are likely to reappear if not firmly crete to avoid thermal shock.
closed and immediately covered to avoid evaporation. 4.4.3 Membrane curing of flatwork - Use of liquid
membrane-forming compounds is the most practical
method of curing where job conditions prohibit moist-
4.4-Curing and protection curing. The membranes restrict the loss of moisture
4.4.1 General - After completing placing and finish- from the concrete, thereby enhancing its strength, du-
ing operations, efforts must continue to protect the rability, and the surface wearability of floors and pave-
concrete from high temperature, direct sunlight, low ments. On concrete surfaces exposed to the sun, heat
humidity, and drying winds. If possible, the work reflecting white pigmented compounds should be used.
should be kept in a uniformly moderate temperature The capability for moisture retention varies consider-
condition to allow the concrete to develop its full ably between products. For use under hot weather con-
strength potential. High initial curing temperatures are ditions, a material should be selected which provides
detrimental to the ultimate strength to a greater degree better moisture retention than required by ASTM
than high placing temperatures (Bloem 1954; Barnes, C 309. It limits the moisture loss in a 72-hour period to
Orndorff, and Roten 1977; Gaynor, Meininger, and not more than 0.55 kg/m2, when tested in accordance
Khan 1985). Procedures for keeping exposed surfaces with ASTM C 156. Some agencies have set a more re-
from drying must be promptly commenced, with ample strictive limit of 0.39 kg/m2 of moisture loss in a 72-hr
coverage and continued without interruption. Failure to period. On flatwork, application should be started im-
do so may result in excessive shrinkage and cracking, mediately after disappearance of the surface water
and will impair the surface durability and strength of sheen after the final finishing pass. When applied by
the concrete. Curing should be continued for at least spraying, the spray nozzles should be held or posi-
the first 7 days. If a change in curing method is made tioned sufficiently close to the surface to assure ample
during this period, it should be done only after the coverage and prevent wind-blown dispersion. Manual
concrete is 3 days old. The concrete surface should not application should be in two passes, with the second
be permitted to become dry during the transition. The pass proceeding at right angles to the first application.
various methods of curing are described in ACI 308. Most curing compounds should not be used on any
The concrete should also be protected against thermal surface against which additional concrete or other ma-
shrinkage cracking from rapid temperature drops, par- terials are to be bonded, unless the curing material will
ticularly during the first 24 hr. This type of cracking is not prevent bond or unless removal of the curing ma-
usually associated with a cooling rate of more than 5 F terial is assured before subsequent bonded construc-
(3 C) per hour, or more than 50 F (28 C) in a 24-hr pe- tion.
riod for concrete with a least dimension less than about 4.4.4 Curing of concrete in forms - Forms should be
12 in. (300 mm). Concrete exposed to rapid cooling has covered and kept continuously moist during the early
a lower tensile strain capacity and is more susceptible to curing period. Formed concrete requires early access to
cracking than concrete that is allowed to cool at a ample external curing water for strength development.
slower rate (ACI 207.4R). Hot weather patterns likely This is particularly important when using high-strength
to cause thermal cracking include wide day and night concrete having a water-cement or water-cementitious
temperature differences and cold rain. Under these material ratio of less than about 0.40 (ACI 363R). The
conditions, the concrete should be protected by placing forms should be loosened, as soon as this can be done
several layers of waterproof paper over the concrete, or without damage to the concrete, and provisions made
by using other insulating methods and materials de- for the curing water to run down inside them. During
scribed in ACI 306. form removal, newly exposed surfaces should promptly
4.4.2 Moist-curing of flatwork - Of the different receive a uniformly wet cover. A continuous flow of
curing procedures, moist-curing is the best method for curing water over the concrete may prevent or moder-
developing the strength of concrete and minimizing ate development of high-temperature levels that would
early drying shrinkage. It can be provided by ponding, otherwise result from the heat generated by cement hy-
covering with clean sand kept continuously wet, or dration. For example, if there is little heat loss, formed
continuous sprinkling. This will require an ample water concrete 12 to 18 in. (0.3 to 0.5 m) thick can be ex-

pected to reach a maximum temperature of 12 F per in relation to most parts of the structure, test speci-
100 lb/yd of cement (9 C per 100 kg/m) above the in- mens are more readily influenced by changes in ambi-
itial concrete temperature at an age from 18 to 72 hr ent temperatures. Extra effort is needed in hot weather
(see ACI 207.1R). Cracking may occur when the con- to maintain strength test specimens at a temperature of
crete cools rapidly from a high peak temperature and is 60 to 80 F (16 to 27 C) and to prevent moisture loss
restrained from contracting. In more massive members during the initial curing period, in accordance with
and if the internal temperature rise cannot be con- ASTM C 31. If possible, the specimens should be pro-
trolled by available means, the concrete should be given vided with an impervious cover and placed in a temper-
thermal protection so that it will cool gradually at a ature-controlled job facility immediately after molding.
rate that will not cause the concrete to crack. After If stored outside, exposure to the sun should be avoided
form removal, form tie holes can be filled and any nec- and the cooling effect of evaporating water should be
essary repairs made by uncovering a small portion of used to help provide the required curing condition. The
the concrete at a time to carry on this work. These re- following methods for nonpotentially absorptive test
pairs should be completed in the first few days after molds have been found practical:
stripping, so the repairs and tie-hole fillings can cure a. Embedding in damp sand. Care should be taken to
with the surrounding concrete. At the end of the curing maintain sand in continuously moist conditions (not to
period (7 days should be minimum; 10 days is better), be used for cardboard molds).
the covering should be left in place without wetting for b. Covering with wet burlap. Care should be taken to
several days (4 days is suggested), so that the concrete maintain burlap in a continuously moist condition and
surface will dry slowly and be less subject to surface out of contact with the concrete.
shrinkage cracking. The effects of drying can also be c. Continuous fog sprays. Care should be taken to
minimized by application of a sprayable compound at prevent interruptions of the fog spray.
the end of the moist-curing period. d. Total immersion in water (not to be used for card-
board molds). Specimens may be immersed immedi-
CHAPTER 5-TESTING AND INSPECTION ately in saturated limewater after molding. Because
5.1-Testing specimens are made with hydraulic cement, which
5.1.1 Tests on the fresh concrete sample should be hardens under water, specimen cylinders need not be
conducted and specimens prepared in accordance with covered with a cap, but generally they are, as a precau-
ASTM Standard Test Methods C 31, C 138, C 143, tionary measure to prevent external damage.
C 172, C 173, C 231, and C 1064 so that they will be as 5.1.5 Molds must not be of a type that is potentially
representative as possible of the potential strength and absorptive and expands when in contact with moisture
other properties of the concrete as delivered. High tem- or when immersed in water. Merely covering the top of
perature, low relative humidity, and drying winds are the molded test cylinder with a lid or plate is usually
particularly detrimental to the relatively small volume not sufficient in hot weather to prevent loss of mois-
of concrete used for making tests and molding speci- ture and to maintain the required initial curing temper-
mens. Leaving the sample exposed to hot sun, wind, or ature. During the transfer to the testing facility, the
dry air can seriously impair the accuracy and useful- specimens should be kept moist, and also be protected
ness of test results. and handled carefully. They should then be stored in a
5.1.2 It is sometimes desirable to conduct tests such moist condition at 73.4 ± 3 F (23 ± 1.7 C) until the
as slump, air content, concrete temperature, and unit moment of test.
weight more frequently than for normal conditions. In 5.1.6 Specimens in addition to those required for ac-
hot weather it is sometimes desirable to conduct addi- ceptance may be made and cured at the jobsite to assist
tional tests, including temperatures of the materials; in determining when forms can be removed, when
initial and final time of set; slump loss; ambient tem- shoring can be removed, and when the placement can
perature; and relative humidity where the concrete is be placed in service. Unless specimens used for these
being placed. purposes are cured at the same place and as nearly as
5.1.3 The most important factor affecting plastic possible under the same conditions as the placement,
shrinkage is the evaporation rate, which can be esti- results of the tests can be misleading.
mated from Fig. 2.1.5 with the prevailing temperature,
relative humidity, and wind velocity. The evaporation 5.2-Inspection
rate can be more closely determined by evaporating 5.2.1 The numerous details to be looked after in
water from a cake pan having an area of about 1 ft2 concrete construction are covered in ACI 311.1R and
(0.093 m2). The pan is filled with water and weighed 311.4R. The particular effects of hot weather on con-
every 15 to 20 min to determine the evaporation rate, crete performance and the precautions to be taken to
which is equal to the weight loss of water from the pan. minimize adverse effects have been previously dis-
A gram scale of at least 2500 g capacity graduated to cussed. Project inspection of concrete is necessary to
0.1 g is satisfactory. insure compliance with these additional precautions and
5.1.4 Particular attention should be given to the pro- procedures. Adequate inspection is also necessary to
tection and curing of strength test specimens used as a verify and document this compliance. The need for
basis for acceptance of concrete. Due to their small size such measures as spraying of forms and subgrade;

cooled concrete; providing sunshades, windscreens, or Proportions for Structural

fogging and the like; and minimizing delays in place- Lightweight Concrete
ment and curing should be anticipated. 211R-84 Guide for the Use of Normal
5.2.2 Air temperature, concrete temperature (ASTM Weight Aggregates in Concrete
C 1064), general weather conditions (clear, cloudy), 212.3R-89 Chemical Admixtures for
wind velocity, relative humidity, and evaporation rate Concrete
should be recorded at frequent intervals. In addition, 221R-84 Guide for the Use of Normal
the following should be recorded and identified with Weight Aggregates in Concrete
the work in progress so that conditions relating to any 223-83 Standard Practice for the Use
part of the concrete construction can be identified at a of Shrinkage-Compensating
later date: Concrete
• All water added to the mixture with correspond- 224R-80-(84) Control of Cracking in
ing mixing times. Concrete Structures
• Time batched, time discharge started, and time 225R-85 Guide to the Selection and Use
discharge completed. of Hydraulic Cements
• Concrete temperature at time of delivery and af- 226.3R-87 Use of Fly Ash in Concrete
ter placing concrete. 301-89 Specifications for Structural
• Observations on the performance and appearance Concrete for Buildings
of concrete as delivered and after placing in forms. 304R-85 Guide for Measuring, Mixing,
• Slump of concrete as delivered. Transporting, and Placing
• Slump of concrete as discharged. Concrete
• Protection and curing: 306R-88 Cold Weather Concreting
a. Method 308-81 (Revised 86) Standard Practice for Curing
b. Time of application Concrete
c. Rate of application 311.1R (SP2) Manual of Concrete Inspection
d. Visual appearance 311.4R-88 Guide for Concrete Inspection
e. Duration of curing 318-83R-86 Building Code Requirements
These observations should be included in the perma- for Reinforced Concrete
nent project records. 363R-84 State-of-the-Art Report on
High Strength Concrete
6.1-Specified references ASTM
The documents of the various standards-producing C 31-88 Standard Practice for Making
organizations referred to in this document are listed and Curing Concrete Test
with their serial designation, including year of adop- Specimens in the Field
tion or revision. The documents listed were the latest in C 42-87 Standard Test Method for
effect at the time this document was revised. Since Obtaining and Testing Drilled
some of these documents are revised frequently, gener- Cores and Sawed Beams of
ally in minor detail only, the user of this document Concrete
should check directly with the sponsoring group if it is C 138 Standard Test Method for Unit
desired to refer to the latest revision. Weight, Yield, and Air
Content (Gravimetric) of
American Concrete Institute C 143 Standard Test Method for
116R-90 Cement and Concrete Slump of Hydraulic Cement
Terminology Concrete
201.2R-77 Guide to Durable Concrete C 150-86 Standard Specification for
(Reapproved 1982) Portland Cement
207.1R-70 Mass Concrete C 156-80a Standard Test Method for
(Reaffirmed 1980) Water Retention by Concrete
207.2R-86 Effect of Restraint, Volume Curing Materials
Change, and Reinforcement on C 172-82 Standard Practice for Sampling
Cracking of Massive Concrete Freshly Mixed Concrete
207.4R-80 Cooling and Insulating Systems C 173 Standard Test Method for Air
for Mass Concrete Content of Freshly Mixed
211.1-89 Standard Practice for Selecting Concrete by the Volumetric
Proportions for Normal, Method
Heavyweight, and Mass C 192-88 Standard Practice for Making
Concrete and Curing Concrete Test
211.2-81 Standard Practice for Selecting Specimens in the Laboratory

C 231 Standard Test Method for Air Berge, Olav, July 1976, “Improving the Properties of Hot-Mixed
Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete Using Retarding Admixtures,” ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings
V. 73, No. 7, pp. 394-398.
Concrete by the Pressure Berhane, Zawde, Mar. 1983, “Compressive Strength of Mortar in
Method Hot-Humid Environment,” Cement and Concrete Research, V. 13,
C 309-81 Standard Specification for No. 2, pp. 225-232.
Liquid Membrane-Forming Berhane, Zawde, Nov.-Dec. 1984, “Evaporation of Water from
Compounds for Curing Fresh Mortar and Concrete at Different Environmental Conditions,”
Concrete ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 81, No. 6, pp. 560-565.
Bloem, Delmar, Dec. 1954, “Effect of Curing Conditions on
C 403-88 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strengths of Concrete Cylinders,” Publication No. 53,
Time of Setting of Concrete National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, 15 pp.
Mixtures by Penetration Bloem, Delmar, July 1960, “Plastic Cracking of Concrete,” Engi-
Resistance neering Information, National Ready Mixed Concrete Assn., 2 pp.
C 494-86 Standard Specification for Bulletin du Ciment, E. G. Portland, Aug. 1953, “Hot Cement,”
V. 21, No. 20, 6 pp (in French).
Chemical Admixtures for Carlson, Roy W., and Thayer, Donald P., Aug. 1959, “Surface
Concrete Cooling of Mass Concrete to Prevent Cracking,” ACI JOURNAL ,
C 595-86 Standard Specification for Proceedings V. 56, No. 2, pp. 107-120.
Blended Hydraulic Cements Cebeci, O. Z., 1986, “Hydration and Porosity of Cement Paste in
C 618-87 Standard Specification for Fly Warm and Dry Environment,” 8th International Congress on the
Chemistry of Cement, Rio de Janeiro, V. III, pp. 412-416; 423-424.
Ash and Raw or Calcined Cebeci, O. Z., July 1987, “Strength of Concrete in Warm and Dry
Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Environment,” Materials and Structures, Research and Testing (RI-
Mineral Admixture in Portland LEM, Paris), V. 20, No. 118, pp. 270-272.
Cement Concrete Clark, Roy R., June 1957, “Mass Concrete Control in Detroit
C 803-82 Standard Test Method for Dam,” ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 53, No. 12, pp. 1145-1168.
Penetration Resistance of Collepardi, Mario; Corradi, Mario; and Valente, Michele, Jan.
1979, “Low-Slump-Loss Superplasticized Concrete,” Transportation
Hardened Concrete Research Record 720, Transportation Research Board, Washington,
C 900-87 Standard Test Method for D.C., pp. 7-12
Pullout Strength of Hardened Concrete Products, Mar. 1968, “Gifford-Hill Furnished Concrete
Concrete on-the-Rocks,” V. 71, No. 3, pp. 60-61.
Standard Test Method for Constructional Review (Sydney), Aug. 1961, “Concreting in High
C 918-80 Temperatures,” V. 34, No. 8, pp. 37-38.
Developing Early Age Cordon, William A., and Thorpe, J. Derle, Aug. 1965, “Control
Compression Test Values and of Rapid Drying of Fresh Concrete by Evaporation Control,” ACI
Projecting Later-Age Strengths JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 62, No. 8, pp. 977-985.
C 989-88 Standard Specification for Davey, N., Oct. 1933, “Influence of Temperature upon the
Ground Granulated Blast- Strength Development of Concrete,” Building Research Technical
Paper No. 14, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research,
Furnace Slag for Use in London.
Concrete and Mortars Fintel, Mark, and Khan, Fazlur R., Dec. 1965, “Effects of Col-
C 1017-85 Standard Specification for umn Exposure in Tall Structures-Temperature Variations and their
Chemical Admixtures for Use Effects,” ACI JOURNAL , Proceedings V. 62, No. 12, pp. 1533-1556.
in Producing Flowing Concrete Freedman, S., May 1969, “Hot Weather Concreting,” Modern
Concrete, V. 33, No. 1, pp. 31-36, and 38.
C 1064-86 Standard Test Method for Gaynor, Richard D.; Meininger, Richard C.; and Khan, Tarek S.,
Temperature of Freshly Mixed 1985, “Effects of Temperature and Delivery Time on Concrete Pro-
Portland-Cement Concrete portions,” Temperature Effects on Concrete, STP-858, ASTM, Phil-
STP 169A Significance of Tests and adelphia, pp. 68-87.
Properties of Concrete and Glover, Robert E., Nov.-Dec. 1934, “Flow of Heat in Dams,” ACI
JOURNAL , Proceedings V. 31, No. 2, pp. 113-124.
Concrete-Making Materials, Guennewig, Tom, Mar. 1988, “Cost-Effective Use of Superplasti-
1966, 571 pp. cizers,” Concrete International: Design & Construction, V. 10, No.
3, pp. 31-34.
The preceding references are available from: Hampton, James S., 1981, “Extended Workability of Concrete
Containing High-Range Water-Reducing Admixtures in Hot
American Concrete Institute Weather,” Developments in the Use of Superplasticizers, SP-68,
P.O. Box 19150 American Concrete Institute, Detroit, pp. 409-422.
Detroit, MI 48219 Harris, D. P., June 1956, “Concreting Problems and Methods in
Hot Climates,” Reinforced Concrete Review (London), V. 4, No. 2,
American Society for Testing and Materials pp. 95-125.
1916 Race Street Hersey, A. T., May 1968, “Experimental Research in Abuse of
4000 psi Concrete,” ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 65, No. 5, pp.
Philadelphia, PA 19103 379-383.
Ikeda, T., and Mizoguchi, Y., Aug. 1962, “Effects of Climate on
6.2-Recommended references Properties of Ready-Mixed Concrete,” Cement and Concrete, No.
Barnes, B. D.; Orndorff, R. L.; and Roten, J. E., Dec. 1977, 186 (in Japanese).
“Low Initial Curing Temperature Improves the Strength of Concrete Irwin, Harry, Feb. 15, 1956, “Producing Cooled Concrete,” Pre-
Test Cylinders,” ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 74, No. 12, pp. 612- sented at the 26th Annual Convention, National Ready Mixed Con-
615. crete Association, 5 pp.

Jaegermann, C. H., and Glucklich, J., Apr. 1968, “Effect of High Ravina, Dan, and Shalon, Rahel, 1970, “Effect of Elevated Tem-
Evaporation during and Shortly after Casting on the Creep Behavior perature on Portland Cement,” Temperature and Concrete, SP-25,
of Hardened Concrete,” Proceedings, Colloquium, Physical and American Concrete Institute, Detroit, pp. 275-290.
Chemical Causes of Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete, RILEM, Paris. Roberts, H. H., June 1951, “Cooling Materials for Mass Con-
Jaegermann, C. H., and Glucklich, J., 1968, “Effect of Plastic crete,” ACI JOURNAL , Proceedings V. 47, No. 10, pp. 821-832.
Shrinkage on Subsequent Shrinkage and Swelling of the Hardened Ruud, Frederick O., Jan. 1965, “Prediction and Control of
Concrete,” Proceedings, Colloquium on the Shrinkage of Hydraulic Stresses in Concrete Block,” ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 62, No.
Concretes, RILEM/Cembureau, Paris, V. 1 (published by Instituto 1, pp. 95-104.
Eduardo Torroja, Madrid). Shalon, R., and Ravina, D., 1960, “Studies in Concreting in Hot
Jaegermann, C. H., and Ravina, D., 1967, “Effect of Some Ad- Countries,” Proceedings, International Symposium on Concrete and
mixtures on Early Shrinkage and Other Properties of Prolonged- Reinforced Concrete in Hot Countries (RILEM, Paris, V. 1, 46 pp.
Mixed Concrete Subjected to High Evaporation,” Proceedings, In- (published by Building Research Station, Israel Institute of Technol-
ternational Symposium on Admixtures for Mortar and Concrete ogy, Haifa).
(Brussels, 1967), RILEM, Paris, pp. 319-350. Seidel, K., 1955, “Experiences in Concreting with Hot Cement,”
Jessing, Jorn, 1956, “Influence of Weather Factors on Heat En- Schriftenreihe der Arbeitsgruppe Betonstrassen, Forschungsgesell-
ergy Level-A Case of Calculation,” Reprint No. 73, Danish Na- schaft fur das Strassenwesen, No. 6, pp. 17-22 (in German). Also,
tional Institute of Building Research, Copenhagen, 64 pp. Foreign Literature Study No. 145, Portland Cement Association.
Kameta, Y., and Sinozawa, K., Sept. 1963, “Effects of Curing Seidel, K., Jan. 1955, “Use of Warm Cement in Concreting Jobs
Conditions of Hot Weather Concreting on Compressive Strength of (Uber die Verwendung von Warmem Zement beim Betonieren),” Ze-
Concrete,” Paper No. 89, Architectural Inst. of Japan (in Japanese). ment-Kalk-Gips (Wiesbaden). V. 44, No. 1, pp. l-6 (in German).
Kelly, T. M., and Bryant, D. E., 1957, “Measuring the Rate of Teodoru, George, 1987, “New Proposals for the ACI 305 Hot-
Hardening of Concrete by Bond Pullout Pins,” Proceedings, ASTM. Weather Concreting” Recommendations, RILEM Symposium Mate-
V. 57, pp. 1029-1042. rials and Structures/Research Orientation and Industrial Needs, Bo-
Klieger, Paul, June 1958, “Effect of Mixing and Curing Tempera- logna, pp. 147-153.
ture on Concrete Strength,” ACI JOURNAL , Proceedings V. 54, No. Tuthill, Lewis H., and Cordon, William A., Nov. 1955, “Proper-
12, pp. 1063-1081. Also, Research Department Bulletin 103, Port- ties and Uses of Initially Retarded Concrete,” ACI JOURNAL , Pro-
land Cement Association. ceedings V. 52, No. 3, pp. 273-286.
Koda, T. et al., Aug. 1965, “Study on Hot Weather Concreting,” U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, 1952, “Effect of Initial
Laboratory Paper, Nihon Cement Company, Tokyo (in Japanese). Curing Temperatures on the Compressive Strength and Durability of
Lee, Michael, July 1987, “New Technology in Concrete Cooling,” Concrete,” Report No. C-625, 7 pp.
Concrete Products, V. 89, No. 7, pp. 24-26, 36. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1975, Concrete Manual, 8th Ed.,
Lerch, William, 1955, “Hot Cement and Hot Weather Concrete Denver, 627 pp.
Tests,” Portland Cement Association, Chicago, 9 pp. Venuat, M., 1967, “Properties of Hot Cements, Cooled or Aer-
Lerch, William, Feb. 1957, “Plastic Shrinkage,” ACI JOURNAL , ated (Propriétés des ciments chauds, refroidis ou eventes),” Techni-
Proceedings V. 53, No. 8, pp. 797-802. cal Publication No. 167, Centre d’Etudes et de Récherches de l'In-
Martin, Ignacio, 1971, “Effect of Environmental Conditions on dustrie de Liants Hydrauliques, Paris, 39 pp. (in French).
Thermal Variations and Shrinkage of Concrete Structures in the Verbeck, G. J., and Helmuth, R. H., 1968, “Structure and Physi-
United States,” Designing for Effects of Creep, Shrinkage, and cal Properties of Cement Pastes,” Proceedings, Fifth International
Temperature in Concrete Structures, SP-27, American Concrete In- Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement, Tokyo, V. III, pp. l-32.
stitute, Detroit, pp. 279-300. Walz, K., Sept. 1955, “Use of Hot Cement-A Bibliography of 15
Mather, Bryant, Aug. 1987, “The Warmer the Concrete the Faster References (Verwendung von heissem Zement-Literatur Zusammen-
the Cement Hydrates,” Concrete International: Design & Construc- stellung),” Zement-Kalk-Gips (Wiesbaden), V. 44, No. 9, pp. 315-319
tion, V. 9, No. 8, pp. 29-33. (in German).
Mittelacher, Martin, 1985, “Effect of Hot Weather Conditions on Yamamoto, Y., and Kobayashi, S., Jan.-Feb. 1986, “Effect of
the Strength Performance of Set-Retarded Field Concrete,” Temper- Temperature on the Properties of Superplasticized Concrete,” ACI
ature Effects on Concrete, STP 858, ASTM, Philadelphia, pp. 88- JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 83, No. 1, pp. 80-87.
Mowery, S. A., Aug. 1966, “Hazards of Hot-Weather Concret-
ing,” Civil Engineering, ASCE, V. 236, No. 8, pp. 56-57.
National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, June 1962, “Cooling
Ready Mixed Concrete,” Publication No. 106, Silver Spring, 7 pp. APPENDIX A-ESTIMATING CONCRETE
Oliver, Eduardo A., June 1982, “Controlling Ready-Mixed Con- TEMPERATURE
crete Operations in Hot, Humid Climates,” Concrete International: A1 Equations for estimating temperature T of freshly mixed con-
Design & Construction, V. 4, No. 6, pp. 30-32. crete are shown in the following.
Olivieri, Elmer, and Martin, Ignacio, 1963, “Curing of Concrete in Without ice (U.S. customary and SI units)
Puerto Rico,” Revista, Colegio de Agricultura y Artes Mecanicas,
Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayaguez. 0.22(T aW a + TcW c) + TwW w + TaW wa
Portland Cement Association, 1966, “Hot Weather Concreting,” (1)
Concrete Information Sheet IS 14.02T, Skokie, 4 pp. 0 . 2 2 ( W a + Wc) + Ww + Wwa
Public Roads, Feb. 1961, “Symposium on Water-Reducing Re-
tarders for Concrete,” V. 31, No. 6, 29 pp. With ice (U.S. customary units)
Ravina, Dan, Apr. 1984, “Slump Loss of Fly Ash Concrete,”
Concrete International: Design & Construction, V. 6, No. 4, pp. 35- 0.22(T a Wa + Tc Wc) + Tw W w + Ta Ww a - 1 1 2 Wi
39. (2)
0 . 2 2 ( W a + Wc ) + Ww + Wi + Wwa
Ravina, D., and Shalon, R., 1968a, “Shrinkage of Fresh Mortars
Cast Under and Exposed to Hot Dry Climatic Conditions,” Pro- With ice (SI units)
ceedings, Colloquium on Shrinkage of Hydraulic Concrete, RILEM/
Cembureau, Paris, V. 2, (published by Instituto Eduardo Torroja,
Madrid). 0.22(T a Wa + TcWc) + Tw W w + TaWwa - 7 9 . 6 Wi

Ravina, Dan, and Shalon, Rahel, Apr. 1968b, “Plastic Shrinkage 0 . 2 2 ( W a + Wc ) + Ww + Ww + Wi + Wwa
and Cracking,” ACI JOURNAL , Proceedings V. 65, No. 4, pp. 282-

T = temperature of aggregate nitrogen injection into the mixing water stream as it is discharged into
T = temperature of cement the mixer. The system enables cooling by as much as 20 F (11 C). The
T = temperature of batched mixing water from normal supply ratio of ice to water in the slush must be adjusted to produce the
excluding ice (Note: The temperature of free and absorbed temperature of concrete desired. Installation of this system requires
water on the aggregate is assumed to be the same tempera- insulated mixing water storage, a nitrogen supply vessel, batch con-
ture as the aggregate. All temperatures are in deg F or C.) trols, and auxiliary equipment. Apart from installation costs, there
are operating expenses from liquid nitrogen usage and rental fee for
W = dry weight of aggregates
the nitrogen supply vessel. The method differs from that by direct
W = weight of cement liquid nitrogen injection into mixed concrete described in B4.
W = weight of batched mixing water
W = weight of free and absorbed moisture in aggregates B3 Cooling concrete with ice - Concrete can be cooled by using ice
W = weight of ice for part of the mixing water. The amount of cooling is limited by the
T a = temperature of aggregate amount of mixing water available for ice substitution. For most con-
crete, the maximum temperature reduction is about 20 F (11 C). For
T c = temperature of cement
correct proportioning, the ice must be weighed. Cooling with block
T w = temperature of batched mixing water from normal supply ice involves the use of a crusher/slinger unit, which can finely crush
excluding ice a block of ice and blow it into the mixer. A major obstacle to the use
T i = temperature of ice. (Note: The temperature of free and ab- of block ice in many areas is insufficient supply. Costs of using block
sorbed water on the aggregate is assumed to be the same ice are: the cost of ice including transportation, refrigerated storage,
temperature as the aggregate. All temperatures are in deg F handling and crushing equipment, additional labor, and if required,
or C.) provisions for weighing the ice. An alternative to using block ice is to
W a = dry weight of aggregate set up an ice plant near the concrete plant. As the ice is produced, it
W c = weight of cement is weighed, crushed, and conveyed into the mixer. It may also be
W w = weight of batched mixing water produced and used as flake ice. This system requires a large capital
W wa = weight of free and absorbed moisture in aggregate at Ta
W = weight of ice B4 Cooling mixed concrete with liquid nitrogen
(Note: All weights are in lb or kg.) B4.1 Injection of liquid nitrogen into freshly mixed concrete is
an effective method for reduction of concrete temperature. The prac-
A2 Eq. (2) and (3), for estimating the temperature of concrete with tical lower limit of concrete temperature is reached when concrete
ice in U. S. customary or SI units, assume that the ice is at its melt- nearest the injection nozzle forms into a frozen lump; this is likely to
ing point. A more exact approach would be to use Eq. (4) or (5), occur when the desired concrete temperature is less than 50 F. The
which includes the temperature of the ice. method has been successfully used in a number of major concrete
With ice (U. S. customary units) placements. The performance of concrete was not adversely affected
by its exposure to large amounts of liquid nitrogen. Cost of this
method is relatively high, but it may be justified on the basis of prac-
0.22(T a W a + T c Wc ) Tw Ww
T = tical considerations and overall effectiveness.
0 . 2 2 ( Wa + Wc) + Ww + Wi + Wwa (4) B4.2 Installations of the system consist of a nitrogen supply ves-
T a W w a - W i (128 - 0.5T i) sel and injection facility for central mixers, or one or more injection
0 . 2 2 ( Wa + Wc ) + W w + Wi + Wwa stations for truck mixers. The system can be set up at the construc-
tion site for last-minute cooling of the concrete before placement.
This avoids temperature gains of cooled concrete in transit between
With ice (SI units) the concrete plant and jobsite. Coordination is required in the dis-
patching of liquid nitrogen tanker trucks to injection stations for the
0.22(T a Wa + T cWc ) TwWw timely replenishing of gas consumed in the cooling operations. The
T =
0 . 2 2 ( Wa + Wc ) + Ww + Wi + Wwa (5) quantity of liquid nitrogen required will vary according to mixture
T aWwa - Wi( 7 9 . 6 - 0 . 5 T i) proportions and constituents, and the amount of temperature reduc-
0 . 2 2 ( Wa + Wc ) + W w + Wi + Wwa
B5 Cooling of coarse aggregates
B5.1 An effective method of lowering the temperature of the
coarse aggregate is by cool water spraying or inundation. Since the
APPENDIX B-METHODS OF COOLING coarse aggregate is the largest ingredient in a standard concrete mix-
CONCRETE ture, reducing the temperature of the aggregate approximately 2 ±
The summary is limited to a description of methods suitable for 0.5 F (1.1 ± 0.28 C) will lower the final concrete temperature ap-
most structural uses of concrete. Methods for the cooling of mass proximately 1 F (0.5 C). To use this method, the producer must have
concrete are explained in ACI 207-4R. available large amounts of chilled water and the necessary water-
B1 Cooling with chilled mixing water - Concrete can be cooled to cooling equipment for production requirements. This method is most
a moderate extent by using chilled mixing water; the maximum re- effective when adequate amounts of coarse material are contained in
duction in concrete temperature that can be obtained is about 10 F (6 a silo or bin so that cooling can be accomplished in a short period of
C). The quantity of cooled water cannot exceed the mixing water re- time. Care must be taken to evenly inundate the material so that
quirement, which will depend upon the moisture content of aggre- slump variation from load to load is minimized.
gates and mixture proportions. The method involves a significant in- B5.2 Cooling of coarse aggregate can also be accomplished by
vestment in mechanical refrigeration equipment and insulated water blowing air through the moist aggregate. The air flow will enhance
storage large enough for the anticipated hourly and daily production evaporative cooling and can bring the coarse aggregate temperature
rates of cooled concrete. Available systems include one that is based within 2 F (1 C) of wet bulb temperature. Effectiveness of the method
on heat-pump technology, which is usable for both cooling and heat- depends on ambient temperature, relative humidity, and velocity of
ing of concrete. Apart from its initial installation cost, this system air flow. The added refinement of using chilled air instead of air at
appears to offer cooling at the lowest cost of available systems for ambient temperature can reduce the coarse aggregate temperature to
cooling mixing water. as low as 45 F (7 C). However, this method involves a relatively high
B2 Liquid nitrogen cooling of mixing water - Mixing water can be installation cost.
chilled rapidly through injection of liquid nitrogen into an insulated
holding tank. This chilled water is then dispensed into the batch. Al- This report was submitted to letter ballot of the committee and approved in
ternatively, the mixing water may be turned into ice slush by liquid accordance with ACI standardization procedures.