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FIRST EDITION

THE ELLIS
GUIDE TO
CABLE CLEATS

What are cable cleats and 4


why are they necessary?
The international standard 6

The mechanical strength 7


of cable cleats
Short-circuit testing 8

Calculation of cleat spacing 12


and selection of cleat type
Matters of corrosion 16

Cable cleats and… 24


Operating temperatures
Eddy currents
Multi-core cables
Fire
UV Resistance
Cable system design 30

Frequently asked questions 32

Type approvals 34

Business management 36

References 38
4 5

WHAT ARE CABLE


CLEATS AND
WHY ARE THEY
NECESSARY?
“Cable restraints should: “Cables are to be installed and
A CABLE CLEAT IS A supported in ways to avoid chafing
 revent excessive cable
P
ALWAYS REMEMBER:
DEVICE DESIGNED TO movement due to fault-current and undue stress in the cable.”
magnetic forces ABS Steel Vessel Rules 4-8-4/21.9 Any power cable system
PROVIDE SECURING OF  e rated for specific cable size
B Cable Support, 4-8-4/21.9.1 designer or installer has an
CABLES WHEN and available current” General and 4-8-4/21.9.3 Clips, obligation to consider the
Saddles, Straps method of securing cables
The fifth edition of API
INSTALLED AT INTERVALS Recommended Practice 14F
in order to restrain their
movement whether caused
ALONG THE LENGTH OF (Design, Installation and “In order to guard against the
by an electrical fault or any
Maintenance of Electrical Systems effects of electro dynamic forces
THE CABLES for Fixed and Floating Offshore developing on the occurrence
other reason.
Petroleum Facilities) of a short-circuit or earth fault,
IEC 61914 Cable Cleats for single core cables shall be firmly
Electrical Installations fixed, using supports of strength
“Single core electric cables are
adequate to withstand the dynamic Other regulations outlining the
to be firmly fixed, using supports
“Every conductor or cable shall forces corresponding to the whats and whys of cable cleats
of strength adequate to withstand
have adequate strength, and be prospective fault current at that include NFPA-70 (US National
forces corresponding to the
so installed as to withstand the point of the installation.” Electrical Code) and C22.1
values of the peak prospective
electromagnetic forces that short-circuit current.” DNV Rules for Ships / High Speed (Canadian Electrical Code).
may be caused by any current, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft,
Lloyds Register. Rules and
including fault current.” Pt. 4 Ch. 8 Sec.10 – page 68, C50
Regulations for the Classification
IET Wiring Regulations 17th Edition of Ships, Part 6, Control, Electrical,
BS7671:2008 (2011) Refrigeration and Fire

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6 7

THE INTERNATIONAL THE MECHANICAL


STANDARD STRENGTH OF
CABLE CLEATS

IEC 61914 Cable cleats The aspects of construction The international In a short-circuit fault the forces
and performance covered by the are applied almost instantaneously
for electrical installations standard include: standard IEC 61914 and oscillate in every direction.
outlines a series of tests Material type – i.e. metallic, includes a formula in Experience shows that a cleat that
non-metallic or composite survives a mechanical tensile test
that can be used to Annex B that enables at a given force will not necessarily
Minimum and maximum declared
assess the performance service temperatures
a designer to calculate survive a short-circuit test, even if
forces are the same.
of a cleat’s design. Resistance to impact at the the force between two
minimum declared operating conductors during a fault.
Although the standard does not temperature
define pass or fail levels, it allows The ability of the cleat to Consider the properties
If the strength of a particular
manufacturers to define the withstand axial slippage forces of glass, immensely strong
cleat is also known, then the
performance characteristics of Resistance to electro-mechanical under tension but subject
optimum spacing of the cleat along
their products, and specifiers to forces – i.e. the ability of the cleat to brittle failure when
the cable in order to restrain the
compare products from different to withstand the forces between force created by the fault can impacted.
manufacturers. the cables in the event of a be calculated.
short-circuit
The strength of a cable cleat is
Resistance to UV and corrosion often determined using a mechanical
Flame propagation tensile test. However, the results
may be misleading because the force
is applied in a slow and controlled
manner, which does not replicate
fault conditions.

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8 9

SHORT-CIRCUIT
EXAMPLE: COMPARING TEST RESULTS

TESTING
Two manufacturers have Are both cleats suitable?
tested cleats to the
international standard
The answer? No.
IEC 61914 and both claim their
cleat is capable of withstanding
a peak short-circuit current Using the formula from
of 140kA. The international standard
IEC 61914 (provided and
Manufacturer
 ‘A’ conducted explained in the following
a test using a 35mm cable section) the force each cleat
cleated at 600mm centres was subjected to was:
Manufacturer
 ‘B’ conducted
a test using a 45mm cable Manufacturer ‘A’ 57kN
Conducting a This practice is becoming cleated at 300mm centres Manufacturer ‘B’ 22kN
commonplace, but prior to the
short-circuit test is publication of the international Your
 system peak fault level You require 24kN (min)
the only reliable way of standard IEC 61914 many cable is 60kA, you are using a 30mm
cleats were not tested, and those diameter cable and you wish Manufacturer B’s product does
proving that a cable that were had no standardised to cleat at 1200mm centres. not meet the requirement.
cleat is capable of testing method by which to gauge
success or failure. As a result, test
withstanding a specific results were open to a wide range
set of fault conditions. of differing interpretations. This example reinforces the
importance of protecting a
IEC 61914 has provided a
We always recommend that any specification throughout the
standardised method for conducting
claims of cleat strength should procurement process. An engineer
a short-circuit test and a definition
be supported by a short-circuit can diligently calculate the forces
of the criteria for a pass. It does
test carried out in an independent and optimise the whole job cost
though allow for a significant degree
and accredited laboratory and through careful choice of cleat and
of latitude and so caution must be
appropriately certified.. cleat spacing. Yet when the project
employed when interpreting results.
reaches the buyers they may see a
Note should also be taken of the ALWAYS REMEMBER:
Specifiers, consultants and requirement for 20,000 cleats,
full report as opposed to just its
engineers should also request, as which they view as commodity Ellis will always specify a
headline page.
standard, a complete test report products and so specify and install cleat capable of meeting
that includes before and after a cheaper option. The risks of under the requirement.
photographs, and a table of results specification, given the dangers
and conclusions. involved, are obvious.

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10 11

SHORT-CIRCUIT
TESTING

TEST DURATION DYNAMIC VS THERMAL


There is a major difference A short-circuit test for a cable Currents and Conductor Temperatures for Short-Circuits of Different Durations with the Same I²t
between the short-circuit withstand cleat does not consider this heating 0.1 s Fault -
requirements of a cable and the effect, and instead concentrates Peak Current
250 250
short-circuit withstand of a 200 kA
entirely on the destructive
cable cleat. electro-mechanical forces at 200 200

1 s Fault -
peak, followed by a short term Peak Current 150 150
The former is concerned with
decaying RMS. 63 kA
cable degradation as a result of

Conductor Temperature °C
100 100

Fault Current kA
temperature rise (thermal stress The international standard 50 50
heating), while the latter is concerned IEC 61914 requires a short-circuit
0 0
with cable retention as a result of test duration of just 0.1 second.
electromechanical forces. This equates to five complete cycles, -50 -50

by which time the true strength 0.1s Fault – DC Component 1s Fault – DC Component
Typical installation specifications that -100 -100

of a cable cleat will be known.


have been derived from the thermal -150
0.1s Fault – Total Current 1s Fault – Total Current
-150

withstand of the cable would require 0.1s Fault – Conductor Temperature 1s Fault – Conductor Temperature
-200 -200
a short-circuit withstand of 63kA for

0.000

0.040

0.080

0.120

0.160

0.200

0.240

0.280

0.320

0.360

0.400

0.440

0.480

0.520

0.560

0.600

0.640

0.680

0.720

0.760

0.800

0.840

0.880

0.920

0.960

1.000
1 second or 40kA for 3 seconds. Time s

The conductor temperature will continue to rise until the fault condition ends. At this point the
conductor temperature will begin to fall as heat dissipates through the rest of the cable structure.
The thermal withstand of a cable is its ability to withstand this process.

Maximum cleat stress and the most likely point of cleat failure occurs at Peak Current
(where indicated) after about 0.01s of commencement of the fault.

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12 13

CALCULATION OF
CLEAT SPACING 0.17 x i p
2

AND SELECTION OF Ft =
CLEAT TYPE S
Where the system peak Where:
LOOP STRENGTH OF ELLIS CABLE CLEATS
fault current and the Ft = force in Newton/metre (N/m)
cable diameter are ip = p
 eak short-circuit current in CLEAT TYPE LOOP STRENGTH (LS)
kiloamp (kA)
known, the following
S = distance between the Alpha 15,000 N
formula, taken from The centrelines of the conductors Vulcan+, Protect and Standard Duty Flexi-strap 36,000 N
international standard in metres (m) Emperor, Colossus and Heavy Duty Flexi-strap 63,000 N
IEC 61914, can be used Once Ft in N/m has been determined Centaur Saddle and Clamps 85,000 N
to calculate the forces then the force for each potential
cleat can be calculated. The formula uses peak current,
between two conductors however this is often unavailable
in the event of a three
Metric ladder typically has rungs at ALWAYS REMEMBER: with a Root Mean Square (RMS)
300mm intervals, so cleat spacing
Whole job cost should always value given instead. To calculate
phase fault: is usually a multiple of this distance.
the peak current from the RMS,
So, Ft x 0.3 gives the force a cleat be considered as costs can
often be reduced by using IEC 61439-1 Low voltage switchgear
will see if spaced at 300mm, Ft x 0.6
0.17 x ip2 for 600mm etc. a stronger, more expensive and controlgear assemblies is
commonly referred to, which uses
Ft = Ft x cleat spacing can then be
cleat at a wider spacing than
a cheaper option at more the following multiples:
S compared to the maximum
recommended mechanical loop
regular intervals.
10 - 20kA = 2
strength of the cleat and then 21 - 50kA = 2.1
the cleat type and spacing can
51kA = 2.2
be selected.

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14 15

CALCULATION OF
CLEAT SPACING
AND SELECTION OF
CLEAT TYPE

EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2 Firstly multiply the RMS by 2.1


(or other system specific factor)
Peak fault: 110kA RMS fault: 30kA to give 63kA peak. Then:
Ft = 0.17 x 110 = 54,132 N/m
2
Installation: Ladder Installation: Ladder
Ft = 0.17 x 63 = 20,446 N/m
2
0.038
Cables in trefoil with an outside Cables in trefoil with an outside 0.033
diameter of 38mm diameter of 33mm

Ft x CLEAT SPACING REQUIRED LOOP STRENGTH Ft x CLEAT SPACING REQUIRED LOOP STRENGTH
0.3 for 300mm 16,240 N per cleat 0.3 for 300mm 6,134 N per cleat
0.6 for 600mm 32,480 N per cleat 0.6 for 600mm 12,268 N per cleat
0.9 for 900mm 48,718 N per cleat 0.9 for 900mm 18,401 N per cleat
1.2 for 1200mm 64,958 N per cleat 1.2 for 1200mm 24,535 N per cleat

This force per distance can then In this example, the Ellis As with example 1, force per distance 1) It is strongly recommended that a
be compared to different cleat recommendation was for Vulcan+ can be compared to the cleat loop system employs a fault rated cleat
loop strengths to ascertain the cleats (LS: 36,000) spaced every strengths and the appropriate cleat or restraint at a maximum spacing
appropriate cleat and spacing 600mm, or Emperor cleats and spacing specified. of 1500mm.
requirements for specification. (LS: 63,000) every 900mm.
In this example, Alpha cleats 2) On bends and risers it is
(LS: 15,000) spaced every 600mm recommended that the maximum
are the best option. cleat spacing is 300mm.
Before a cleat and spacing are
finalised, two other factors should
be considered irrespective of the
short-circuit level.

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16 17

MATTERS OF
CORROSION

One of the most important GALVANIC CORROSION The further apart the two metals Therefore, if it is made from a metal
are in the series, the greater the that is more anodic than its support
issues to consider when risk of galvanic corrosion – with structure it will be susceptible to
Galvanic corrosion occurs when
specifying cable cleats dissimilar metals are placed in
the metal higher up the list (more galvanic corrosion.
anodic) being the one whose rate
is the risk of material contact with each other in the of corrosion is accelerated.
Conversely, if the cleat is more
presence of an electrolyte. cathodic than its support structure,
corrosion – not just as a The second factor to consider is there is little risk of galvanic
There are two factors that affect
result of the installation the rate of galvanic corrosion, the the relative surface areas of the corrosion.
environment, but also from first is the distance between the different metals.
Using this criteria, if galvanised
two metals in the galvanic series.
other metals which the If the more anodic (higher up the ladder is the support structure,
list) metal has a smaller surface and there are no other significant
cleat is in contact with. area than the metal it is in contact factors, it is safe to use stainless
with, the difference in surface area steel or aluminium cleats. However,
causes the rate of corrosion of the if the support structure is stainless
Zinc (hot-dip/die cast/plated)

anodic metal to increase. steel, separation should be provided


if aluminium or galvanised cleats
Conversely, if the more anodic metal
are used.
Mild Steel & Cast Iron

Nickel-Silver (18% Ni)

has a much larger surface area


Stainless Steel 304
Stainless Steel 316
Chromium (plated)

than the cathodic metal, it may be


sufficient for the effects of galvanic
Nickel (plated)

Yellow Brass

corrosion to be discounted.
Aluminium

In terms of cleat selection, the


ACTIVE LESS ACTIVE surface area of the cleat is generally
(ANODIC) (CATHODIC) significantly smaller than the
structure it is mounted on.
Galvanic Series

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18 19

MATTERS OF
CORROSION

Galvanic corrosion is not easily 304 austenitic stainless steel, often


STAINLESS STEEL
predictable and can be influenced referred to as A2, is one of the most
by the type of electrolytes present commonly used stainless steels. It ALWAYS REMEMBER:
In general, cable cleats are
such as salt water or fresh water has excellent corrosion resistant All Ellis stainless steel cable
manufactured from austenitic
containing impurities. properties in most circumstances, cleats are produced from
stainless steel due to its
although is susceptible in 316L austenitic stainless steel.
In general terms when guarding non-magnetic and corrosion
atmospheres where chlorides are
against galvanic corrosion, the resistant properties – the former
present, making it unsuitable for use
safest course of action is to ensuring the cleat won’t induce
in coastal or marine environments.
separate dissimilar metals with eddy currents or localised heating
polymer separation washers. of the cable. 316 austenitic stainless steel,
often referred to as A4, contains 304 and 316 stainless steel are
This separation should be carried Austenitic stainless steel does available in low carbon variants,
Molybdenum, which provides
out between the cleat and its become a little magnetic as a result namely 304L and 316L. These variants
resistance against chlorides. 316 is
mounting surface and the cleat’s of work hardening when processed. are immune to sensitisation (grain
often referred to as marine grade
mounting fixing. This magnetism can barely be boundary carbide precipitation).
stainless steel due to its suitability
detected with a magnet and so is
All Ellis products constructed for use in coastal and offshore Any cleat which is manufactured from
not significant from an eddy current
from dissimilar metal are designed applications. stainless steel and includes welding in
perspective.
in a way that completely avoids the manufacturing process should be
If unsure a simple chemical test can
bimetallic contact. As a result of There are many different types of made in a low carbon (L) variant.
determine whether Molybdenum is
this you can be confident that stainless steel, but there are two
present and so differentiate between
cable cleats will have a service life principal variants when it comes to
304 and 316.
measured in decades. cable cleats.

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20 21

MATTERS OF
CORROSION

aluminium as an alternative to reacts with oxygen, water and


COATINGS GALVANISED STEEL
stainless steel products and/or carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
The corrosion resistance properties coating processes are strongly Contracts often require a guarantee This leads to the formation of a
of stainless steel are a result of recommended. regarding the life expectancy of a cleat. tough, stable, protective layer, which
chromium, which reacts with oxygen is tightly adherent to the zinc.
Ellis offers special coatings to suit If the installation is designed
and forms a self-healing impervious specific environments – e.g. our As the corrosion process is
correctly and all other corrosion
layer of chromium oxide on the London Underground Approved continuous, the thickness of the zinc
issues have been considered this
surface of the steel. electrostatic plastic coatings. layer reduces over time and it is the
is a relatively simple exercise for
In most circumstances the chromium stainless steel products. speed of this reduction that is used
oxide layer is extremely durable and to accurately predict the life span of
helps in resisting galvanic corrosion.
FIXINGS With galvanized steel, life expectancy the cleat.
is determined by the thickness of
However, in certain installation Closure fixings on cable cleats are the zinc coating.
locations, such as railway tunnels, fundamental to the loop strength
the oxide layer can be continuously of the cleat and its short-circuit The resistance of galvanizing to
penetrated. This occurs due to trains withstand capability. atmospheric corrosion depends on
frequently applying their brakes, a protective film that forms on the
which releases mild steel dust into All Ellis 316L stainless steel cleats use surface of the zinc.
the atmosphere that then settles 316 fixings, which are manufactured
to a precise and specific tensile When the newly coated steel is
on the stainless steel. If moisture is
strength. Fixings are sourced directly withdrawn from the galvanizing
present, then corrosion occurs at an
from approved manufacturers and any bath, the zinc has a clean, bright,
exaggerated rate.
fixing on any cleat is directly traceable shiny surface. With time a corrosion
In such circumstances, if regular back to the batch quality records at process occurs which produces
washing is not feasible, use of that manufacturer. a dull grey patina as the surface

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22 23

MATTERS OF
CORROSION

CORROSION RATES Zinc corrosion rates are represented


by five categories indicated by the
FOR THE UK colour codes shown below.
Corrosion Category 1 2 3 4 5
Permission to use the information
Average Corrosion 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
relating to galvanising was granted rate (µm/year)
by the Galvanizers Association for
Average life of 85 µm 170 85 57 43 34
galvanised steel. galvanized coating
(years)
If a galvanised steel cleat is specified
for use in a zone 3 area then the
corrosion rate is 1.5 microns (µm)
per year.
ALWAYS REMEMBER:
If the contract for this specification
states a required life expectancy of The corrosion rate for zinc
40 years, then the initial galvanising is generally linear for a given
thickness will need to be a minimum environment.
of 60 µm in order to meet the
required longevity.

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24 25

CABLE CLEATS
AND…

the phases cancel each other It is worth noting that whatever the
OPERATING TEMPERATURES out, which in turn negates the eddy
MULTI-CORE CABLES withstand quoted, in the event of
currents and the heating effect. a significant fault an unrestrained
Our standard ranges of cleats There is a commonly held belief
multi-core cable will move.
are designed for use in ambient Despite this, it is preferable to within the electrical industry that
temperatures ranging from -50°C use cleats manufactured from multi-core cables will protect Furthermore, the requirements of
to +60°C and with cable conductor non-magnetic materials such themselves in the event of a most wiring regulations are clear
temperatures up to 90°C. as aluminium, injection moulded short-circuit, meaning their and typically state that:
polymers or stainless steel, which installation does not require fault
EDDY CURRENTS has only very slight magnetic rated cable cleats.
properties.
However, research shows that the EVERY CONDUCTOR
Ferro-magnetic materials that
forces between the conductors of
completely surround single
a multi-core cable in the event of a
OR CABLE SHALL HAVE
conductors in AC circuits are
susceptible to heating from
ALWAYS REMEMBER: fault are similar to those between ADEQUATE STRENGTH,
three separate single core cables
eddy currents. When using single cable laid in a trefoil arrangement. AND BE SO INSTALLED
Generally, eddy current cleats manufactured from
generation at mains frequencies ferro-magnetic materials Therefore, when specifying AS TO WITHSTAND THE
care should be taken to avoid multi-core cables it is advisable
requires a complete electrical and
forming a complete iron loop that cable manufacturer should
ELECTROMAGNETIC
ferro-magnetic circuit around each
conductor. But in installations where around the cable. be contacted to ascertain the ability FORCES THAT MAY BE
of its specific cable to withstand
all three phases are contained within CAUSED BY ANY
these forces.
the same cleat e.g. three cables in a
trefoil cleat, the magnetic fields of CURRENT, INCLUDING
FAULT CURRENT

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26 27

CABLE CLEATS
AND…

Ellis Phoenix clamp undergoing


independent fire rating testing

(BRE) in line with the London Even aluminium only has a melting
FIRE
Underground 1-085 specification point of 660˚C, which means it would
FOR INFORMATION: with regard to: fail to support FP cables in a fire.
There are currently no European UL94’s V-0 rating means
or IEC standards for fire rated Smoke emission To counteract this shortcoming,
that burning stops within
cable clamps, although there are Ellis manufactures the Phoenix
10 seconds on a vertical Limited oxygen index
requirements within other standards range of clamps for use with FP
that can be followed to prevent specimen; drips of particles Toxicity of fumes cables. Independently tested by
unsuitable products being specified. allowed as long as they Exova Warrington fire and BRE, all
The appropriate products are
are not inflamed. products in the range are proven
The international standard listed in the London Underground
to perform to the same level as
IEC 61914 requires non-metallic and Approved Products register.
the FP cables ensuring continuous
composite cleats to have adequate Identification numbers are 360,
operation in the event of fire.
resistance to flame propagation. The use of the description LSF 361,362, 363, 364, 365 and 1661.
(low smoke and fume) is common
UL94, the standard for Safety of A great deal of focus is placed on
terminology with regard to polymers,
Flammability of Plastic Materials for fire rated (FP) cables and their
but is misleading as it doesn’t relate
Parts in Devices and Appliances, is a performance in fire, but very little
to any published standard and so
plastics flammability standard that attention is given to the cable fixings
can be interpreted in a wide variety
classifies plastics according to how used to secure these cables. Given
of ways.
they burn in various orientations that FP cable is typically rated for
and thicknesses. Adherence to its To ensure complete assurance of operation in temperatures ranging
V-0 rating for polymers should be performance in a fire, all Ellis plastic from 850°C to 950°C then the use
demanded by specifiers. products have undergone testing at of plastic cleats or clamps is clearly
the Building Research Establishment inappropriate.

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28 29

CABLE CLEATS
AND…

UV RESISTANCE
ALWAYS REMEMBER:
While wholly metal cleats are
impervious to UV attack, composite All cleats supplied by Ellis
and polymer cleats can be at risk. for applications involving UV
are provided in UV resistant
Ellis composite cleats such as materials.
Emperor, Vulcan and Atlas all have
polymer liners, but are designed to
be impervious to UV attack because
the polymer is shielded by either the
cleat’s body or the installed cables.
Polymer cleats that are likely to be
exposed to UV should be supplied in
materials containing carbon black or
other UV stabilised material.

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30 31

CABLE SYSTEM
DESIGN

As a cable cleat FLEXIBLE SYSTEMS where the cables


FLAT, TREFOIL AND a report produced by ERA on
are “snaked” either vertically or behalf of Ellis delivered the
manufacturer, we do not horizontally. The cable can expand and QUADRAFOIL INSTALLATIONS following guidelines:
offer advice on the design contract freely between fixing points.
Current ratings, given in BS7671,
principles and choices RIGID SYSTEMS where the cables Cable arrangements for three for cables in touching trefoil
are rigidly fixed. The longitudinal phase installations utilising single formation are appropriate for
between different types thermo-mechanical force is conductor cables are typically flat cables in quad bundles
of cable installation. withstood by the combination of spaced, flat touching or trefoil.
Derating factors, given in BS7671,
We will however provide the stiffness of the cable, the cleat The 17th Edition Wiring Regulations for cables in touching trefoil
reaction force and the rigidity of the (BS7671) provides current ratings
expert advice on the support structure. and voltage drop values for all these
formation are appropriate for
cables in quad bundles
suitability of particular Cable cleats are designed to arrangements. It also contains
information on grouping factors and Voltage drops for circuits in quad
cleats within any type of withstand the forces exerted by the
spacing between circuits to achieve formation should be calculated
cable in the ‘axial’ direction, this is
installation. relevant to both flexible and rigid thermal independence. using the values tabulated in
BS7671 for cables in flat touching
systems. It is also important when Additionally, IET Guidance Note
FLEXIBLE AND RIGID formation
the cables are installed vertically. No. 6 delivers valuable advice on
CABLE INSTALLATIONS installation arrangements where When considering multiple cables
there are multiple cables per phase. per phase, the advice given in
On most projects a major Guidance Note No.6 for trefoil
RECOMMENDED An additional method for installing
consideration is the constant groups is applicable to quad bundles
movement of the cable due to
READING: single-core cables is to use
CIGRE Technical Brochure quadrafoil cleats where the neutral The induced voltage in the neutral
thermo-mechanical effect. To conductor of a quad group is
TB194 is bundled with the three phase
accommodate this two principal minimal and can be ignored.
conductors. In this arrangement,
types of installation design exist:
there is no advice in BS7671 but

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32 33

FREQUENTLY ASKED
QUESTIONS

HOW DO I PREVENT HOW TIGHT IS TOO TIGHT


THREAD GALLING WHEN WHEN SECURING A CLEAT?
INSTALLING CLEATS?
Cleats are generally fastened
around the cable by a threaded bolt
Stainless steel fasteners have and nut, and the higher the torque
a propensity to “pick-up” when when closing this fixing, the tighter
the two threaded surfaces slide the cleat’s grip on the cable.
against each other. If sufficient A tight grip can be advantageous
speed and pressure is applied to the when considering axial slippage,
sliding surfaces then they can weld but care needs to be taken as
themselves together – a phenomenon over-tightening can lead to damage
known as thread galling. to both the outer jacket and the
construction of the cable.
All stainless steel fixings will thread
gall if there is sufficient friction. As a rule of thumb, cleat fixings should
be tightened until the cleat is tight
To avoid thread galling, reduce the around the cable without any gaps
speed and downward pressure when between the liner of the cleat and the
closing fasteners and use lubrication cable, and with no visible damage or
where appropriate. bulging to the outer jacket.
Specific torque recommendations
can be provided upon request.

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34 35

TYPE APPROVALS

Ellis holds Type Approval LONDON UNDERGROUND UNDERWRITERS ACHILLES FPAL


for a wide range of its
(LUL) APPROVED PRODUCT LABORATORIES (UL) LISTED
products. These include: FPAL is a supplier management
REGISTER community that supports the
UL subjects products to a European oil and gas industry and is
DNV AND ABS TYPE comprehensive set of tests to used by major buying organisations
Similar to DNV and ABS in that gauge compliance with its own
APPROVAL compliance to the IEC standard in the sector.
Internal Technical Standards.
has to be proven, LUL approval also Its Achilles proven supplier
Both DNV and ABS are rigorous requires products to undergo a If only one size of cleat within a pre-qualification system enables
approval systems, which cover series of material performance tests range has been tested then UL buyers and specifiers to identify,
all sizes of cable cleat within a relating to toxicity, smoke emissions Listing applies only to that cleat pre-qualify and assess suppliers
particular range. The approval and the Limiting Oxygen Index. at that size and not the entire for tender opportunities, thus
process assesses all of the evidence range. It is the manufacturer’s minimising risk within their
These tests are carried out in responsibility to clearly display in
offered by the manufacturer and supply chains.
accordance to the relevant any technical brochures, websites
compares it to the requirements
standards and once compliance or literature the specific part
of the international standard
is achieved the product becomes number that has been UL listed.
IEC 61914. Once full compliance is
“compliant with the requirements
proven Type Approval is offered. Regular external audits are carried
of London Underground Standard
Regular external audits are carried 1-085”. The product range is then out to ensure ongoing compliance.
out to ensure ongoing compliance. allocated with a unique Product
Register Number and placed on to
the LUL Intranet system used by
specifiers and buyers working on
LUL projects.

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36 37

BUSINESS
MANAGEMENT

Ellis operates a full and TRACEABILITY


comprehensive business
management system, Every cleat assembled by Ellis is
given a unique serial number that
which covers: can be used for identification and
traceability.
QUALITY ASSURANCE
From this top level reference
number every item that goes into
Ellis has IS0 9001 certification.
the manufacture of every single
cleat can be traced back to source,
including raw material and items
such as nuts and bolts.

ENVIRONMENTAL
COMMITMENT
Ellis has IS0 14001 certification.

Note: Serial No. on cleat matches the Work Order ID on the Work Order Traveller.
All appropriate batch numbers are entered onto the Work Order Traveller to give 100% traceability.

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38 39

REFERENCES Notes

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61914:2009:


Cable cleats for electrical installations (2009)

CIGRE Technical Brochure – Ref. No. 194: Construction, laying and installation
techniques for extruded and self-contained fluid filled cable systems (2001)

Nexans Power Accessories (UK) Ltd / Goulsbra, Dr G: Medium Voltage


Cable Accessories (2012)

Heinhold, L. Wiley: Power Cables and Their Applications: Pt. 1 (Power Cables
& Their Applications) (1990)

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC): Cable Systems, Tutorial


and Design Guide, EPRI 1022314, Final Report (2010)

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61439-1 ed 2.0: 2011:


Low-voltage switchgear and control gear assemblies (2011)

Electric Power Research Institute: Normalized span method for


thermo-mechanical design of duct-manhole and pipe-manhole cable
systems (2010)

IET Wiring Regulations BS 7671:2008(2011)

London Underground Standard


Fire safety performance of materials
Number: 1-085
Issue no: A1
Issue date: March 2008

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40 41

Notes Notes

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42 43

Notes Notes

www.ellispatents.co.uk www.ellispatents.co.uk
44 45

Notes Notes

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46 47

Notes Notes

www.ellispatents.co.uk www.ellispatents.co.uk
Design by: www.vividcreative.com © 2014 V9736

Ellis Patents Ltd T. +44 (0)1944 758395


High Street, Rillington, Malton F. +44 (0)1944 758808
North Yorkshire YO17 8LA sales@ellispatents.co.uk
United Kingdom www.ellispatents.co.uk